A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Articles on conferences sponsored by NIH presenting summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus on a subject of interest. This heading is used for NIH consensus conferences as a means of scientific communication. In indexing it is viewed as a type of review article and as a tag for any article appearing in any publication of the NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR).
Financial support of research activities.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of transforming proteins isolated from retroviruses such as MOUSE SARCOMA VIRUSES. They are viral-derived members of the raf-kinase family of serine-theonine kinases.
Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A ubiquitously expressed raf kinase subclass that plays an important role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. The c-raf Kinases are MAP kinase kinase kinases that have specificity for MAP KINASE KINASE 1 and MAP KINASE KINASE 2.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Retroviral proteins that have the ability to transform cells. They can induce sarcomas, leukemias, lymphomas, and mammary carcinomas. Not all retroviral proteins are oncogenic.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
Normal cellular genes homologous to viral oncogenes. The products of proto-oncogenes are important regulators of biological processes and appear to be involved in the events that serve to maintain the ordered procession through the cell cycle. Proto-oncogenes have names of the form c-onc.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Those individuals engaged in research.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) capable of transforming mouse lymphoid cells and producing erythroid leukemia after superinfection with murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE). It has also been found to transform cultured human fibroblasts, rat liver epithelial cells, and rat adrenocortical cells.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Transforming proteins coded by mos oncogenes. The v-mos proteins were originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV).
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A tyrosine-specific protein kinase encoded by the v-src oncogene of ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS. The transforming activity of pp60(v-src) depends on both the lack of a critical carboxy-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation site at position 527, and the attachment of pp60(v-src) to the plasma membrane which is accomplished by myristylation of its N-terminal glycine.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An oligopeptide produced by various bacteria which acts as a protease inhibitor.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
Transforming proteins coded by sis oncogenes. Transformation of cells by v-sis is related to its interaction with the PDGF receptor and also its ability to alter other transcription factors.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.

Matrine inhibits production and actions of fibrogenic cytokines released by mouse peritoneal macrophages. (1/5011)

AIM: To study the effects of matrine (Mat) on production and actions of fibrogenic cytokines from mouse peritoneal macrophages. METHODS: Mouse peritoneal macrophages were primed with calcimycin 1 micromol/L for 8 h then elicited by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) 100 microg/L for 6 h to induce fibrogenic cytokines. Proliferative and collagen stimulating activity in the macrophage culture supernatants was determined by crystal violet staining assay and [3H]-proline incorporation assay using rat hepatic stellate HSC-T6 cell or mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cell. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) activity was measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation assay using Mv-1-Lu mink lung epithelial cell. RESULTS: Mat (0.5-2 mmol/L) was shown to significantly inhibit LPS-induced collagen stimulating activities and TGFbeta production (P < 0.01) whereas did not inhibit proliferative activities induced by macrophages. Macrophage conditioned medium (MCM)-driven proliferation and collagen synthesis of HSC-T6 cells as well as NIH3T3 cells were attenuated by Mat (0.5-2 mmol/L) in a concentration-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Antifibrotic effects of Mat on hepatic stellate cells may be related to reduction of fibrogenic cytokine production and blockade of their actions.  (+info)

In vivo destabilization of dynamic microtubules by HDAC6-mediated deacetylation. (2/5011)

Trichostatin A (TSA) inhibits all histone deacetylases (HDACs) of both class I and II, whereas trapoxin (TPX) cannot inhibit HDAC6, a cytoplasmic member of class II HDACs. We took advantage of this differential sensitivity of HDAC6 to TSA and TPX to identify its substrates. Using this approach, alpha-tubulin was identified as an HDAC6 substrate. HDAC6 deacetylated alpha-tubulin both in vivo and in vitro. Our investigations suggest that HDAC6 controls the stability of a dynamic pool of microtubules. Indeed, we found that highly acetylated microtubules observed after TSA treatment exhibited delayed drug-induced depolymerization and that HDAC6 overexpression prompted their induced depolymerization. Depolymerized tubulin was rapidly deacetylated in vivo, whereas tubulin acetylation occurred only after polymerization. We therefore suggest that acetylation and deacetylation are coupled to the microtubule turnover and that HDAC6 plays a key regulatory role in the stability of the dynamic microtubules.  (+info)

The formin-homology-domain-containing protein FHOD1 enhances cell migration. (3/5011)

Formin-homology-domain-containing proteins interact with Rho-family GTPases and regulate actin cytoskeleton organization and gene transcription. FHOD1 is a member of this family, interacts with Rac1 and induces transcription from the serum response element. In this study, we examined the effects of FHOD1 expression on cytoskeletal organization and function in mammalian cells. FHOD1 proteins were stably expressed in WM35 melanoma cells and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. Cells expressing full-length FHOD1 demonstrated an elongated phenotype compared with vector-transfected cells and cells expressing a truncated FHOD1 (1-421) that lacks the conserved FH1 and FH2 domains. Full-length FHOD1 co-localized with filamentous actin at cell peripheries. Cells transiently expressing a C-terminal FHOD1 truncation mutant (DeltaC, residues 1-1010), which lacks an autoinhibitory protein-protein interaction domain, displayed prominent stress fibers. FHOD1 (1-421) did not induce stress fibers but localized to membrane ruffles in a manner similar to the full-length protein, indicating that the FH1 and FH2 domains are required for stress fiber appearance. FHOD1 DeltaC (1-1010)-dependent stress fibers were sensitive to dominant-negative RacN17 and the RhoA and ROCK inhibitors, C3 transferase and Y-27632. Stable overexpression of full-length FHOD1 enhanced the migration of WM35 and NIH-3T3 cells to type-I collagen and fibronectin, respectively. Cells expressing FHOD1 (1-421) migrated similar to control cells. Integrin expression and activation were not affected by FHOD1 expression. Moreover, FHOD1 overexpression did not alter integrin usage during adhesion or migration. These data demonstrate that FHOD1 interacts with and regulates the structure of the cytoskeleton and stimulates cell migration in an integrin-independent manner.  (+info)

Dynamic association of RNA-editing enzymes with the nucleolus. (4/5011)

ADAR1 and ADAR2 are editing enzymes that deaminate adenosine to inosine in long double stranded RNA duplexes and specific pre-mRNA transcripts. Here, we show that full-length and N-terminally truncated forms of ADAR1 are simultaneously expressed in HeLa and COS7 cells owing to the usage of alternative starting methionines. Because the N-terminus of ADAR1 contains a nuclear export signal, the full-length protein localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm, whereas the N-terminally truncated forms are exclusively nuclear and accumulate in the nucleolus. ADAR2, which lacks a region homologous to the N-terminal domain of ADAR1, localizes exclusively to the nucleus and similarly accumulates in the nucleolus. Within the nucleolus, ADAR1 and ADAR2 co-localize in a novel compartment. Photobleaching experiments demonstrate that, in live cells, ADAR1 and ADAR2 are in constant flux in and out of the nucleolus. When cells express the editing-competent glutamate receptor GluR-B RNA, endogenous ADAR1 and ADAR2 de-localize from the nucleolus and accumulate at sites where the substrate transcripts accumulate. This suggests that ADAR1 and ADAR2 are constantly moving through the nucleolus and might be recruited onto specific editing substrates present elsewhere in the cell.  (+info)

Regulation of tight junctions during the epithelium-mesenchyme transition: direct repression of the gene expression of claudins/occludin by Snail. (5/5011)

Snail is a transcription repressor that plays a central role in the epithelium-mesenchyme transition (EMT), by which epithelial cells lose their polarity. Claudins and occludin are integral membrane proteins localized at tight junctions, which are responsible for establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity. We examined the relationship between Snail and the promoter activity of claudins and occludin. When Snail was overexpressed in cultured mouse epithelial cells, EMT was induced with concomitant repression of the expression of claudins and occludin not only at the protein but also at the mRNA level. We then isolated the promoters of genes encoding claudins and occludin, in which multiple E-boxes were identified. Transfection experiments with various promoter constructs as well as electrophoretic mobility assays revealed that Snail binds directly to the E-boxes of the promoters of claudin/occludin genes, resulting in complete repression of their promoter activity. Because the gene encoding E-cadherin was also reported to be repressed by Snail, we concluded that EMT was associated with the simultaneous repression of the genes encoding E-cadherin and claudins/occludin (i.e. the expression of adherens and tight junction adhesion molecules, respectively).  (+info)

Antitumor effects of ZD6474, a small molecule vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with additional activity against epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. (6/5011)

PURPOSE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major mitogen for endothelial cells and enhances vascular permeability. Enhanced VEGF secretion is found in human cancers and correlates with increased tumor neovascularization. ZD6474 is a p.o. bioavailable, VEGF flk-1/KDR receptor (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antitumor activity in many human cancer xenografts and is currently in Phase I clinical development. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We tested the effects of ZD6474 on EGFR phosphorylation in cell expressing functional epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the antiproliferative and the proapoptotic activity of ZD6474 alone or in combination taxanes in human cancer cell lines with functional EGFR but lacking VEGFR-2. The antitumor activity of this drug was also tested in nude mice bearing established GEO colon cancer xenografts. RESULTS: ZD6474 causes a dose-dependent inhibition of EGFR phosphorylation in mouse NIH-EGFR fibroblasts and human MCF-10A ras breast cancer cells, two cell lines that overexpress the human EGFR. ZD6474 treatment resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of soft agar growth in seven human cell lines (breast, colon, gastric, and ovarian) with functional EGFR but lacking VEGFR-2. A dose-dependent supra-additive effect in growth inhibition and in apoptosis in vitro was observed by the combined treatment with ZD6474 and paclitaxel or docetaxel. ZD6474 treatment of nude mice bearing palpable GEO colon cancer xenografts (which are sensitive to inhibition of EGFR signaling) induced dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant dose-dependent reduction of neoangiogenesis. The antitumor activity of ZD6474 in GEO tumor xenografts was also found to be enhanced when combined with paclitaxel. Tumor regression was observed in all mice after treatment with ZD6474 plus paclitaxel, and it was accompanied by a significant potentiation in inhibition of angiogenesis. Six of 20 mice had no histological evidence of tumors after treatment with ZD6474 plus paclitaxel. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that in addition to inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation by blocking VEGF-induced signaling, ZD6474 may also be able to inhibit cancer cell growth by blocking EGFR autocrine signaling. These results provide also a rationale for the clinical evaluation of ZD6474 combined with taxanes in cancer patients.  (+info)

Specific inhibition of the Akt1 pleckstrin homology domain by D-3-deoxy-phosphatidyl-myo-inositol analogues. (7/5011)

Activation of Akt (protein kinase B), a Ser/Thr protein kinase that promotes cell survival, has been linked to tumorigenesis. Akt is activated by phosphorylation after binding of its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain to plasma membrane phosphatidyl-myo-inositol-3-phosphates, formed by phosphoinositide-3-kinase. We report a novel strategy to inhibit Akt activation based on the use of D-3-deoxy-phosphatidyl-myo-inositols (DPIs) that cannot be phosphorylated on the 3-position of the myo-inositol ring. We have studied the DPIs, DPI 1-[(R)-2,3-bis(hexadecanoyloxy)propyl hydrogen phosphate], its ether lipid derivative DPI 1-[(R)-2-methoxy-3-octadecyloxypropyl hydrogen phosphate] (DPIEL), and its carbonate derivative DPI 1-[(R)-2-methoxy-3-octadecyloxypropyl carbonate]. We demonstrate in platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated mouse NIH3T3 cells that the DPIs bind to the PH domain of Akt, trapping it in the cytoplasm and thus preventing Akt activation. DPIEL did not inhibit myristylated-Akt, a constitutively active membrane-bound Akt expressed in NIH3T3 cells, and cell growth was not inhibited, unlike in wild-type NIH3T3 cells. Molecular modeling and docking studies show that DPIEL binds with much higher affinity to Akt's PH domain as compared with DPI and DPI 1-[(R)-2-methoxy-3-octadecyloxypropyl carbonate]. This study shows that the DPIs are a novel class of growth inhibitory agents with a novel mechanism of action through binding to the PH domain of Akt and inhibition of Akt activation.  (+info)

Bfk: a novel weakly proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family with a BH3 and a BH2 region. (8/5011)

Proteins of the Bcl-2 family are critical regulators of apoptosis. Proapoptotic members, like Bax, contain three of the four Bcl-2 homology regions (BH1-3), while BH3-only proteins, like Bim, possess only the short BH3 motif. Database searches revealed Bfk, an unusual novel member of the Bcl-2 family that contains a BH2 and BH3 region but not BH1 or BH4. Bfk is thus most closely related to Bcl-G(L). It lacks a C-terminal membrane anchor and is cytosolic. Enforced expression of Bfk weakly promoted apoptosis and antagonized Bcl-2's prosurvival function. Like Bcl-G(L), Bfk did not bind to any Bcl-2 family members, even though its BH3 motif can mediate association with prosurvival proteins. Low amounts of Bfk were found in stomach, ovary, bone marrow and spleen, but its level in the mammary gland rose markedly during pregnancy, suggesting that Bfk may play a role in mammary development.  (+info)

