Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.6-Phytase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Polygalacturonase: A cell wall-degrading enzyme found in microorganisms and higher plants. It catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. EC A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Glycoside HydrolasesIndustrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha- or beta-xylosidic linkages. EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the endo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages; EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans; and EC catalyzes the exo-hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-linkages from the non-reducing termini of xylans. Other xylosidases have been identified that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-xylosidic bonds.Xylans: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Mycobacillin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic isolated from culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis that acts as an antifungal agent.XyloseSpores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Endo-1,4-beta Xylanases: Enzymes which catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in XYLANS.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases: Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Ochratoxins: Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Isomaltose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.ArabinoseCellulase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sorbic Acid: Mold and yeast inhibitor. Used as a fungistatic agent for foods, especially cheeses.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Atropa belladonna: A plant species of the genus ATROPA, family SOLANACEAE that contains ATROPINE; SCOPOLAMINE; BELLADONNA ALKALOIDS and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for SOLANUM.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases: Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Oxalic Acid: A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.beta-Mannosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-mannose residues in beta-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the lysosomal degradation of the N-glycosylprotein glycans. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme in humans result in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease BETA-MANNOSIDOSIS.Trisaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Peptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, upper respiratory tract, and large intestine in humans. Its organisms cause infections of soft tissues and bacteremias.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.alpha-Galactosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-galactosides including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactolipids.PolysaccharidesKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Fumonisins: A group of MYCOTOXINS found in CORN contaminated with FUSARIUM fungus. They are chains of about 20 carbons with acidic ester, acetylamino and sometimes other substituents. They inhibit ceramide synthetase conversion of SPHINGOLIPIDS to CERAMIDES.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).Radioallergosorbent Test: An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glucosidases: Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.Hypocrea: A genus of fungus in the family Hypocreaceae, order HYPOCREALES. Anamorphs include TRICHODERMA.Mannitol Dehydrogenases: Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases that have specificity for MANNITOL. Enzymes in this category are generally classified according to their preference for a specific reducing cofactor.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Epichlorohydrin: A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Acetate-CoA Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CoA derivatives from ATP, acetate, and CoA to form AMP, pyrophosphate, and acetyl CoA. It acts also on propionates and acrylates. EC Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Dihydroxyacetone: A ketotriose compound. Its addition to blood preservation solutions results in better maintenance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during storage. It is readily phosphorylated to dihydroxyacetone phosphate by triokinase in erythrocytes. In combination with naphthoquinones it acts as a sunscreening agent.Laccase: A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Nitrophenylgalactosides: Includes ortho-, meta-, and para-nitrophenylgalactosides.Endosulfan: A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Pyrones: Keto-pyrans.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Aconitic AcidGluconatesCassia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Datura stramonium: A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Financial Audit: An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments and thus effect whitening.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Phosphorus, Dietary: Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pentoses: A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.Helleborus: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain hellebrin (BUFANOLIDES). The extract is the basis of Boicil preparation used to treat rheumatism.ThioglucosidesSugar AcidsAspartic Acid Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary: Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.Raphanus: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for its peppery red root.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Coumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Schistosoma haematobium: A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Terphenyl Compounds: Compounds consisting of benzene rings linked to each other in either ortho, meta or para positions. Permitted are any substitutions, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Oxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Naphthacenes: Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.TriazolesTamarindus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE known for its sour fruit.PropaneSolanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Sorbitol: A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Mannosidases: Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.CinnamatesMetabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Phanerochaete: A genus of fungi in the family Corticiaceae, order Stereales, that degrades lignin. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a frequently used species in research.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Epoxide Hydrolases: Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.

Donor funding for health reform in Africa: is non-project assistance the right prescription? (1/136)

During the past 10 years, donors have recognized the need for major reforms to achieve sustainable development. Using non-project assistance they have attempted to leverage reforms by offering financing conditioned on the enactment of reform. The experience of USAID's health reform programmes in Niger and Nigeria suggest these programmes have proved more difficult to implement than expected. When a country has in place a high level of fiscal accountability and high institutional capacity, programmes of conditioned non-project assistance may be more effective in achieving reforms than traditional project assistance. However, when these elements are lacking, as they were in Niger, non-project assistance offers nothing inherently superior than traditional project assistance. Non-project assistance may be most effective for assisting the implementation of policy reforms adopted by the host government.  (+info)

The impact of alternative cost recovery schemes on access and equity in Niger. (2/136)

The authors examine accessibility and the sustainability of quality health care in a rural setting under two alternative cost recovery methods, a fee-for-service method and a type of social financing (risk-sharing) strategy based on an annual tax+fee-for-service. Both methods were accompanied by similar interventions aimed at improving the quality of primary health services. Based on pilot tests of cost recovery in the non-hospital sector in Niger, the article presents results from baseline and final survey data, as well as from facility utilization, cost, and revenue data collected in two test districts and a control district. Cost recovery accompanied by quality improvements increases equity and access to health care and the type of cost recovery method used can make a difference. In Niger, higher access for women, children, and the poor resulted from the tax+fee method, than from the pure fee-for-service method. Moreover, revenue generation per capita under the tax+fee method was two times higher than under the fee-for-service method, suggesting that the prospects of sustainability were better under the social financing strategy. However, sustainability under cost recovery and improved quality depends as much on policy measures aimed at cost containment, particularly for drugs, as on specific cost recovery methods.  (+info)

