Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.
Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.
Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Dihydro analog of beta-erythroidine, which is isolated from the seeds and other plant parts of Erythrina sp. Leguminosae. It is an alkaloid with curarimimetic properties.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A member of the NICOTINIC ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTOR subfamily of the LIGAND-GATED ION CHANNEL family. It consists entirely of pentameric a7 subunits expressed in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, vascular system, lymphocytes and spleen.
Azocines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms connected by an azo group (-N=N-) in the 1,3-positions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Quinolizines are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a bicyclic structure formed by a benzene ring fused to a piperidine ring, which have been used as building blocks in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and bioactive molecules.
Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A piperidine botanical insecticide.
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
Quinoxalines are heterocyclic organic compounds consisting of a benzene fused to a pyrazine ring, which have been studied for their potential antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
'Smoke' is a complex mixture of gases, fine particles, and volatile compounds, generally produced by combustion of organic substances, which can contain harmful chemicals known to have adverse health effects.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.
A plant genus of the family ASCLEPIADACEAE. This is the true milkweed; APOCYNUM & EUPHORBIA hirta are rarely called milkweed. Asclepias asthmatica has been changed to TYLOPHORA.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE that is a source of SCOPOLAMINE HYDROBROMIDE and other TROPANES.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.

(S)-(-)-Cotinine, the major brain metabolite of nicotine, stimulates nicotinic receptors to evoke [3H]dopamine release from rat striatal slices in a calcium-dependent manner. (1/3904)

Cotinine, a major peripheral metabolite of nicotine, has recently been shown to be the most abundant metabolite in rat brain after peripheral nicotine administration. However, little attention has been focused on the contribution of cotinine to the pharmacological effects of nicotine exposure in either animals or humans. The present study determined the concentration-response relationship for (S)-(-)-cotinine-evoked 3H overflow from superfused rat striatal slices preloaded with [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and whether this response was mediated by nicotinic receptor stimulation. (S)-(-)-Cotinine (1 microM to 3 mM) evoked 3H overflow from [3H]DA-preloaded rat striatal slices in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 30 microM, indicating a lower potency than either (S)-(-)-nicotine or the active nicotine metabolite, (S)-(-)-nornicotine. As reported for (S)-(-)-nicotine and (S)-(-)-nornicotine, desensitization to the effect of (S)-(-)-cotinine was observed. The classic nicotinic receptor antagonists mecamylamine and dihydro-beta-erythroidine inhibited the response to (S)-(-)-cotinine (1-100 microM). Additionally, 3H overflow evoked by (S)-(-)-cotinine (10-1000 microM) was inhibited by superfusion with a low calcium buffer. Interestingly, over the same concentration range, (S)-(-)-cotinine did not inhibit [3H]DA uptake into striatal synaptosomes. These results demonstrate that (S)-(-)-cotinine, a constituent of tobacco products and the major metabolite of nicotine, stimulates nicotinic receptors to evoke the release of DA in a calcium-dependent manner from superfused rat striatal slices. Thus, (S)-(-)-cotinine likely contributes to the neuropharmacological effects of nicotine and tobacco use.  (+info)

Neurogenic vasodilatation of canine isolated small labial arteries. (2/3904)

Mechanisms underlying vasodilatation to nerve stimulation by electrical pulses and nicotine were analyzed in isolated canine small labial arteries. Transmural electrical stimulation (5 and 20 Hz) produced a contraction followed by a relaxation in labial arterial strips denuded of the endothelium, partially contracted with prostaglandin F2alpha. The contraction was abolished by prazosin or combined treatment with alpha, beta-methylene ATP. In the treated strips, neurogenic relaxation was abolished by NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, and restored by L-arginine. The D-enantiomers were without effect. Nicotine (10(-4) M) also relaxed the arteries, in which the contractile response was abolished by prazosin and alpha, beta-methylene ATP. The relaxant response was attenuated but not abolished by L-NA; the inhibition was reversed by L-arginine. The remaining relaxation by nicotine was abolished by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-[8 to 37], a CGRP1 receptor antagonist. Relaxations elicited by a lower concentration of nicotine (2 x 10(-5) M) sufficient to produce similar magnitudes of response to those induced by 5-Hz electrical nerve stimulation were also inhibited partially by L-NA. Histochemical study with the NADPH-diaphorase method demonstrated positively stained nerve fibers and bundles in the arterial wall, suggesting the presence of neuronal NO synthase. It is concluded that the relaxation induced by electrical nerve stimulation of small labial arteries is mediated exclusively by NO synthesized from L-arginine in nerve terminals, whereas nicotine in the concentrations used evokes relaxations by a mediation of nerve-derived NO and also CGRP, possibly from sensory nerves. The reason why nicotine but not electrical pulses stimulates sensory nerves and elicits vasorelaxation remains unsolved.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (3/3904)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. (4/3904)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion (244 subjects), a nicotine patch (244 subjects), bupropion and a nicotine patch (245 subjects), and placebo (160 subjects) for smoking cessation. Smokers with clinical depression were excluded. Treatment consisted of nine weeks of bupropion (150 mg a day for the first three days, and then 150 mg twice daily) or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy (21 mg per day during weeks 2 through 7, 14 mg per day during week 8, and 7 mg per day during week 9) or placebo. The target day for quitting smoking was usually day 8. RESULTS: The abstinence rates at 12 months were 15.6 percent in the placebo group, as compared with 16.4 percent in the nicotine-patch group, 30.3 percent in the bupropion group (P<0.001), and 35.5 percent in the group given bupropion and the nicotine patch (P<0.001). By week 7, subjects in the placebo group had gained an average of 2.1 kg, as compared with a gain of 1.6 kg in the nicotine-patch group, a gain of 1.7 kg in the bupropion group, and a gain of 1.1 kg in the combined-treatment group (P<0.05). Weight gain at seven weeks was significantly less in the combined-treatment group than in the bupropion group and the placebo group (P<0.05 for both comparisons). A total of 311 subjects (34.8 percent) discontinued one or both medications. Seventy-nine subjects stopped treatment because of adverse events: 6 in the placebo group (3.8 percent), 16 in the nicotine-patch group (6.6 percent), 29 in the bupropion group (11.9 percent), and 28 in the combined-treatment group (11.4 percent). The most common adverse events were insomnia and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sustained-release bupropion alone or in combination with a nicotine patch resulted in significantly higher long-term rates of smoking cessation than use of either the nicotine patch alone or placebo. Abstinence rates were higher with combination therapy than with bupropion alone, but the difference was not statistically significant.  (+info)

Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates: results from the European CEASE trial. Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation. European Respiratory Society. (5/3904)

The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study. The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six chest clinics enrolled a total of 3,575 smokers. Subjects were allocated to one of five treatment arms: placebo and either standard or higher dose nicotine patches (15 mg and 25 mg daily) each given for 8 or 22 weeks with adjunctive moderately intensive support. The 12 month sustained success rates were: 25 mg patch for 22 weeks (L-25), 15.4%; 25 mg patch for 8 weeks (S-25), 15.9%; 15 mg patch for 22 weeks (L-15), 13.7%; 15 mg patch for 8 weeks (S-15), 11.7%; and placebo (P-0) 9.9% (placebo versus 15 mg, p<0.05; 25 mg versus 15 mg, p<0.03; 25 mg versus placebo, p<0.001, Chi-squared test). There was no significant difference in success rate between the two active treatment durations. Of the first week abstainers (n=1,698), 25.1% achieved success at 12 months as opposed to first week smokers, 2.7% of 1,877 subjects (p< 0.001). In summary, a higher than standard dose of nicotine patch was associated with an increase in the long-term success in smoking cessation but continuation of treatment beyond 8-12 weeks did not increase the success rates.  (+info)

Nicotine increases plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production by human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C-associated pathway. (6/3904)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Smoking both increases stroke risk and reduces the risk of thrombolysis-associated intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a major regulator of fibrinolysis; elevation of PAI-1 is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic disorders. We studied the effect of nicotine, an important constituent of cigarette smoke, on PAI-1 production by human brain endothelial cells. METHODS: Adult human central nervous system endothelial cells (CNS-EC) were used for tissue culture experiments. We analyzed culture supernatant for PAI-1 protein and measured PAI-1 mRNA (by Northern blot analysis) and protein kinase C (PK-C) activity. RESULTS: Nicotine at 100 nmol/L increased PAI-1 protein production and mRNA expression by CNS-EC. After 72 hours of exposure to nicotine, the concentration of secreted PAI-1 in the cell supernatant was increased 1.90+/-0.2 fold compared with untreated cells. PAI-1 mRNA also increased approximately twofold. Inhibition of PK-C completely abolished this effect. Nicotine had no effect on the concentration of tissue plasminogen activator. CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine increases brain endothelial cell PAI-1 mRNA expression and protein production via PK-C-dependent pathway. These findings provide new insights into why smoking may be associated with predisposition to thrombosis and inversely associated with intracerebral hemorrhage after therapeutic tissue plasminogen activator therapy.  (+info)

Nicotine-modified postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. (7/3904)

Cigarette smoking has been noted to impair wound healing in tissues such as skin, bone, and gut. This study was designed to examine whether nicotine adversely affects postinfarction cardiac wound healing and remodeling in an experimental model of myocardial infarction. For this purpose, two groups of rats were studied. The control group received a simple bandage, and the nicotine group had a section (1.75 mg/day) of a nicotine patch attached on their backs. After a 7-day treatment period, an anterior wall infarction was induced. A bandage-free 7-day healing period followed, after which hearts were isolated for mechanical tests. Nicotine-treated rats developed significantly enlarged left ventricles with thin, infarcted walls and a rightward shift in the passive pressure-volume relationship. Pressure-strain analysis also indicated possible changes in the material properties of the wound for nicotine-treated rats. In conclusion, nicotine has significant adverse effects on postinfarction healing and left ventricular remodeling. These observations have important clinical implications because of the enhanced risk for development of heart failure.  (+info)

Metabolites of a tobacco-specific carcinogen in urine from newborns. (8/3904)

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy can result in fetal exposure to carcinogens that are transferred from the mother via the placenta, but little information is available on fetal uptake of such compounds. We analyzed samples of the first urine from newborns whose mothers did or did not smoke cigarettes for the presence of metabolites of the potent tobacco-specific transplacental carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). METHODS: The urine was collected and analyzed for two metabolites of NNK, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronide (NNAL-Gluc). Gas chromatography and nitrosamine-selective detection, with confirmation by mass spectrometry, were used in the analyses, which were performed without knowledge of the origin of the urine samples. RESULTS: NNAL-Gluc was detected in 22 (71%) of 31 urine samples from newborns of mothers who smoked; NNAL was detected in four of these 31 urine samples. Neither compound was detected in the 17 urine samples from newborns of mothers who did not smoke. The arithmetic mean level of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in the 27 newborns of smokers for which both analytes were quantified was 0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.083-0.200) pmol/mL. The levels of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in the urine from these babies were statistically significantly higher than those in the urine from newborns of nonsmoking mothers (geometric means = 0.062 [95% CI = 0.035-0.110] and 0.010 [considered as not detected; no confidence interval], respectively; two-sided P<.001). NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc levels in the 18 positive urine samples in which both analytes were quantified ranged from 0.045 to 0.400 pmol/mL, with an arithmetic mean level of 0.20 (95% CI = 0.14-0.26) pmol/mL, about 5%-10% of the levels of these compounds detected in the urine from adult smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Two metabolites of the tobacco-specific transplacental carcinogen NNK can be detected in the urine from newborns of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy.  (+info)

Nicotine is defined as a highly addictive psychoactive alkaloid and stimulant found in the nightshade family of plants, primarily in tobacco leaves. It is the primary component responsible for the addiction to cigarettes and other forms of tobacco. Nicotine can also be produced synthetically.

When nicotine enters the body, it activates the release of several neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, leading to feelings of pleasure, stimulation, and relaxation. However, with regular use, tolerance develops, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effects, which can contribute to the development of nicotine dependence.

Nicotine has both short-term and long-term health effects. Short-term effects include increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased alertness and concentration, and arousal. Long-term use can lead to addiction, lung disease, cardiovascular disease, and reproductive problems. It is important to note that nicotine itself is not the primary cause of many tobacco-related diseases, but rather the result of other harmful chemicals found in tobacco smoke.

Nicotinic agonists are substances that bind to and activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are ligand-gated ion channels found in the nervous system of many organisms, including humans. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the exogenous compound nicotine.

When a nicotinic agonist binds to the receptor, it triggers a conformational change that leads to the opening of an ion channel, allowing the influx of cations such as calcium, sodium, and potassium. This ion flux can depolarize the postsynaptic membrane and generate or modulate electrical signals in excitable tissues, such as neurons and muscles.