Cu ah cun tuni February 9 ah rampi ruahnak petu phunglam thar an tuah i, rampi ruahnak petu tuanvolatu dingah Daw Aung San Suh Kyi cu an chiah.Ralkap nih nawlneih nak hi la hmanh hna seh law, thim nak i a tling mi NLD palai pawl cu anmah tein karhlan thluahmH.an i tim i president zong a mah bawn U Win Myint a si rih nak kong cu an phuan cuahmah ve ko. Mipi nih kan fian khawh nak ding ah cun ralkap nih nawlneih nak an lak ko nain, NLD nih a cohlan lo ruangah an duh ning tein rian an rak kalpi thluahmah ve ko.. Tu ah amah Daw Aung San Suh Kyi cu ralkap uknak tang ah a um i, khawika hmun hmanh ah a thli tein a mah duhnak poh ah kal kho lo ding in ralkap nih an congh peng ko. Cu bantuk dirhmun ah tuanvo an pekmi a si i Ram pakhat ah cozah pahnih um bantuk in a lang i a ho deuh nih dah teinak hi an co lai timi cu duhsah in kan theih lai i a lang te ding mi thil a si. ( NLD) Credit : VAPUAL AUAW. ...
The larger point raised by Dr. Lauer is an excellent one: we have the good fortune to have our research supported by the public in the form of NIH grants, and objecting to the need to disseminate what that support has funded is irresponsible at best. Any entity that funds research (whether it is the NIH, a corporation sponsoring research, or a private philanthropic entity) will require some dissemination of the results of the research they have supported. The NIH, since it is funded by US taxpayers, has every reason to require that our results are publicly available, and has mandated (since 2008) that papers with partial or full NIH support must be uploaded to PubMed after publication. However, this leaves an obvious gap - the file drawer, where experiments that didnt work or didnt get written up languish. NIH-supported studies which are never published are not available to the public, and this is a problem that should be remedied. Eliminating this gap is essential for open, transparent ...
Sundhedsbetingelser www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition?initial=k Sundhedsbetingelser. Udforsk tegn og symptomer, hyppighed, genetisk årsag og arvs mønster af forskellige tilstande, sygdomme og syndromer.. TK2-relateret mitokondrie DNA-udsletnings syndrom … www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/tk2-related-mitochondrial-dna-depletion-syndrome-myopathic-form TK2-relateret mitokondriel DNA-udtømmelsessyndrom, myopatisk form (TK2-MDS) er en arvelig tilstand, der forårsager progressiv muskelsvaghed …. RRM2B-relateret mitokondrie DNA-udsletnings syndrom … www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/rrm2b-related-mitochondrial-dna-depletion-syndrome-encephalomyopathic-form-with-renal-tubulopathy RRM2B-relateret mitokondriel DNA-depletions syndrom, encefalomyopatisk form med renal tubulopati (RRM2B-MDS) er en alvorlig tilstand, der begynder i … FBXL4-relateret encephalomyopatisk mitokondrielt DNA … www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/fbxl4-related-encephalomyopathic-mitochondrial-dna-depletion-syndrome. FBXL4-relateret ...
Aromatične rastline rastejo po vsem svetu in danes imamo dostop do preko 300 različnih eteričnih olj. Pridobivamo jih iz cvetov, korenin, lubja, semen, lupin.. Spoznajte portrete aromatičnih rastlin in se jih naučite uporabljati!
Almost two years after Dr. Collins announced that the NIH would reinvigorate ME/CFS, the NIH has finally provided funding for three research centers a
Tálamus je siva možganovina jajčaste somerne[1] oblike v zadajšnjem delu medmožganov (diencefalona) s številnimi jedri.[2] Pomemben je pri prevajanju senzoričnih in motoričnih signalov v možgansko skorjo[1][3] ter uravnavanju zavesti, spanja in budnosti. Talamus predstavlja del kompleksne strukture možganskih jeder hipotalamusa, epitalamusa, pretalamusa (ventralnega talamusa) in dorzalnega talamusa.[4] ...
Klinika Maja je vrhunska oftalmološka klinika ne samo u Srbiji, već i u regionu. Odlikuje nas posvećenost i vrhunsko lečenje očnih bolesti i stanja.
Klinika Maja je vrhunska oftalmološka klinika ne samo u Srbiji, već i u regionu. Odlikuje nas posvećenost i vrhunsko lečenje očnih bolesti i stanja.
企业荣誉-谱天(天津)生物科技有限公司:谱天所骄傲的合作伙伴a. 蛋白质分析领域:谱天公司与世界顶级蛋白质分析中心有着紧密的合作和业务联系,如美国的NIH、耶鲁医学院、瑞士的苏黎世联邦工学院等著名研究机构,以及美国的Anaspec、德国的JPT等蛋白生物公司。谱天公司还是美国知名蛋白质谱分析专家Balgley博士名下的Bioproximity企业的兄弟公司。谱天的国际合作保证了核心技术与世界同步。临床疾病分析领域:为了获取高质量临床样本进行质谱分析,谱天公司与美国耶鲁大学医学院、杜克大学医学院、
An NIH Special Interest Group. From [email protected] Tue Feb 27 14:32:34 2001 Received: from mail.ncifcrf.gov (mail.ncifcrf.gov []) by fcs280s.ncifcrf.gov (8.10.0/8.10.0) with ESMTP id f1RJWXA10933; Tue, 27 Feb 2001 14:32:34 -0500 (EST) Received: from gdecker.net.nih.gov (list.nih.gov []) by mail.ncifcrf.gov (8.10.1/8.10.1) with ESMTP id f1RJWSN25564; Tue, 27 Feb 2001 14:32:28 -0500 (EST) Received: from list.nih.gov (list.nih.gov []) by gdecker.net.nih.gov (8.10.1/8.10.1) with ESMTP id f1RJVi024140; Tue, 27 Feb 2001 14:31:44 -0500 (EST) Received: from LIST.NIH.GOV by LIST.NIH.GOV (LISTSERV-TCP/IP release 1.8d) with spool id 75589 for [email protected]; Tue, 27 Feb 2001 14:31:44 -0500 Received: from helix.nih.gov (helix.nih.gov []) by gdecker.net.nih.gov (8.10.1/8.10.1) with ESMTP id f1RJVh024135 for ...
Date: Mon, 13 Nov 2017 09:54:57 -0500 Reply-To: Susan Gottesman [[email protected]] From: Susan Gottesman [[email protected]] Subject: Tuesday WALS and seminar; last chance for WALS suggestions Comments: cc: Gottesman, Susan (NIH/NCI) [E] [[email protected]] To: [[email protected]] List-Help: [http://list.nih.gov/cgi-bin/wa.exe?LIST=LAMBDA_LUNCH-L], [mailto:[email protected]?body=INFO%20LAMBDA_LUNCH-L] List-Unsubscribe: [mailto:[email protected]] List-Subscribe: [mailto:[email protected]] List-Owner: [mailto:[email protected]] List-Archive: [http://list.nih.gov/cgi-bin/wa.exe?LIST=LAMBDA_LUNCH-L] Ill be sending out the ballot iwth nominations for next years WALS by Wednesday. If you have someone you want to suggest, please send that to me right away (with a sentence or two about why they would be a good choice). And then vote when the ballot gets sent out. 11/14/17: TUESDAY WALS, 1:00, ...
Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA004919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA004919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA073590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA032102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032102-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA035119; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35090; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76132; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46282; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA045450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA032102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA046282; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA038926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01 CA027057; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA073590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA020319; United ...
Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04457; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07968; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA11789; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31983; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32291; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA41287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45389; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47555; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47559; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47577; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / ...
The one person who needs to receive the #NotEnough4ME message the most is Dr. Walter Koroshetz, Director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Simply put, Dr. Koroshetz is the single-most influential person at NIH who stands in the way of a bigger, bolder, faster response to the ME crisis.. Dr. Koroshetz is ultimately responsible for this new NIH plan for ME. He chairs the trans-NIH ME/CFS working group. He wrote the response to last years #MEAction letter to NIH, with over 7,000 signatures, demanding urgent action for ME. When we met with NIH Director, Dr. Francis Collins last December and presented our demands for change, it was Dr. Koroshetz who defended NIHs limited, slow, and step-by-step approach.. Over the past year, weve fully participated in Dr. Koroshetzs working group for ME/CFS research in an effort to push his plan for ME to be as aggressive as possible. #MEActions NIH Committee submitted a 37-page document laying out all that can and should be ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: NIH POLICY ON SHARING OF MODEL ORGANISMS FOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH NOT-OD-04-042. NIH
And measured using the ImageJ program (NIH, http://rsb.info.nih.gov/nih-image/) .Neurological EvaluationNeurological functions were evaluated by the following
Clinicopathologic Grand Rounds: Clinical Cases from the NIH Clinical Center :Pathologic Immune Responses to Co-infections in HIV: Two Rare Diseases, One Therapeutic Target
The NIH will fund the development of technologies that detect and characterize miRNAs that exist at low levels, and projects investigating the role of miRNAs and other mechanisms in complex phenotypes.
More than 3 years after imposing a moratorium on U.S. funding for certain studies with dangerous viruses, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in B
NIH wants to make sure that new vaccines and treatments work for everyone - not just for some. Learn more about clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics and how you can participate in research. ...
I was asked to start a new thread on the criteria issue to be used for the new NIH consortia. I initially posted here. For those who were wondering...
SimTK is maintained through Grant R01 GM107340 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It was initially developed as part of the Simbios project funded by the NIH as part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant U54 GM072970. ...
SimTK is maintained through Grant R01GM124443 01A1 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It was initially developed as part of the Simbios project funded by the NIH as part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant U54 GM072970. ...
SimTK is maintained through Grant R01GM124443 01A1 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It was initially developed as part of the Simbios project funded by the NIH as part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant U54 GM072970. ...
SimTK is maintained through Grant R01 GM107340 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It was initially developed as part of the Simbios project funded by the NIH as part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant U54 GM072970. ...
SimTK is maintained through Grant R01GM124443 01A1 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It was initially developed as part of the Simbios project funded by the NIH as part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant U54 GM072970. ...
SimTK is maintained through Grant R01GM124443 01A1 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It was initially developed as part of the Simbios project funded by the NIH as part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant U54 GM072970. ...
SimTK is maintained through Grant R01GM124443 01A1 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It was initially developed as part of the Simbios project funded by the NIH as part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant U54 GM072970. ...
SimTK is maintained through Grant R01 GM107340 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It was initially developed as part of the Simbios project funded by the NIH as part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant U54 GM072970. ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
As you age, you may notice you have less muscle and energy and more fat. You can take steps to help fight the flab that can come with age.
Napetostni kalcijevi kanalčki so zapletene beljakovine, sestavljene iz 4 ali 5 različnih podenot, ki jih zapisujejo različni geni.[1] Poznane so naslednje podenote: α1, α2δ, β1-4 in γ.[6] Podenota α1 meri 190 do 250 kDa in je največja podenota in vsebuje poro za prehod ionov, senzorno mesto za napetost, aparat za odpiranje kanalčka ter vezavna mesta za sekundarne obveščevalce, zdravila in toksine. Znotrajcelična podenota β ter transmembranska podenota α2δ tvorita z disulfidno vezjo povezan kompleks, ki predstavlja sestavni del večine različnih tipov kalcijevih kanalčkov. Podenoto γ so opazili pri kalcijevih kanalčkih v celicah skeletne mišičnine; sorodne podenote pa se izražajo tudi v možganih in srčni mišičnini. Različne podenote sicer modulirajo lastnosti beljakovinskega kompleksa, ki predstavlja kalcijev kanalček, vendar pa na različne farmakološke in elektrofiziološke lastnosti napetostnih kanalčkov primarno vplivajo raznovrstni podtipi enote α1.[1] ...
Pospeševalec tvorjenja eteričnih olj, terpenov in smole. Vsebuje bioaktivne sestavine, ki pospešujejo tvorbo aromatičnih spojin, hkrati pa povečajo in zvišajo kvaliteto pridelka.
hi bro semua... yg butuh bungkus jok mobil nya bisa kontak2 k gw nih.... nih daftar harga nya : bahan semi kulit : merk MBtech Camaro untuk mobil 2
Profil sedanjega poslanca Evropskega parlamenta - pregled dela v dosedanjih mandatih, vključno s članstvom v političnih skupinah, nacionalnih strankah, parlamentarnih odborih in delegacijah, parlamentarnimi dejavnostmi v prejšnjih zakonodajnih obdobjih in izjavo o finančnih interesih za prejšnje zakonodajno obdobje
Modularni pretvornik omogućuje fleksibilan način upotrebe priključnih modula koji omogućuje objedinjena mjerenja putem digitalnih i analognih senzora, uz mogućnost izbora komunikacije sabirnice. Pretvornik M700 nadzire pH/ORP, otopljeni kisik i plinoviti kisik, CO2 i vodljivost s pomoću digitalnih i analognih senzora.
Naprave BIOPTRON so medicinske naprave, ki se uporabljajo v profesionalne namene v bolnišnicah, specialističnih ustanovah, wellness in športnih centrih kakor tudi doma. Sistem svetlobne terapije BIOPTRON je za vsakogar: širok obseg uporabe, preprostost uporabe, brez bolečin, kratek čas zdravljenja, brez znanih negativnih stranskih učinkov in izdelan v Švici!
US ramchung ah um ding le khuasa kho ding minung 25,000 nih an hal mi cu cawnningani ah Biden cozah nih an cohlan cang hna tiah theih a si. Hi hna hi Trump cozah nih a rak kham mi hna Mexico ram ralzam in a rak um mi hna an si.. Hi kong hi Feb 19 ni ah American ram ah um ding in thatho tak in pum aa pe mi Mexico ram in ralzam hna zatuak in 25,000 tluk cu US ram ah um kho ding timhlamhnak kan ngei tiah, nawl ngeitu pakhat nih a chim. Hi rian hi duhsah tein tuan ding a si nikhat ah minung 300 lengmang in lak an si te lai, tiah a chimchap.. President Joe Biden Administration nih cun hi bantuk in minung tampi lakmi kong thil pathum hi mizapi theih in an duh lonak an langhter nain U.S Rep. Henry Cuellar, Taxas Democrat nih cun Brownsville le EL Paso Texas le San Diego San Ysidro ah a um mi hna an si ko tiah a chim ve.. Atu bantuk in minung ralzam lak ding hi 2019 January thla thok kain ralzam minung pawl US ram ah um khawh nakding in rak haltu minung 70,000 leng cu lak ding timhtuah rak si nain ...
Science is vital and it is also big business. In the U.S., one of the biggest founders of scientific research is the National Institute of Health (NIH). As the NIH writes the checks, you can imagine that it finds the reproducibility crisis to be very troubling. To help fix these problems, the NIH has launched a new initiative to increase the rigor and reproducibility of the research it funds. Readers of ITNS will find many of the NIH recommendations familiar; they include data sharing, full disclosure of exclusions, better planning for sample sizes, and more. You can check out the initiative here, including some nice videos the NIH made to explain some important research practices:. https://www.nih.gov/research-training/rigor-reproducibility/publications. ...
The NIH Common Fund was enacted into law by Congress through the 2006 NIH Reform Act to support cross-cutting, trans-NIH programs that require participation by at least two NIH Institutes or Centers (ICs) or would otherwise benefit from strategic planning and coordination. The requirements for the Common Fund encourage collaboration across the ICs while providing the NIH with flexibility to determine priorities for Common Fund support. NIH Science of Behavior Change