Protecting the poor under cost recovery: the role of means testing. (3/136)

In African health sectors, the importance of protecting the very poor has been underscored by increased reliance on user fees to help finance services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the role means testing can play in promoting equity under health care cost recovery. Means testing is placed in the broader context of targeting and contrasted with other mechanisms. Criteria for evaluating outcomes are established and used to analyze previous means testing experience in Africa. A survey of experience finds a general pattern of informal, low-accuracy, low-cost means testing in Africa. Detailed household data from a recent cost recovery experiment in Niger, West Africa, provides an unusual opportunity to observe outcomes of a characteristically informal means testing system. Findings from Niger suggest that achieving both the revenue raising and equity potential of cost recovery in sub-Saharan Africa will require finding ways to improve informal means testing processes.  (+info)

Improving quality through cost recovery in Niger. (4/136)

New evidence on the quality of health care from public services in Niger is discussed in terms of the relationships between quality, costs, cost-effectiveness and financing. Although structural attributes of quality appeared to improve with the pilot project in Niger, significant gaps in the implementation of diagnostic and treatment protocols were observed, particularly in monitoring vital signs, diagnostic examination and provider-patient communications. Quality improvements required significant investments in both fixed and variable costs; however, many of these costs were basic input requirements for operation. It is likely that optimal cost-effectiveness of services was not achieved because of the noted deficiencies in quality. In the test district of Boboye, the revenues from the copayments alone covered about 34% of the costs of medicines or about 20% of costs of drugs and administration. In Say, user fees covered about 50-55% of the costs of medicines or 35-40% of the amount spent on medicines and cost-recovery administration. In Boboye, taxes plus the additional copayments covered 120-180% of the cost of medicines, or 75-105% of the cost of medicines plus administration of cost recovery. Decentralized management and legal conditions in the pilot districts appeared to provide the necessary structure to ensure that the revenues and taxes collected would be channelled to pay for quality improvements.  (+info)

Increasing the utilization of cost-effective health services through changes in demand. (5/136)

Attaining efficiency in a health care system with a budget constraint involves increasing the utilization of the most cost-effective services. This can be achieved by adjustments to prices, cost curves, or demand curves. In this paper, the potential for demand curve adjustments is examined by selecting two apparently cost-effective services (prenatal care and childhood immunization against tuberculosis), and analyzing the factors explaining their utilization. Data from recent household surveys in Burkina Faso and Niger are used. A multivariate analysis of utilization employs income, price, and taste variables. Utilization is highly sensitive to the distance which must be travelled to the health facility, a price, and taste variables. Utilization is highly sensitive to the distance which must be travelled to the health facility, a price variable. Members of certain ethnic groups tend to use the services less, other things being equal. The importance of demand-side factors like ethnicity points to certain kinds of policy interventions like information, education and communication activities which could increase the utilization of cost-effective services.  (+info)


esearch note: does cost recovery for curative care affect preventive care utilization?  (+info)

User fees and patient behaviour: evidence from Niamey National Hospital. (7/136)

Evidence is presented on the effects of price changes on the delay before seeking care and on referral status in a sample of hospital patients in Niger. Price changes are measured as differences across patients at one hospital in whether or not they pay for care, rather than as differences in prices across several hospitals. User fees are charged, but the fee system allows exemptions for some payor categories such as government employees, students, and indigent patients. Evidence is also presented on the effect of income on the delay before seeking care and referral status. The analysis demonstrates a technical point on whether household consumption or current income is a more appropriate measure of income. The analysis shows that user fees affect patient behaviour, but the effects are not the same for outpatients and inpatients. Outpatients who pay for care wait longer before seeking care, but inpatients do not. Inpatients who pay for care are more likely to be referred, but outpatients are not. Patients with more income wait less time to seek care and are less likely to be referred than other patients. Further, household consumption explains patient behaviour better than current income.  (+info)

Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in Niamey, Niger, 1981-96. (8/136)

In the African meningitis belt the importance of endemic meningitis is not as well recognized as that of epidemics of meningococcal meningitis that occur from time to time. Using retrospective surveillance, we identified a total of 7078 cases of laboratory-diagnosed bacterial meningitis in Niamey, Niger, from 1981 to 1996. The majority (57.7%) were caused by Neisseria meningitidis, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (13.2%) and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) (9.5%). The mean annual incidence of bacterial meningitis was 101 per 100,000 population (70 per 100,000 during 11 non-epidemic years) and the average annual mortality rate was 17 deaths per 100,000. Over a 7-year period (including one major epidemic year) for which data were available, S. pneumoniae and Hib together caused more meningitis deaths than N. meningitidis. Meningitis cases were more common among males and occurred mostly during the dry season. Serogroup A caused 85.6% of meningococcal meningitis cases during the period investigated; three-quarters of these occurred among children aged < 15 years, and over 40% among under-5-year-olds. Both incidence and mortality rates were highest among infants aged < 1 year. In this age group, Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, followed by S. pneumoniae. The predominant cause of meningitis in persons aged 1-40 years was N. meningitidis. Use of the available vaccines against meningitis due to N. meningitidis, S. pneumoniae, and Hib could prevent substantial endemic illness and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa, and potentially prevent recurrent meningococcal epidemics.  (+info)