Nicotinic agonists have various therapeutic and recreational uses, but they can also produce harmful effects, depending on the dose, duration of exposure, and individual sensitivity. Some examples of nicotinic agonists include:

1. Nicotine: A highly addictive alkaloid found in tobacco plants, which is the prototypical nicotinic agonist. It is used in smoking cessation therapies, such as nicotine gum and patches, but it can also lead to dependence and various health issues when consumed through smoking or vaping.
2. Varenicline: A medication approved for smoking cessation that acts as a partial agonist of nAChRs. It reduces the rewarding effects of nicotine and alleviates withdrawal symptoms, helping smokers quit.
3. Rivastigmine: A cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. It increases the concentration of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft, enhancing its activity at nicotinic receptors and improving cognitive function.
4. Succinylcholine: A neuromuscular blocking agent used during surgical procedures to induce paralysis and facilitate intubation. It acts as a depolarizing nicotinic agonist, causing transient muscle fasciculations followed by prolonged relaxation.
5. Curare and related compounds: Plant-derived alkaloids that act as competitive antagonists of nicotinic receptors. They are used in anesthesia to induce paralysis and facilitate mechanical ventilation during surgery.

In summary, nicotinic agonists are substances that bind to and activate nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, leading to various physiological responses. These compounds have diverse applications in medicine, from smoking cessation therapies to treatments for neurodegenerative disorders and anesthesia. However, they can also pose risks when misused or abused, as seen with nicotine addiction and the potential side effects of certain medications.

Tobacco Use Disorder is a clinical diagnosis described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), used by healthcare professionals to diagnose mental health conditions. It is defined as a problematic pattern of tobacco use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:

1. Tobacco is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
2. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control tobacco use.
3. A great deal of time is spent on activities necessary to obtain or use tobacco, or recover from its effects.
4. Craving, or a strong desire or urge to use tobacco, occurs.
5. Recurrent tobacco use results in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of tobacco use.
7. Tobacco use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by tobacco.
8. Tolerance, as defined by either of the following:
a. A need for markedly increased amounts of tobacco to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b. Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of tobacco.
9. Characteristic withdrawal syndrome for tobacco, or tobacco is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis excludes nicotine withdrawal that is a normal response to the cessation of tobacco use, intoxication, or substance/medication-induced disorders. Tobacco Use Disorder can be further specified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the number of criteria met.

Ganglionic stimulants are a type of medication that act on the ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located outside the central nervous system. These medications work by stimulating the ganglia, leading to an increase in the transmission of nerve impulses and the activation of various physiological responses.

Ganglionic stimulants were once used in the treatment of conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and cardiovascular disease. However, their use has largely been discontinued due to the development of safer and more effective treatments. These medications can have significant side effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, dizziness, headache, and in rare cases, seizures and coma.

It's important to note that the medical community no longer recommends the use of ganglionic stimulants due to their potential for serious harm. If you have any questions about medications or treatments for a particular condition, it's best to consult with a qualified healthcare professional.

Nicotinic receptors are a type of ligand-gated ion channel receptor that are activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the alkaloid nicotine. They are widely distributed throughout the nervous system and play important roles in various physiological processes, including neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, and cognitive functions such as learning and memory. Nicotinic receptors are composed of five subunits that form a ion channel pore, which opens to allow the flow of cations (positively charged ions) when the receptor is activated by acetylcholine or nicotine. There are several subtypes of nicotinic receptors, which differ in their subunit composition and functional properties. These receptors have been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia.

Mecamylamine is a non-competitive antagonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is primarily used in the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure) that is resistant to other medications, although it has been largely replaced by newer drugs with fewer side effects.

Mecamylamine works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that activates nicotinic receptors and plays a role in regulating blood pressure. By blocking these receptors, mecamylamine can help to reduce blood vessel constriction and lower blood pressure.

It is important to note that mecamylamine can have significant side effects, including dry mouth, dizziness, blurred vision, constipation, and difficulty urinating. It may also cause orthostatic hypotension (a sudden drop in blood pressure when standing up), which can increase the risk of falls and fractures in older adults. As a result, mecamylamine is typically used as a last resort in patients with severe hypertension who have not responded to other treatments.

Cotinine is the major metabolite of nicotine, which is formed in the body after exposure to tobacco smoke or other sources of nicotine. It is often used as a biomarker for nicotine exposure and can be measured in various biological samples such as blood, urine, saliva, and hair. Cotinine has a longer half-life than nicotine, making it a more reliable indicator of long-term exposure to tobacco smoke or nicotine products.

Nicotinic antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of nicotine at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These receptors are found in the nervous system and are activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, as well as by nicotine. When nicotine binds to these receptors, it can cause the release of various neurotransmitters, including dopamine, which can lead to rewarding effects and addiction.

Nicotinic antagonists work by binding to nAChRs and preventing nicotine from activating them. This can help to reduce the rewarding effects of nicotine and may be useful in treating nicotine addiction. Examples of nicotinic antagonists include mecamylamine, varenicline, and cytisine.

It's important to note that while nicotinic antagonists can help with nicotine addiction, they can also have side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, and abnormal dreams. Additionally, some people may experience more serious side effects, such as seizures or cardiovascular problems, so it's important to use these medications under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Chewing gum is not a medical term, but rather a common consumer product. It is a type of soft, cohesive substance designed to be chewed without being swallowed. The basic ingredients of chewing gum include a gum base, sweeteners, flavorings, and softeners. The gum base gives it its chewy texture, while sweeteners provide the taste. Flavorings are added to give the gum its particular taste, such as mint, fruit, or bubblegum. Softeners are added to keep the gum from hardening over time.

While chewing gum is not a medical treatment or therapy, it does have some potential health benefits and drawbacks. Chewing sugar-free gum, for example, has been shown to increase saliva production, which can help neutralize acid in the mouth and reduce the risk of tooth decay. However, excessive gum chewing can lead to jaw pain or headaches in some individuals. It is also important to choose sugar-free gum, as sugary gum can contribute to tooth decay.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

Tobacco use cessation products are a type of pharmacological or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) designed to help individuals stop using tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. These products include:

1. Nicotine gum: A chewing gum that delivers nicotine to the body through the lining of the mouth.
2. Nicotine lozenges: Similar to nicotine gum, but in the form of a small tablet that dissolves slowly in the mouth.
3. Nicotine patch: A transdermal patch that delivers a steady dose of nicotine through the skin.
4. Nicotine inhaler: A device that looks like a cigarette and delivers nicotine vapor to be inhaled.
5. Nicotine nasal spray: A spray that delivers nicotine through the nostrils.
6. Non-nicotine prescription medications: Such as bupropion (Zyban) and varenicline (Chantix), which help reduce cravings and withdrawal symptoms.

These products are intended to help manage nicotine dependence and make it easier for individuals to quit tobacco use by alleviating the unpleasant symptoms of withdrawal. It is important to note that these products should be used as part of a comprehensive cessation plan, which may also include counseling and behavioral support.

Smoking cessation is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking. This can be achieved through various methods such as behavioral modifications, counseling, and medication. The goal of smoking cessation is to improve overall health, reduce the risk of tobacco-related diseases, and enhance quality of life. It is a significant step towards preventing lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other serious health conditions.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

"Cutaneous administration" is a route of administering medication or treatment through the skin. This can be done through various methods such as:

1. Topical application: This involves applying the medication directly to the skin in the form of creams, ointments, gels, lotions, patches, or solutions. The medication is absorbed into the skin and enters the systemic circulation slowly over a period of time. Topical medications are often used for local effects, such as treating eczema, psoriasis, or fungal infections.

2. Iontophoresis: This method uses a mild electrical current to help a medication penetrate deeper into the skin. A positive charge is applied to a medication with a negative charge, or vice versa, causing it to be attracted through the skin. Iontophoresis is often used for local pain management and treating conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

3. Transdermal delivery systems: These are specialized patches that contain medication within them. The patch is applied to the skin, and as time passes, the medication is released through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This method allows for a steady, controlled release of medication over an extended period. Common examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation and hormone replacement therapy patches.

Cutaneous administration offers several advantages, such as avoiding first-pass metabolism (which can reduce the effectiveness of oral medications), providing localized treatment, and allowing for self-administration in some cases. However, it may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions, and potential side effects include skin irritation, allergic reactions, and systemic absorption leading to unwanted systemic effects.

Dihydro-beta-erythroidine (DHβE) is a nicotinic antagonist that selectively binds to and inhibits the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). These receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that play important roles in the nervous system, including the regulation of neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity. DHβE is often used in research to study the function of nAChRs and their role in various physiological processes. It has also been investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for various neurological disorders, although it has not yet been approved for clinical use.

"Tars" is not a recognized medical term. However, "tarso-" is a prefix in anatomy that refers to the ankle or hind part of an organ. For example, the tarsal bones are the bones that make up the ankle and the rear part of the foot. Additionally, tarsus can refer to the thickened portion of the eyelid which contains the eyelashes. It is important to ensure you have the correct term when seeking medical information.

Self-administration, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the act of an individual administering medication or treatment to themselves. This can include various forms of delivery such as oral medications, injections, or topical treatments. It is important that individuals who self-administer are properly trained and understand the correct dosage, timing, and technique to ensure safety and effectiveness. Self-administration promotes independence, allows for timely treatment, and can improve overall health outcomes.

The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) is a type of cholinergic receptor found in the nervous system that is activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. It is a ligand-gated ion channel that is widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, including in the hippocampus, cortex, thalamus, and autonomic ganglia.

The α7nAChR is composed of five subunits arranged around a central pore, and it has a high permeability to calcium ions (Ca2+). When acetylcholine binds to the receptor, it triggers a conformational change that opens the ion channel, allowing Ca2+ to flow into the cell. This influx of Ca2+ can activate various intracellular signaling pathways and have excitatory or inhibitory effects on neuronal activity, depending on the location and function of the receptor.

The α7nAChR has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, attention, sensory perception, and motor control. It has also been studied as a potential therapeutic target for various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and pain.

Azocines are a class of organic compounds that contain a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms adjacent to each other, connected by a single bond. This results in an unusual structure where the two nitrogen atoms share a double bond, creating a unique azoxy functional group. The name "azocine" is derived from the fact that it contains both azo (-N=N-) and cyclic structures.

Azocines are not commonly found in nature, but they can be synthesized in the laboratory for use in various applications, such as pharmaceuticals or materials science. However, due to their unique structure and reactivity, they may pose challenges during synthesis and handling.

It's worth noting that azocines do not have a specific medical definition, as they are not a type of drug or treatment. Instead, they are a class of chemical compounds with potential applications in various fields, including medicine.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Aconitine is a toxic alkaloid compound that can be found in various plants of the Aconitum genus, also known as monkshood or wolf's bane. It is a highly poisonous substance that can cause serious medical symptoms, including numbness, tingling, and paralysis of the muscles, as well as potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias and seizures. Aconitine works by binding to sodium channels in nerve cells, causing them to become overactive and leading to the release of large amounts of neurotransmitters.

In medical contexts, aconitine is not used as a therapeutic agent due to its high toxicity. However, it has been studied for its potential medicinal properties, such as its analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite these potential benefits, the risks associated with using aconitine as a medicine far outweigh any possible advantages, and it is not considered a viable treatment option.

Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences, either reinforcing or punishing the behavior. It was first described by B.F. Skinner and involves an association between a response (behavior) and a consequence (either reward or punishment). There are two types of operant conditioning: positive reinforcement, in which a desirable consequence follows a desired behavior, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again; and negative reinforcement, in which a undesirable consequence is removed following a desired behavior, also increasing the likelihood that the behavior will occur again.

For example, if a child cleans their room (response) and their parent gives them praise or a treat (positive reinforcement), the child is more likely to clean their room again in the future. If a child is buckling their seatbelt in the car (response) and the annoying buzzer stops (negative reinforcement), the child is more likely to buckle their seatbelt in the future.

It's important to note that operant conditioning is a form of learning, not motivation. The behavior is modified by its consequences, regardless of the individual's internal state or intentions.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Quinolizines are not a medical term, but a chemical classification for a group of compounds that contain a quinolizine ring in their structure. A quinolizine ring is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with eight pi electrons and consists of two benzene rings fused to a piperidine ring.

Quinolizines have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-malarial, anti-cancer, and anti-microbial activities. However, there are no currently approved drugs that contain quinolizine as the primary active ingredient. Therefore, it is not possible to provide a medical definition of 'Quinolizines.'

Smokeless tobacco is a type of tobacco that is not burned or smoked. It's often called "spit" or "chewing" tobacco. The most common forms of smokeless tobacco in the United States are snuff and chewing tobacco. Snuff is a finely ground tobacco that can be dry or moist. Dry snuff is sniffed or taken through the nose, while moist snuff is placed between the lower lip or cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is plugs, leaves, or twists of tobacco that are chewed or sucked on.

Smokeless tobacco contains nicotine, which is addictive. When you use smokeless tobacco, the nicotine is absorbed through the lining of your mouth and goes directly into your bloodstream. This can lead to a rapid increase in nicotine levels in your body, which can make it harder to quit using tobacco.

Smokeless tobacco also contains harmful chemicals that can cause cancer of the mouth, esophagus, and pancreas. It can also cause other health problems, such as gum disease, tooth decay, and precancerous lesions in the mouth. Using smokeless tobacco can also increase your risk of developing heart disease and having a stroke.

Tobacco products are defined as any items that contain tobacco, including but not limited to cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, snuff, chewing tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (such as e-cigarettes). These products can be smoked, smokeless, or heated and involve the inhalation or ingestion of tobacco or its derivatives. They are known to cause addiction due to their nicotine content and can lead to a variety of serious health problems, including cancer, heart disease, and lung disease.