On June 8, National Institutes of Health (NIH) Director Francis Collins announced that based on feedback from the scientific community in response to the May 2 proposed policy change to use a Grant Support Index (GSI) as a means to optimize stewardship of tax payers dollars, NIH has decided to take a more focused approach to increase the number of NIH-funded early-staged an mid-care investigators (ESI). Instead of the GSI, Collins announced the agency will implement a Next Generation Researchers Initiative (NGRI). The issue was discussed at the June 8 NIH Advisory Committee to Director (ACD) meeting following a presentation by NIH Principal Deputy Director Lawrence Tabak.. According to the NIH Director, NGRI will:. ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: NIH Research Project Grant (Parent R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PA-18-484. NIH
Health, ...In collaboration with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Banner ...The study is part of the Alzheimers Prevention Initiative (API) an i... Once again we are extremely grateful to the NIH for the opportunity ...The randomized placebo-controlled trial which will take place at BAI...,NIH,awards,grant,to,Banner,Alzheimers,Institute,for,major,prevention,study,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
MedWorm checks thousands of medical RSS feeds each day and categorizes them for easy access. Here you can read summaries of all the latest updates from NIH Research Matters from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Wednesday, October 31, 2001. Ezekiel Emanuel, M.D., Ph.D. NIH, David Wendler Ph.D. NIH, Christine Grady Ph.D. NIH, John Arras, Ph.D. University of ...
Sve je veći broj pacijenata s dugotrajnim preživljenjem nakon transplantacije krvotvornih matičnih stanica, a kako je transplantacija relativno mlada grana medicine, tek sada postajemo svjesni njezinih dugoročnih učinaka. Brojnim istraživanjima utvrđeni su raznovrsni kasni učinci zamršene i nedovoljno jasne etiologije, ali i znatnog utjecaja na morbiditet, mortalitet, radnu sposobnost i kvalitetu života. Ovo je istraživanje retrospektivna analiza podataka prikupljenih od 111 pacijenata transplantiranih u KBC-u Zagreb u razdoblju od 1983. do 2009. godine. Medijan praćenja iznosio je 15 godina (raspon 2 - 33). Dobivene kumulativne incidencije bile su u skladu s rezultatima drugih istraživača, a pokazivale su izrazitu sklonost porasta tijekom godina praćenja, i to redom prema učestalosti: kardiovaskularne bolesti 64%, endokrine 42%, solidni tumori 33%, kronična bolest presatka protiv primatelja (GvHD) 32%, jetrene bolesti 28%, bubrežne 17% te plućne bolesti 14%. Posebnu pozornost ...
Throughout this brochure, example after example shows - through countless stories and statistics- how NIH is turning discovery into health. NIH research saves lives and strengthens our economy through job creation and improved quality of life for millions of Americans. There is little doubt that this research investment is one of the wisest moves we can make as a nation.
18 NIH jobs in Washington, DC . Search job openings, see if they fit - company salaries, reviews, and more posted by NIH employees.
GAITHERSBURG, Md., June 29 /PRNewswire/ -- Sirnaomics Receives Two SBIR Grants from NIH for Developing siRNA Therapeutics to Treat Glioblastoma and...
Readers will note I do a fair amount of talkin about the ways the NIH-funded research game might be fixed. The NIH has recently posted a request for information on they way they do things. I cant overemphasize how important it is that you comment. Each and every one of you. Whether you are a…
Wahhhhhh!!! hari nih kena buat 5S kat opis nih, area yg perlu ditekankan ialah semua kawasan tempat bekerja terutama skali meja sendiri ler huhuhu... Adoiiii tak tau mana nak campak file2 yg takmo guna nih hehehe, kena sorok kat tmpt strategik nih hahaha nasib ler, ini semua sbb bos besar dr Jepun nak dtg cni Mr. Kemori, tak pernah2 nak jenguk opis kat Malaysia tup2 nk dtg melawat.. takpe la janji beliau bahagia dgn apa yg beliau buatkan hehehe ...
SimTK is maintained through Grant R01GM124443 01A1 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). It was initially developed as part of the Simbios project funded by the NIH as part of the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant U54 GM072970. ...
Your body is an amazingly flexible machine, with bones, muscles and joints working together to help you move. Like any machine, your body needs regular care and maintenance to work properly.
With over $2.4 million in new federal funding, experts will study how exposures to stressors that are prevalent in the urban industrialized environment both chemical and non-chemical impact human health in Detroit and beyond.
Sanchez Jr, Rafael https://edrn.nci.nih.gov/sites/88-university-of-texas-health-science-center-at/sanchez-jr-rafael https://edrn.nci.nih.gov/logo.png ...
Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng https://edrn.nci.nih.gov/sites/84-new-york-university-school-of-medicine/tchou-wong-kam-meng https://edrn.nci.nih.gov/logo.png ...
OSNews is Exploring the Future of Computing with news on desktop, server, mobile, and specialty operating systems and new computing technology.
The Risk Factor Assessment Branch develops, evaluate, and disseminates research methods, technologies, and resources for assessing cancer-related risk factors in the population.
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Profil sedanjega poslanca Evropskega parlamenta - pregled dela v dosedanjih mandatih, vključno s članstvom v političnih skupinah, nacionalnih strankah, parlamentarnih odborih in delegacijah, parlamentarnimi dejavnostmi v prejšnjih zakonodajnih obdobjih in izjavo o finančnih interesih za prejšnje zakonodajno obdobje
Study shows that time-restricted feeding (fasting) might have therapeutic value in a variety of nutritional challenges.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ...
Philanthropic foundations provide key support for much of Moffitts innovative research, which is often not funded by the NIH and other public entities.
Expression of the mutant enzyme in NIH 3T3 cells". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 86 (1): 351-5. doi:10.1172/JCI114708 ... Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (Jan 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell. 128 (1): 9-13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID ... Cell. 154 (2): 452-64. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.022. PMC 3717207 . PMID 23870131. "Infection and Immunity Immunophenotyping ( ... Surazyński A, Pałka J (2002). "FAK-independent regulation of prolidase activity and collagen biosynthesis in MCF-7 cells". ...
"Human spectrin Src homology 3 domain binding protein 1 regulates macropinocytosis in NIH 3T3 cells". J. Cell Sci. 113 (21): ... Cell. Neurosci. 16 (3): 244-57. doi:10.1006/mcne.2000.0865. PMID 10995551. Fan PD, Goff SP (2000). "Abl Interactor 1 Binds to ... Cell. Biol. 20 (20): 7591-601. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.20.7591-7601.2000. PMC 86315 . PMID 11003655. Xu J, Ziemnicka D, Merz GS, ... Cell. 15 (1): 91-8. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-06-0427. PMC 307530 . PMID 14565974. Lanzetti L, Rybin V, Malabarba MG, Christoforidis ...
DNA from a rhabdomyosarcoma cell line and a fibrosarcoma cell line transformed a NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. After ... He first realised that the addition of bovine fetal calf serum (FCS) to Swiss 3T3 cells increased the polymerisation of actin ... cells. Downregulation of RhoA in the HBE cell lines using siRNAs showed a lack of apical junction formation in contrast with ... made seminal contributions to our understanding of cell signalling in animal cells, in particular the role of Rho and Ras small ...
Kochhar KS, Johnson ME, Volpert O, Iyer AP (1995). "Evidence for autocrine basis of transformation in NIH-3T3 cells transfected ... It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts ... endothelial cells and haemopoietic progenitor cells, HGF also regulates the chemotaxis of T cells into heart tissue. Binding of ... cell morphogenesis. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • hyaluronan metabolic process. • positive regulation of DNA ...
1994). „Signaling through transforming G protein-coupled receptors in NIH 3T3 cells involves c-Raf activation. Evidence for a ... Ashkenazi A, Ramachandran J, Capon DJ (1989). „Acetylcholine analogue stimulates DNA synthesis in brain-derived cells via ... between agonist intrinsic activity and the rate of endocytosis of muscarinic receptors in a human neuroblastoma cell line.". ... receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in human mononuclear leukocytes and leukemic cell ...
... inhibits activity of src tyrosine kinases and growth of NIH 3T3 cells". Mol. Cell. Biol. (UNITED STATES) 18 (6): 3245-56. ISSN ... interacts with nephrocystin and both proteins localize to cell-cell contacts of polarized epithelial cells". Exp. Cell Res. ( ... Frame MC, Fincham VJ, Carragher NO, Wyke JA (2002). "v-Src's hold over actin and cell adhesions". Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 3 ( ... "c-Src activates both STAT1 and STAT3 in PDGF-stimulated NIH3T3 cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (UNITED STATES) 239 (2): ...
1994). "Signaling through transforming G protein-coupled receptors in NIH 3T3 cells involves c-Raf activation. Evidence for a ... Ashkenazi A, Ramachandran J, Capon DJ (1989). "Acetylcholine analogue stimulates DNA synthesis in brain-derived cells via ... between agonist intrinsic activity and the rate of endocytosis of muscarinic receptors in a human neuroblastoma cell line.". ... "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=1131. ...
"NIH3T3 General Information". NIH 3T3 Cell Line. Retrieved 12 March 2021. Kristian Björnstad; Anders Helander; Peter Hultén; ... detects the viability of 3T3 cells after exposure to a chemical in the presence or absence of light. The 3T3 cell line was ... Cell culture can be an alternative to animal use in some cases. For example, cultured cells have been developed to create ... Tumoroids-3D cell cultures derived from cells biopsied from human patients-can be used in studying the genomics and drug ...
Effects on the Cytoskeleton in NIH/3T3 Cells". The Journal of Biochemistry. 125 (5): 960-965. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem ... growth factor of the cell such as to induce the formation of mitogen-activated protein interaction and playing a role in cell ...
Enhanced motility in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts that overexpress gelsolin. Science. 1991; 251: 1233-1236. 113. Ohta, Y, Stossel, TP, ... Dev Cell, 2003, 4: 444-445. 77. Stossel, TP, Fenteany G, Hartwig, JH. Cell surface actin remodeling at a glance. J Cell Sci, ... The machinery of cell crawling. Sci Am. 1994; 271: 54-63. 69. Stossel, TP. The machinery of cell movements. The 1993 E. Donnall ... Cell crawling 20 years after Abercrombie, In, Cell Behavior: Control and Mechanism of Motility, JM Lackie, GA Dunn, GE Jones, ...
Cohen BD, Green JM, Foy L, Fell HP (Mar 1996). "HER4-mediated biological and biochemical properties in NIH 3T3 cells. Evidence ... Cell. 127 (1): 185-97. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.037. PMID 17018285. S2CID 18779079. "Entrez Gene: ERBB4 v-erb-a ... Culouscou JM, Plowman GD, Carlton GW, Green JM, Shoyab M (Sep 1993). "Characterization of a breast cancer cell differentiation ... Carpenter G (Mar 2003). "ErbB-4: mechanism of action and biology". Experimental Cell Research. 284 (1): 66-77. doi:10.1016/ ...
These cells developed into a commonly used cell line NIH 3T3. MEFs treated by mitomycin or gamma rays (such treatment makes MEF ... Finally digest the remains by enzymes to obtain single isolated cells and culture the cells in a tissue culture dishes. MEF ... "Quantitative studies of the growth of mouse embryo cells in culture and their development into established lines". J. Cell Biol ... which is remarkable in the development of stem cell biology. Fibroblast Embryonic stem cell Jian-ming Xu (2005). "Preparation, ...
Kolch W, Heidecker G, Lloyd P, Rapp UR (January 1991). "Raf-1 protein kinase is required for growth of induced NIH/3T3 cells". ... Romero F, Martínez-A C, Camonis J, Rebollo A (June 1999). "Aiolos transcription factor controls cell death in T cells by ... cell migration, inhibition of apoptosis, and cell differentiation. Hereditary gain-of-function mutations of c-Raf are ... "X-linked and cellular IAPs modulate the stability of C-RAF kinase and cell motility". Nat. Cell Biol. 10 (12): 1447-55. doi: ...
"Requirement for ras proto-oncogene function during serum-stimulated growth of NIH 3T3 cells". Nature. 313 (5999): 241-3. ... Cyclin D1 is expressed in all adult human tissues with the exception of cells derived from bone marrow stem cell lines (both ... Amplification of the CCND1 gene is present in: non-small cell lung cancers (30-46%) head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (30- ... Chromosomal translocation around the cyclin D1 gene locus is often seen in B mantle cell lymphoma. In mantle cell lymphoma, ...
Ram, P. T.; Horvath, C. M.; Iyengar, R (2000). "Stat3-mediated transformation of NIH-3T3 cells by the constitutively active ... "Stat3-mediated transformation of NIH-3T3 cells by the constitutively active Q205L Galphao protein". Science. 287 (5450): 142-4 ... His laboratory focuses on how cell signals are routed and processed through cellular signaling networks within cells to ... Cell. 133 (4): 666-80. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.04.025. PMC 2728678. PMID 18485874. Bhalla, U. S.; Iyengar, R (1999). "Emergent ...
"Signaling through transforming G protein-coupled receptors in NIH 3T3 cells involves c-Raf activation. Evidence for a protein ... Ashkenazi A, Ramachandran J, Capon DJ (July 1989). "Acetylcholine analogue stimulates DNA synthesis in brain-derived cells via ... "Muscarinic m1 receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells is mediated by Gs alpha and is not ... when express in CHO cells, activates and downregulates both Gq alpha and G11 alpha equally and non-selectively". FEBS Letters. ...
"The discovery of a 3-phosphomonoesterase that hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate in NIH 3T3 cells". J. Biol. Chem. 264 ...
"Signaling through transforming G protein-coupled receptors in NIH 3T3 cells involves c-Raf activation. Evidence for a protein ... cell M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in regulating insulin release and blood glucose homeostasis in vivo". Cell ... These receptors are highly expressed on pancreatic beta cells and are critical regulators of glucose homoestasis by modulating ... However, with respect to vasculature, activation of M3 on vascular endothelial cells causes increased synthesis of nitric oxide ...
"Signaling through transforming G protein-coupled receptors in NIH 3T3 cells involves c-Raf activation. Evidence for a protein ... "Identification and molecular characterization of a m5 muscarinic receptor in A2058 human melanoma cells. Coupling to inhibition ... receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in human mononuclear leukocytes and leukemic cell ...
Aoyama A, Fröhli E, Schäfer R, Klemenz R (Mar 1993). "Alpha B-crystallin expression in mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts: ... "Moonlighting cell-surface GAPDH recruits apotransferrin to effect iron egress from mammalian cells" (PDF). Journal of Cell ... In wild type cells, this enzyme is present as enzymatically active AO octamers in the peroxisomal matrix. However, in cells ... The detection of a protein in unexpected locations within cells, cell types, or tissues may suggest that a protein has a ...
Kochhar KS, Johnson ME, Volpert O, Iyer AP (1995). "Evidence for autocrine basis of transformation in NIH-3T3 cells transfected ... It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts ... As well as the well-characterised effects of HGF on epithelial cells, endothelial cells and haemopoietic progenitor cells, HGF ... Hepatocyte growth factor is secreted by mesenchymal cells and acts as a multi-functional cytokine on cells of mainly epithelial ...
Overexpression of RhoA or activated RhoA in NIH 3T3 cells increased phosphorylation of MBS and MLC. Thus, Rho appears to ... Cell Biol. 3 (4): 346-52. doi:10.1038/35070019. PMID 11283607. S2CID 36187702. Murányi A, Zhang R, Liu F, et al. (2001). " ... PPP1R12A Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Archived 2014-12-11 at the Wayback Machine v t e. ... which results in contraction of smooth muscle and interaction of actin and myosin in nonmuscle cells. The guanosine ...
... is expressed at lower levels in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, C2C12 myoblasts and Neuro-2A neuroblastoma cells. Dock11 mRNA has ... Côté JF, Vuori K (August 2007). "GEF what? Dock180 and related proteins help Rac to polarize cells in new ways". Trends in Cell ... Meller N, Merlot S, Guda C (November 2005). "CZH proteins: a new family of Rho-GEFs". Journal of Cell Science. 118 (Pt 21): ... Cell Cycle. 6 (6): 750-7. doi:10.4161/cc.6.6.3986. PMC 2040307. PMID 17361101. Lin Q, Yang W, Baird D, Feng Q, Cerione RA ( ...