  • This entry was posted in All English language scribblings , Blog shots / Breves del blog and tagged Africa , Niger . (
  • With we help you find the best hotels in Niamey, Niger. (
  • NIAMEY, Niger - Niger will not extradite Saadi Khadafy even though the son of the slain Libyan leader violated his asylum conditions with "subversive" comments in a television interview, officials said Saturday. (
  • NIAMEY, Niger, The harvest and pastoral season in late 2010 has not yielded positive nutritional results for children in Niger, as expected, with more than 15 children in 100 still suffering from acute malnutrition as shown by the National Nutrition Survey, conducted in June 2011 and released by mid-July by the National Institute of Statistics. (
  • Contact the U.S. Embassy in Niamey , Rue des Ambassades, Niamey, Niger, at +227-20-72-26-61, Monday through Thursday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. and on Fridays from 8:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. (
  • Organizers said that as many as 2,000 people took part in the march, which came as state-controlled Areva was locked in negotiations with President Mahamadou Issofou's government over new 10-year contracts for its two mines in Niger. (
  • But France's Areva, which has operated two uranium mines in Niger, Somair and Cominak, for 40 years, is dragging its feet on complying with the new legislation. (
  • The push by Niamey to renegotiate the agreements that tie Niger to French nuclear giant Areva is rekindling tensions around President Mahamadou Issoufou. (
  • The mining agreements of its affiliates in Niger, Somair and Cominak, run out on December 31 and the French nuclear energy group must renew them by then. (
  • Only 27 percent of Niger s mothers exclusively breastfeed their children up to six months according to the latest child survival survey conducted in 2010. (
  • The secretary general condemns the coup d\'etat that took place in Niger' and 'appeals for calm and for the respect of the rule of law and of the human rights of all Nigerians,' his office said in a statement issued Friday. (
  • Earlier Friday, Niger\'s new military rulers had lifted the curfew declared just hours after Thursday\'s coup, in which at least three soldiers died. (
  • We have condemned the coup and imposed sanctions on Niger: Niger is suspended from all activities of the AU,' said Mull Sebujja Katende, who presides over the African Union\'s peace and security council. (
  • Our 2010 constitution gives the Niger people exclusive ownership of natural resources," said Ali Idrissa, coordinator of transparency campaigner ROTAB, which organized the protest. (
  • The body also called for Niger to revert to the constitution in place before last August\'s controversial referendum that allowed Tandja to stay in office, potentially for life. (
  • In 2006 it launched a programme of support for the incorporation of international humanitarian law in Niger army operations. (
  • The prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) among children under five years old in Niger is back to the same levels experienced in June 2009 that is at 12.3 percent, registering a decrease of more than three points (16.7%) from the last survey conducted in November 2010. (
  • Like many African nations in recent years, Niger modified its mining legislation in 2006 to increase the revenue it earns from the extraction industry. (
  • The government of Niger and its partners called on the international community to intensify its mobilization efforts to curb alarming levels of child malnutrition and its structural and underlying causes. (
  • While the scaling up health centres networks and that of hospitals has stabilized the nutritional status of children, it is far from enough: Each week, thousands of sick children flood the existing health centres available throughout the country which is proof that underlying causes of malnutrition in Niger should be seriously dealt with, concluded Dr Gu ro. (
  • The TNC requests to the government of Niger to immediately hand over Saadi and other fugitives to the Libyan authorities to maintain its interests and relations with the Libyan people," spokesman Mohamed Nasr al Harizi said in a statement Saturday. (
  • Niger\'s military junta meanwhile authorised free movement in and out of the country after capturing the president and sacking his government. (
  • Paris, Niamey, 24 October 2007 Niger: Executions and forced disappearances follow army reprisals, 3 April 2008. (
  • MANGAIZE and NIAMEY, Niger, 19 June 2013 - As conflict in northern Mali escalated, Fadimata Agali, 15, was forced to flee her home in Menaka, leaving family and friends behind. (
  • NIAMEY, Niger, 17 April 2013 - A few hundred metres from the banks of the mighty Niger River, where the routines of fishers and farmers continue as they have for centuries, a modest factory is transforming how this West African nation responds to the threat of malnutrition. (
  • NIAMEY (Reuters) - Benin, Niger and Togo have all formally recognized Libya's rebels, breaking ranks with the African Union which said on Friday it could not recognize the rebel National Transitional Council (NTC) until fighting had ended. (
  • The government of Niger, a southern neighbor of Libya which has long had ties with Tripoli, issued a statement on Saturday formally recognizing the rebels, days after pro-rebel officials took control of the embassy in its capital, Niamey. (
  • Since escaping Libya in 2011, he had been held under house arrest in the Niger capital Niamey. (
  • This is the main international gateway for Niger, located in the nation's capital city, Niamey. (
  • Unless arriving in Niger from another African destination, you are most likely to be using this airport via a domestic flight from Niamey. (