In the context of medicine, particularly in behavioral neuroscience and psychology, "reward" is not typically used as a definitive medical term. However, it generally refers to a positive outcome or incentive that reinforces certain behaviors, making them more likely to be repeated in the future. This can involve various stimuli such as food, water, sexual activity, social interaction, or drug use, among others.

In the brain, rewards are associated with the activation of the reward system, primarily the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which includes the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). The release of dopamine in these areas is thought to reinforce and motivate behavior linked to rewards.

It's important to note that while "reward" has a specific meaning in this context, it is not a formal medical diagnosis or condition. Instead, it is a concept used to understand the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying motivation, learning, and addiction.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

Anabasine is a type of toxic alkaloid that can be found in certain plants, including the leaves of the tobacco plant Nicotiana glauca (also known as tree tobacco). It has a similar structure to nicotine and can have similar physiological effects, such as stimulating the nervous system and increasing heart rate. However, anabasine is generally considered to be more toxic than nicotine.

Anabasine can also be produced synthetically in a laboratory. It has been used in research as a tool for studying the mechanisms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are important targets for drugs that affect the nervous system.

In terms of medical definitions, anabasine is not a term that is commonly used in clinical medicine. It is more likely to be encountered in the context of research or toxicology.

Bicyclo compounds, heterocyclic, refer to a class of organic compounds that contain two rings in their structure, at least one of which is a heterocycle. A heterocycle is a cyclic compound containing atoms of at least two different elements as part of the ring structure. The term "bicyclo" indicates that there are two rings present in the molecule, with at least one common atom between them.

These compounds have significant importance in medicinal chemistry and pharmacology due to their unique structures and properties. They can be found in various natural products and are also synthesized for use as drugs, agrochemicals, and other chemical applications. The heterocyclic rings often contain nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur atoms, which can interact with biological targets, such as enzymes and receptors, leading to pharmacological activity.

Examples of bicyclo compounds, heterocyclic, include quinolone antibiotics (e.g., ciprofloxacin), benzodiazepines (e.g., diazepam), and camptothecin-derived topoisomerase inhibitors (e.g., irinotecan). These compounds exhibit diverse biological activities, such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anxiolytic, and anticancer properties.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm. This compound is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter, and is a major component of automobile exhaust.

Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells much more strongly than oxygen does, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This prevents the transport of oxygen throughout the body, which can lead to suffocation and death. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and disorientation. Prolonged exposure can lead to unconsciousness and death.

Carbon monoxide detectors are commonly used in homes and other buildings to alert occupants to the presence of this dangerous gas. It is important to ensure that these devices are functioning properly and that they are placed in appropriate locations throughout the building. Additionally, it is essential to maintain appliances and heating systems to prevent the release of carbon monoxide into living spaces.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

'Self-stimulation' is more commonly known as "autoeroticism" or "masturbation." It refers to the act of stimulating one's own genitals for sexual pleasure, which can lead to orgasm. This behavior is considered a normal part of human sexuality and is a safe way to explore one's body and sexual responses. Self-stimulation can also be used as a means of relieving sexual tension and promoting relaxation. It is important to note that self-stimulation should always be a consensual, private activity and not performed in public or against the will of another individual.

Hexamethonium is defined as a ganglionic blocker, which is a type of medication that blocks the activity at the junction between two nerve cells (neurons) called the neurotransmitter receptor site. It is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, which means it works by binding to and inhibiting the action of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the motor endplate, where the nerve meets the muscle.

Hexamethonium was historically used in anesthesia practice as a adjunct to provide muscle relaxation during surgical procedures. However, its use has largely been replaced by other neuromuscular blocking agents that have a faster onset and shorter duration of action. It is still used in research settings to study the autonomic nervous system and for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies in some cases.

It's important to note that the use of Hexamethonium requires careful monitoring and management, as it can have significant effects on cardiovascular function and other body systems.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Benzazepines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a diazepine ring. In the context of pharmaceuticals, benzazepines refer to a group of drugs with various therapeutic uses, such as antipsychotics and antidepressants. Some examples of benzazepine-derived drugs include clozapine, olanzapine, and loxoprofen. These drugs have complex mechanisms of action, often involving multiple receptor systems in the brain.

Bungarotoxins are a group of neurotoxins that come from the venom of some species of elapid snakes, particularly members of the genus Bungarus, which includes kraits. These toxins specifically bind to and inhibit the function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which are crucial for the transmission of signals at the neuromuscular junction.

There are three main types of bungarotoxins: α, β, and κ. Among these, α-bungarotoxin is the most well-studied. It binds irreversibly to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, preventing the binding of acetylcholine and thus blocking nerve impulse transmission. This results in paralysis and can ultimately lead to respiratory failure and death in severe cases.

Bungarotoxins are widely used in research as molecular tools to study the structure and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, helping us better understand neuromuscular transmission and develop potential therapeutic strategies for various neurological disorders.

Hexamethonium compounds are a type of ganglionic blocker, which are medications that block the transmission of nerve impulses at the ganglia ( clusters of nerve cells) in the autonomic nervous system. These compounds contain hexamethonium as the active ingredient, which is a compound with the chemical formula C16H32N2O4.

Hexamethonium works by blocking the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the ganglia, which prevents the release of neurotransmitters and ultimately inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses. This can have various effects on the body, depending on which part of the autonomic nervous system is affected.

Hexamethonium compounds were once used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), but they are rarely used today due to their numerous side effects and the availability of safer and more effective medications. Some of the side effects associated with hexamethonium include dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, difficulty urinating, and dizziness upon standing.

Tobacco smoke pollution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it refers to the presence of tobacco smoke in indoor or outdoor environments, which can have negative effects on air quality and human health. It is also known as secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This type of smoke is a mixture of sidestream smoke (the smoke given off by a burning cigarette) and mainstream smoke (the smoke exhaled by a smoker).

The medical community recognizes tobacco smoke pollution as a serious health hazard. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals, hundreds of which are toxic and about 70 that can cause cancer. Exposure to tobacco smoke pollution can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory symptoms, lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. In children, it can also lead to ear infections, asthma attacks, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Therefore, many laws and regulations have been implemented worldwide to protect people from tobacco smoke pollution, such as smoking bans in public places and workplaces.

The Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) is a collection of neurons located in the midbrain that is part of the dopamine system. It is specifically known as the A10 group and is the largest source of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. These neurons project to various regions, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, and are involved in reward, motivation, addiction, and various cognitive functions. The VTA also contains GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons that modulate dopamine release and have various other functions.

Quinoxalines are not a medical term, but rather an organic chemical compound. They are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds made up of a benzene ring fused to a pyrazine ring. Quinoxalines have no specific medical relevance, but some of their derivatives have been synthesized and used in medicinal chemistry as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents. They are also used in the production of dyes and pigments.

Nitrosamines are a type of chemical compound that are formed by the reaction between nitrous acid (or any nitrogen oxide) and secondary amines. They are often found in certain types of food, such as cured meats and cheeses, as well as in tobacco products and cosmetics.

Nitrosamines have been classified as probable human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Exposure to high levels of nitrosamines has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly in the digestive tract. They can also cause DNA damage and interfere with the normal functioning of cells.

In the medical field, nitrosamines have been a topic of concern due to their potential presence as contaminants in certain medications. For example, some drugs that contain nitrofurantoin, a medication used to treat urinary tract infections, have been found to contain low levels of nitrosamines. While the risk associated with these low levels is not well understood, efforts are underway to minimize the presence of nitrosamines in medications and other products.

'Smoke' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it can be described as a mixture of small particles and gases that are released when something burns. Smoke can be composed of various components including carbon monoxide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), benzene, toluene, styrene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to smoke can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

In the medical field, exposure to smoke is often referred to as "secondhand smoke" or "passive smoking" when someone breathes in smoke from another person's cigarette, cigar, or pipe. This type of exposure can be just as harmful as smoking itself and has been linked to a range of health problems, including respiratory infections, asthma, lung cancer, and heart disease.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pyridines" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to a class of organic compounds with the chemical structure of a six-membered ring containing one nitrogen atom and five carbon atoms (heterocyclic aromatic compound).

In a biological or medical context, pyridine derivatives can be found in various natural and synthetic substances. For example, some medications contain pyridine rings as part of their chemical structure. However, "Pyridines" itself is not a medical term or condition.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

The nucleus accumbens is a part of the brain that is located in the ventral striatum, which is a key region of the reward circuitry. It is made up of two subregions: the shell and the core. The nucleus accumbens receives inputs from various sources, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus, and sends outputs to the ventral pallidum and other areas.

The nucleus accumbens is involved in reward processing, motivation, reinforcement learning, and addiction. It plays a crucial role in the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is associated with pleasure and reinforcement. Dysfunction in the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including substance use disorders, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

"Asclepias" is a genus of plants in the dogbane family (Apocynaceae). It includes several species commonly known as milkweeds. These plants are native to North America and are known for their milky sap and clusters of pink, yellow, or white flowers. Some species of Asclepias are important host plants for the monarch butterfly, which lays its eggs on the leaves and uses the sap to fuel its migration.

'Duboisia' is a genus of evergreen shrubs or small trees that are native to Australia. It belongs to the family Solanaceae, which also includes plants such as nightshade, potato, and tobacco. There are four species in the Duboisia genus: Duboisia myoporoides (Corkwood tree), Duboisia leichhardtii (Poison bush), Duboisia hopwoodii (Five-leaved Duboisia), and Duboisia spp. (Pale-barked Duboisia).

These plants contain a number of tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine, hyoscyamine, and nicotine, which have various medicinal properties and uses. Scopolamine and hyoscyamine are anticholinergic drugs that can be used to treat conditions such as motion sickness, gastrointestinal disorders, and Parkinson's disease. Nicotine is a stimulant and is used in tobacco products, as well as in nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.

Duboisia plants are harvested for their leaves, which are processed to extract the alkaloids. The extracted alkaloids are then used to produce pharmaceutical products or are further purified for research purposes. It is important to note that Duboisia plants and their alkaloid extracts can be toxic if not used properly, and should only be handled by trained professionals.

"Solanaceae" is not a medical term but a taxonomic category in biology, referring to the Nightshade family of plants. This family includes several plants that have economic and medicinal importance, as well as some that are toxic or poisonous. Some common examples of plants in this family include:

- Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)
- Solanum tuberosum (potato)
- Capsicum annuum (bell pepper and chili pepper)
- Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
- Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)
- Hyoscyamus niger (henbane)

While Solanaceae isn't a medical term itself, certain plants within this family have medical significance. For instance, some alkaloids found in these plants can be used as medications or pharmaceutical precursors, such as atropine and scopolamine from Atropa belladonna, hyoscine from Hyoscyamus niger, and capsaicin from Capsicum species. However, it's important to note that many of these plants also contain toxic compounds, so they must be handled with care and used only under professional supervision.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Edible plants are those that can be safely consumed by humans and other animals as a source of nutrition. They have various parts (such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, roots, stems, and leaves) that can be used for food after being harvested and prepared properly. Some edible plants have been cultivated and domesticated for agricultural purposes, while others are gathered from the wild. It is important to note that not all plants are safe to eat, and some may even be toxic or deadly if consumed. Proper identification and knowledge of preparation methods are crucial before consuming any plant material.