Type 3 protein kinase C localization to the nuclear envelope of phorbol ester-treated NIH 3T3 cells. J. Cell. Biol., 109:685- ... "Type 3 protein kinase C localization to the nuclear envelope of phorbol ester-treated NIH 3T3 cells". The Journal of Cell ... Molecular Cell 26: 393-402, 2007. Nagiec, Eva E.; Wu, Luping; Swaney, Steve M.; Chosay, John G.; Ross, Daniel E.; Brieland, ... By showing mitochondrial protein synthesis was the link to Zyvox cytotoxicity in human cells, this research led to important ...
"Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase by v-Raf in NIH 3T3 cells and in vitro". Science. 257 (5075): 1404-7. ... Cell. Biol. 16 (3): 1094-102. doi:10.1128/mcb.16.3.1094. PMC 231092. PMID 8622654. Zinck R, Hipskind RA, Pingoud V, Nordheim A ... Cell. Biol. 13 (8): 4539-48. doi:10.1128/mcb.13.8.4539. PMC 360070. PMID 8393135. Moodie SA, Willumsen BM, Weber MJ, Wolfman A ... Given its role as a transcription factor, Elk1 is expressed in the nuclei of non-neuronal cells. The protein is present in the ...
"Localization of the mixed-lineage kinase DLK/MUK/ZPK to the Golgi apparatus in NIH 3T3 cells". J. Histochem. Cytochem. 47 (10 ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. ... Cell. Biol. 19 (10): 7245-54. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.10.7245. PMC 84717. PMID 10490659. Merritt SE, Mata M, Nihalani D, Zhu C, Hu X ... This kinase contains a leucine-zipper domain, and is predominately expressed in neuronal cells. The phosphorylation state of ...
Zhang K, Sun J, Liu N, Wen D, Chang D, Thomason A, Yoshinaga SK (1996). "Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by HER3 or HER4 ... kinase pathway is a dominant growth factor-activated cell survival pathway in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells". Cancer Res ... amplification with sensitivity to EGFR inhibitor gefitinib in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells". Clin. Cancer Res. ... Cell. Biol. 16 (10): 5276-87. doi:10.1128/MCB.16.10.5276. PMC 231527. PMID 8816440. Citri A, Skaria KB, Yarden Y (2003). "The ...
"Sorting of tropomyosin isoforms in synchronised NIH 3T3 fibroblasts: evidence for distinct microfilament populations". Cell ... In the initial studies, transformation of rat embryo fibroblast cell line REF-52 and of normal rat kidney cells led to ... Nonmuscle tropomyosin isoforms function in all cells, both muscle and nonmuscle cells, and are involved in a range of cellular ... These studies have been extended to a number of cell types with similar results. Extensive studies in neuronal cells, ...
1994). "Signaling through transforming G protein-coupled receptors in NIH 3T3 cells involves c-Raf activation. Evidence for a ... Cell. Biochem. 228 (1-2): 57-72. PMID 11855742. doi:10.1023/A:1013368509855. CS1 održavanje: Eksplicitna upotreba et al. (link) ... 1996). "Identification and molecular characterization of a m5 muscarinic receptor in A2058 human melanoma cells. Coupling to ... receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in human mononuclear leukocytes and leukemic cell ...
Ovaj gen kodira alfa-1B-adrenergički receptor, koji indukuje neoplastičnu transformaciju kad se transfektira u NIH 3T3 ... alpha 1-Adrenergic receptor subtypes differentially control the cell cycle of transfected CHO cells through a cAMP-dependent ... Minneman KP; Lee D; Zhong H (2000). „Transcriptional responses to growth factor and G protein-coupled receptors in PC12 cells: ... Gonzalez-Cabrera PJ; Shi T; Yun J (2004). „Differential regulation of the cell cycle by alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes.". ...
... found to be rearranged within a 3T3 fibroblast cell line following its transfection with DNA taken from human lymphoma cells.[6 ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2. *ret+Proto-Oncogene+Proteins at the US National Library ... positive regulation of cell migration. • neuron cell-cell adhesion. • nervous system development. • neuron maturation. • ... regulation of cell adhesion. • lymphocyte migration into lymphoid organs. • cell adhesion. • positive regulation of gene ...
"Expression of a splice variant of the receptor for GHRH in 3T3 fibroblasts activates cell proliferation responses to GHRH ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC27064/. *Salvatori R, Fan X, Phillips JA, et al. (2001). "Three new mutations in the gene ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC117538/. *Salvatori R, Fan X, Mullis PE, et al. (2002). "Decreased expression of the GHRH ... Gaylinn BD (1999). "Molecular and cell biology of the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor.". Growth Horm. IGF Res. 9 ...
"Increased growth of NIH/3T3 cells by transfection with human p120 complementary DNA and inhibition by a p120 antisense ... Overexpression of p120 leads to malignant transformation of 3T3 cells while treatment with antisense p120 mRNA causes the ... "A region of antisense RNA from human p120 cDNA with high homology to mouse p120 cDNA inhibits NIH 3T3 proliferation". Cancer ... Cell. 127 (3): 635-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. v t e. ...
... factor-1 and the heat shock cognate 70 protein associate in high molecular weight complexes in the cytoplasm of NIH-3T3 cells ... Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.08.029. hdl:11858/00-001M-0000-0010-8592-0. PMID 16169070. S2CID 8235923. Imai Y ... an apoptotic cell undergoes structural changes including cell shrinkage, plasma membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation, and ... "Intracellular localization and partial amino acid sequence of a stress-inducible 40-kDa protein in HeLa cells". Cell Structure ...
These cells are similar to human primary preadipocytes, and may or may not become a popular model instead of Mouse 3T3-L1 cells ... Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome at NIH's Office of Rare Diseases GeneReview/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome ... It has been suggested that SGBS type II may be caused by duplication of the GPC4 gene, which helps to regulate cell division ... The function of this gene is to produce a protein that acts as a cell surface receptor that binds to transcription factors. ...
"Gene expression analysis suggests that EBF-1 and PPARgamma2 induce adipogenesis of NIH-3T3 cells with similar efficiency and ... EBF1 stands for Early B-Cell Factor 1. EBF1 controls the expression of key proteins required for B cell differentiation, signal ... "Early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1) is critical for transcriptional control of SLAMF1 gene in human B cells". Biochimica et Biophysica ... "Early B Cell Factor 1 Regulates B Cell Gene Networks by Activation, Repression, and Transcription- Independent Poising of ...
... and downmodulation of CSF-1 receptors in NIH 3T3 cells transformed by cotransfection of the human CSF-1 and c-fms (CSF-1 ... and increased tumour cell cytotoxicity. The role of M-CSF is not only restricted to the monocyte/macrophage cell lineage. By ... is a secreted cytokine which causes hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate into macrophages or other related cell types. ... Eukaryotic cells also produce M-CSF in order to combat intercellular viral infection. It is one of the three experimentally ...
Chen M, She H, Kim A, Woodley DT, Li W (November 2000). "Nckbeta adapter regulates actin polymerization in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts ... In vitro studies using cultured cells indicate that endothelial cells secrete PDGF, which recruits PDGFRβ-expressing pericytes ... Olson LE, Soriano P (2011). "PDGFRβ signaling regulates mural cell plasticity and inhibits fat development". Developmental Cell ... Cell. Biol. 12 (12): 5824-33. doi:10.1128/MCB.12.12.5824. PMC 360522. PMID 1333047. Chen M, She H, Davis EM, Spicer CM, Kim L, ...
Cell. 15 (5): 2410-22. doi:10.1091/mbc.E03-10-0733. PMC 404033. PMID 15020713. Guilherme A, Soriano NA, Furcinitti PS, Czech MP ... 2004). "The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... 2004). "Role of EHD1 and EHBP1 in perinuclear sorting and insulin-regulated GLUT4 recycling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". J. Biol. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.026. PMID 17081983. S2CID 7827573. v t e. ...
It also promotes the transition through G1 during the cell cycle and causes tumorgenic transformation of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. ... enabling the cells to migrate. FGD1 also activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascade, important in cell ... a key player in the establishment of cell polarity in all eukaryotic cells. The GEF activity of FGD1, which activates Cdc42, is ... Cell. 20 (9): 2413-27. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-11-1136. PMC 2675621. PMID 19261807. Olson MF, Pasteris NG, Gorski JL, Hall A ( ...
... l cells MeSH A11.329.228.900 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.550 - nih 3t3 cells ... llc-pk1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700 - 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.080 - balb 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.550 - nih 3t3 ... cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.775 - Swiss 3t3 cells MeSH A11.251.210.700.775.800 - 3t3-l1 cells MeSH A11.251.210.955 - vero cells ... Swiss 3t3 cells MeSH A11.329.228.900.775.800 - 3t3-l1 cells MeSH A11.329.228.950 - mesangial cells MeSH A11.329.372.300 - ...
Two alternative splicing products of mouse Naa10, mNaa10235 and mNaa10225, were reported in NIH-3T3 and JB6 cells that may have ... including cell migration, cell cycle control, DNA damage control, caspase-dependent cell death, p53 dependent apoptosis, cell ... Cell. 146 (4): 607-20. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.050. PMC 3182480. PMID 21854985. Kuo HP, Lee DF, Chen CT, Liu M, Chou CK, Lee ... Whiteway M, Szostak JW (December 1985). "The ARD1 gene of yeast functions in the switch between the mitotic cell cycle and ...
The novel catenin p120cas binds classical cadherins and induces an unusual morphological phenotype in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. ( ... Kaiso depletion attenuates the growth and survival of triple negative breast cancer cells. (2017) Cell Death and Disease 8, ... Kaiso differentially regulates components of the Notch signaling pathway in intestinal cells. (2017) Cell Communication and ... promotes cell migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells through regulation of miR-31 expression. (2016) Oncotarget 7(5): ...
A similar in vitro decrease in proliferation occurred in NIH 3T3 cells and a human melanoma cell line expressing antisense ... RT101 cells with perlecan knocked down by antisense did not show tumor formation in this system, however cells expressing the ... MeWo cells are characteristically less invasive than their clonal variant cell line 70W. One lab studied perlecan expression in ... This was first shown in colon cancer cell lines, and subsequently in cell lines of other tissue origins, but in each case ...
Polybrene in combination with DMSO shock is used to transfect some cell types such as NIH-3T3 and CHO. It has other uses, ... Currently, it is primarily used to increase the efficiency of transduction of certain cells with retrovirus in cell culture. ... Hexadimethrine bromide acts by neutralizing the charge repulsion between virions and sialic acid on the cell surface. Use of ... "Polybrene increases retrovirus gene transfer efficiency by enhancing receptor-independent virus adsorption on the target cell ...
3T3 cell line slides ( mouse: embryo ) from GeneTex,Mouse NIH / 3T3 cells were cultured in DMEM with 4 mM L-glutamine and ... In order to keep the antigens in their native forms, cells were fixed in acetone-methanol. The cells are arrayed on a 12-well ( ... Mouse NIH / 3T3 cells were cultured in DMEM with 4 mM L-glutamine and harvested at the log phase of growth. In order to keep ... A - 20 cell line slides ( mouse: B lymphocyte; reticulum cell sarcoma ) from GeneTex. 8. 293 cell line slides ( human: kidney; ...
... for Abcams NIH/3T3 whole cell lysate. Our in-house scientific support team are here to help you with any technical questions ... Also I set NIH3T3 whole cell lysate as a positive control, but it didnt work. (no band.) I borrowed this cell line from other ... Question (63455) , NIH/3T3 whole cell lysate (ab7179). Go to datasheet (ab7179) ... Cell lines and Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. Multiplex Assays. By research area. Cancer. Cardiovascular. Cell Biology. ...
Expression of an exogenous eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase gene induces transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. J Wu, J P Issa, J ... Expression of an exogenous eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase gene induces transformation of NIH 3T3 cells ... Expression of an exogenous eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase gene induces transformation of NIH 3T3 cells ... Expression of an exogenous eukaryotic DNA methyltransferase gene induces transformation of NIH 3T3 cells ...
NIH 3T3 whole cell lysate (TPA stimulated) Lysates datasheet (ab14878). Abcam offers quality products including antibodies, ... NIH 3T3 cells are established from a NIH Swiss mouse embryo. These cells are highly contact inhibited and are sensitive to ... NIH 3T3 whole cell lysate (TPA stimulated). See all NIH 3T3 lysates. ... Cell line: NIH/3T3 (Mouse embryonic fibroblast).. Cells were cultured in medium supplemented with 50 ng/ml TPA (phorbol, 12- ...
EWS/FLI1-induced manic fringe renders NIH 3T3 cells tumorigenic [1].. *NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the cDNA of this protein ... Gene context of NIH 3T3 Cells. *NIH 3T3-EGFR clonal lines, which expressed the EGF at 500- to 1000-fold levels over control NIH ... Biological context of NIH 3T3 Cells. *Transformants of NIH 3T3 cells induced by transfection with MMTV LTR-p21 hybrid DNA have ... Disease relevance of NIH 3T3 Cells. *Overexpression of MFNG in NIH 3T3 cells renders them tumorigenic in mice with severe ...
... nih 3t3 cells include Proliferation and Differentiation of Murine Myeloid Precursor 32D/G-CSF-R Cells, Expression of ... Electroporation of Adherent Cells on Indium-Tin Oxide, The Submerged Printing of Cells onto a Modified Surface Using a ... Gradient Strain Chip for Stimulating Cellular Behaviors in Cell-laden Hydrogel, Real-Time Impedance-based Cell Analyzer as a ... A Cell-based Assay to Determine the Oncogenic Potential of a Gene, A Functional Assay for Gap Junctional Examination; ...
When NIH 3T3 cells were depleted of their glucosylceramide based glycosphingolipid mass, the caveolar structure remained intact ... Caveolar structure and protein sorting are maintained in NIH 3T3 cells independent of glycosphingolipid depletion.. Shu L1, Lee ... When the GPI-linked protein B61 was inducibly expressed in these cells, sorting to caveolar membranes occurred normally, even ... Glycosphingolipids have been proposed to be critical components of clustered lipids within cell membranes that serve as rafts ...
Homocysteine and alpha-lipoic acid regulate p44/42 MAP kinase phosphorylation in NIH/3T3 cells.. Shi SS1, Day RM, Halpner AD, ... phosphorylation were examined in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Cells grown in serum-containing media had constitutive levels of MAPK ... Treatment of cells with 20 microM Hcy for 0-60 min resulted in a transient enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation. In contrast, 20 ... The effect of alphaLA appears to be serum-dependent because Hcy or alphaLA treatment of serum-deprived cells activated MAPK ...
Invasiveness and metastasis of NIH 3T3 cells induced by Met-hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor autocrine stimulation. S ... Autocrine-mediated Met-HGF/SF signal transduction in NIH 3T3 mesenchymal cells may provide an important system for ... Invasiveness and metastasis of NIH 3T3 cells induced by Met-hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor autocrine stimulation ... Invasiveness and metastasis of NIH 3T3 cells induced by Met-hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor autocrine stimulation ...
Every Step of the Way, a Wide Range of Cell Health Products. Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and ... weve highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No ... To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, ... Embryonic mouse fibroblast; Properties: contact inhibition; transformation; transfection; cell biology; ability to ...