  • NIAMEY, Niger - French President Emmanuel Macron promised more than 400 million euros ($474 million) in aid over four years to Niger during a visit and told the country's president he was ready to strengthen France's presence in the Sahel. (
  • The southern Dosso region is worst hit, but in the capital Niamey, the Niger river has burst its banks and flooded a good portion of the city. (
  • NIAMEY , Jul 30 2013 (IPS) - For El Hadji Souley Moussa, a 60-year-old retired bank employee in Niger, "marrying off a daughter when she is young is a source of great pride. (
  • The ICRC carries out its work in Niger through its regional delegation in Niamey. (
  • With we help you find the best hotels in Niamey, Niger. (
  • The Niger River, with a total length of about 4100 km, is the third-longest river in Africa, after the Nile and the Congo/Zaire Rivers, and the longest and largest river in West Africa. (
  • The U.S. has a trade and investment framework agreement with the Economic Community of West Africa, of which Niger is a member. (
  • Mali and Niger, countries in West Africa, ranked sixth and eighth in the number of reported cases of dracunculiasis (i.e. (
  • Editorial Note: Mali and Niger are part of the core area of West Africa where dracunculiasis is endemic. (
  • A solar-powered base station for mobile phones links the village of Tchintaborak, the Republic of Niger, West Africa to the world via satellite. (
  • Islamic State has credited its West Africa affiliate for killing six French aid workers and their Nigerien guide and driver at a giraffe reserve in Niger on Aug. 9, according to a statement published by the SITE Intelligence Group on Thursday. (
  • He spoke as relief agencies flocked to Niger, a vast landlocked country of 12 million people in West Africa, in response to a food crisis. (
  • The French president visited Niger on Friday and Saturday, wanting to encourage Niger's growing military efforts to fight terrorism in West Africa. (
  • Bombino is a guitarist from Niger in West Africa. (
  • Niger, one of Africa's poorest nations, is having to cope with the return of more than 210,000 Nigerien migrant workers who had been in Libya before the conflict started. (
  • Niger sources said Saadi was spirited into Libya on board a Libyan plane overnight, accompanied by Libyan security agents. (
  • Political analyst Khalid al-Tarjaman said Libya had convinced Niger that Saadi's presence was giving a boost to Gaddafi loyalists in Libya's volatile south whom Tripoli has accused of provoking clashes in the main city Sabha in January. (
  • Tarjaman said Saadi's expulsion from Niger might help Libya persuade other countries such as Egypt or Tunisia to extradite Gaddafi relatives and former top officials. (
  • African migrants travel through Niger and Libya in the hopes of making it to Europe, and many die in the vast desert. (
  • In September, the US announced it would open a second drone base in central Niger, where it could track extremists in Mali and Libya more effectively. (
  • Niger is a major transit country for migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees expelled from Algeria, returned from Libya or traveling north to Europe. (
  • Tripoli - Libya on Tuesday repatriated nearly 200 illegal migrants from Niger who had been held in detention centres in the capital, an AFP photographer said. (
  • A diary from the world's poorest country, Niger: Day Three - Dabaga. (
  • In 2011 the United Nations Children's Fund State of the World's Children report ranked Niger first on its list of countries with a high prevalence of early marriages. (
  • Niger-with the world's fastest growing population, its highest total fertility rate (TFR), a small and diminishing amount of arable land, low annual rainfall, a high level of malnutrition, extremely low levels of education, gross gender inequities and an uncertain future in the face of climate change-is the most extreme example of a catastrophe that is likely to overtake the Sahel. (
  • Rated by the United Nations as one of the world's least developed nations, Niger faces serious challenges to development due to its landlocked position, poor health infrastructure, and periodic drought and desertification. (
  • The Niger-Congo languages are the world's third largest language family in terms of number of speakers and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages. (
  • these countries are jointly attempting to stop its overexploitation , which is causing not only lowering of ground water levels but also the reduction of storage in the Lake Chad and perennial flows of the Niger River on which wildlife of the country is largely dependent. (
  • Algeria and Chad together cover about 9% of the total Niger River basin, but there are almost no renewable water resources in these areas. (
  • The Ténéré is a region in the south-central Sahara desert consisting of a vast plain of sand that stretches from northeastern Niger into western Chad. (
  • In Niger, the situation became increasingly unstable and violent in 2019, leading to further population displacements, particularly in the Lake Chad area. (
  • Boko Haram members have repeatedly struck Diffa in neighboring Niger over the past year because Niger's military is among those taking part in a regional effort to defeat the extremists. (
  • 27/07/2012 - The Diffa region to the far south-east of Niger is one of the areas most affected by cycles of drought, characterized especially by dune encroachment, increased silting in agricultural and stock breeding areas and a steady deterio. (
  • Further downstream the river becomes the border between Niger and Benin, from where three main tributaries enter the river (Mekrou, Alibori, Sota) with a total annual discharge of about 3 km 3 . (
