Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Aconitine: A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.Bungarotoxins: Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.Dihydro-beta-Erythroidine: Dihydro analog of beta-erythroidine, which is isolated from the seeds and other plant parts of Erythrina sp. Leguminosae. It is an alkaloid with curarimimetic properties.AzocinesDimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)QuinolizinesMecamylamine: A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Hexamethonium: A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.Cholinergic Agents: Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.Ganglionic Stimulants: Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.Anabasine: A piperidine botanical insecticide.Conotoxins: Peptide neurotoxins from the marine fish-hunting snails of the genus CONUS. They contain 13 to 29 amino acids which are strongly basic and are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds. There are three types of conotoxins, omega-, alpha-, and mu-. OMEGA-CONOTOXINS inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane and therefore the release of ACETYLCHOLINE. Alpha-conotoxins inhibit the postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. Mu-conotoxins prevent the generation of muscle action potentials. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Galantamine: A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Picolines: A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Benzylidene Compounds: Compounds containing the PhCH= radical.Lobeline: An alkaloid that has actions similar to NICOTINE on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic uses including in respiratory disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, insomnia, and smoking cessation.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Tubocurarine: A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Ibogaine: One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Pyrantel: A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)Hexamethonium Compounds: Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.AzetidinesDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Habenula: A small protuberance at the dorsal, posterior corner of the wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE, adjacent to the dorsal THALAMUS and PINEAL BODY. It contains the habenular nuclei and is a major part of the epithalamus.Receptors, Muscarinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Parasympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Chlorisondamine: A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Cholinergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Epilepsy, Frontal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by seizures which arise in the FRONTAL LOBE. A variety of clinical syndromes exist depending on the exact location of the seizure focus. Frontal lobe seizures may be idiopathic (cryptogenic) or caused by an identifiable disease process such as traumatic injuries, neoplasms, or other macroscopic or microscopic lesions of the frontal lobes (symptomatic frontal lobe seizures). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp318-9)Dextrorphan: Dextro form of levorphanol. It acts as a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, among other effects, and has been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. It is also a metabolite of DEXTROMETHORPHAN.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Morantel: Antinematodal agent used mainly for livestock.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Muscarinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Neostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Bungarus: A genus of poisonous snakes of the subfamily Elapinae of the family ELAPIDAE. They comprise the kraits. Twelve species are recognized and all inhabit southeast Asia. They are considered extremely dangerous. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p120)QuinoxalinesBinding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drug Partial Agonism: Drug agonism involving selective binding but reduced effect. This can result in some degree of DRUG ANTAGONISM.Ganglionic Blockers: Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Oxotremorine: A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Tectum Mesencephali: The dorsal portion or roof of the midbrain which is composed of two pairs of bumps, the INFERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPERIOR COLLICULI. These four colliculi are also called the quadrigeminal bodies (TECTUM MESENCEPHALI). They are centers for visual sensorimotor integration.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT3: A subclass of serotonin receptors that form cation channels and mediate signal transduction by depolarizing the cell membrane. The cation channels are formed from 5 receptor subunits. When stimulated the receptors allow the selective passage of SODIUM; POTASSIUM; and CALCIUM.