... nicotine is physiologically less active than (−)-nicotine. (−)-nicotine is more toxic than (+)-nicotine. The salts of (−)- ... Nicotine in any form is contraindicated in individuals with a known hypersensitivity to nicotine. Nicotine is classified as a ... While acute/initial nicotine intake causes activation of neuronal nicotine receptors, chronic low doses of nicotine use leads ... However, the studies to date indicate that (S)-nicotine is more potent than (R)-nicotine and (S)-nicotine causes stronger ...
Nicotine is a satirical 2016 novel by US novelist Nell Zink. It follows the character of Penny as she deals with both the death ... The house where Rob and Jazz live is called Nicotine since all the residents are smokers and they tell Penny that they are pro- ... Nicotine was generally liked by reviewers. The Independent praised its humour and commented that it "proves Zink's distinctive ... She discovers that it has been squatted in the meantime and is named Nicotine because the activists who live there all smoke ...
"Nicotine & Gravy" (video) "Hijacked Flavors - Search Results". "Beck Song Information - Nicotine & Gravy". Nicotine & Gravy at ... "Nicotine & Gravy" is a song by Beck, from the 1999 album Midnite Vultures. It was released as a single in Europe in July 2000. ... The beauty of working that way on computer is, when you don't like it, you just hit 'undo.'" "Nicotine & Gravy" - 5:15 "Midnite ... MusicBrainz (list of releases) "Nicotine & Gravy" official music video on YouTube (Articles with short description, Short ...
Another way to reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms is to provide the body with an alternative source of nicotine (nicotine ... and nicotine medications such as nicotine gum. Withdrawal is the body's reaction to not having the nicotine it had become ... The symptoms of nicotine withdrawal usually appear 2-3 hours after last intake of nicotine and peak in 2-3 days.In a minority ... Nicotine withdrawal is a group of symptoms that occur in the first few weeks after stopping or decreasing use of nicotine. ...
"About Us". Nicotine Anonymous. Retrieved 1 August 2017. Nicotine Anonymous: The Book (5th ed.). Dallas, TX: Nicotine Anonymous ... Nicotine Anonymous World Services (September 2004). Nicotine Anonymous: The Book (3rd ed.). Huntington Beach, CA: Nicotine ... ISBN 978-0-9770115-4-4. Nicotine Anonymous World Services (2012). Nicotine Anonymous Newcomer's Booklet. Dallas, TX: Nicotine ... ISBN 978-0-9770115-5-1. Nicotine Anonymous (2008-05-01). "Nicotine Anonymous Publications, Literature and Pamphlets". Nicotine ...
Trevor Daniel - Nicotine Album Reviews, Songs & More , AllMusic, retrieved 2023-05-12 "Nicotine by Trevor Daniel". Apple Music ... Nicotine is the debut studio album by American singer Trevor Daniel. It was released on March 26, 2020, by Alamo and Interscope ... "Credits / Nicotine / TREVOR DANIEL". Tidal. Retrieved July 12, 2020. "Trevor Daniel Chart History (Canadian Albums)". Billboard ... "Trevor Daniel's Debut Album 'Nicotine' Already Has Us Hooked". Ones to Watch. Retrieved 2020-07-12. "Trevor Daniel Releases ...
Nicotine gum "Nicotine polacrilex". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Archived from the original on ... Nicotine polacrilex is nicotine bound to an ion-exchange resin (polymethacrylic acid, such as Amberlite IRP64, Purolite C115HMR ... Nicotine polacrilex at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portals: Medicine Viruses v t e ( ... 80 to 90 percent of the nicotine released from the gum is absorbed by the mouth. Side effects of the gum include bad taste, ...
Plasmatic cells produce immunoglobulins, the anti-nicotine antibodies that bind to nicotine. The nicotine and nicotine-specific ... Nicotine vaccine is a novel immunological strategy for treating nicotine addiction. Nicotine vaccine uses active immunization ... Although the use of nicotine vaccines may produce high levels of anti-nicotine antibodies to bind to all nicotine molecules and ... The nicotine levels in the rat brain and the rat's motor activity in reaction to a nicotine challenge were lowered by a vaccine ...
... es contain the addictive chemical nicotine. Nicotine has widespread effects on the body and may contribute to ... Nicotine pouches, also called modern oral nicotine products, are white pouches containing nicotine among other ingredients. ... Nicotine Content of Nicotine Pouch Products". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 23 (9): 1590-1596. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntab030. ISSN ... Nicotine Content of Nicotine Pouch Products". Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 23 (9): 1590-1596. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntab030. PMID ...
Nicotine is a heavy metal band from Indore, India, formed in December 2006. Its line-up consists of Digvijay Bhonsale on lead ... "Metal Mania feat Nicotine & Dirge at Hard Rock Cafe, Hyderabad". liveinstyle.com. Retrieved 17 March 2016. "Does Indore have ... "An interview with 'Nicotine'!". Trending Top5. 26 August 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2021. v t e (Articles with short ... Indian rock "Metal Mania feat by Dirge and Nicotine at HRC,Hyderabad". Ritz. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. ...
... nicotine gum, nicotine inhaler, nicotine lozenge/mini-lozenge, nicotine nasal spray, nicotine patch, and varenicline. These ... Nicotine dependence is a state of dependence upon nicotine. Nicotine dependence is a chronic, relapsing disease defined as a ... occurs as a result of long-term nicotine use and leads to nicotine dependence. In contrast, the effect of nicotine on human ... Nicotine dependence develops over time as a person continues to use nicotine. Teenagers do not have to be daily or long-term ...
Nicotine is a chemical compound. Nicotine may also refer to: Nicotine (novel), a 2016 novel by Nell Zink Nicotine (band), an ... "Nicotine", a 2003 song by Anet from Talented Girl Nicotinic acid, or niacin Nicotine gum Nicotine patch Nicotine poisoning This ... "Nicotine", a 2013 song by Panic! at the Disco from Too Weird to Live, Too Rare to Die! Nicotine, a client of the file-sharing ... Look up nicotine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... page lists articles associated with the title Nicotine. If an ...
Nicotine addicts need the nicotine to temporarily feel normal. Nicotine addiction seems to worsen mental health problems, but ... Nicotine marketing is increasingly regulated; some forms of nicotine advertising are banned in many countries. The World Health ... Nicotine marketing is the marketing of nicotine-containing products or use. Traditionally, the tobacco industry markets ... Pleasure up"). Although nicotine products temporarily relieve nicotine withdrawal symptoms, an addiction causes worse stress ...
Nicotine replacement therapy Smoking cessation Nicotine lozenge Nicotine inhaler Nicotine nasal spray Nicotine patch "Nicotine ... Nicotine gum is a chewing gum containing the active ingredient nicotine polacrilex. It is a type of nicotine replacement ... Nicotine gum is often used in conjunction with a long-acting nicotine patch. The patch delivers nicotine slowly and ... Side effects of nicotine gum arise from vigorous chewing, which releases excess nicotine. Chewing nicotine gum may cause jaw ...
Nicotine replacement therapy nicotine gum Nicotine patch "Frequently Asked Questions , Nicorette". www.nicorette.com. Retrieved ... The nicotine is absorbed through the lining of the mouth and enters the blood vessels. It is used as an aid in nicotine ... A nicotine lozenge is a modified-release dosage tablet (usually flavored) that contains a dose of nicotine polacrilex, which ... Nicotine lozenges are intended to help individuals quit smoking and are generally an over-the-counter medication. Nicotine ...
D-nicotine oxidase, nicotine:(acceptor) 6-oxidoreductase (hydroxylating), and L-nicotine oxidase. It has 2 cofactors: metal, ... In enzymology, a nicotine dehydrogenase (EC 1.5.99.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction (S)-nicotine + acceptor ... HOCHSTEIN LI, RITTENBERG SC (1959). "The bacterial oxidation of nicotine. II. The isolation of the first oxidative product and ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is nicotine:acceptor 6-oxidoreductase (hydroxylating). Other names in common use ...
... s are thought to amplify the level and rate of nicotine delivery to the user. The speed of nicotine salts uptake ... Nicotine pyruvate is another form of nicotine salt. A chemical reaction with a pyruvic acid is used to aerosolize nicotine. A ... Nicotine salts are salts formed from nicotine and an acid. They are found naturally in tobacco leaves. Various acids can be ... Nicotine salts are less harsh and less bitter and as a consequence e-liquids that contain nicotine salts are more tolerable ...
Increased nicotine or cotinine (the nicotine metabolite) is detected in urine or blood, or serum nicotine concentrations ... Nicotine dependence Nicotine withdrawal Lavoie FW, Harris TM (1991). "Fatal nicotine ingestion". The Journal of Emergency ... Nicotine poisoning can potentially be deadly, though serious or fatal overdoses are rare. Historically, most cases of nicotine ... Nicotine poisoning describes the symptoms of the toxic effects of nicotine following ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. ...
A nicotine patch is a transdermal patch that releases nicotine into the body through the skin. It is used in nicotine ... Smoking cessation Nicotine replacement therapy Nicotine lozenge Nicotine gum Transdermal patch World Health Organization (2019 ... "Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Quitting Tobacco". www.cancer.org. Retrieved 2019-10-23. "Nicotine replacement therapy: ... Rose JE, Herskovic JE, Trilling Y, Jarvik ME (October 1985). "Transdermal nicotine reduces cigarette craving and nicotine ...
Nicotine gum, nicotine sprays, nicotine toothpicks, nicotine sublingual tablets, and nicotine lozenges administer nicotine ... Nicotine replacement products vary in the time it takes for the nicotine to enter the body and the total time nicotine stays in ... Combining nicotine patch treatment with a faster nicotine-delivery means, like nicotine gum or spray, improves the likelihood ... They can have a total nicotine delivery that is comparable to that of nicotine gum. Nicotine toothpicks generally are infused ...
H-nicotine blue oxidoreductase is part of the nicotine regulon and may protect Arthrobacter nicotinovorans from oxidative ... Nicotine blue oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.328, nboR (gene)) is an enzyme with systematic name 3,3'-bipyridine-2,2',5,5',6,6'-hexol ... Nicotine+blue+oxidoreductase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (Articles ... stress during nicotine catabolism". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 73 (8): 2479-85. doi:10.1128/AEM.02668-06. PMC ...
Consumption of nicotine pouches may result in higher levels of nicotine in the blood than consumption of cigarettes. Various ... "Nicotine Pouches". Tobacco Tactics. 2022-12-19. Dasha Afanasieva (2023-04-15). "Big Tobacco Pushes Nicotine Pouches as Vaping ... "ZYN Launches Tobacco Flavoured Nicotine Pouches". Vaping Post. "Health risk assessment of nicotine pouches" (PDF). Federal ... Zyn is a brand of nicotine pouches. Zyn pouches are designed to be placed between the gum and upper lip and are available in ...
A nicotine nasal spray is a nasal spray that contains a small dose of nicotine, which enters the blood by being absorbed ... This helps stop nicotine cravings and relieves symptoms that occur when a person is trying to quit smoking. A prescription is ... Nicotine nasal spray entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates public domain material ... needed for nicotine nasal spray in many countries. In the United Kingdom, it can be purchased in a pharmacy as an Over-the- ...
... (N&TR) is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research pertaining to tobacco products ... It was established in 1999 and is the official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. It is published by ... ". "Nicotine & Tobacco Research". academic.oup.com. Retrieved 22 September 2023. "Journals Ranked by Impact: Substance Abuse". ...
The nicotine industry also promoted "modified risk" nicotine products, falsely implied to be less harmful, such as roasted, " ... The history of nicotine marketing stretches back centuries. Nicotine marketing has continually developed new techniques in ... The first known nicotine advertisement in the United States was for the snuff and tobacco products and was placed in the New ... Nicotine use is frequently shown in movies. While academics had long speculated that there was paid product placement, it was ...
As nicotine is highly addictive, marketing nicotine-containing products is regulated in most jurisdictions. Regulations include ... Nicotine use is frequently shown in movies, historically often in return for six-figure (US$) sponsorship deals. More money is ... Both teams and companies claim these partnerships have nothing to do with tobacco or nicotine products. Critics argue however, ... Unpaid content on Facebook, created and sponsored by tobacco companies, is widely used to advertise nicotine-containing ...
The Nicotine and Cannabis Policy Center (NCPC) is a research institute operated by the University of California and funded by ... Anna Song and is housed on the campus of UC Merced, and has the goal of addressing nicotine and cannabis policy issues across ... "Tobacco And Nicotine Research Center To Open At California University". CapRadio. Retrieved 2022-10-26. Balla, Agnes; Forsyth, ... Alvarex, Jason (2018-07-23). "Multimillion-Dollar Grant Brings Nicotine and Cannabis Policy Center to Campus , Newsroom". news. ...
The Fagerström Test for Nicotine dependence is a standard instrument for assessing the intensity of addiction to nicotine. It ... In many countries nurses and pharmacists can use Fagerström to assess nicotine use and may initiate Nicotine Replacement ... "Nicotine: Everything You Need to Know". ecigator.com. 2023-03-10. Retrieved 2023-03-10. Bakan, Ayse Berivan; Aktas, Betül; ... This article incorporates public domain material from Instrument: Fagerstrom Test For Nicotine Dependence (FTND). National ...
... essay [1] by Scott Simmon at National Film Registry Princess Nicotine; or, The Smoke ... Princess Nicotine was shot by Tony Gaudio, who used mirrors to achieve a deep depth of field. The film was probably inspired by ... Princess Nicotine; or, The Smoke Fairy is a 1909 five-minute silent film directed by J. Stuart Blackton. In the film, a smoker ... Princess Nicotine; or, The Smoke Fairy was the first instance of tobacco product placement (for Sweet Corporal cigarettes and ...
The effects of nicotine on the sleep-wake cycle through nicotine receptors may have a functional significance. Nicotine ... but the nicotine content in e-cigarettes is adequate to sustain nicotine dependence. Chronic nicotine use causes a broad range ... Nicotine accumulates in the fetus because it goes through the placenta. Nicotine has been found in placental tissue as early as ... Nicotine withdrawal, after abstaining from nicotine use in non-smokers, was linked with longer overall length of sleep and REM ...
... nicotine is physiologically less active than (−)-nicotine. (−)-nicotine is more toxic than (+)-nicotine. The salts of (−)- ... Nicotine in any form is contraindicated in individuals with a known hypersensitivity to nicotine. Nicotine is classified as a ... While acute/initial nicotine intake causes activation of neuronal nicotine receptors, chronic low doses of nicotine use leads ... However, the studies to date indicate that (S)-nicotine is more potent than (R)-nicotine and (S)-nicotine causes stronger ...
... and importers responsible for reporting ingredient and nicotine data. ... Nicotine Report A specification of the quantity of nicotine (total nicotine, un-ionized nicotine, total moisture, and pH) ... 8. What does a Nicotine Report consist of? The Nicotine Report is a specification of the quantity of nicotine (total nicotine, ... amount of unionized nicotine, and percentage of unionized nicotine, total moisture, and pH for each smokeless product, please ...