Shop a large selection of Lysates products and learn more about BD NIH 3T3 Cell Lysate NIH 3T3 Cell Lysate; 500µg:Life Sciences ... Cell Culture & Analysis Cell Culture & Analysis * Cell Culture Dishes, Plates and Flasks ... NIH 3T3 Cell Lysate; 500µg. ...
Genomes and Genes about Experts and Doctors on nih 3t3 cells in Singapore, Central Singapore, Singapore ... Experts and Doctors on nih 3t3 cells in Singapore, Central Singapore, Singapore. Summary. Locale: Singapore, Central Singapore ... You are here: Locale , Singapore , Central Singapore , Experts and Doctors on nih 3t3 cells in Singapore, Central Singapore, ... 225+0.0875+1.827?g/mL for NIH3T3 cells, which are of low HER2 overexpression, after 24h incubation. The same design of TPGS ...
NIH-3T3 cells) were evaluated. The guaraná bioactive compoun … ... on fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells exposed to sodium nitroprusside ... NIH-3T3 cells) were evaluated. The guaraná bioactive compounds were initially determined by high-performance liquid ... Cells were exposed to 10 μM SNP during a 6 h period because the cells exhibited ,90% mortality at this concentration. Guaraná ... Guaraná reverted the SNP toxicity mainly at lower concentrations (,5 mg), which decreased cell mortality, lipid peroxidation, ...
Highest nontoxic concentration for cultured NIH 3T3 cells assessed by MTT staining.. ... NIH NLMU.S. National Library of Medicine NCBINational Center for Biotechnology Information ...
Time-lapse video recording and cytogenetic analysis were used to determine the sensitivity of NIH3T3 cells to the RNA ... We have analysed the role of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription in cell cycle progression. ... 3T3 Cells / drug effects. Amanitins / pharmacology. Animals. Cycloheximide / pharmacology. G1 Phase / drug effects*. Genes, fos ... Time-lapse video recording and cytogenetic analysis were used to determine the sensitivity of NIH3T3 cells to the RNA ...
The following studies compared traditional NIH 3T3 fibroblasts functions on XanoMatrix scaffolds to standard tissue culture ... In this manner, this study supports that cell culture dishes which mimic features of natural tissues should be continually ... Results found significantly greater fibroblast adhesion and proliferation on XanoMatrix cell culture dishes which mimic the ... and studying cell behavior in vitro. However, increasingly it has been observed that mimicking natural tissue properties (such ...
Normal cells of patients with high cancer risk syndromes lack transforming activity in the NIH/3T3 transfection assay ... Normal cells of patients with high cancer risk syndromes lack transforming activity in the NIH/3T3 transfection assay ... Normal cells of patients with high cancer risk syndromes lack transforming activity in the NIH/3T3 transfection assay ... Normal cells of patients with high cancer risk syndromes lack transforming activity in the NIH/3T3 transfection assay ...
"NIH 3T3 Cells" by people in this website by year, and whether "NIH 3T3 Cells" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... "NIH 3T3 Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... NIH 3T3 Cells*NIH 3T3 Cells. *3T3 Cell, NIH. *Cell, NIH 3T3 ... 3T3 Cells [A11.251.210.700]. *NIH 3T3 Cells [A11.251.210.700. ... A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for ...
Transformation of normal NIH-3T3 cells into highly oncogenic and invasive cancer cells by MBD2 overexpression. Stephen Andrews ... Transformation of normal NIH-3T3 cells into highly oncogenic and invasive cancer cells by MBD2 overexpression ... Transformation of normal NIH-3T3 cells into highly oncogenic and invasive cancer cells by MBD2 overexpression ... Transformation of normal NIH-3T3 cells into highly oncogenic and invasive cancer cells by MBD2 overexpression ...
To establish cell lines with stable expression of GFP-LC3, control NIH/3T3 cells and NIH/3T3 cells overexpressing IRS-1 were ... Establishment of NIH/3T3 cells with stable overexpression of functional IRS-1. (A) Wild-type NIH/3T3 cells were serum starved ... Establishment of NIH/3T3 cells overexpressing functional IRS-1 We chose NIH/3T3 cells as an experimental model to investigate ... we established NIH/3T3 cells with stable overexpression of IRS-1. The levels of total IRS-1 in both the control NIH/3T3 cells ...
Fast-forward protocol for transient transfection of NIH/3T3 cells in 96-well plates using Effectene® Transfection Reagent - (EN ...
Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by cotransfection with c-src and nuclear oncogenes.. D Shalloway, P J Johnson, E O Freed, D ... Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by cotransfection with c-src and nuclear oncogenes. ... Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by cotransfection with c-src and nuclear oncogenes. ... Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by cotransfection with c-src and nuclear oncogenes. ...
Enrichment for metallothionein does not confer resistance to cisplatin in transfected NIH/3T3 cells.. K A Morton, B J Jones, M ... Enrichment for metallothionein does not confer resistance to cisplatin in transfected NIH/3T3 cells.. K A Morton, B J Jones, M ... Enrichment for metallothionein does not confer resistance to cisplatin in transfected NIH/3T3 cells.. K A Morton, B J Jones, M ... Enrichment for metallothionein does not confer resistance to cisplatin in transfected NIH/3T3 cells. ...
... mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) toxicity Measured in Cell-Based System Using Plate Reader - 2017-02_Inhibitor_Dose_ ... NIH NLMU.S. National Library of Medicine NCBINational Center for Biotechnology Information ...
Enrichment for metallothionein does not confer resistance to cisplatin in transfected NIH/3T3 cells.. K A Morton, B J Jones, M ... Enrichment for metallothionein does not confer resistance to cisplatin in transfected NIH/3T3 cells.. K A Morton, B J Jones, M ... Enrichment for metallothionein does not confer resistance to cisplatin in transfected NIH/3T3 cells.. K A Morton, B J Jones, M ... The toxicity of cisplatin was compared in NIH/3T3 cells that vary in their content of metallothionein as a consequence of ...
The intrinsic radiation resistance (D0) of NIH 3T3 cells was markedly and significantly increased by transformation with ras ... The ras oncogenes increase the intrinsic resistance of NIH 3T3 cells to ionizing radiation ... The ras oncogenes increase the intrinsic resistance of NIH 3T3 cells to ionizing radiation ... The ras oncogenes increase the intrinsic resistance of NIH 3T3 cells to ionizing radiation ...
NIH 3T3 cells and reveal a sequence of signaling events required for cell cycle progression in proliferating NIH 3T3 cells. ... Cell age and cell cycle position. Asynchronous NIH 3T3 cells were followed for 20 h in time lapse, with the last 30 min in the ... In a cell with a relatively short G1 phase, such as the NIH 3T3 cells studied here, Ras must become activated during G2phase to ... Cellular Ras and Cyclin D1 Are Required during Different Cell Cycle Periods in Cycling NIH 3T3 Cells. Masahiro Hitomi, Dennis W ...
Using these mutant variants of MEK1, we showed previously that transfection of NIH/3T3 or Swiss 3T3 cells causes morphological ... Alessandrini A., Greulich H., Huang W., Erikson R. L. Mek1 phosphorylation site mutants activate Raf-1 in NIH 3T3 cells. J. ... NIH3T3, DS, and DD cells survived after seeding onto the bacterial plates. All of the cell lines tended to form spheroid-like ... DS2 and DS4 cells underwent between 2 and 3 cell divisions within 1 week after seeding, whereas DD1 and DD3 cells grew at rates ...
... have been described in NIH 3T3 cells transformed with the Ha‐ras oncogene. The structural basis for this oncogene‐mediate ... Restriction enzyme analysis of DNA methylation in "condensed" chromatin of Ha‐ras‐transformed NIH 3T3 cells Article type: ... CpG‐methylated DNA content was estimated in "condensed" chromatin of Ha‐ras‐transformed NIH 3T3 cell lines which differ in ras ... have been described in NIH 3T3 cells transformed with the Ha‐ras oncogene. The structural basis for this oncogene‐mediated ...
Cell culture and saline solutions.. NIH-3T3 cells were maintained in RPMI-1640 medium (Sigma) supplemented with 10% FCS and 1% ... Effect of hypotonic stress and cell swelling on the activation of PDGFR-β in NIH-3T3 cells. A: phase-contrast microscopy of ... Lang F, Lepple-Wienhues A, Szabó I, Siemen D, Gulbins E. Cell volume in cell proliferation and apoptotic cell death. In: Cell ... Effect of osmotic stress on the level of phosphorylation of JNK1/2 in NIH-3T3 cells. A and B: SDS-PAGE and Western blot ...
  • We now show that, in NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, constitutive overexpression of an exogenous mouse DNA methyltransferase gene results in a marked increase in overall DNA methylation which is accompanied by tumorigenic transformation. (pnas.org)
  • The effects of two biothiols, homocysteine (Hcy), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and alpha-lipoic acid (alphaLA), a therapeutic antioxidant, on p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation were examined in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of transcription blocks cell cycle progression of NIH3T3 fibroblasts specifically in G1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The following studies compared traditional NIH 3T3 fibroblasts' functions on XanoMatrix scaffolds to standard tissue culture polystyrene. (dovepress.com)
  • Global gene expression profiling of JMJD6- and JMJD4-depleted mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts. (umassmed.edu)
  • In this study, we used NIH-3T3 fibroblasts in a serum- and nutrient-free inorganic medium (300 mosM) to analyze the effects of osmotic stress on MAPK activity and PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-β-mediated signal transduction. (physiology.org)
  • This protocol outlines the steps and materials involved in creating sterile culture medium used in maintaining cultures of NIH/3T3 murine fibroblasts . (lpdwiki.com)
  • George Todaro and Howard Green originally obtained the cells from desegregated NIH Swiss mouse embryo fibroblasts. (creative-biogene.com)
  • HeLa and HepG2 tumoral cells and non-tumoral NIH 3T3 fibroblasts were cultivated for 24 h, treated with 0.05, 0.5 and 1.0 mM VPA or 10, 20 and 100 ng/mL TSA (1-24 h), and subjected to the Feulgen reaction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Skin cells, in particular keratinocytes and fibroblasts, are the cells most exposed to environmental stressors such as UV light, smog, toxins, cigarette smoke and pollution. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Circadian profiling of the transcriptome in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts: comparison with rhythmic gene expression in SCN2.2 cells and the rat SCN. (uky.edu)
  • To screen for output signals that may distinguish the pacemaker in the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) from peripheral-type oscillators in which the canonical clockworks are similarly regulated in a circadian manner, the rhythmic behavior of the transcriptome in forskolin-stimulated NIH/3T3 fibroblasts was analyzed and compared relative to SCN2.2 cells in vitro and the rat SCN. (uky.edu)
  • Similar to the circadian profiling of the SCN2.2 and rat SCN transcriptomes, NIH/3T3 fibroblasts exhibited circadian fluctuations in the expression of the core clock genes, Per2, Cry1, and Bmal1, and 323 functionally diverse transcripts, many of which regulate cellular communication. (uky.edu)
  • Overlap in rhythmic transcripts among NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, SCN2.2 cells, and the rat SCN was limited to these clock genes and four other genes that mediate fatty acid and lipid metabolism or function as nuclear factors. (uky.edu)
  • Coupled with evidence for the rhythmic regulation of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNos) in SCN2.2 cells and the rat SCN but not in fibroblasts, studies examining the effects of a NOS inhibitor on metabolic rhythms in cocultures containing SCN2.2 cells and untreated NIH/3T3 cells suggest that the gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide may play a key role in SCN pacemaker function. (uky.edu)
  • Mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH3T3 is a type of murine embryonic fibroblast cells (MEF). (altogen.com)
  • Here, we investigated if and how fibroblasts/CAFs modulate the radiation response of malignant tumors by altering cancer cell radiosensitivity or radioresistance in vitro and in vivo . (frontiersin.org)
  • The influence of fibroblasts on cancer cell proliferation, cell death induction and long-term survival after RT was studied using different sets of fibroblasts and cancer cells in an indirect co-culture (2D) system to analyse potential paracrine interactions or a 3D model to study direct interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Paracrine signals from embryonic NIH-3T3 fibroblasts promoted MPR31.4 prostate and Py8119 breast cancer cell proliferation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indirect co-culture with L929 skin fibroblasts induced higher levels of apoptosis in irradiated MPR31.4 cells, while they promoted proliferation of irradiated Py8119 cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts promoted long-term clonogenic survival of both tumor cell types upon irradiation in the 3D co-culture system when compared to non-irradiated controls. (frontiersin.org)
  • Also in vivo , co-implantation of cancer cells and fibroblasts resulted in different effects depending on the respective cell combinations used: co-implantation of MPR31.4 cells with NIH-3T3 fibroblasts or of Py8119 cells with L929 fibroblasts led to increased tumor growth and reduced radiation-induced tumor growth delay when compared to the respective tumors without co-implanted fibroblasts. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taken together, the impact of fibroblasts on cancer cell behavior and radiation sensitivity largely depended on the respective cell types used as they either exerted a pro-tumorigenic and radioresistance-promoting effect, an anti-tumorigenic effect, or no effect. (frontiersin.org)
  • We conclude that the plasticity of fibroblasts allows for such a broad spectrum of activities by the same fibroblast and that this plasticity is at least in part mediated by cancer cell-induced fibroblast activation toward CAFs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apart from cancer cells, the tumor stroma comprises fibroblasts, cells of the immune system, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes and smooth muscle cells, mesenchymal cells and adipocytes, as well as the extracellular matrix. (frontiersin.org)
  • NIH3T3 is a mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) cell line with a high degree of contact inhibition in continued culture. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results suggest that ZIP kinase is critical for myosin phosphorylation and necessary for cell motile processes in mammalian fibroblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Cell line: NIH/3T3 (Mouse embryonic fibroblast). (abcam.com)
  • on nitric oxide (NO) and other compounds generated from the degradation of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in an embryonic fibroblast culture (NIH-3T3 cells) were evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • NIH 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cells were initiated from a cell line isolated at the New York University School of Medicine Department of Pathology in 1962. (creative-biogene.com)
  • The 3T3 cell line was developed in 1962 and is derived from mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results found significantly greater fibroblast adhesion and proliferation on XanoMatrix cell culture dishes which mimic the nanoscale geometry of natural tissue fibers with true, tortuous fiber beds creating a robust, consistent, and versatile growth platform. (dovepress.com)
  • Indeed, since the overall length of the cell cycle appears to depend in large part on the length of the G 1 phase, it is likely that this cell cycle period must be compressed as much as possible for rapid proliferation, potentially requiring the transfer of activities present in the G 1 phase of quiescent cells to other cell cycle periods when they continuously cycle ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Signaling in cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis is highly affected by osmotic stress and changes in cell volume, although the mechanisms underlying the significance of cell volume as a signal in cell growth and death are poorly understood. (physiology.org)