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cobra Neurotoxin Proteins: Toxins, contained in cobra (Naja) venom that block cholinergic receptors; two specific proteins have been described, the small (short, Type I) and the large (long, Type II) which also exist in other Elapid venoms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Obidoxime Chloride: Cholinesterase reactivator occurring in two interchangeable isomeric forms, syn and anti.Kynurenic Acid: A broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist used as a research tool.Receptors, Presynaptic: Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Physostigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Rubidium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.TritiumGlutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Ganglia, Autonomic: Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Myasthenic Syndromes, Congenital: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a congenital defect in neuromuscular transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. This includes presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic disorders (that are not of autoimmune origin). The majority of these diseases are caused by mutations of various subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) on the postsynaptic surface of the junction. (From Arch Neurol 1999 Feb;56(2):163-7)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Mice, Inbred C57BLLymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Amphibian Venoms: Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tegmentum Mesencephali: Portion of midbrain situated under the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI. The two ventrolateral cylindrical masses or peduncles are large nerve fiber bundles providing a tract of passage between the FOREBRAIN with the HINDBRAIN. Ventral MIDBRAIN also contains three colorful structures: the GRAY MATTER (PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY), the black substance (SUBSTANTIA NIGRA), and the RED NUCLEUS.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Bicyclo CompoundsDrug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Nerve Tissue ProteinsMice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Bethanechol: A slowly hydrolyzing muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Bethanechol is generally used to increase smooth muscle tone, as in the GI tract following abdominal surgery or in urinary retention in the absence of obstruction. It may cause hypotension, HEART RATE changes, and BRONCHIAL SPASM.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Bridged Compounds: Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Plasma Membrane Neurotransmitter Transport Proteins: A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Spiro Compounds: A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Diamines: Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
DHNK is inactive at the α3β4-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (IC50 > 100 μM) and is only very weakly active at the NMDA ... Robin A.J. Lester (11 November 2014). Nicotinic Receptors. Springer. pp. 445-. ISBN 978-1-4939-1167-7. Paul, Rajib K.; Singh, ... DHNK has been found to act as a potent and selective negative allosteric modulator of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ( ... ketamine metabolites inhibit acetylcholine-evoked currents in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors". European Journal of ...
Relative to ketamine, norketamine is much more potent as an antagonist of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and produces ... Robin A.J. Lester (11 November 2014). Nicotinic Receptors. Springer. pp. 445-. ISBN 978-1-4939-1167-7. ... as NMDA receptor antagonists in comparison but retain activity as potent antagonists of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... ketamine metabolites inhibit acetylcholine-evoked currents in α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors". European Journal of ...
The inhaled nicotine mimics nicotinic acetylcholine which when bound to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors prevents the reuptake ... These nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are located in the central nervous system and at the nerve-muscle junction of skeletal ... Wonnacott, S. (1997). "Presynaptic nicotinic ACh receptors". Trends in Neurosciences. 20 (2): 92-8. doi:10.1016/S0166-2236(96) ... However, since dopamine-releasing neurons are abundant on nicotine receptors, dopamine is released; and, in the nucleus ...
link) "Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: Introduction". IUPHAR Database. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... The alkaloid nicotine from tobacco binds directly to the body's Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, accounting for its ... "Molecular aspects of phytoestrogen selective binding at estrogen receptors". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 96 (8): 1879- ...
link) "Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: Introduction". IUPHAR Database. International Union of Basic and Clinical ... The alkaloid nicotine from tobacco binds directly to the body's Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, accounting for its ... Modern pharmacological studies indicate that binding to receptors or ion channels on cell membranes is the first step of some ... "Molecular aspects of phytoestrogen selective binding at estrogen receptors". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 96 (8): 1879- ...
2000). "The nicotinic receptor beta 2 subunit is mutant in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy". Nat. Genet. 26 (3): 275-6. doi: ... Bracci L, Lozzi L, Rustici M, Neri P (1992). "Binding of HIV-1 gp120 to the nicotinic receptor". FEBS Lett. 311 (2): 115-8. doi ... 2002). "Changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits expression in brain of patients with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's ... Anand R, Lindstrom J (1990). "Nucleotide sequence of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta 2 subunit gene". Nucleic ...
Ligand-gated ion channels such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and GABAA receptor are composed of five subunits ... Sometimes the channel can be made from only one type of subunit, such as the α7 nicotinic receptor, which is made up from five ... "Receptor-receptor interactions within receptor mosaics. Impact on neuropsychopharmacology". Brain Research Reviews. 58 (2): 415 ... Graham AJ, Martin-Ruiz CM, Teaktong T, Ray MA, Court JA (August 2002). "Human brain nicotinic receptors, their distribution and ...