About Nicotine Patch A nicotine patch is a smoking cessation product that helps the smokers to slowly reduce their addiction to ... Side-effects of Nicotine Patch. - For a full, detailed list, view our report.. Key Market Trend. - Emergence of Zero Nicotine ... A nicotine patch is a smoking cessation product that helps the smokers to slowly reduce their addiction to nicotine. The patch ... These products are one form of nicotine replacement therapy. The other forms are nicotine lozenges and gum. TechNavios report ...
Nicotine Lozenges: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... do not use nicotine lozenges if you are using any other nicotine smoking cessation aid, such as the nicotine patch, gum, ... Nicotine lozenges are in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. They work by providing nicotine to your body to ... Stop using nicotine lozenges after 12 weeks. If you still feel the need to use nicotine lozenges, talk to your doctor. ...
The body may metabolize nicotine into products that the lungs subsequently may convert into a potent compound that causes lung ... The researchers say their work doesnt imply that people trying to quit smoking should abandon the short-term use of nicotine ... A new study indicates that the body can metabolize nicotine into products that the lungs subsequently may convert into a potent ...
... and nicotine replacement therapies. On campus, the staff of the Center for Health Promotion can help you get started and ... Home / Center for Health Promotion / Health Information / Substance Use and Treatment / Nicotine Cessation ...
Though most brick-and-mortar stores refused to sell nicotine toothpicks to minors, teens can still buy the addictive products ... Nicotine toothpicks and flavored toothpicks without nicotine were originally marketed as smoking cessation aids, said Grewal, ... However, the results highlight the need for regulation of nicotine toothpick vendors to protect youth from accessing nicotine ... The nicotine content of the toothpicks varies, but many contain as much as 2-3 mg per pick compared with the 1.1-1.8-mg amount ...
Biologic: A case in which increased nicotine or cotinine (the nicotine metabolite) is detected in urine, or increased serum ... After oral ingestion of nicotine, signs and symptoms of nicotine poisoning mimic those for nerve agent or organophosphate ... Nicotine poisoning after ingestion of contaminated ground beef-Michigan, 2003. MMWR 2003;52:413-16. ... Environmental: Detection of nicotine in environmental samples, as determined by NIOSH or FDA. ...
Find out more about the link between ADHD and nicotine. ... ADHD are more likely to smoke and become addicted to nicotine. ... This section answers some frequently asked questions about ADHD and nicotine.. Can nicotine affect ADHD medication?. Nicotine ... Nicotine is a natural component of tobacco. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA). explains that nicotine can change how the ... Why is nicotine use higher in those with ADHD?. One explanation could be that some people with ADHD find that nicotine helps ...
Nicotine patches are an established, effective way to quit smoking. Lets look deeper at the research. ... Understanding What Salt Nicotine Is and How It Affects You. Salt nicotine is a variation of nicotine created to reduce burning ... Understanding the Caloric Value of Nicotine. No, nicotine doesnt contain any calories or nutritional value. While nicotine may ... Synthetic Nicotine: How Its Made and Health Risks to Know. This type of nicotine is lab made, and no tobacco plants are used. ...
Nicotine addiction is the second-leading cause of death worldwide. The important causes of smoking-related mortality are ... Nicotine also releases corticosteroids and endorphins that act on various receptors in the brain. Nicotine use results in more ... Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) works by making it easier to abstain from tobacco by partially replacing the nicotine ... In addition, nicotine has a sedative action, reduces anxiety, and induces euphoria. Nicotine effects are related to absolute ...
Tobacco manufacturer ITC exploits legal loopholes to openly advertise and sell nicotine gums, ... Nicotine anywhere. Tobacco manufacturer ITC exploits legal loopholes to openly advertise and sell nicotine gums ... Print edition Print edition Special Report Special Report Tobacco Tobacco nicotine ITC Limited Health Effects Health Effects ... Nicotine anywhere. Whats the worst that could happen to Indias campaign against tobacco? Manufacturers of tobacco products ...
Nicotine addiction is the second-leading cause of death worldwide. The important causes of smoking-related mortality are ... The nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal could be treated by means of the following [4, 30] :. * Other forms of nicotine ... Symptoms of nicotine toxicity, otherwise known as acute nicotine poisoning, include nausea, vomiting, salivation, pallor, ... encoded search term (Nicotine Addiction) and Nicotine Addiction What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Nicotine Anonymous World Services. Nicotine Anonymous® is a registered trademark of Nicotine Anonymous World Services. ... This is the official website for Nicotine Anonymous World Services. Other websites that wish to use the Nicotine Anonymous name ... Nicotine Anonymous® is a fellowship of men and women helping each other to live our lives free of nicotine. We share our ... We found that there is really no perfect time to quit using nicotine. When a member quits using nicotine is left up to him or ...
"Nicotine acts like a key that unlocks nicotine receptors in the brain. Usually that key opens the receptor, but at other times ... Why nicotine in cigarettes can relieve anxiety in smokers. Date:. November 8, 2012. Source:. Virginia Commonwealth University. ... "Why nicotine in cigarettes can relieve anxiety in smokers." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com. /. releases. /. 2012. /. 11. / ... 15, 2019 Smokers who are trying to quit may not always have to reach for a piece of nicotine gum to stave off a craving. ...
... only Finland has already set a date to become nicotine free. Studies reporting on central, eastern and southern Europe have ... We need more regulation for tobacco and nicotine products, particularly nicotine products destined for inhalation. The ... This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco, Nicotine and Health). Download keyboard_arrow_down Download PDF Download PDF ... file/0009/443673/Electronic-nicotine-and-non-nicotine-delivery-systems-brief-eng.pdf (accessed on 21 July 2021). ...
HOW mini Nicotine Polacrilex LOZENGES WORK. Mini Nicotine Polacrilex Lozenges are a form of Nicotine Replacement Therapy. They ... Mini Nicotine Polacrilex Lozenges do contain nicotine, however there is probably less nicotine in your daily dose of lozenges ... EQUATE NICOTINE- nicotine polacrilex lozenge. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS ... Nicotine lozenges may have enough nicotine to make children and pets sick. If you need to remove the lozenge, wrap it in paper ...
WASHINGTON, D.C. - Libertarian Party officials joined vaping industry members in criticizing President Donald Trumps plans to recommend a ban on the sale of flavored vaping products, a decision he announced Wednesday morning. Flavored vaping liquids - known colloquially as "e-liquids" - have come under attack from critics citing concerns that underage consumers could be […]. ...
The Health Consequences of Smoking: A report of the Surgeon General: Nicotine Addiction U.S Department of Health and Human ...
A Chart showing Nicotine and Tar contents of 25 cigarette brands. ... Nicotine:Tar Ratio. name. (mg). (mg). (g). (mg). (Nicotine mg ...
Enfuse Vapory Enfuse Euro Flavor Next Generation Labs TFN Nicotine TFN Synthetic Nicotine Vape Vaping E-Cigarette ... Developed by Next Generation Labs, TFN Nicotine® is a test-verified non-tobacco derived synthetic nicotine created for the vape ... Founded in 2014, Next Generation Labs developed TFN Nicotine®, the worlds leading synthetic nicotine that is not derived from ... TFN Nicotine is used in over 40 e-liquid brands in the US and is playing a central role in revolutionizing the e-cigarette and ...
Nicotine replacement therapy - place available (Tobacco control). This indicator is available in the following set of views in ...
The Biden administration proposed limiting nicotine in tobacco products, sparking debates, while e-cigarette use grows despite ... Should the government crack down on nicotine?. The Biden administration proposed limiting nicotine in tobacco products, ... And so by reducing the nicotine to a non-addictive level, the idea is that youre taking away the reason that people keep ... We are quite concerned about the rise in nicotine-containing e-cigarette use among youth, which is really epidemic, said the ...
Nicotine-infused toothpicks claim to help adults quit smoking, others arent convinced. ... "This is for tobacco users to make a switch, to make a change or to get their nicotine where they normally couldnt," he says. ... CINCINNATI (WLWT) - At Puff Smoke, a smoke shop near the University of Cincinnatis Clifton campus, nicotine toothpicks have ... Meisberger says his shop recently got a sample of toothpicks infused with nicotine, an addictive stimulant found in tobacco ...
In this study, we performed a systematic analysis on a set of nicotine addiction-related genes to explore their characteristics ... In summary, by analyzing the overall characteristics of the nicotine addiction related genes, this study provided valuable ... and metabolism related biological processes were involved in nicotine addiction. ... Nicotine, as the major psychoactive component of tobacco, has broad physiological effects within the central nervous system, ...
... cleaning nicotine stains off marble counters - undefined undefined Is there any cleaner that will remove nicotine stains from ... cleaning nicotine stains off marble counters undefinedundefined Is there any cleaner that will remove nicotine stains from ...
... nicotine affects your brain and causes a release of feel-good chemicals to create a buzz. As the buzz wears away, you want ... Nicotine Metabolism Liver enzymes metabolize, or process, nicotine in your body. How quickly you process nicotine through your ... Tests can detect nicotine in the blood for one to three days after youve chewed, smoked or dipped. Nicotine shows up in the ... BeTobaccoFree.gov: Nicotine Addiction and Your Health * Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology: Nicotine Chemistry, Metabolism, ...
... either nicotine polacrilex (nicotine- containing gum, or NG) or transdermal nicotine patch (or TNP). The effectiveness of both ... "pharmacological treatment of nicotine dependence" is defined as treatment with FDA- approved nicotine polacrilex (nicotine gum ... There is wide agreement (DHHS, 1988; Benowitz, 1988) that nicotine dependence is the primary cause of the maintenance of this ... Full Text CA-95-013 PHARMACO-BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT OF NICOTINE DEPENDENCE NIH GUIDE, Volume 24, Number 24, June 30, 1995 RFA: CA ...
Nicotine: Book summary and reviews of Nicotine by Nell Zink. Summary , Reviews , More Information , More Books ... "Nicotine." The Nicotine residents (united in defense of smokers rights) possess the type of passion and fervor Penny feels ... As the Baker familys lives begin to converge around the fate of the house now called Nicotine, Penny grows ever bolder and ... This information about Nicotine was first featured in "The BookBrowse Review" - BookBrowses membership magazine, and in our ...
  • Nicotine addiction involves drug-reinforced behavior, compulsive use, and relapse following abstinence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to recreational nicotine products, which have been designed to maximize the likelihood of addiction, nicotine replacement products (NRTs) are designed to minimize addictiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • 112 The more quickly a dose of nicotine is delivered and absorbed, the higher the addiction risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • A nicotine patch is a smoking cessation product that helps the smokers to slowly reduce their addiction to nicotine. (prnewswire.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) explains that nicotine can change how the brain works, leading to cravings and addiction . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Since vaping and chewing tobacco involve nicotine addiction, the nicotine patch can also help people quit using these products. (healthline.com)
  • Nicotine addiction is the second-leading cause of death worldwide, and the leading cause of preventable death. (medscape.com)
  • The time to first cigarette and total cigarettes per day are the 2 strongest predictors of nicotine addiction. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine addiction is now referred to as tobacco use disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) . (medscape.com)
  • Sindhu Naik of non-profit Karnataka State Council for Child Welfare (KSCCW) says, "Children can easily get this product which can lead to nicotine addiction. (org.in)
  • In this study, we performed a systematic analysis on a set of nicotine addiction-related genes to explore their characteristics at network levels. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, functional enrichment analysis revealed that neurodevelopment, neurotransmission activity, and metabolism related biological processes were involved in nicotine addiction. (hindawi.com)
  • In summary, by analyzing the overall characteristics of the nicotine addiction related genes, this study provided valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction. (hindawi.com)
  • Twins, family and adoption studies have suggested that nicotine addiction is closely related to genetic and environmental factors, and genetic factors play an important role in the risk to the development of addiction [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Numerous studies aiming to identify the genetic variants or candidate genes have found a large number of promising genes and chromosomal regions involved in the etiology of nicotine addiction [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • During the past decade, the application of high-throughput technologies to nicotine addiction study has greatly enhanced our ability to identify the nicotine addiction-related molecular factors [ 26 - 28 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Probiotics may not remove nicotine from your liver and blood, but such products can help facilitate digestive processes that can be wrecked by poor eating habits and nicotine addiction. (livestrong.com)
  • the evidence for a higher frequency of individuals with a high chemical dependence degree for nicotine demonstrates the importance of combining drug therapies with cognitive behavioral approaches through Nursing interventions, related to controlling and quitting the smoking addiction through health education. (bvsalud.org)
  • Controlled levels of nicotine are given to patients through gums, dermal patches, lozenges, inhalers, or nasal sprays to wean them off their dependence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2018 Cochrane Collaboration review found high-quality evidence that all current forms of nicotine replacement therapy (gum, patch, lozenges, inhaler, and nasal spray) therapies increase the chances of successfully quitting smoking by 50-60%, regardless of setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The other forms are nicotine lozenges and gum. (prnewswire.com)
  • Nicotine lozenges are used to help people stop smoking. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nicotine lozenges are in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Use nicotine lozenges exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you smoke your first cigarette within 30 minutes of waking up in the morning, you should use 4-mg nicotine lozenges. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stop using nicotine lozenges after 12 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you still feel the need to use nicotine lozenges, talk to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to nicotine, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in the nicotine lozenges. (medlineplus.gov)