  • The term "Lower Niger Bronze Industry" has been used by art historians to classify ancient copper-alloy sculpture discovered in the area of the Niger Valley that could not be traced directly to the famous metalworking centers of Benin and Ife. (
  • Lower Niger Bronze Industry works show stylistic affinities with works from Benin and Ife. (
  • The government in Niger realized that Saadi's presence was the main source for tensions in Libya's south, which is also affecting Niger's sovereignty," he said. (
  • This is due among other reasons to the enormous reduction in runoff in the inner delta in Mali through seepage and evaporation combined with almost no runoff from the whole of the left bank in Mali and Niger. (
  • All the water from the Bani tributary, which flows into the Niger River at Mopti (at 1150 km), does not compensate for the 'losses' in the inner delta, as the total flow further downstream still decreases rather than increases (Figure 13). (
  • From the inner delta the river continues to flow north-eastwards before turning south-east to form a great bend, the Niger Loop. (
  • The name is thus thought to be indigenous, but no convincing origin has been found among the 30 languages of the Niger delta and lower reaches of the river. (
  • MEND's attacks involve substantially more sophisticated tactics than those of previous militant groups in the Niger Delta. (
  • From the point of view of MEND, and its supporters, the people of the Niger Delta have suffered an unprecedented degradation of their environment due to unchecked pollution produced by the oil industry. (
  • Niger has not yet begun monthly reporting of cases but has recorded a provisional total of 16,231 cases for 1993. (
  • Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. (
  • Not until 1993, 35 years after independence from France, did Niger hold its first free and open elections. (
  • Macron announced bilateral aid amounting to more than 400 million euros to Niger for 2017 to 2021 that will go toward security, development and democracy projects. (
  • French Prime Minister Jean Castex arrives to attend a ceremony in tribute to the six humanitarian aid workers from the French NGO Acted killed in an attack in Niger, at an airport lounge transformed into a funeral home at the Orly Airport, south of Paris, on August 14, 2020. (
  • Click on the first link on a line below to go directly to a page where "republic of niger" is defined. (
  • While meeting with Issoufou on Tuesday, Premier Li Keqiang said that China would like to offer a hand to Niger for the country's economic development and the improvement of people's lives. (
  • Laura Rozen's story in the American Prospect today, about Italian intelligence and Niger uranium forgeries, has a lot of twists and turns, but here's the quick version. (
  • In late 2001 the CIA had rejected as "suspect" memos peddled by Italian intelligence, SISMI, that suggested that Iraq was trying to acquire uranium from Niger. (
  • That direct White House channel amplifies questions about a now-infamous 16-word reference to the Niger uranium in President Bush's 2003 State of the Union address - which remained in the speech despite warnings from the CIA and the State Department that the allegation was not substantiated. (
  • Greenpeace reports that high radiation levels have been found on the streets of Akokan in Niger due to its proximity to uranium mines owned by Areva. (
  • But Iraq did try to buy uranium in Niger. (
  • Sorry everyone, but Iraq did go uranium shopping in Niger. (
  • In February 1999, Zahawie left his Vatican office for a few days and paid an official visit to Niger, a country known for absolutely nothing except its vast deposits of uranium ore . (
  • It was from Niger that Iraq had originally acquired uranium in 1981, as confirmed in the Duelfer Report. (
  • For a start, someone produced a fake document, dated July 6, 2000, which purports to show Zahawie's signature and diplomatic seal on an actual agreement for an Iraqi uranium transaction with Niger. (
  • In consequence, IAEA Chairman Mohammed ElBaradei later reported to the U.N. Security Council that the papers alleging an Iraq-Niger uranium connection had been demonstrated to be fraudulent. (
  • Despite the drought, Kountche led Niger into becoming a model of sensible development and survival, using one of its chief resources, uranium, for income. (
  • It is the busiest airport serving Niger, with annual passenger traffic just short of 100,000 people, although the airport is also shared by the Niger Air Force, who use the runway and ground control facilities, so the complex is quite large. (
  • According to the Ministry of Public Health's 2011 survey, the rate of maternal mortality in Niger is 554 deaths per 100,000 live births - among the highest in the world. (
  • The area of the Niger River basin in Guinea is only 4% of the total area of the basin, but the sources of the Niger River are located in this country. (
  • U.S. foreign assistance to Niger plays a critical role in preserving stability in a country vulnerable to political volatility, terrorism, the spread of violent extremism, food insecurity, and regional instability. (
  • But with the tsunami still dominating world attention, nobody responded to help Niger, a deeply impoverished country of 11.7 million. (
  • As the spotlight turned to Niger, World Food Program officials dug deeply into their emergency fund, directing $19.4 million to the country. (
  • Plan International Niger aims to position itself as a leading organisation on eradicating child marriage and promoting gender equality in the country. (
  • Niger (pronounced: nee-ZHAIR) is an arid, landlocked country of the Sahel with a population of 12 million. (
  • Niger is the second poorest country in the world. (