... has been shown to interact with Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 1. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor GRCh38: ... Beeson D, Jeremiah S, West LF, Povey S, Newsom-Davis J (1990). "Assignment of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes ... Wang ZZ, Hardy SF, Hall ZW (November 1996). "Assembly of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The first transmembrane domains ... Wang ZZ, Hardy SF, Hall ZW (1996). "Assembly of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. The first transmembrane domains of ...
1. Desensitization of nicotinic ACh receptors. First demonstration of potential and temperature dependence. (J. Physiol. 210: ... 502: 305-316, 1997 etc.) 2. Properties of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junction. First demonstration of differences ... between junctional and extrajunctional (denervation-induced) receptors (PhD Thesis). Trophic nerve-muscle interactions ...
... and Nicotinic Receptors. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 24(2):189-202.. ... Information from sensory receptors make their way to the brain ...
The nerve tissues which communicate with muscles contain a receptor called the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Stimulation of ... Curare notably functions to inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Normally, these receptor ... Tsetlin, V.I; Hucho, F. (2004). "Snake and Snail Toxins Acting on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Fundamental Aspects and ... Bungarotoxin is a compound with known interaction with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which constitute a family of ...
... nicotinic acetylcholine receptors more potently than n-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in rat hippocampal neurons". J Pharmacol ... It has been shown that the number of nicotinic receptors in the brain are reduced in Alzheimer's disease, even in the absence ... Buisson B, Bertrand D (1 March 1998). "Open-channel blockers at the human alpha4beta2 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... Memantine acts as a non-competitive antagonist at different neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at potencies ...
... is a chemical compound which acts as a partial agonist at neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, binding to both ... Cheng, J.; Izenwasser, S.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, S.; Wade, D.; Trudell, M. (2004). "Synthesis and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... Synthesis and estimation of their binding affinity at α4β2 and α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors". Chirality. 24 (7 ... further potent agonists for nicotinic receptors". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 12 (1): 179-190. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2003.10. ...
... is an inhibitor of nicotinic receptors. Dicycloverine Spitzmaul, G; Gumilar, F; Dilger, JP; Bouzat, C (2009). "The ... local anaesthetics proadifen and adiphenine inhibit nicotinic receptors by different molecular mechanisms". British Journal of ...
... is a drug developed by Abbott, which acts as an agonist at neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been ... Jain, K. K. (2004). "Modulators of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as analgesics". Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. ... Romanelli, M.; Gratteri, P.; Guandalini, L.; Martini, E.; Bonaccini, C.; Gualtieri, F. (2007). "Central nicotinic receptors: ...
It is a nicotinic agonist, meaning it binds to nicotinic receptors in the body and mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter ... 24 October 2013). "Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonists". United States Patent Application Publication. 1 (12/583,420): 1- ... 336-337). Phantasmidine is a nicotinic agonist that acts at acetylcholine receptors. It mimics the effects of acetylcholine on ... Phantasmidine is selective for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) containing ß4 subunits; however, responses in ...
"Neuronal nicotinic receptors: A perspective on two decades of drug discovery research". Biochemical Pharmacology. Nicotinic ... Neuronal nicotinic receptors as analgesic targets: it's a winding road. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013 Oct 15;86(8):1208-14. doi: ... It acts as a partial agonist at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, binding to both the α3β4 and the α4β2 subtypes. ... Meyer, Michael D. (1 April 2006). "Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as a target for the treatment of neuropathic pain ...
"Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR). Knockout of this gene in ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000120903 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: CHRNA2 cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 2 (neuronal)". Lotfipour S, Byun JS, Leach P, Fowler CD, Murphy NP, ...
Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Acetylcholine receptor ENSG00000175344 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR). The nicotinic acetylcholine ... "Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... Kihara T, Shimohama S, Sawada H, Honda K, Nakamizo T, Shibasaki H, Kume T, Akaike A (2001). "alpha 7 nicotinic receptor ...