  • do not use nicotine lozenges if you are using any other nicotine smoking cessation aid, such as the nicotine patch, gum, inhaler, or nasal spray. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while using nicotine lozenges, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you continue smoking while using nicotine lozenges, you may have side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You are more likely to stop smoking during your treatment with nicotine lozenges if you get information and support from your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nicotine lozenges may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It's a simple, well-established, and convenient way to kick the habit, especially when paired with another NRT, such as nicotine gum or lozenges. (healthline.com)
  • The nicotine patch demonstrates comparable effectiveness compared to other NRTs such as gum, lozenges, sprays, and inhalers. (healthline.com)
  • Nicotine lozenges may have enough nicotine to make children and pets sick. (nih.gov)
  • How to Use Mini Nicotine Polacrilex Lozenges and Tips to Help You Quit Smoking. (nih.gov)
  • Nicotine gum, lozenges and related products are safe if used by smokers at recommended dosages, but major overdoses can cause symptoms including irregular pulse, breathing difficulties and, in some cases, death. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • And some that do abide use nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), which could be in the form of a gum, lozenges, sprays or transdermal patches. (naturalnews.com)
  • Before taking Nicotine Lozenges , what precautions must I follow? (singhealth.com.sg)
  • If you continue to feel the urge to smoke or experience severe nicotine withdrawal symptoms even after using the NRT lozenges, please inform your healthcare professional as you may need other types of NRT. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • How should Nicotine Lozenges be used? (singhealth.com.sg)
  • How should I handle Nicotine Lozenges safely? (singhealth.com.sg)
  • How should I dispose of Nicotine Lozenges safely? (singhealth.com.sg)
  • The patches help the human body battle the strong urges for nicotine after reducing the number of cigarettes smoked. (prnewswire.com)
  • Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are more likely to smoke cigarettes and become dependent on nicotine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Tobacco products, such as cigarettes, deliver nicotine to the brain quickly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with ADHD are more likely to start smoking nicotine cigarettes than people without ADHD. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • And in 2016, the FDA asserted authority to regulate any product with nicotine, including e-cigarettes. (scrippsnews.com)
  • And last year, the White House announced perhaps the boldest step of all-a new rule that would drastically reduce the level of nicotine in cigarettes, presumably making them far less appealing to smokers and less addictive. (scrippsnews.com)
  • Smoking mentholated cigarettes or drinking grapefruit juice also hinders clearance of nicotine from your system. (livestrong.com)
  • why nicotine is in cigarettes, what it does and more. (nysmokefree.com)
  • Nicotine is an addictive drug that keeps you smoking, but it is the other harmful chemicals in cigarettes that make smoking so dangerous. (nysmokefree.com)
  • Cigarettes wouldn't be addictive without nicotine, you'd stop smoking, and they wouldn't get your money! (nysmokefree.com)
  • Isn't it better to switch to low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes? (nysmokefree.com)
  • A new study reveals e-cigarettes, considered by many to be a healthier alternative to regular cigarettes, may increase your risk of heart attack and stroke if they contain nicotine. (yourlawyer.com)
  • E-cigarettes provide a different nicotine delivery system that provides vapor, not smoke. (yourlawyer.com)
  • A new law gives stores in Suffolk County, New York, 90 days to post warnings about the dangers of the liquid nicotine found in e-cigarettes. (yourlawyer.com)
  • Thrive Nicotine Gum helps reduce the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal by replacing some of the nicotine that the person no longer receives through cigarettes. (northwestpharmacy.com)
  • Lawsuits may be more limited than in the past in terms of the claims made, but there are new products and forms of nicotine available, such as e-cigarettes, that may give rise to lawsuits. (findlaw.com)
  • Keep in mind that some products might contain just nicotine, just tobacco (such as herbal cigarettes), or both. (findlaw.com)
  • Cigarettes contain 600 added chemicals to enable nicotine free basing or a nicotine crack pipe effect that leads to 4,000 potential chemical toxins in cigarette smoke. (naturalnews.com)
  • State Rep. Steven Johnson, R-Wayland, introduced a bill last week that would allow the sale of 20mg or less of flavored nicotine in the state, undercutting the ban Gov. Gretchen Whitmer placed on flavored e-cigarettes in early September. (michigandaily.com)
  • If you allow for the low-level nicotine products that are flavored for e-cigarettes, the kids aren't going to be gravitating towards them because they don't get that same buzz," Johnson said. (michigandaily.com)
  • Currently, fewer than 30% of people who try anti-smoking drugs remain off their cigarettes for six months or more, and nicotine patches and gum don't work much better. (time.com)
  • If the cigarette pack was not available or if a match could not be made because the UPC was incomplete or not recognized, a second match was attempted using an auxiliary data base prepared from the Federal Trade Commission Report: "Tar, Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide of the Smoke of 1294 Varieties of Domestic Cigarettes for the Year 1998," (FTC, 2000). (cdc.gov)
  • Tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide content was obtained from the Federal Trade Commission Report: "Tar, Nicotine, and Carbon Monoxide of the Smoke of 1294 Varieties of Domestic Cigarettes for the Year 1998" (FTC, 2000). (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of this 2020 e-cigarettes social media campaign was to educate youth influencers as well as those who use e-cigarettes about the dangers of e-cigarettes with nicotine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), thus bridging lung injury messaging back to e-cigarette prevention messaging. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary therapeutic use of nicotine is treating nicotine dependence to eliminate smoking and the damage it does to health. (wikipedia.org)
  • While nicotine replacement therapy products may be an effective way for people to quit smoking, these products have the potential to introduce minors to nicotine in a seemingly innocent way resulting in dependence," said senior author Ruth Milanaik, DO, also of Cohen Children's Medical Center, in an interview. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, the nicotine patch group showed reduced nicotine dependence and withdrawal symptoms than the placebo group. (healthline.com)
  • Nicotine may enhance an individual's level of alertness, although tobacco abuse and dependence may simulate a frantic, almost manic, picture. (medscape.com)
  • This Request for Applications (RFA), Pharmaco-Behavioral Treatment of Nicotine Dependence, is related to the priority area of cancer prevention and control. (nih.gov)
  • Benowitz, 1988) that nicotine dependence is the primary cause of the maintenance of this behavior. (nih.gov)
  • In 1987, the American Psychiatric Association, in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R), classified "nicotine dependence" as a psychoactive substance dependence disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 1987). (nih.gov)
  • Although a wide variety of approaches to reducing nicotine dependence have been used (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • Several studies have indicated that schizophrenic patients are likely to show a high level of nicotine dependence. (pasteur.fr)
  • Recently, the genetic mutation CHRNA5, which encodes a nicotinic receptor subunit, was identified as being associated with the cognitive impairments in schizophrenic patients and with nicotine dependence. (pasteur.fr)
  • The therapeutic molecule would have to work in the same way as nicotine but without its harmful effects (dependence, cell aging, increased heart rate, etc. (pasteur.fr)
  • to identify the nicotine dependence degree and sociodemographic data according to the gender of the patients assisted by the Educating and Treating Smoking extension project promoted by a public university. (bvsalud.org)
  • predominance in the nicotine dependence degree was observed in women with higher percentages of classification for high and very high dependence, 33.5% and 25.3% respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • It was found that the degree of chemical dependence on nicotine was associated with physical (p-value = 0.002) and psychological (p-value = 0.003) dependence. (bvsalud.org)
  • Online nicotine toothpick sales are "the Wild West" in terms of regulation, said Abhijeet Grewal, a research assistant at Cohen Children's Medical Center, in New Hyde Park, New York, who presented the findings at the 2023 annual meeting of the American Academy of Pediatrics. (medscape.com)
  • American Academy of Pediatrics 2023: O2083: Nic Picks: Analyzing Age Verification Procedures for Nicotine Toothpicks Vendors. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Online Nicotine Toothpick Vendors Ignore Age Restrictions - Medscape - Oct 25, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • An average cigarette yields about 2 mg of absorbed nicotine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mild nicotine withdrawal symptoms are measurable in unrestricted smokers, who experience normal moods only as their blood nicotine levels peak, with each cigarette. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beginning March 31, 2024, ingredient reports for cigarette and/or smokeless tobacco products and specifications of the quantity of nicotine contained in smokeless tobacco products that are imported to the United States for the first time must also be submitted at the time of importation. (cdc.gov)
  • The nicotine content of the toothpicks varies, but many contain as much as 2-3 mg per pick compared with the 1.1-1.8-mg amount inhaled per the average cigarette, he said. (medscape.com)
  • The Biden administration proposed limiting nicotine in tobacco products, sparking debates, while e-cigarette use grows despite FDA restrictions. (scrippsnews.com)
  • And while the number of cigarette smokers has gone down, government regulation has been relatively limited until last year, when the Biden administration signaled it would regulate cigarette nicotine levels . (scrippsnews.com)
  • We are quite concerned about the rise in nicotine-containing e-cigarette use among youth, which is really epidemic,' said the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Anne Schuchat in congressional testimony in 2019. (scrippsnews.com)
  • TFN Nicotine is used in over 40 e-liquid brands in the US and is playing a central role in revolutionizing the e-cigarette and vaping industry. (globenewswire.com)
  • Why don't the cigarette companies just take nicotine and tar out of the tobacco? (nysmokefree.com)
  • No. Even though it may feel better on your chest, chances are you will puff harder and smoke more of each cigarette to get the nicotine. (nysmokefree.com)
  • Nicotine medications can help by dulling your cravings for a cigarette and are proven to increase your chances of quitting. (nysmokefree.com)
  • The control group received saline-only injections daily while the test group was injected with nicotine bitartrate at the rate of 1 mg/kg of body weight, replicating the average intake of a human cigarette smoker or one who is using NRT to kick the habit. (naturalnews.com)
  • Bees are not the only species known to use nicotine to fight parasites, with house sparrows using cigarette butts in their nests to ward off mites. (phys.org)
  • Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) delivers nicotine without the other harmful chemicals present in cigarette smoke. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • Although large notices on tobacco and cigarette packets warn of health risks, dog owners sometimes forget that nicotine is a deadly poison for animals too. (thedogman.net)
  • Title : Surveillance of Nicotine and pH in Cigarette and Cigar Filler Personal Author(s) : Lawler, Tameka S.;Stanfill, Stephen B.;deCastro, B. Rey;Lisko, Joseph G.;Duncan, Bryce W.;Richter, Patricia;Watson, Clifford H. (cdc.gov)
  • It provides a continual level of nicotine throughout the day. (prnewswire.com)
  • Thrive Nicotine Gum is effective because the low level of nicotine it contains helps reduce the symptoms of smoking withdrawal and cravings. (northwestpharmacy.com)
  • The appearance of nicotine stomatitis is related directly to the population that smokes tobacco products. (medscape.com)
  • Fissured appearance of nicotine stomatitis. (medscape.com)
  • They work by providing nicotine to your body to decrease the withdrawal symptoms experienced when smoking is stopped and to reduce the urge to smoke. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It works by reducing your cravings and easing withdrawal symptoms through the controlled delivery of nicotine. (healthline.com)
  • The patch provides a controlled dose of nicotine to alleviate cravings and withdrawal symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Bupropion acts by alleviating some of the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. (medscape.com)
  • The physical effects of nicotine withdrawal and smoking cessation include weight gain due to increase in appetite, decreased heart rate, and improvement in the senses of taste and smell. (medscape.com)
  • Indicated for smoking cessation, it reduces withdrawal symptoms, including nicotine cravings associated with quitting smoking. (pharmaceutical-business-review.com)
  • Nicotine comes as a lozenge to slowly dissolve in the mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For maximum effectiveness, it's generally recommended to use a combination of two nicotine replacement products, like the patch and a short-acting NRT, such as the lozenge or gum. (healthline.com)
  • Nicotinell Lozenge dissolves in the mouth to release a dose of nicotine to reduce your urge to smoke. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • After speaking with small shop vape owners, Johnson said the largest sales come from those trying to quit smoking, who typically buy products that contain nicotine levels at 2 percent or lower. (michigandaily.com)
  • While the industry is using the concepts of "harm reduction" and "healthier alternatives to smoking" to justify unregulated entry of these new and emerging nicotine and tobacco products into national markets, the truth is these products typically contain nicotine and other toxic substances that can have harmful impacts on brain development and long-term consequences, particularly for children and adolescents. (who.int)
  • Developed by Next Generation Labs, TFN Nicotine® is a test-verified non-tobacco derived synthetic nicotine created for the vape industry. (globenewswire.com)
  • Founded in 2014, Next Generation Labs developed TFN Nicotine ®, the world's leading synthetic nicotine that is not derived from tobacco. (globenewswire.com)
  • We offer a range of top brands, including ZYN and VELO, and a selection of both tobacco leaf free and synthetic nicotine pouches (also known as tobacco free nicotine pouches). (northerner.com)
  • Nicotine pouches, sometimes also known as nic pouches and lip pillows, are a nicotine product that contains nicotine salts (among other ingredients) that are made either by extracting the nicotine from the tobacco leaf or synthetic nicotine that is made in a lab. (northerner.com)