  • Niger denies Gaddafi is there but one high-level Libyan official was welcomed into the country earlier this week. (
  • they were not tourists killed in Niger but young people engaged in helping the people of this country. (
  • Acted has decided temporarily to suspend work in Niger but has stressed it will not pull out of the country. (
  • Although the last census reported that about 98 percent of the 17 million people living in Niger are Muslim, the country has previously been known for peaceful relations among its religious communities. (
  • How Niger is going to feed a population growing from 11 million today to 50 million in 2050 in a semi-arid country that may be facing adverse climate change is unclear. (
  • In 1991, the Ministry of Health initiated a pilot project to control dracunculiasis in Boubon, Niger (population: approximately 4500), a village in which 2700 cases had been reported that year. (
  • 5 However, according to an analysis of family planning trends in 13 West African nations (including Niger) between 1991 and 2004, contraceptive prevalence in the region increased by only 0.6% per year over that period, strongly suggesting that those UN projections are unduly optimistic. (
  • There are 136 mammal species in Niger , of which 2 are critically endangered, 2 are endangered, 9 are vulnerable, and 1 is near-threatened. (
  • One of the species listed for Niger can no longer be found in the wild. (
  • Botryllus niger is a species of tunicates in the family Styelidae . (
  • There was no immediate official comment from Niger, which Libyan analysts said had agreed to cooperate because both must worth together to try to secure their long border against weapons smugglers, militant Islamists and human traffickers. (
  • He threw out Libyan diplomats in 1981 out of fears that Col. Moammar Kadafi wanted to expand his so-called Islamic empire to include Niger. (
  • The use of surveillance drones over Niger has been a common occurrence since 2013, when the United States started the practice in an attempt to bolster French troops battling Islamist militants in neighboring Mali. (
  • Roger Niger (died 1241) was a thirteenth-century cleric who became Bishop of London. (
  • The Pentagon on Thursday provided lawmakers with a classified briefing detailing what the agency has uncovered so far in its investigation of the Niger ambush that left four US service members dead, amid swirling questions on Capitol Hill about the larger US strategy in Africa in the wake of the attack. (
  • Trump said in a news conference he had written letters to the families of four soldiers killed in an Oct. 4 ambush in Niger and planned to call them, crediting himself with taking extra steps in honoring the dead properly. (
  • This strange geography apparently came about because the Niger River is two ancient rivers joined together. (
  • Precisely how Nucera, Martino, and two employees of the Niger embassy in Rome came together sometime between 1999 and 2000 to hatch the Niger forgeries plan is still somewhat mysterious. (
  • The IMF approved a $73 million poverty reduction and growth facility for Niger in 2000 and announced $115 million in debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. (
  • ZINDER, Niger, 13 December 2013 - Zila squats down under the tree in front of her home to measure the mid-upper arm circumference of her baby daughter Mariama with a bracelet. (
  • ZINDER, Niger, 18 October 2013 - Balkissa Ado is 17 years old. (
  • And she is the first girl from her village of Garin Touji, in Zinder, in the eastern part of the Niger, who has continued her studies after primary school. (
  • A suspected Islamic extremist in southeastern Niger detonated his explosives when confronted by a policeman Sunday morning, killing the officer and wounding civilians in a town targeted numerous times by jihadists this year. (
  • French Prime Minister Jean Castex led tributes to six French aid workers killed by suspected jihadists in Niger as their bodies arrived home in Paris on Friday. (
  • Mali and Niger are almost entirely dependent on the Niger River for their water resources. (
  • Although Mali and Niger joined the campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis when fewer than 3 years remained until the target date for eradication (December 1995), both countries were successful in rapidly establishing GWEPs. (
  • To complete eradication of dracunculiasis, in 1994 health officials in Mali and Niger are planning to implement more stringent measures for case containment and begin selective use of temephos (Abate ) * to kill the copepod intermediate host of the parasite in unsafe drinking water sources of selected villages (2). (
  • The Niger River basin, located in western Africa, covers 7.5% of the continent and spreads over ten countries (Map 2 and Table 12). (
  • Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world. (
  • These political tensions mounted against a backdrop of a deteriorating security situation, as Islamic insurgent groups active in neighboring countries threatened to encroach on Niger. (
  • Emergency food aid has reached many of those who are starving in the West African nation of Niger, but the crisis is intensifying in neighboring countries. (
  • Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base, and is ranked last in the world on the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Index. (
  • 8 Niger is one of the few countries in the world with little or no overall unmet need for family planning, not because of access to contraceptive methods, but because of a strong pronatalist culture in which the desired family size is higher than the actual family size. (
  • Niger has a population of approximately 13 million inhabitants and was ranked 174 out of 177 countries by UNDP's Human Development Index in 2008. (