  • Increasing evidence now supports the conclusion that signaling in cell volume control cooperates with signaling in cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. (physiology.org)
  • As discussed by Hoffmann and Ussing ( 27 ), the term "volume regulation" may lead to the misconception that cells have one preferred volume, which is not the case since the "preferred" volume may highly depend on the differential and functional state of the cell, such as in secreting epithelia ( 21 , 27 ) and in cells during growth and proliferation per se. (physiology.org)
  • Therefore, it is important to identify the level of cross-talk between signaling pathways in cell volume regulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis to understand the potential role of changes in cell volume as a direct signal controlling cell growth and death in tissue homeostasis and developmental processes. (physiology.org)
  • Cells were collected every 5 generations and plate colony formation assays were performed to observe cell proliferation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Felisbino MB, Tamashiro WMSC, Mello MLS: Chromatin remodeling, cell proliferation and cell death in valproic acid-treated HeLa cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand butanol and ethyl acetate did not induce proliferation in 3T3 cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • C/EBP proteins play a key role in regulating proliferation and differentiation of many cell types including mammary epithelia cells, neuronal cells, granulocytes, hepatocytes, and adipocytes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 20 - 22 Recent studies provide evidence for molecular links between the circadian clock and cell proliferation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) and its closest family member p185 neu , the product of the HER2 gene, are transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases (TK), which transduce signals associated with tumor cell proliferation ( 1 - 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, these drugs are reversible inhibitors, indicating that the tumor cells may resume proliferation following drug clearance. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found the NGF -expressing microencapsulates can secret NGF steadly after cultured 8w in vitro , promot the proliferation of epidermic cells and secret collagen of fibroblast cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • Feeder cells serve as a basal layer for other cultures and have been utilized to support the nourishment and proliferation of other cell types including stem cells. (altogen.com)
  • The self renewal of cells is a process of cell proliferation which includes nuclear division and cytokinesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to inducing necrosis and apoptosis, ROS induces autophagic cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we show that cotransfection, but not solo transfection, of expression plasmids for c-src and either adenovirus E1A, v-myc, c-myc, or the 5' half of polyomavirus large T (pltN) antigen into NIH 3T3 cells induces anchorage-independent growth, enhanced focus formation, and, for pltN cotransfection, tumorigenicity in adult NFS mice. (asm.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ras-mediated transformation induces extensive changes in cell morphology which require the activity of members of the Rho family of GTPases. (cnrs.fr)
  • In this study, NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells were used to determine whether heat shock induces the AP-1 transcription factor via signaling pathways involving Ref-1. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Heenen M, Laporte M, Noel JC, de Graef C. Methotrexate induces apoptotic cell death in human keratinocytes. (springer.com)
  • DNA CpG methylation status is thus suggested not to be involved with the higher order chromatin condensation induced by ras transformation in the mentioned NIH 3T3 cell lines. (iospress.com)
  • NIH 3T3 cells express HGF/SF endogenously and become tumorigenic in nude mice via an autocrine mechanism when murine Met is expressed ectopically (Metmu cells) or when human Met and human HGF/SF are coexpressed (HMH cells). (pnas.org)
  • Only the MBD2 cell lines were highly tumorigenic and invasive when injected into Nude mice while also showing a remarkable ability to invade and degrade bone tissue when injected into the tibia of SCID mice. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subcutaneous tumorigenicity assays in NU/NU mice were used to observe tumorigenicity of riboflavin-depleted HEK293T cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Moreover, we observed enhanced subcutaneous tumorigenicity in NU/NU mice following injection of riboflavin-depleted compared with normal HEK293T cells (55.6% compared with 0.0% tumor formation, respectively). (deepdyve.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analyses of developing mice demonstrated the polarized expression of L1 in pyramidal cells, granule cells, and interneurons in the hippocampus. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors cells, and no mature granulocytes are found in C/EBPα-deficient mice. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 23 , 24 Many cell cycle-related genes are deregulated and cell cycle progression from S to M phase is impaired in mice lacking the Cry gene, a core component of the clock network. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Precisely the same amino acid that governs N- versus B-tropism in mice also controls MLV tropism for human cells ( 35 ). (asm.org)
  • Growth analysis revealed that FBP-transfected NIH/3T3 cells like IGROV1 maintained their growth rate after 10 days of culture in medium containing physiological or low folate concentration, and tumors arising after transplanting FBP-tNIH/3T3 cells in nude mice were 3-fold heavier than those arising after transplantation of non-FBP-expressing NIH/3T3 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • A follow-up heat dehydration process has been performed to ensure the attachment of cells and the stability of cellular proteins. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Glycosphingolipids have been proposed to be critical components of clustered lipids within cell membranes that serve as rafts for the attachment and sorting of proteins to the cell membrane. (nih.gov)
  • The TPA-mediated association (activation) of protein kinase C to the nuclear and cytoskeletal fractions with NIH 3T3 cells is further supported by the enhanced phosphorylation of specific endogenous proteins noted when purified nuclei and cytoskeletal preparations are incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, passage through G 1 phase in quiescent and proliferating cells exhibits several important molecular differences, including expression of the cyclin-inhibitory protein p27 kip1 ( 3 ), Cdc6 ( 42 ), and Fos and related proteins ( 14 ), and formation of a complex between E2F and the retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-related p130 ( 19 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • In order to examine the cross-talk between Ras and Rho proteins, we investigated the effects on focus-forming activity and cell growth of the Rho-family members Cdc42Hs, Rac1 and RhoG by expressing constitutively active or dominant-negative forms in NIH3T3 cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • Colocalisation studies in cells were performed by double staining with antibodies against human cystatin C and marker proteins for lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, or the endoplasmic reticulum, and evaluated by confocal microscopy. (lu.se)
  • In eukaryotic cells, chromatin results from the association of DNA with nuclear proteins packaged into hierarchies of organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human DNAs coding oncoviral antigens or onc gene-specific proteins could be transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate cell growth and differentiation in numerous cell types. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Among these elements is the family of GADD45 proteins, which assists cells by preventing accumulated mutations in the nuclear DNA. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Other elements that maintain DNA integrity and stability are sirtuins-proteins that regulate cell longevity. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • However, cross-saturation experiments and analysis of Fv1 -null cells engineered to express natural or artificial Fv1 proteins revealed that lentivirus restriction in mouse cells is independent of Fv1. (asm.org)
  • Nucleoporins, a family of 50 to 100 proteins, are the main components of the nuclear pore complex in eukaryotic cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Among the most significant technical challenges for performing successful live-cell imaging experiments is to maintain the cells in a healthy state and functioning normally on the microscope stage while being illuminated in the presence of synthetic fluorophores and/or fluorescent proteins. (microscopyu.com)
  • Illustrated in Figure 1 are a series of images captured from several unrelated cell lines, each labeled with a different combination of synthetic fluorophores and/or fluorescent proteins. (microscopyu.com)
  • Autocrine-mediated Met-HGF/SF signal transduction in NIH 3T3 mesenchymal cells may provide an important system for understanding the biological process of metastasis. (pnas.org)
  • Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate was also found to increase protein kinase C activity and to reduce intercellular communication in normal NIH/3T3 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: MBD2 and a mutant MBD2 lacking the MBD domain were stably and transiently expressed in mouse fibroblast NIH-3T3 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunohistochemical studies with polyclonal antibodies directed against protein kinase C further indicate that TPA treatment of NIH 3T3 cells does significantly enhance the amount of protein kinase C found tightly associated with the nucleus and cytoskeleton, whereas exposure of HL-60 cells to TPA does not appreciably alter the amount of protein kinase C observed to be associated with the nuclear fraction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mode of membrane attachment of this NCA, which we already proposed to be anchored via glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol, was investigated by treatment of NIH/3T3/KNCA IG7 cells with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus thuringiensis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 225+0.0875+1.827?g/mL for NIH3T3 cells, which are of low HER2 overexpression, after 24h incubation. (labome.org)
  • Overexpression of IRS-1 resulted in inhibition of basal autophagy, and reduced oxidative stress-induced autophagy and cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that overexpression of IRS-1 promotes cells growth, inhibits basal autophagy, reduces oxidative stress-induced autophagy, and diminishes oxidative stress-mediated autophagy-dependent cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor in NIH-3T3-transfected cells slows its lateral diffusion and rate of endocytosis. (rupress.org)
  • Overexpression of ODC in parental cells had the same effects as putrescine and the ROS scavengers. (springer.com)
  • The effect of the HDACis on DNA methylation of HeLa cells was investigated by image analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Work in progress suggests DNA demethylation in HeLa cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The chromatin remodeling promoted by these HDACis is also suggested to be affected by DNA demethylation in HeLa cells and histone H3K9me3 hypomethylation in NIH 3T3 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Validated MISSION ® siRNAs have been functionally validated in Hela cells by Sigma scientists to Knockdown gene expression by 75% or greater. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mitochondria were targeted with a DsRed2 fusion vector in the Indian Muntjac cells presented in Figure 1(c) , while an EGFP-peroxisomal chimeric plasmid highlights peroxisomes in the human cervical carcinoma ( HeLa line) cells in Figure 1(d) . (microscopyu.com)
  • Nickel-refining fumes may induce the changes in the state of ROS, which may eventually initiate oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis of NIH/3T3 cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Wang Y, Wang S-Y, Jia L, Zhang L, Ba J-C, Han D, Yu C-P, Wu Y-H. Nickel-Refining Fumes Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis of NIH/3T3 Cells via Oxidative Stress. (mdpi.com)
  • 5 mg), which decreased cell mortality, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and cell oxidative stress as well as increased the SOD levels. (nih.gov)
  • Insulin receptor substrate-1 prevents autophagy-dependent cell death caused by oxidative stress in mouse NIH/3T3 cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Knockdown of autophagy-related gene 5 inhibited basal autophagy and diminished oxidative stress-induced autophagy and cell death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cultured mammalian cells are important tools for providing predictions of drug activity, metabolism, and toxicity in vivo. (dovepress.com)
  • Long, Lin;He, Jian-Zhong;Chen, Ye;Xu, Xiu-E;Liao, Lian-Di;Xie, Yang-Min;Li, En-Min;Xu, Li-Yan 2018-05-07 00:00:00 Abstract Background Riboflavin is an essential component of the human diet and its derivative cofactors play an established role in oxidative metabolism. (deepdyve.com)
  • Lipids, 28:163-166)Comparison of the metabolism of α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) and its delta-6 desaturation product, stearidonic acid (C18:4n-3), in cultured NIH-3T3 cells / Cantrill, R.C. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • Compared with NIH/3T3 cells, circadian gene expression in SCN oscillators was more prevalent among genes mediating glucose metabolism and neurotransmission. (uky.edu)
  • Kósa, K, Jones, CS & De Luca, LM 1995, ' The H-ras Oncogene Interferes with Retinoic Acid Signaling and Metabolism in NIH3T3 Cells ', Cancer Research , vol. 55, no. 21, pp. 4850-4854. (elsevier.com)
  • These newfound genes could promote DNA damage repairment and DNA replication progress, regulate the metabolism of protein, and maintain the cell cycle progression of NIH3T3 modulating the reported genes CCND1 and C - FOS . (biomedcentral.com)
  • NIH 3T3 cells are established from a NIH Swiss mouse embryo. (abcam.com)
  • This cell line was established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures in the same manner as the original random bred 3T3 and the inbred BALB/c 3T3. (abcam.com)
  • A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from Nih Swiss mouse embryo cultures. (jove.com)
  • NIH3T3 are derived from a cell line of a Swiss mouse embryo established in 1962 by two scientists at the Department of Pathology in the New York University School of Medicine. (altogen.com)
  • It was separated from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures [ 1 ], and belongs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-like multipotent progenitor cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using these approaches, together with Western blot analysis, we showed that hypusine formation activity is serum-responsive and significantly elevated in Ras oncogene transfected NIH3T3 cells as compared to NIH3T3 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Increased amounts of chromatin condensation (i.e., localized areas of high DNA density, or chromatin higher order packing state) have been described in NIH 3T3 cells transformed with the Ha‐ras oncogene. (iospress.com)
  • Introduction: Cancer cells are hallmarked by global DNA hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This may result in differential responses by different cell types during exposure to tumor promoters. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conclusion Riboflavin depletion contributes to HEK293T and NIH3T3 cell tumorigenesis and may be a risk factor for tumor development. (deepdyve.com)
  • These results suggest that the v-src gene product, in a manner similar to some of the powerful tumor promoters, may directly or indirectly affect cell-cell communication. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore, present study investigated the effects of different tractions of cardamom extract on potassium channels in non- tumor NIH3T3 cell line . (bvsalud.org)