  • However, a 2017 review indicates that receiving early treatment with prescribed ADHD medication does not prevent nicotine use. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • After three very serious cases of poisoning of pre-schoolers, the New Zealand government has stepped up efforts to make recovering smokers aware that nicotine replacement therapy should be treated as medication. (unexplained-mysteries.com)
  • While it's clear that there is some benefit to nicotine consumption for parasite- infected bees , a key challenge now is to discover exactly how such natural medication limits the impact of the disease on the bees' society. (phys.org)
  • Weak and contradictory effects of self-medication with nectar nicotine by parasitized bumblebees' by Baracchi D, Brown MJF and Chittka L. is published by F1000Research 2015, 4:73. (phys.org)
  • Scientists from the Institut Pasteur, the CNRS, Inserm and the ENS used a mouse model to elucidate the mechanism of action of nicotine on cells in the prefrontal cortex. (pasteur.fr)
  • The mechanism of action of nicotine stomatitis (smoker's palate) is heat and chemical irritation from a tobacco product that acts as a local irritant, stimulating a reactive process, including inflammation, hyperplasia, and epithelial keratinization. (medscape.com)
  • This model of nicotine self-administration provides a reliable alternative to experimenter-administration models for examining the effects of nicotine. (nih.gov)
  • Two years after its release, a study investigated the effectiveness of a 30-milligram (mg) nicotine patch in helping smokers quit over 6 weeks. (healthline.com)
  • Another randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness and safety of the nicotine patch, varenicline (Chantix), and bupropion (Zyban) among 8,000 smokers motivated to quit. (healthline.com)
  • Experts working against tobacco products say the practice started by ITC to advertise the product and make it easily available at stores will only help non-smokers get addicted to the nicotine gum and later to tobacco products. (org.in)
  • 15, 2019 Smokers who are trying to quit may not always have to reach for a piece of nicotine gum to stave off a craving. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Jan. 25, 2019 Women are 31 percent less likely to quit smoking successfully, in part because nicotine replacement therapy is more effective in male smokers. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The Nicotine residents (united in defense of smokers' rights) possess the type of passion and fervor Penny feels she's desperately lacking, and the other squatter houses in the neighborhood provide a sense of community she has never felt before. (bookbrowse.com)
  • Does nicotine replacement really work, or is it just another way to get money out of smokers? (nysmokefree.com)
  • Objective Until recently, purveyors of vaping products marketed e-liquids in the 1%-3% range of nicotine concentration with those at 3% described as 'super high' intended for two packs/day smokers. (bmj.com)
  • Nicotine vaccines have been tried before but failed because researchers couldn't maintain high enough levels of antibody in smokers' blood to block the drug's effect. (time.com)
  • We administered nicotine to pregnant Rhesus monkeys from gestational day 30 through 160 by continuous infusion, achieving maternal plasma levels comparable to those in smokers (30 ng/ml). (nature.com)
  • [ 9 ] A large study in Saudi Arabia showed that 29.6% of all smokers had nicotine stomatitis and that 60% of pipe smokers had nicotine stomatitis. (medscape.com)
  • A large study in Saudi Arabia showed that 29.6% of all smokers had nicotine stomatitis and that 60% of pipe smokers had nicotinic stomatitis. (medscape.com)
  • The physical effects of nicotine use include accelerated heart rate, increased blood pressure, and weight loss. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine-containing products are sometimes used for the performance-enhancing effects of nicotine on cognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • and the specification of the quantity of nicotine contained in smokeless tobacco products manufactured or imported during the previous calendar year. (cdc.gov)
  • These products are one form of nicotine replacement therapy. (prnewswire.com)
  • A new study indicates that the body can metabolize nicotine into products that the lungs subsequently may convert into a potent carcinogen. (sciencenews.org)
  • More research is needed to characterize youth use of nicotine toothpick products, as well as purchasing patterns, he said. (medscape.com)
  • The Advertising Standard Council of India (ASCI), a self-regulatory body, also has registered a case against ITC because advertising nicotine products is against ASCI guidelines. (org.in)
  • Prevention and cessation should include strategies against active and passive exposures to new nicotine products. (mdpi.com)
  • We never wanted any non-nicotine users, and certainly nobody underage should ever use Juul products. (scrippsnews.com)
  • The research is clear: Flavored nicotine products get kids hooked. (pirg.org)
  • Nicotine replacement products, such as Thrive Nicotine gum, can be a part of a stop-smoking program that also includes behavioral changes, support, and counselling. (northwestpharmacy.com)
  • Nicotine and tobacco products are evolving. (findlaw.com)
  • But what they're attracted to is the buzz that they're gonna get from these nicotine products, and they are usually buying the highest nicotine level out there - usually around five to seven percent. (michigandaily.com)
  • The reason they're using mint is because that's what the common flavor for is for those high-nicotine-level products. (michigandaily.com)
  • House Bill 4996 removes the governor's ability to ban e-flavored nicotine products for adults in the state of Michigan and would remove her ability (to do so) under the emergency health crisis act," LaFave said. (michigandaily.com)
  • The goal of this study is to evaluate the degree to which JUUL, with its 5% nicotine and 75% US market share, has spurred other e-liquid vendors to raise the nicotine levels of their products. (bmj.com)
  • Nicotine pouches have grown in popularity as they offer a tobacco-leaf free alternative to traditional oral tobacco products. (northerner.com)
  • By 2021, the sector of nicotine pouches had grown significantly, with expanded product ranges and increased availability to cater to nicotine pouch users across the U.S.. The market keeps growing, with brands constantly working on new innovations and new products and brands continually emerging. (northerner.com)
  • [ 1 ] The name is a misnomer because it is not the nicotine that causes the lesion, but the concentrated heat stream of smoke from tobacco products. (medscape.com)
  • Men and women who smoke tobacco products are affected equally by nicotine stomatitis. (medscape.com)
  • Although nicotine stomatitis is caused by smoking tobacco products, it is generally not associated with dysplastic or malignant changes. (medscape.com)
  • It is flooding markets around the world with new and emerging nicotine and tobacco products which it sells as "smoke free", "less harmful", "cleaner" and "safer" than their conventional counterparts, and claims can be used as effective cessation aids. (who.int)
  • Other countries will only achieve a slight reduction, or may even see an increase in tobacco use, especially when new and emerging nicotine and tobacco products are flooding the Region. (who.int)
  • Countries need to consider applying regulatory measures, based on international best practices and the recommendations of the COP to the WHO FCTC, prohibiting or restricting the manufacture, import, distribution, presentation, sale and use of new and emerging nicotine and tobacco products. (who.int)
  • [ 1 ] The concentrated heat stream of smoke from tobacco products causes nicotine stomatitis. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine stomatitis (smoker's palate), a lesion of the palatal mucosa, has been described in the literature since 1926. (medscape.com)
  • In 1941, Thoma named the lesion stomatitis nicotine because it is almost exclusively observed in individuals who smoke tobacco. (medscape.com)
  • Classic nicotine stomatitis. (medscape.com)
  • They observed nicotine stomatitis-like lesions in addition to gingival hyperplasia and uvulitis. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine stomatitis first becomes visible as a reddened area and slowly progresses to a white, thickened, and fissured appearance. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with nicotine stomatitis are usually asymptomatic. (medscape.com)
  • An association of nicotine stomatitis with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, alcohol intake, genetics, and diet are unknown. (medscape.com)
  • Inflamed salivary gland ducts in nicotine stomatitis. (medscape.com)
  • If unable to make the diagnosis of nicotine stomatitis by clinical appearance or if the lesion does not resolve after cessation of smoking, perform a 5-mm punch biopsy or scalpel biopsy. (medscape.com)
  • Histologically, nicotine stomatitis lesions appear acanthotic and hyperkeratotic, with some mild-to-moderate chronic inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • The incidence of nicotine stomatitis in the United States is unknown. (medscape.com)
  • therefore, nicotine stomatitis is less prevalent in women. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine stomatitis is related to duration, intensity, and types of smoking and is not related to the age of the smoker. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine stomatitis is generally a reversible lesion once the irritant is removed. (medscape.com)
  • The prognosis for nicotine stomatitis is excellent. (medscape.com)
  • Stomatitis nicotine and its effect on the palate. (medscape.com)
  • Rossie KM, Guggenheimer J. Thermally induced 'nicotine' stomatitis. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine stomatitis in a reverse smoker. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine stomatitis affects the oral mucosa of the hard palate posterior to the rugae and the adjacent soft palate. (medscape.com)
  • Neonicotinoids, such as imidacloprid, which are derived from and structurally similar to nicotine, are widely used as agricultural and veterinary pesticides as of 2016. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2016, Enfuse partnered with Next Generation Labs to create four e-liquid flavors developed with TFN Nicotine® and today, Enfuse celebrates the success of these brands following recent award wins. (globenewswire.com)
  • A smaller but more recent study in 2021 also found that daily use of the nicotine patch (or a combination of the patch and nicotine gum) resulted in a lower risk of daily smoking for participants. (healthline.com)
  • However, it did not increase the life expectancy of those bees, meaning that the direct benefits of nicotine for the bee colony remain to be identified. (phys.org)
  • This work is unique because it suggests that nicotine may be acting through inactivation, rather than activation, of the high affinity nicotinic receptors," said Darlene Brunzell, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology in the VCU School of Medicine. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Further, emerging evidence suggests that nicotine can also regulate the expression of genes/proteins involved in various functions such as ERK1/2, CREB, and c-FOS [ 20 - 22 ], as well as the expression state of multiple biochemical pathways, for example, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphatidylinositol phosphatase signaling, growth factor signaling, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways [ 23 - 25 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The researchers say their work doesn't imply that people trying to quit smoking should abandon the short-term use of nicotine patches and gum. (sciencenews.org)
  • If you're looking to quit smoking, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can be a helpful tool. (healthline.com)
  • Overall, 63% of the nicotine patch group successfully quit smoking compared with 34% of the placebo group. (healthline.com)
  • Researchers found that people using the nicotine patch were 1.64 times more likely to successfully quit smoking than people in a control group. (healthline.com)
  • Overall, the findings suggest that the nicotine patch is a useful tool for people trying to quit smoking . (healthline.com)
  • Many nicotine addicts who want to quit, DO! (nicotine-anonymous.org)
  • We found that there is really no perfect time to quit using nicotine. (nicotine-anonymous.org)
  • Also, any past attempts to quit nicotine are valuable practice and represent a sincere honest desire to gain freedom from nicotine. (nicotine-anonymous.org)
  • Even if you think you do not have an active desire to quit using nicotine today you are welcome, please just listen with an open mind. (nicotine-anonymous.org)
  • Nicotine acts as a receptor agonist at most nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), except at two nicotinic receptor subunits (nAChRα9 and nAChRα10) where it acts as a receptor antagonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study, published online this week in PLoS ONE , researchers observed that low doses of nicotine and a nicotinic receptor blocker had similar effects to reduce anxiety-like behavior in an animal model. (sciencedaily.com)
  • They found that inactivation of beta2 subunit, a specific sub-class of nicotinic receptors that bind nicotine, appears to reduce anxiety. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Nicotine, as the primary psychoactive component of tobacco smoke, produces diverse neurophysiological, motivational, and behavioural effects through interactions with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous system (CNS). (hindawi.com)
  • "Our research on this disease model also shows that when we administer nicotine, it binds to the nicotinic receptors in interneurons and influences the pyramidal cell activity in the prefrontal cortex, which returns to a normal state of activity," explained Fani Koukouli, first author of this study. (pasteur.fr)
  • Studies in developing rodents indicate that nicotine is a neuroteratogen that disrupts brain development by stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that control neural cell replication and differentiation. (nature.com)
  • Within 10 seconds of entering your body, nicotine affects your brain and causes a release of feel-good chemicals to create a buzz. (livestrong.com)
  • Nicotine Affects The Brain similar to that of heroin Heroin and other opiate drugs are highly addictive substances thus making them extremely difficult to stop using. (yourlawyer.com)
  • The next step would be to prove just that, says Crystal, by giving the vaccine to mice addicted to nicotine and then testing whether it affects how many times they press a lever to receive the drug. (time.com)
  • Are nicotine patches effective for quitting vaping or chewing tobacco? (healthline.com)
  • Vaping, Nicotine, Coffee and More! (casaa.org)
  • Vaping has led to a dramatic rise in nicotine and marijuana use among young people in recent years. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vaping involves inhaling an aerosol, or vapor, that may contain addictive drugs, including nicotine or THC (a chemical in marijuana that can affect behavior, mood, and thoughts). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The first was the increase in vaping nicotine in 2018. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Right now, there are no published studies regarding the treatment of teenagers who have become addicted to vaping nicotine or vaping THC. (medlineplus.gov)
  • of the 77 locations that responded, only one said that they would sell nicotine toothpicks without asking for proof of age. (medscape.com)
  • When detoxing to remove nicotine, clean up your entire toxic load. (livestrong.com)
  • undefined undefined Is there any cleaner that will remove nicotine stains from marble counter tops? (doityourself.com)