Antinicotinic agents operate on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The majority of these are non-depolarising skeletal ... Nicotine also counteracts anticholinergics by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Caffeine (although an adenosine ... "Effect of Dextrometorphan and Dextrorphan on Nicotine and Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors: In Vitro and in Vivo Selectivity". ... "Effects of dextrorotatory morphinans on α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes". European Journal ...
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: From Molecular Biology to Cognition. (2005) Odile Jacob ed. ISBN 978-0976890805 Stuart J ... He then turned his attention on the allosteric regulation of neurotransmitter receptors, in particular the nicotinic ... A kinetic mechanism for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors based on multiple allosteric transitions. Biol Cyber (1996), 75: 361- ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: From Molecular Biology to Cognition. (2005) Odile Jacob ed. http://www.unige.ch/sciences/ ...
Chini B, Clementi F, Hukovic N, Sher E (1992). "Neuronal-type alpha-bungarotoxin receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic receptor ... The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR). Nicotinic acetylcholine ... "Entrez Gene: CHRNA5 cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 5". Hogg RC, Raggenbass M, Bertrand D (2003). "Nicotinic ... 2005). "In vivo RNA-RNA duplexes from human alpha3 and alpha5 nicotinic receptor subunit mRNAs". Gene. 345 (2): 155-64. doi: ...
"Diversity of mRNA expression for muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ... Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB3 gene. Nicotinic ... Koyama K, Sudo K, Nakamura Y (1994). "Mapping of the human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor beta 3 gene (CHRNB3) within ... 1997). "Comparative structure of human neuronal alpha 2-alpha 7 and beta 2-beta 4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits and ...
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor ... "NMDA receptor activation dephosphorylates AMPA receptor glutamate receptor 1 subunits at threonine 840". J. Neurosci. 27 (48): ... AMPA receptor trafficking to the PSD in response to LTP[edit]. Once AMPA receptors are transported to the perisynaptic region ... AMPA receptors (AMPAR) are both glutamate receptors and cation channels that are integral to plasticity and synaptic ...
... is a high affinity, selective nicotinic α4β2* receptor partial agonist used in medical research for nicotinic ... Nifene studies in animal models of lung cancer have suggested an upregulation of the nicotinic receptor in the lung tumors. ... Learning and behavior studies in animal models using nifene have suggested a potential role of the nicotinic receptors located ... Human studies with (18F)nifene make it a promising nicotinic α4β2* receptor PET radiotracer for scientific research and has ...
Mefway for serotonin 5HT1A receptors, [18F] Nifene for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors or enzyme substrates (e.g. 6-FDOPA for ... Radioligands that bind to dopamine receptors (D1,[14] D2 receptor,[15][16] reuptake transporter), serotonin receptors (5HT1A, ... "Imaging cortical dopamine D1 receptors using 11C NNC112 and ketanserin blockade of the 5-HT 2A receptors". J Cereb Blood Flow ... Studies have been performed examining the state of these receptors in patients compared to healthy controls in schizophrenia, ...
Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor beta抗体经WB,IHC-Fr验证,可与人样本反 ... 购买Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor beta兔多克隆抗体(ab66429), ... Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor beta抗体. 参阅全部 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor beta 一抗. ... Synthetic peptide derived from the C terminal domain of human
The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three ... Biophysical and ion channel functional characterization of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in varying ... This study examined nine detergents upon nAChR solubilization and purification, to assess receptor lipid composition using GC ( ...
Mechanism of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor cluster formation by rapsyn. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1998;95:4007-4012. ... DEFECTS IN ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR (AChR). Primary AChR Deficiency. The acetylcholine receptor is made up 5 subunits. Subunits ... The endplate acetylcholine receptor deficiency is milder than in primary acetylcholine receptor deficiency42 and the junctional ... or their binding to acetylcholine receptors, or impede agrin-MuSK-LRP4-mediated clustering of these receptors, or decrease ...