  • 25 Recent studies suggest that the murine Per2 gene, another key factor of the circadian system, is involved in tumor suppression by regulating cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Additionally, we showed that they are capable of blocking EGFR phosphorylation and significantly damaging DNA in human tumor cells in vitro and in vivo , indicating that our combi-molecules induce a bifunctional activity in whole cells ( 22 , 27 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genetic and cell-biology studies indicate that tumor growth is not just determined by cancer cells themselves, but it is also suppoted by the tumor's stromal microenvironment ( Pietras and Östman, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by cotransfection with c-src and nuclear oncogenes. (asm.org)
  • Also I set NIH3T3 whole cell lysate as a positive control, but it didn't work. (abcam.com)
  • I would expect any of the MEF cell lines to work as a positive control, but I suggest using a whole cell lysate (ab14874 is a nuclear fraction) since that is what we have tested with ab80. (abcam.com)
  • Transfected 293T cell lysate. (avivasysbio.com)
  • Our data show that the pattern of coordinated Rho family activation that elicits a focus-forming activity in NIH3T3 cells is distinct from the regulatory cascade that has been proposed for the control of actin-dependent structures in Swiss 3T3 cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • Abnormal regional increases in DNA methylation, which have potential for causing gene inactivation and chromosomal instability, are consistently found in immortalized and tumorigenic cells. (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, unlike serum-dependent increase in eIF-5A precursor protein, the eIF-5A mRNA in both cells is constitutively expressed after serum stimulation, suggesting that eIF-5A gene is regulated at posttranscriptional/translational level during serum stimulation and cell transformation. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression profiling and gene ontology analysis revealed that riboflavin depletion induced the expression of cell cycle-related genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • In general, clones expressing the gene encoding L68Q cystatin C secreted slightly lower amounts of the protein than clones expressing wild-type human cystatin C. Both immunofluorescence cytochemistry and western blotting experiments showed an increased accumulation of cystatin C in cells expressing the gene encoding L68Q cystatin C compared with cells expressing the gene for the wild-type protein. (lu.se)
  • Changes in chromatin supraorganization are induced in the cell types analyzed after inhibition of histone deacetylases by VPA and TSA, possibly accompanied by changes in gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have studied by means of DNA-mediated gene transfer the transforming activity of the DNA of the human hepatoma cell line HCC-M, which contains genomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in integrated form. (elsevier.com)
  • An active src gene was identified in three acute lymphoid leukaemias and in one non-Hodgkin lymphoma of T-cell origin. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, we generated stable K562 cells that expressed an inducible Per2 gene. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The discovery of human gene products that are expressed in these cells and are essential for virus replication has raised the possibility that nonhuman organisms, particularly rodents, might be engineered to express these molecules, thereby rendering them able to support a productive HIV-1 replication cycle ( 8 , 20 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • NGF gene was transfected into NIH-3T3 cells and enclosed into alginate -poly- L-lysine - alginate (APA) microencapsulation and cultivated in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • The NCA cDNA, which represents a gene belonging to the CEA family, was inserted into an SV40 early promoter-driven expression vector and used for transfection of mouse NIH/3T3 cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This comparative analysis of circadian gene expression in SCN and non-SCN cells may have important implications in the selective analysis of circadian signals involved in the coupling of SCN oscillators and regulation of rhythmicity in downstream cells. (uky.edu)
  • By co-transfecting NIH3T3 murine fibroblast and murine B78 H1 melanoma cells with pSGStag and pSV2neo, we obtained clones expressing the mRNA of the bacterial tag gene coding for N3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase I (Gly I), which specifically repairs N3-methyladenine. (elsevier.com)
  • Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarray was used to detect the gene expression profiles of the model, and results showed remarkable changes in the expressions of 64 cell cycle genes and 960 genes associated with other physiological activity during the cell cycle of NIH3T3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of cell cycle-related signaling pathways in NIH3T3 cell cycle, we optimized the condition of synchronization and used Mouse Genome 430 2.0 microarray to detect the gene expression profiles of the NIH3T3 at ten different points in time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We discuss the effects of varying this parameter in the context of improving gene delivery processes, such as serum stability and association with cell membranes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • I borrowed this cell line from other lab. (abcam.com)
  • The established NIH/3T3 line was subjected to more than 5 serial cycles of subcloning in order to develop a subclone with morphologic characteristics best suited for transformation assays. (abcam.com)
  • 3T3 refers to the cell transfer and inoculation method for the line, and means "3-day transfer, inoculum 3 x 10 5 cells. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Using this method, the immortal cell line begins to thrive and stabilize in cell culture after about 20-30 generations of in vitro growth. (creative-biogene.com)
  • The original cells are extremely contact inhibited, although the cell line is no longer inhibited. (creative-biogene.com)
  • The above is only part of a part of cell line products. (creative-biogene.com)
  • If you don't find the cell line you want, Creative Biogene can also provide stable cell line generation service with the best prices and fastest turnaround time for you! (creative-biogene.com)
  • 3T3 cell line. (bvsalud.org)
  • No PrP TSE or infectivity has been detected in any exposed cell line under study so far. (cdc.gov)
  • The murine fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3 was cultured on the foil electrodes and the cells were stimulated with direct voltage and unipolar pulsed voltage. (tuhh.de)
  • We have developed a model to investigate the biochemical and biological properties of this folate receptor by transfecting NIH/3T3 cells, which do not endogenously express FBP, with a vector containing the complementary DNA for the gp38 cloned from the ovarian carcinoma cell line IGROV1. (elsevier.com)
  • A cell line, NIH/3T3/KNCA IG7, was selected which expressed a molecule with an apparent molecular weight of 110,000. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The proportion of cells demonstrating Support nuclear re-localisation was hugely reproducible in between replicate experiments, but we observed that transient transfections display ~25% re-localisation whereas the secure cell line shows only ~ten% for the same dose of etoposide. (signsin1dayinc.com)
  • C) Localisation of Assist in a secure NIH/3T3 mobile line expressing FLAG-Help, taken care of with bleomycin and etoposide at different doses for 2 several hours and then authorized to recuperate for 5 hours. (signsin1dayinc.com)
  • The mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 has been extensively employed in multiple studies and is considered one of the most frequently used fibroblast cell lines. (altogen.com)
  • The 3T3 cell line has become the standard fibroblast cell line. (altogen.com)
  • MEF cell line is an excellent host for studies related to mammalian embryonic tissue, frequently employed as a transfection host in cell and molecular biology research. (altogen.com)
  • NIH3T3 cells line is a good transfection host susceptible to sarcoma and leukemia viruses. (altogen.com)
  • Altogen Biosystems offers lipid-based transfection reagent kits for the NIH-3T3 cell line that yield high transfection efficiency, as detected by qRT-PCR. (altogen.com)
  • The rabbit kidney epithelial cells ( RK-13 line) in Figure 1(a) were transfected with a fusion plasmid of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein ( EYFP ) and a nuclear targeting signal peptide to localize a greenish-yellow label in the nucleus. (microscopyu.com)
  • In Figure 1(b), opossum kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells ( OK line) were transfected with an EYFP-actin subcellular localization vector to label the filamentous actin cytoskeletal network. (microscopyu.com)
  • The adherent culture of normal Syrian golden hamster kidney fibroblast cells ( BHK-21 line) featured Figure 1(e) was transfected with a mixture of DsRed2 FP-endoplasmic reticulum and EGFP-nucleus subcellular localization vectors, thus localizing a green fluorescent protein tag to the nucleus and an orange-red probe to the endoplasmic reticulum. (microscopyu.com)
  • Finally, the human bone osteosarcoma cells ( U2OS line) illustrated in Figure 1(f) was transfected with Cerulean fluorescent protein fused to a mitochondrial targeting sequence to label the mitochondria. (microscopyu.com)
  • This is often the best place to start, especially in a new cell line. (thermofisher.com)
  • Here, we show that Metmu and HMH cells are invasive in vitro and display enhanced protease activity necessary for the invasive phenotype. (pnas.org)
  • Traditional flat tissue cell culture dishes have consisted of polystyrene treated with plasma gases for growing, subculturing, and studying cell behavior in vitro. (dovepress.com)
  • Cell-based in vitro assays are a key component of drug discovery research. (dovepress.com)
  • In vitro, cells can behave very differently depending on the growth substrate employed. (dovepress.com)
  • Hypusine formation activity can be measured by an in vitro labeling technique in polyamine-depleted cells. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro experiments have shown that riboflavin may have specific functions associated with cell fate determination, as well as implications for cell growth and development. (deepdyve.com)
  • Two major alternatives to in vivo animal testing are in vitro cell culture techniques and in silico computer simulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The testing of cosmetic products directly onto an animal can be minimized or eliminated by the use of in Vitro cell growth and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the insensitivity of S-phase cells to RNA polymerase II inhibition suggests that the transcription of genes thought to be normally induced during S/G2 is not required for the completion of an ongoing cell cycle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Inhibition of MBD2 attenuates tumorigenesis, metastasis, and reverses the hypomethylation of metastatic genes in cell culture and in vivo. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Genes involved in tumorgenesis, bone degradation, or with no known function that were induced in both MBD2 and HA-Ras expressing cell lines were chosen for further study. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Knocking down selected candidate genes' mRNA in MBD2 overexpressing NIH-3T3 cells resulted in attenuated tumorigenesis while knocking down MBD2 in HA-RAS cells significantly reduced these genes' expression levels. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Identification of genes that function to protect cells from radiation damage is an essential step in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which mammalian cells cope with ionizing radiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • This radiobiologic activity appeared to be a specific consequence of the ras mutations rather than of transformation, since revertant cells that contained functional ras genes (but were no longer phenotypically transformed) retained their increased D0's. (sciencemag.org)
  • Western blot analyses, cell cycle analyses, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to validate the expression of cell cycle-related genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • We also observed that riboflavin depletion decreased intracellular riboflavin levels by 20% and upregulated expression of riboflavin transporter genes, particularly SLC52A3, and that the changes in CREPT and SLC52A3 correlated with specific epigenetic changes in their promoters in riboflavin-depleted HEK293T cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast, in HepG2 human liver cells, riboflavin depletion leads to an unfolded protein/stress response (14) and interferes with normal progression of the cell cycle (15-17), likely affecting the expression of regulatory genes at both the transcriptional and proteomic levels (18). (deepdyve.com)
  • Six transformed clones that were studied contained newly incorporated v-src genes in the genome, had an increased amount of pp60(src), and showed enhanced activities of protein kinase C. Intercellular communication, studied by observing with autoradiography the transfer of [ 3 H]uridine nucleotide from prelabeled donor cells to recipient cells in contact, was found to be reduced in transformed clones as compared to parental NIH/3T3 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that the synergistic effect of the myc and src genes would operate in malignant transformation of some progenitors of T-cell lineage. (elsevier.com)
  • To identify novel C/EBP-target genes, we performed transcriptional profiling using inducible NIH 3T3 cell lines expressing 1 of 4 members of the C/EBP family. (bloodjournal.org)
  • DNA integrity is the most important prerequisite for the fulfillment of vital cellular functions: The loss of functionally important genes compromises the health of cells and accelerates the skin aging process. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • For the next step, IPA software was used to analyze the physiological activities, cell cycle genes-associated signal transduction activities and their regulatory roles of these genes in cell cycle progression, and our results indicated that the reported genes were involved in 17 signaling pathways in the regulation of cell cycle progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Newfound genes such as PKC , RAS , PP2A , NGR and PI3K etc. belong to the functional category of molecular mechanism of cancer, cyclins and cell cycle regulation HER-2 signaling in breast cancer signaling pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Highest nontoxic concentration for cultured NIH 3T3 cells assessed by MTT staining. (nih.gov)
  • Our results show that alpha-amanitin blocks cells specifically in G1, irrespective of the concentration within the range of 3 to 30 micrograms/ml. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Respiring eukaryotic and/or prokaryotic cells will affect the oxygen concentration of a liquid medium in which they are immersed. (google.com)
  • Thus, this invention provides a convenient system to gather information on the presence, identification, quantification and cytotoxic activity of eukaryotic and/or prokaryotic cells by determining their effect on the oxygen concentration of the media in which they are present. (google.com)
  • HPLC analysis of the media and cell extracts demonstrated that H-ra.v-inuisformed cells metabolize RA to a much lesser extent than control cells, resulting in a higher concentration of RA in H-ras cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These data demonstrate that, even though H-ras-transformed cells accumulate up to 20 fold the concentration of RA as NIH-3T3 cells, they fail to show transglutaminase induction, suggesting that H-ras interferes with signal transduction by RA. (elsevier.com)
  • The exposure of NIH/3T3 cells to nickel-refining fumes significantly reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptotic death in a dose-dependent manner. (mdpi.com)
  • 1 It has been shown using alternative cell culture applications that the growth and function of cells as multicellular 3D structures is significantly different to their growth as conventional 2D monolayer cultures. (dovepress.com)