  • These vape devices are compatible with JUUL2 pods: prefilled nicotine pods that come in a range of different nicotine strengths and classic flavours. (northerner.com)
  • The range of JUUL pods come prefilled with nicotine eliquid in 3 different nicotine strength options (9mg, 18mg and 20mg) and a range of tobacco or menthol flavours. (northerner.com)
  • After oral ingestion of nicotine, signs and symptoms of nicotine poisoning mimic those for nerve agent or organophosphate poisoning and typically include excess oral secretions, bronchorrhea, diaphoresis, vomiting (common, especially among children), diarrhea, abdominal cramping, confusion, and convulsions. (cdc.gov)
  • One explanation could be that some people with ADHD find that nicotine helps them manage their symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Combining nicotine patch use with a faster acting nicotine replacement, like gum or spray, improves the odds of treatment success. (wikipedia.org)
  • Options for tobacco cessation can include online tools and coaching, email reminders, group workshops, individual counseling, and nicotine replacement therapies. (ithaca.edu)
  • Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) works by making it easier to abstain from tobacco by partially replacing the nicotine previously obtained from tobacco. (medscape.com)
  • Try to stop smoking without using any nicotine replacement medicine. (nih.gov)
  • Consider this: the study only examined the effects of nicotine, which can also come from NRT (nicotine replacement therapy). (naturalnews.com)
  • Breaking away from the conventional white nicotine pouch approach, COCO is the first nicotine pouch that leverages the highly porous structure of coconut coir fibres as its core to enable a smoother and longer lasting release of both flavours and nicotine. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • COCO nicotine pouches are vegan, non-GMO, gluten-free, soy-free and will initially be available in 4 flavours of Natural Mint, Tropical Mango, Clean Peach, and Blue Razz. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • From Nature's Bounty to Your Fingertips: Coco Nicotine Pouches Harness the Power of Coconut Coir balanced with All Natural Flavouring. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • What Are Nicotine Pouches? (northerner.com)
  • Nicotine pouches were first created in Sweden (the home of classic tobacco snus) and have evolved significantly over the years. (northerner.com)
  • How to Use Nicotine Pouches? (northerner.com)
  • If you've already had experience snus, then you basically already know how to use nicotine pouches . (northerner.com)
  • SAN DIEGO, March 28, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Enfuse Vapory wins Rookie of the Year at National Vape Expo and celebrates two additional award wins for its TFN Nicotine® e-liquids. (globenewswire.com)
  • E-liquids that use TFN benefit from virtually odorless and tasteless nicotine, which creates richer and stronger flavors for adult vape consumers, without compromising on nicotine satisfaction. (globenewswire.com)
  • The JUUL2 starter kit is one of the popular vape kits in the UK, compatible with a range of classic tobacco and menthol-flavoured nicotine pods. (northerner.com)
  • Recent evidence implicates medicinal nicotine as potentially harmful to both neurodevelopment in children and to catalyzing processes underlying neuropathology in Alzheimer's Disease. (nih.gov)
  • Animal studies suggest that nicotine may adversely affect cognitive development in adolescence, but the relevance of these findings to human brain development is disputed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is different from the mechanism that regulates nicotine reward and likely occurs in a separate brain area. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Nicotine acts like a key that unlocks nicotine receptors in the brain. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Brunzell and colleagues are conducting ongoing studies that they hope will help to identify which brain areas regulate the anxiolytic effects of nicotine. (sciencedaily.com)
  • They also showed that when vaccinated mice were injected with nicotine, the antibodies in their blood bound to it and prevented it from getting to the brain. (time.com)
  • In unvaccinated mice, nicotine basically chilled them out - they relaxed and their blood pressure and heart activity dropped - signs that the nicotine had reached the brain and cardiovascular system. (time.com)
  • So should they smoke, or smell someone else smoking, they would not get any positive reinforcing aspects of smoking because the nicotine was not reaching their brain. (time.com)
  • Our results indicate that nicotine elicits neurodevelopmental damage that is highly selective for different brain regions, and that dietary supplements ordinarily thought to be neuroprotectant may actually worsen some of the adverse effects of nicotine on the fetal brain. (nature.com)
  • Essentially, by providing excessive cholinergic stimulation throughout fetal life, nicotine discoordinates the numerous events in cell replication, differentiation and synaptic development that are necessary to the proper assembly of the mammalian brain. (nature.com)
  • Expect to experience irritability, anxiety, headaches, insomnia and depression as you eliminate nicotine and the other toxins. (livestrong.com)
  • While no food can eliminate nicotine altogether, certain foods can help support the liver, which is the primary place for the metabolism of nicotine. (livestrong.com)
  • However, the results highlight the need for regulation of nicotine toothpick vendors to protect youth from accessing nicotine in this form, he said. (medscape.com)
  • The founder of Pixotine, Evan Grossman, says his company created the nicotine toothpick market six years ago. (nbc-2.com)
  • Male, Sprague-Dawley rats, trained on food reinforcement, acquired relatively high and stable rates of self-administration of IV nicotine bitartrate (0.03 mg/kg, free base). (nih.gov)
  • Richmond, 1994), the most common medical treatment in the U.S. over the past decade (i.e., more than six million users) has been pharmacotherapy - i.e., almost exclusively, either nicotine polacrilex (nicotine- containing gum, or NG) or transdermal nicotine patch (or TNP). (nih.gov)
  • Approved in the US, Canada and Latin America) - This Nicotine Transdermal System delivers 21mg, 14mg and 7mg respectively of nicotine over a 24 hour period. (pharmaceutical-business-review.com)
  • The Surgeon General of the United States indicates that evidence is inadequate to infer the presence or absence of a causal relationship between exposure to nicotine and risk for cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A clinically compatible case in which a high index of suspicion (credible threat or patient history regarding location and time) exists for nicotine exposure, or an epidemiologic link exists between this case and a laboratory-confirmed case. (cdc.gov)
  • The study's focus was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic (liver) triglyceride synthesis. (naturalnews.com)
  • Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. (naturalnews.com)
  • In 2002, India, which has 270 million tobacco users, legalised chewing gums with two milligrams (mg) of nicotine under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940. (org.in)
  • The company exploited the fact that the three pieces of legislation that govern sale and distribution of drugs and cosmetics in India-the Drugs and Cosmetic Act, 1940, the Drug and Cosmetic Rule, 1945, and the Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable advertisements) Act, 1955-are silent on whether nicotine-based drugs can be promoted/advertised. (org.in)
  • Be sure to mention any of the following: non-nicotine smoking cessation aids, such as bupropion (Wellbutrin) or varenicline (Chantix), and medications for depression or asthma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Findings suggest that all three methods were more effective than the placebo, but varenicline was more effective than the nicotine patch and bupropion . (healthline.com)
  • This is really important because nicotine is, of course, what causes people to smoke and keeps them smoking, despite the fact that most people know that smoking is really not a good thing for your health,' says Gagosian with the Truth Initiative. (scrippsnews.com)
  • CINCINNATI (WLWT) - At Puff Smoke, a smoke shop near the University of Cincinnati's Clifton campus, nicotine toothpicks have made quite an impression. (nbc-2.com)
  • Tobacco smoke consists of thousands of compounds including nicotine. (nih.gov)
  • The estimated lower dose limit for fatal outcomes is 500-1,000 mg of ingested nicotine for an adult (6.5-13 mg/kg). (wikipedia.org)
  • The median lethal dose of nicotine in humans is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cessation after prolonged tobacco use can contribute to irritability, which is often soothed by a dose of nicotine. (medscape.com)
  • Our findings suggest that low-dose nicotine may block a specific subtype of receptor from opening that is important for regulating anxiety behavior," she said, adding that anxiety is a major reason why people relapse to smoking. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Gradually, the dose is reduced until the person no longer craves nicotine, and they can stop using Thrive. (northwestpharmacy.com)
  • Nicotine is being researched in clinical trials for possible benefit in treating Parkinson's disease, dementia, ADHD, depression and sarcoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • While NRT is a part of smoking cessation programs, nicotine toothpicks should not be used by minors without clinical reasons," she said. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine has been shown to produce birth defects in humans and is considered a teratogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consuming nicotine also had negative effects, appearing to suppress the appetite of infected bees much like smoking does in humans. (phys.org)
  • Although people ostensibly use tobacco for the pleasure derived from the nicotine, but anxiety and depression commonly coexist with tobacco use. (medscape.com)
  • Choose from a range of quality flavors and nicotine strengths ranging from 2mg to an extra strong 15mg per pouch. (northerner.com)
  • A case in which increased nicotine or cotinine (the nicotine metabolite) is detected in urine, or increased serum nicotine levels occur, as determined by a commercial laboratory or CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • Tests that measure cotinine, the substance nicotine becomes when metabolized, can show a presence for up to 10 days. (livestrong.com)
  • Warnings or disclaimers, such as, "nicotine is an addictive chemical," appeared on 69% of sites. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine is an addictive chemical. (northerner.com)
  • Nicotine is an agonist for these receptors, meaning that it can act on these targets instead of acetylcholine. (pasteur.fr)
  • The researchers also collected data on 16 vendor websites that sold nicotine toothpicks with shipment to the United States (identified from pixotine.com). (medscape.com)
  • Researchers concluded that the nicotine patch is an effective aid in smoking cessation programs with minimal side effects. (healthline.com)
  • The researchers backtracked to determine the cascading sequence of biochemical processes that led to the liver hypertriglyceridemia in the rats' livers whose mothers were exposed to nicotine just before pregnancy , during pregnancy and while lactating. (naturalnews.com)
  • Researchers from Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) and Royal Holloway, University of London (RHUL), gave bumblebees the option to choose between a sugar solution with nicotine in it and one without. (phys.org)
  • Researchers are getting closer to developing a vaccine that could help protect people from the addictiveness of nicotine. (time.com)
  • So, rather than delivering nicotine itself, or ready-made antibodies against it, researchers led by Dr. Ronald Crystal, chairman of the department of genetic medicine at Weill Cornell Medical College, tried a different method: gene therapy. (time.com)
  • High doses are known to cause nicotine poisoning, organ failure, and death through paralysis of respiratory muscles, though serious or fatal overdoses are rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ivy" began to foam and vomit after biting the liquid container, as is typical with nicotine poisoning. (thedogman.net)
  • Nicotine toothpicks and flavored toothpicks without nicotine were originally marketed as smoking cessation aids, said Grewal, but their low price point and ability to be consumed discreetly makes them appealing to teens for nicotine use in many environments. (medscape.com)
  • How quickly you process nicotine through your system depends partly on genetics but also on diet, age, sex, pregnancy, other medications and kidney disease. (livestrong.com)
  • Won't I get hooked on nicotine in nicotine medications like the patch? (nysmokefree.com)
  • Nicotine may reduce the effect of certain medications. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • TechNavio's analysts forecast the Global Nicotine Patch market will grow at a CAGR of 18.05 percent over the period 2013-2018. (prnewswire.com)
  • This report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Global Nicotine Patch market for the period 2014-2018. (prnewswire.com)
  • TechNavio's report, the Global Nicotine Patch Market 2014-2018, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. (prnewswire.com)
  • it also covers the Global Nicotine Patch market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. (prnewswire.com)
  • One of the most popular and well-known methods is the nicotine patch. (healthline.com)
  • The nicotine patch first became available over the counter in 1996. (healthline.com)
  • One year later, 30% of the nicotine patch group remained abstinent compared with 9% of the placebo group. (healthline.com)
  • Where is the best place to put a nicotine patch so it doesn't fall off? (healthline.com)
  • The best place to put on a nicotine patch to ensure it stays in place is typically on a clean, dry, and hairless area of skin. (healthline.com)
  • Nicotine has been used as an insecticide since at least the 1960s, in the form of tobacco extracts (although other components of tobacco also seem to have pesticide effects). (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its physical effects, nicotine exerts a strong behavioral influence. (medscape.com)
  • Nicotine, as the major psychoactive component of tobacco, has broad physiological effects within the central nervous system, but our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying its neuronal effects remains incomplete. (hindawi.com)
  • Your body easily builds up a resistance to nicotine, meaning you'll need more and more to get the effects you crave. (livestrong.com)
  • Nicotine, on the other hand, by virtue of its short-term actions on the cholinergic system, has positive effects on certain cognitive domains including working memory and executive function and may be, under certain conditions, neuroprotective. (nih.gov)
  • Problem is, nicotine is too small a molecule to trigger the robust immune response needed to inhibit its addictive effects. (time.com)
  • The scientists further studied the animals' activity in their cages and found that mice treated with the experimental vaccine appeared to be immune to the effects of nicotine. (time.com)
  • Smoking and using NRT at the same time may increase the risk of adverse side effects from the additive effects of nicotine in your body. (singhealth.com.sg)
  • We then attempted to offset the adverse effects of nicotine with standard dietary supplements known to interact with nicotine. (nature.com)
  • When given in combination with nicotine, choline protected some regions from damage but worsened nicotine's effects in other regions. (nature.com)
  • Fass environmental information for Nicotinell Peppermint (nicotine) (downloaded 2018-07-12). (janusinfo.se)