... nicotinic, NIDA, NIH, NMDA receptors, noribogaine, Onaivi, opioid, opium, Overstreet, PDR, Popik, receptors, Science, serotonin ... nicotinic, NIDA, NIH, noribogaine, nucleus accumbens, opioid, Patrick K. Kroupa, psychedelic, receptors, Sara Glatt, Schedule I ... nicotinic, NIDA, Nietzsche, Nine Inch Nails, NMDA receptors, noribogaine, O-demethylation, opiate withdrawal, opiates, opioid, ... nicotinic, NIH, NMDA receptors, noribogaine, nucleus accumbens, O-demethylation, opiate withdrawal, opiates, opioid, peyote, ...
The acetylcholine nicotinic receptor is an ionic channel whose aperture is directly controlled by acetylcholine. It is a key ... αBungarotoxin and Presynaptic Nicotinic Receptors: Functional Studies S. Wonnacott, J. Irons, G. G. Lunt, C. M. Rapier, E. X. ... Cholinergic Neuropathology and Nicotinic Receptor Binding in the Human Brain Elaine K. Perry, Carthage J. Smith, John H. Xuereb ... The acetylcholine nicotinic receptor is an ionic channel whose aperture is directly controlled by acetylcholine. It is a key ...
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are the best-studied of the ionotropic receptors. Since nicotinic receptors help transmit ... The nicotinic receptors are considered cholinergic receptors, since they respond to acetylcholine. Nicotinic receptors get ... muscle-type nicotinic receptors and neuronal-type nicotinic receptors. In the muscle-type receptors, found at the neuromuscular ... Nicotinic receptors also respond to drugs, including the nicotinic receptor agonist nicotine. They are found in the central and ...
... Yue Zhao Center of Cell biology and Cancer Research, Albany ... Yue Zhao, "The Oncogenic Functions of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors," Journal of Oncology, vol. 2016, Article ID 9650481, 9 ...
The muscle-type nicotinic receptor is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, consisting of the subunit combination (α1)2 ... Carbachol Suxamethonium α-Bungarotoxin α-Conotoxin Hexamethonium Pancuronium Tubocurarine Ganglion type nicotinic receptor ...
The technique was used to generate mice that express nicotinic receptors exclusively in the midbrain ventral tegmental area, ... Here we specifically re-expressed the β2-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) by stereotaxically injecting a ... have developed an injectable lentiviral vector that delivers functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to defined regions of ... ligand-binding nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in dopamine-containing neurons of the VTA, together with the recovery of ...
... discovering a key factor in the development of addiction in nicotinic receptors. ... When nicotine enters the brain, it binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on the surface of neurons. Usually bound ... It is believed that any nicotine that has entered the cell can interact with these stored receptors though to what effect was ... Determining the pharmacokinetics of nicotinic drugs in the endoplasmic reticulum using biosensors. J. Gen. Physiol. doi:10.1085 ...
Nicotinic receptors are cells that respond to the neurotransmitters nicotine and acetylcholine. Once theyre triggered, they ... Nicotinic receptors are a type of acetylcholine receptor, which can also be called a cholinergic receptor. A receptor is a part ... Nicotinic receptors also fall under the category of an ionotropic receptor. An ionotropic receptor is a type of receptor that ... Cholinergenic receptors are sensitive to nicotine.. * Receptors -- such as nicotinic receptors -- are parts of cells that ...
ALPHA CHAINACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR PROTEIN, BETA CHAINACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR PROTEIN, DELTA CHAINACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR PROTEIN ...
α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is a subtype of nAChR and has been reported to be involved in hypertension end- ... α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Relieves Angiotensin II-Induced Senescence in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Raising ...