  • The intrinsic radiation resistance (D0) of NIH 3T3 cells was markedly and significantly increased by transformation with ras oncogenes activated by missense mutations. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cellular RA-binding protein I mRNA, supposedly involved in RA storage, was significantly increased in the H-ras-transformed cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Cell viability, cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, the level of glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were detected. (mdpi.com)
  • Yamamura Y, Lee W, Inoue K, Ida H, Ito Y. RUNX3 cooperates with FoxO3a to induce apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. (labome.org)
  • Growth control and apoptosis in mammalian cells are highly regulated by receptor tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs), which, upon ligand-dependent activation, launch the activation of a series of downstream signal transduction pathways, including MAPKs and the cell survival-promoting protein kinase B (Akt) ( 33 , 45 ). (physiology.org)
  • Induction of Per2 expression resulted in growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and loss of clonogenic ability. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Low-concentrations of MTX achieve apoptosis and clonal deletion of activated peripheral T cells. (springer.com)
  • Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) plays an important role in diverse biological functions, including cell development, differentiation, transformation, growth and apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • We found MTX could induce caspase-dependent apoptosis and promote ROS generation together with disrupting the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ) of HL-60 and Jurkat T cells. (springer.com)
  • Overexpressed ODC cells are resistant to MTX-induced apoptosis by reducing intracellular ROS production. (springer.com)
  • Barry MA, Behnke CA, Eastman A. Activation of programmed cell death (apoptosis) by cisplatin, other anticancer drugs, toxins and hyperthermia. (springer.com)
  • Involvement of the CD95 (APO-1/FAS) receptor/ligand system in drug-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. (springer.com)
  • da Silva CP, de Oliveira CR, da Conceicao M, de Lima P. Apoptosis as a mechanism of cell death induced by different chemotherapeutic drugs in human leukemic T-lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Drug-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells is mediated by the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) receptor/ligand system and involves activation of wild-type p53. (springer.com)
  • Immunosuppressive properties of methotrexate: apoptosis and clonal deletion of activated peripheral T cells. (springer.com)
  • Upon infection of vertebrate cells in continuous culture, the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) initiates apoptosis and IFN synthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Small interfering RNA suppression of PKR levels in NIH-3T3 cells also reduced virus production and apoptosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Note: Invitrogen Lipofectamine Transfection Reagent Protocols have been optimized for efficiency, viability, and reproducibility across a broad range of cell types. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cells have now lost their contact inhibition. (abcam.com)
  • RESULTS: Expression of Rac1 or RhoG modulated the saturation density to which the cells grew, probably by affecting the level of contact inhibition. (cnrs.fr)
  • Direct force probe reveals the mechanics of nuclear homeostasis in the mammalian cell. (umassmed.edu)
  • An apparently pure nuclear fraction prepared from NIH 3T3 cells was found to contain 25-30% of the total membrane-associated protein kinase C activity when isolated in the presence of Ca 2+ . (aacrjournals.org)
  • In untreated control cells, most of this activity found with the nuclear fraction can be extracted by chelators. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, TPA treatment of HL-60 cells does not enhance the amount of protein kinase C found tightly associated with the nuclear fraction. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We found that hypoosmolarity (cell swelling at 211 mosM) induced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of ERK1/2, most likely via a pathway independent of PDGFR-β and MEK1/2. (physiology.org)
  • Conversely, hyperosmolarity (cell shrinkage at 582 mosM) moved nuclear and phosphorylated ERK1/2 to the cytoplasm and induced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p38 and phosphorylation of JNK1/2. (physiology.org)
  • Nuclear areas covered by "condensed" chromatin, which were abundant in untreated controls, appeared reduced in VPA- and TSA-treated cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • White arrows point out cells with nuclear Aid and nuclear Cyclin B1, crimson arrows reveal a cell with cytoplasmic Aid and nuclear cyclin B1, yellow arrows point out a mobile with cytoplasmic Support and cytoplasmic cyclin B1. (signsin1dayinc.com)
  • D) Quantification of cells with nuclear cyclin B1, nuclear Aid, or the two. (signsin1dayinc.com)
  • White arrows show cells with nuclear Aid. (signsin1dayinc.com)
  • D) Quantification 16291771 of cells revealed in C with nuclear Aid below various drug treatments. (signsin1dayinc.com)
  • E) Assist nuclear localisation with rising etoposide focus, cells handled as in C. Error bars represent s.e., p0.05 for Student's t-examination, n=3 samples per drug therapy other than n=2 for 20 etoposide and n=5 for two hundred etoposide, one hundred cells ended up counted in each and every sample. (signsin1dayinc.com)
  • This suggests that cells exposed to alpha-amanitin are able to complete their cell cycle because sufficiently high levels of mRNA are present in S/G2 due to basal level transcription, or are left from preceding cell cycles. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite the significant difference in eIF-5A protein amounts, the eIF-5A mRNA levels in 3T3 cells and in Ras-3T3 cells are almost identical. (nih.gov)
  • We found that OPN is induced in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and in NIH3T3 cells by hypoxia at both mRNA and protein levels in a time-dependent manner. (elsevier.com)
  • GAPD mRNA levels were quantified using real-time RT-PCR in NIH3T3 cells transfected with siRNAs targeting GAPD or non-silencing siRNA. (altogen.com)
  • Forty-eight hours post-transfection, the cells were harvested and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR for GAPDH mRNA expression levels. (altogen.com)
  • Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park 16802. (asm.org)
  • Enrichment for metallothionein does not confer resistance to cisplatin in transfected NIH/3T3 cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Despite large differences between the two types of cells in their cellular content of metallothionein and in their resistance to the toxicity of cadmium, no differences in resistance to cisplatin were observed. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Conventional tissue culture is carried out on 2D surfaces without scope for cells to adopt natural morphologies or to communicate efficiently with their neighbors. (dovepress.com)
  • 3 Although there are a variety of technologies available that enable 3D cell growth, most of these have been developed for transplantation purposes and tissue engineering in vivo. (dovepress.com)
  • It is thus likely that cell swelling via activation of ERK1/2 and cell shrinkage via activation of the p38 and JNK pathway and inhibition of the PDGFR signaling pathway may act as key players in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. (physiology.org)
  • It has become clear, however, that the susceptibility of cells to infection with TSE agents cannot be reliably predicted either from their tissue of origin or level of expression of PrP C ( 11 , 12 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, even though cell or tissue culture methods may reduce the number of experiments performed on intact animals, the maintenance of cells in culture normally requires the use of animal-derived serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bioengineered dermis was constructed with NGF -expressing micorencapsules as seed cells using tissue engineering method . (bvsalud.org)
  • An increasing number of investigations are using live-cell imaging techniques to provide critical insight into the fundamental nature of cellular and tissue function, especially due to the rapid advances that are currently being witnessed in fluorescent protein and synthetic fluorophore technology. (microscopyu.com)
  • Maintaining living cells in a healthy state on the microscope stage is undoubtedly the most critical aspect for any live-cell imaging investigation and generally requires a combination of mechanical ingenuity along with keen insight into the biology of the cell or tissue being studied. (microscopyu.com)
  • Annexin A8 is a novel molecular marker for detecting lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (cancerindex.org)
  • Cervical lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but its accurate assessment after sentinel node biopsy or neck dissection is often limited to the histopathological examination of only one or two sections. (cancerindex.org)
  • The toxicity of cisplatin was compared in NIH/3T3 cells that vary in their content of metallothionein as a consequence of transfection with a plasmid that results in the constitutive expression of metallothionein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In experimental and spontaneous metastasis assays, Metmu or HMH cells metastasize to the lung, but lower numbers of subcutaneously injected Metmu and HMH cells produced invasive tumors in the heart, diaphragm, salivary gland, and retroperitoneum. (pnas.org)
  • To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, we've highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. (thermofisher.com)
  • Because of these advances, live-cell imaging has become a requisite analytical tool in most cell biology laboratories, as well as a routine methodology that is practiced in the wide ranging fields of neurobiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and many other related biomedical research disciplines. (microscopyu.com)
  • Notwithstanding this supportive role for GLI-dependent transcription, it was not fully understood whether ZIC plays an independent role in cancer cell biology. (cancerindex.org)
  • Homocysteine and alpha-lipoic acid regulate p44/42 MAP kinase phosphorylation in NIH/3T3 cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cells grown in serum-containing media had constitutive levels of MAPK phosphorylation as determined by Western blot analysis using the phospho-specific MAPK antibody. (nih.gov)
  • Treatment of cells with 20 microM Hcy for 0-60 min resulted in a transient enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of alphaLA appears to be serum-dependent because Hcy or alphaLA treatment of serum-deprived cells activated MAPK phosphorylation. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, alphaLA and Hcy can either induce common signal transduction pathways or differentially modulate MAPK phosphorylation, depending on the state of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • These observations may underlie reported effects of active PAK on cells, including histone H3 phosphorylation, alterations in centrosome number, and progression through mitosis. (labome.org)
  • Reorganization of actomyosin is an essential process for cell migration and myosin regulatory light chain (MLC 20 ) phosphorylation plays a key role in this process. (rupress.org)
  • and (c) disruption of ZIP kinase expression by RNA interference diminished myosin phosphorylation, and resulted in the defect of cell polarity and migration efficiency. (rupress.org)
  • It is likely that Thr18 phosphorylation of MLC 20 plays a more significant role in nonmuscle cells where the polymerization-depolymerization of myosin is thought to be dynamically regulated. (rupress.org)
  • Because the assembly and the motor activity of myosin II is regulated by MLC 20 phosphorylation, the localization of phosphorylated MLC 20 would reflect the distribution of activated phosphorylated myosin II in motile cells. (rupress.org)
  • That osmotic stress activates MAPKs was first described in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( 28 ) and later also in mammalian cells ( 67 ). (physiology.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Ras-mediated transformation of mammalian cells has been shown to activate multiple signalling pathways, including those involving mitogen-activated protein kinases and the small GTPase Rho. (cnrs.fr)
  • The role of alkylation of the A3 position of adenine in the cytotoxicity of alkylating agents in mammalian cells is still undefined. (elsevier.com)
  • Hypusine formation on the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) precursor is ubiquitously present in eukaryotic cells and archebacteria. (nih.gov)
  • v) in the event that no such increase is measured or observed, repeat steps (ii), (iii), and (iv) as needed, to determine the presence or absence of respiring eukaryotic cells in said solution. (google.com)
  • All prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells secrete, in an evolutionary conserved way, extracellular vesicles (EVs), i.e., membrane-derived nano- and microvesicles [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Although all three GTPases were required for cell transformation mediated by Ras but not by constitutively active Raf, the selective activation of each GTPase was not sufficient to induce the formation of foci. (cnrs.fr)
  • We have previously shown that retinoic acid (RA) fails to induce transglutaminase C in H-ras transformed NIH-3T3 cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Although inactive in endogenous transglutaminase induction, H-ras cell-associated RA was shown to be biologically available to induce activation of a reporter construct containing a retinoid response element and in stimulating trans glutaminase activity in nontransfected cells. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, the cells should be imaged with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution in a manner that does not induce phototoxicity or perturb localization of the fluorescent probes. (microscopyu.com)
  • The PP2A involves the growth factor of the cell such as to induce the formation of mitogen-activated protein interaction and playing a role in cell division and signal transduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stable cell clones were isolated after cotransfection with pSV2neo. (lu.se)
  • RUNX2 and TAZ-dependent signaling pathways regulate soluble E-Cadherin levels and tumorsphere formation in breast cancer cells. (labome.org)
  • High-dose consolidation therapy with autologous stem-cell rescue in stage IV breast cancer: follow-up report. (springer.com)
  • NIH 3T3 Cells" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • These findings have raised a hypothesis that myosin II can be phosphorylated by various protein kinases in cells by diverse stimulations. (rupress.org)
  • In addition we show that transient activation of the MAPK pathway is sufficient to drive chronic cell-cycle progression. (biochemj.org)
  • HDACi-induced depletion of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) from NIH 3T3 cells was investigated by immunocytochemistry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Jurkat lymphoid cells, riboflavin depletion has an inhibitory effect on cell viability (13). (deepdyve.com)
  • Viability-reducing activity of Coryllus avellana L. extracts against human cancer cell lines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Test, approved by the OECD, detects the viability of 3T3 cells after exposure to a chemical in the presence or absence of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • For comparison, in quiescent cells, all four of the inhibitors of cell cycle progression tested (anti-Ras, anti-cyclin D1, serum removal, and cycloheximide) became ineffective at essentially the same point in G 1 phase, approximately 4 h prior to the beginning of DNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, in quiescent cells the restriction point is identical to the G 1 arrest point induced by other conditions, including protein synthesis inhibitors and amino acid deprivation ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Importantly, these late-stage defects can be rescued by fusing HIV-1-infected rodent cells to uninfected human cells ( 4 , 25 ), suggesting that they are the consequence of a lack of necessary factors rather than the presence of dominant inhibitors of late HIV-1 replication steps in rodents. (asm.org)