  • Noting that China and Niger are good friends, partners and brothers, Xi said that the two countries have enhanced mutual political trust and have achieved fruitful outcomes in practical cooperation in several areas. (
  • Learn how you can best help in Niger and other countries. (
  • Recently, violence and growing insecurity in Niger and neighboring countries have put an additional strain on the health system. (
  • When National Geographic writer Donovan Webster and his son James traveled to Niger for the annual Tuareg Festival, they had a chance to witness one of the main events first hand: riding alongside the camel races in a desert jeep. (
  • In order to take the Joseph Wilson view of this Baathist ambassadorial initiative, you have to be able to believe that Saddam Hussein's long-term main man on nuclear issues was in Niger to talk about something other than the obvious. (
  • In early 2008, Amnesty international alleged the civilian population had suffered repeated attacks by the Nigerien military, who suspect the residents of supporting Niger Movement for Justice (Mouvement des Nigériens pour la justice, MNJ) rebels in the ongoing Second Tuareg Rebellion. (
  • In 1989 (the most recent year for which passive data were available), Niger (population: 8 million) reported 288 cases of dracunculiasis to WHO. (
  • By mid-2010, Niger had an estimated population of 15.9 million and a TFR of 7.4 births per woman. (
  • The United Nations (UN) projections for Niger are similar: a population of between 47 million (TFR, 3.2) and 59.0 million (TFR, 4.2) by 2050, 3,4 reaching 98.5 million by 2100. (
  • Septimius Severus , who was proclaimed emperor by the troops of Pannonia Superior, marched east and decisively defeated Niger in the Battle of Issus (in southeast Anatolia) in the autumn of 194. (
  • In a show of support for French troops based in Niger, he brought with him the chef from the Elysee presidential palace, who oversaw a meal for the French troops in addition to American, Canadian and German forces. (
  • But Kountche at the time declined a French offer to send troops to Niger to help provide security. (
  • Over the years after independence, for conservation of wildlife, laws in the form of acts and regulations have been enacted and a large number of wildlife reserves and national parks have been established by the Government of Niger . (
  • U.S. relations with Niger since its independence have generally been close and friendly. (
  • On January 16 and 17, evangelical Christian churches in Niger were targeted in a coordinated effort that used events surrounding the Charlie Hebdo attacks in Paris as a cover. (
  • Gen. Seyni Kountche, who survived four coup attempts as president of the west African state of Niger since 1974, died today in a Paris hospital due to complications from a brain tumor, the hospital said. (
  • Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law See Niger River . (
  • Conservation of wildlife is ensured by laws and regulations enacted by the Government of Niger , which has enforced a permanent ban on hunting so that animals such as lions, hippos and giraffes are safe in the wild. (
  • The struggle to meet the security challenges that surround Niger has served as an alibi for the government to restrict freedoms and civil liberties. (
  • The government of Niger, in turn, has asserted that the food shortage was merely a manifestation of chronic poverty. (
  • The government initially favored offering subsidized food, fearing free handouts would undermine markets and a long-term goal to lift Niger out of poverty. (
  • No fewer than thirty-six communities have been submerged by flood in Lapai Local government areas of Niger state. (
  • The government of Niger recommends vaccine for travelers departing Niger. (
  • In 2009, a coup d'état toppled the elected government, and Niger is currently controlled by a military junta. (
  • "The US government is working closely with the government of Niger to secure the scene and mitigate inconveniences caused by the incident," the statement read, as quoted by AFP. (
  • Completion of training of village-based health workers for all villages in Niger with endemic disease is projected in early 1994. (
  • In 1994, World Vision came to Niger with the objective of establishing longer-term community based projects focused on health, education and the protection of children, as well as responding to emergency food needs when necessary. (
  • Dabaga is a town in the Agadez Region of northern Niger. (
  • AGADEZ, Niger, 18 August 2014 - Mahamadou Mala Saley is 12 years old. (
  • Like many other children living on the streets of Agadez, an historic city in northern Niger, Shaolingue is monitored by local office of the Educational, Preventive and Judiciary Service. (
  • UNICEF News item 24 April 2007 REPUBLIQUE DU NIGER, Loi n° 2002-014 du 11 JUIN 2002: portant création des communes et fixant le nom de leurs chefs-lieux[permanent dead link]. (
  • WV Niger programming is funded through Child Sponsorship and Private Non-Sponsorship Awards (PNS) comprised approximately 71% and 2% respectively of the FY14 budget for WVN with the remainder 27% being supplied by Grant Awards from various governments and multilateral structures including World Food Program, WHO, and UNICEF. (
  • TRIPOLI (Reuters) - Muammar Gaddafi's son Saadi, his special forces commander who fled abroad during Libya's 2011 revolution, was imprisoned in Tripoli on Thursday after Niger agreed to send him back from house arrest there. (
  • Macron spoke alongside President Issoufou Mahamadou Saturday after the two met to discuss the fight against extremism, migration and development in Niger. (
  • Late Friday, Macron visited and dined with soldiers stationed in Niger who are fighting against extremism in the Sahel, reassuring them that France wouldn't abandon the region to extremists. (