Lukas, R.J., et al., "Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors." in: The IUPHAR Compendium of Receptor Characterization and ... Postsynaptic receptors: synaptic transmission (rare), Presynaptic receptors extrasynaptic receptors: modulation of synaptic ... Hogg, R., et al., Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors as drug targets., Curr. Drug Targets CNS Neurol. Disord., 3, 123-130 (2004 ... Unwin, N., Structure and action of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor explored by electron microscopy., FEBS Lett., 555, 91- ...
acetylcholine receptor, nicotinic, alpha 5 (neuronal). cholinergic receptor, nicotinic alpha 5. cholinergic receptor, nicotinic ... CHRNA5 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 5 subunit [Homo sapiens] CHRNA5 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 5 subunit [ ... Activation of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, organism-specific biosystemNicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR) are a ... Postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, organism-specific biosystemNicotinic acetylcholine receptors are found in the ...
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor properties are modulated by surrounding lipids. An in vivo study ... Chol Acetylcholine Receptor Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatidic Acid Molecular Neuroscience Volume These keywords were added by ... Fong T. M. and McNamee M. G. (1986) Correlation between acetylcholine receptor function and structural properties of membranes ... Incorporation of reconstituted acetylcholine receptors from Torpedo into Xenopus oocyte membrane. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. ...
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic receptors that form ligand-gated ion ... Cys-loop receptors. 5-HT receptor (5-HT3 serotonin receptor (A)) - GABA receptor (GABA A (α1, α2, α3, α5, α6, β1, β2, β3, γ2, ε ... Nicotinic receptors can also be found in different synaptic locations, for example the muscle nicotinic receptor always ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic receptors that form ligand-gated ion channels in cells plasma ...
Agrin causes acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on chick myotubes in culture to aggregate, forming specializations that resemble ... Agrin induces phosphorylation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Neuron. 1991 Jun;6(6):869-78. doi: 10.1016/0896-6273(91) ... Agrin causes acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on chick myotubes in culture to aggregate, forming specializations that resemble ...
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are ... Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors J Neurochem. 2016 Sep;138(6):806-20. doi: 10.1111/ ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are ... Regulatory proteins of the Lynx family modulate the function of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). We report for the first time that ...
Tests using mice employed an experimental drug that stimulates a specific type of nicotinic receptor in immune cells; ... Nicotinic receptor could be target for treatment of lung inflammation. Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo ... Nicotinic receptor could be target for treatment of lung inflammation Tests using mice employed an experimental drug that ... Both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors are part of the cholinergic system, a branch of the nervous system in which ...
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression by directionally selective ganglion cells - Volume 24 Issue 4 - CHRISTIANNE E. ... Lindstrom, J.M. (1996). Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In Ion Channels, Vol. 4, ed. Narahashi, T., pp. 377-449. ... Clementi, F., Fornasari, D. & Gotti, C. (2000). Neuronal nicotinic receptors, important new players in brain function. European ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression by directionally selective ganglion cells. * CHRISTIANNE E. STRANG (a1), JORDAN M. ...
The goal of this project is to identify abstinence-induced changes in neuronal nicotinic receptor availability that may ... Nicotine exerts its reinforcing properties, in part, by binding to α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the ... study examines the effects of 24 hours abstinence from smoking on return to availability of neuronal nicotinic receptors in ... The 2-[18F]FA radiotracer allows us to measure nicotine receptors. The PET imaging technique used at these sessions allows us ...
"The role of estrogen receptor β and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in postpartum depression," Progress in Neuro- ... The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor as a Target for Antidepressant Drug Development. Noah S. Philip, Linda L. Carpenter, ... Shafiqur Rahman, "Targeting brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to treat major depression and co-morbid alcohol or nicotine ... nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, in nonhuman primates," European Journal Of Nuclear Medicine And Molecular Imaging, vol. 43, ...
Neuronal nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse neurological disorders and in the regulation of ...
This receptor, known as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, increases excitability within the brains reward centers. Full ... Researchers discovered that the rats most likely to self-administer addictive drugs had a particular receptor in the brain that ... is more responsive than the same receptor in rats least likely to self-administer addictive drugs. ...
  • The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo electric rays has been extensively characterized over the last three decades. (upr.edu)
  • This study examined nine detergents upon nAChR solubilization and purification, to assess receptor lipid composition using GC (Gas Chromatography)-FID (Flame Ionization) and/or GC-MSD (Mass Selective Detectors), stability and aggregation state using A-SEC (Analytical Size-Exclusion Chromatography) and EM (Electron Microscopy), and planar lipid bilayers to measure ion channel function. (upr.edu)
  • Targacept's product candidates selectively modulate neuronal nicotinic receptors that serve as key regulators of the nervous system to promote therapeutic effects and limit adverse side effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this case, the therapeutic effect is associated with activation of nicotinic receptors of the alpha-7 subtype in macrophages, the immune system's first-line cells that are central to the inflammatory response to a potential threat. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although there was little difference between S -(+)-mecamylamine and R -(−)-mecamylamine in terms of 50% inhibition concentration values for a given receptor subtype, there appeared to be significant differences in the off-rates for the mecamylamine isomers from the receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Each receptor subtype has distinct electrophysiological and pharmacological properties. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 2012) . (D) Hypothetically, injection of a cRNA mixture of α4, α4 VFL , and β2 into oocytes could yield eight different receptors in the 3α:2β stoichiometry. (rupress.org)
  • When bath applied to VTA slices, TC-2559 increased the firing of DA cells in a dose-dependent manner, in the same concentration range that activates alpha4beta2 receptors in recombinant cell lines or oocytes. (xenbase.org)
  • About 30 minutes before LPS injection, some of the mice were treated with PNU-282987, a compound that stimulates the alpha-7 nicotinic receptors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Zoli M, Léna C, Picciotto MR, Changeux JP (1998) Identification of four classes of brain nicotinic receptors using beta2 mutant mice. (springer.com)
  • In the current study, wild-type, heterozygous and null mutant mice were employed to test the hypothesis that genotypic depletion of the alpha7 receptor would render animals less sensitive to tissue loss and brain inflammation following experimental brain injury. (eurekamag.com)
  • Brain inflammation, changes in nicotinic receptor expression and cortical tissue sparing were evaluated in wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous mice 1 week following TBI. (eurekamag.com)
  • By sequentially labeling AChRs with biotin-bungarotoxin and streptavidin-fluorophore conjugates, we were able to distinguish recycled, preexisting, and new receptor pools at synapses in living mice. (upenn.edu)
  • In addition, since expression of functional unc-29 in muscle cells restored levamisole sensitivity under some but not all conditions, both neuronal and muscle cell UNC-29 receptors are likely to contribute to the regulation of egg-laying behavior. (genetics.org)
  • The HCAR2 gene is 96% homologous to HCAR3, but the HCAR3 receptor shares neither the specificity for NA, nor the range of functional effects. (bl.uk)
  • The assumption was that this channel was located in the part of the receptor that crosses the synaptic membrane, i.e. the transmembrane segments. (pasteur.fr)
  • This, again, could be envisioned to lead to three different assemblies because the two dimers in each receptor can be oriented in the clockwise, the counterclockwise, or both orientations when viewed from the synaptic cleft. (rupress.org)
  • For most members of this family a diversity of heteromeric receptors is known at present. (pnas.org)
  • Rg 2 did not affect the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced currents in α 7 human receptors, however Rg 2 affected the peak currents, and mainly the desensitization of heteromeric receptors α 3 β 4 , α 3 β 2 , α 4 β 4 , and α 4 β 2 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • The importance of the C-terminal region was further analysed by the use of chimeric nicotinic acid receptors, in which the C-terminal tail of HM74 and HM74A were exchanged. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In the past, recombinant expression of insect receptors has proved largely unsuccessful and in some (but not all) circumstances co‐expression with RIC‐3 has alleviated the problems. (bl.uk)
  • This hypothesis was tested by examining the regulation and desensitisation characteristics of each receptor in a heterologous expression system. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Although the results of this study were largely negative, it is still plausible that changes in the activity/expression of native alpha7 receptors contribute to pathophysiology following TBI. (eurekamag.com)