  • The Tenere occupies much of southeastern Niger and is considered to be part of the larger Sahara Desert, which stretches across northern Africa. (
  • Apart from the Niger River, the other sources of perennial surface water is the Komadougou Yobé River. (
  • The source of the Niger River farthest away from the mouth is in the mountains of Guinea near the border with Sierra Leone. (
  • Map of Niger River with Niger River basin in green. (
  • The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa , extending over 2500 miles (about 4000 km). (
  • The Niger is the third longest river in Africa, exceeded only by the Nile and the Congo River (also known as the Zaïre River). (
  • By the last name the Niger was known in its lower reaches before its identity with the upper river was established. (
  • The upper Niger, from the source past the fabled trading city of Timbuktu to the bend in the current river, once emptied into a now-gone lake, while the lower Niger started in hills near that lake and flowed south into the Gulf of Guinea. (
  • The northern part of the river, known as the Niger bend , is an important area because it is the closest major river and source of water to the Sahara desert. (
  • A new expedition has been fitted out in England for the purpose of further exploring the celebrated river Niger, which is described by the Moors under the name of Net el Abeeti, or the "river of slaves," and called by the negroes, Joliba, or the "great waters. (
  • The River Niger: A house-painter/poet struggles to support his cancer-plagued wife. (
  • The River Niger: based on the Tony award winning play by Joseph A. Walker. (
  • The River Niger (1976,105 min. (
  • In August 2012, the worst flooding along the Niger River in nearly 100 years has killed dozens and left 125,000+ homeless. (
  • The banks of the Niger river in Tonka. (
  • Twelve days after four U.S. soldiers were killed in southwestern Niger, Donald Trump has finally commented on the incident . (
  • Trump addressed the matter when asked why he had not spoken about the four soldiers killed in Niger. (
  • After meandering through arid areas it enters Niger. (
  • China and Niger should enhance Belt and Road cooperation and implement major projects in areas such as infrastructure, energy and agriculture, President Xi Jinping said on Tuesday. (
  • China would like to help Niger improve its people's livelihood through such measures as medical assistance and via exchanges in areas including culture, youth, women and think tanks. (
  • Niger President Mahamadou said the root causes of migration are poverty, insecurity and a democratic deficit. (
  • If we manage to respond to this and we succeed in reducing rural poverty…If we manage to fix it in the villages, we could manage to bring a substantive solution to the question of migration and Niger is determined to pursue these efforts," he said. (
  • In Niger, one in four children under the age of five is reported to die from poverty and hunger-related causes. (
  • Despite these efforts, poverty remains a key factor in access to health care in Niger. (
  • According to Roger Blench (2004), all specialists in Niger-Congo languages believe the languages to have a common origin, rather than merely constituting a typological classification, for reasons including their shared noun-class system, shared verbal extensions and shared basic lexicon. (
Prayer Times in Patakar, 07, Niger | IslamicFinder
Prayer Times in Patakar, 07, Niger | IslamicFinder (
Niger - United States Department of State
Niger - United States Department of State (
United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) -
United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) - (
CDC Global Health - Niger
CDC Global Health - Niger (
Wildlife of Niger - Wikipedia
Wildlife of Niger - Wikipedia (
Chlidonias niger - Wikimedia Commons
Chlidonias niger - Wikimedia Commons (
July 28, 1894 - Scientific American
July 28, 1894 - Scientific American (
ADW: pseudodoras_niger.jpg
ADW: pseudodoras_niger.jpg (
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Also In Global Health News: Food Aid To Yemen; TB Grant; Female Health Workers; Hunger In Niger; Developing Countries Chronic... (
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Manga | people | Britannica (
Kainji Dam | dam, Nigeria | Britannica
Kainji Dam | dam, Nigeria | Britannica (
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Coronavirus | Facts and Figures | Doctors Without Borders - USA (
Niger | Freedom House
Niger | Freedom House (
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The Taliban doesn't fear polio vaccination - it fears air strikes (
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Benefits of childhood vaccines outweigh risk of Covid-19 transmission, study finds (
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Bali volcano: Thousands flee on tourist island as smoke from Mount Agung revives eruption fears (
Airlines face pressure to scrap charges for name changes on tickets, as Civil Aviation Authority signal crackdown
Airlines face pressure to scrap charges for name changes on tickets, as Civil Aviation Authority signal crackdown (
Newsline | At a glance: Niger   | UNICEF
Newsline | At a glance: Niger | UNICEF (
In Photos: World's 10 Most Polluted Places | Live Science
In Photos: World's 10 Most Polluted Places | Live Science (
Communities in West Africa prepare for extensive polio vaccination campaign | At a glance: Niger   | UNICEF
Communities in West Africa prepare for extensive polio vaccination campaign | At a glance: Niger | UNICEF (
UN Secretary General visits UNICEF-supported hospital in Niger | At a glance: Niger   | UNICEF
UN Secretary General visits UNICEF-supported hospital in Niger | At a glance: Niger | UNICEF (