An important compound functioning as a component of the coenzyme NAD. Its primary significance is in the prevention and/or cure of blacktongue and PELLAGRA. Most animals cannot manufacture this compound in amounts sufficient to prevent nutritional deficiency and it therefore must be supplemented through dietary intake.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
Six-carbon pyranose sugars in which the OXYGEN is replaced by a NITROGEN atom.
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Azoles of one NITROGEN and two double bonds that have aromatic chemical properties.
A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An abnormal anatomical passage between the RECTUM and the VAGINA.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A drug combination that contains THEOPHYLLINE and ethylenediamine. It is more soluble in water than theophylline but has similar pharmacologic actions. It's most common use is in bronchial asthma, but it has been investigated for several other applications.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A loss of mucous substance of the mouth showing local excavation of the surface, resulting from the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue. It is the result of a variety of causes, e.g., denture irritation, aphthous stomatitis (STOMATITIS, APHTHOUS); NOMA; necrotizing gingivitis (GINGIVITIS, NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE); TOOTHBRUSHING; and various irritants. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p842)
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
A form of long QT syndrome that is without congenital deafness. It is caused by mutation of the KCNQ1 gene which encodes a protein in the VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL.
A painful linear ulcer at the margin of the anus. It appears as a crack or slit in the mucous membrane of the anus and is very painful and difficult to heal. (Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.
Persistent and reproducible chest discomfort usually precipitated by a physical exertion that dissipates upon cessation of such an activity. The symptoms are manifestations of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
A pouch or sac opening from the COLON.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
An alpha-glucosidase inhibitor with antiviral action. Derivatives of deoxynojirimycin may have anti-HIV activity.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
(GTP cyclohydrolase I) or GTP 7,8-8,9-dihydrolase (pyrophosphate-forming) (GTP cyclohydrolase II). An enzyme group that hydrolyzes the imidazole ring of GTP, releasing carbon-8 as formate. Two C-N bonds are hydrolyzed and the pentase unit is isomerized. This is the first step in the synthesis of folic acid from GTP. EC 3.5.4.16 (GTP cyclohydrolase I) and EC 3.5.4.25 (GTP cyclohydrolase II).
A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Precordial pain at rest, which may precede a MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.

Cardioprotection by opening of the K(ATP) channel in unstable angina. Is this a clinical manifestation of myocardial preconditioning? Results of a randomized study with nicorandil. CESAR 2 investigation. Clinical European studies in angina and revascularization. (1/236)

AIMS: To assess the anti-ischaemic and anti-arrhythmic effects and overall safety of nicorandil, an ATP sensitive potassium (K+) channel opener, with 'cardioprotective' effects, in patients with unstable angina. METHODS: In a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study, oral nicorandil 20 mg twice daily or a matching placebo was administered for a minimum of 48 h to patients admitted with unstable angina. Treatment was standardized to include, where tolerated, oral aspirin, a beta-blocker and diltiazem. Continuous Holter ECG monitoring was performed for 48 h to assess the frequency and duration of transient myocardial ischaemia and any tachyarrhythmia, as the predefined end-points of the study. A pain chart recorded the incidence and severity of chest pain throughout the study period. Patients with myocardial infarction identified retrospectively from troponin-T analysis were excluded. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-five patients were recruited into the study. Forty-three patients were excluded with an index diagnosis of myocardial infarction, two were not randomized and 12 had unsatisfactory tape data. In the remaining 188 patients, six out of 89 patients (6.7%) on nicorandil experienced an arrhythmia, compared with 17 out of 99 patients (17.2%) on placebo (P=0.04). Three nicorandil patients experienced three runs of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia compared to 31 runs in 10 patients on placebo (P=0.087 patients; P<0.0001 runs). Three nicorandil patients had four runs of supraventricular tachycardia, compared to 15 runs in nine patients on placebo (P=0.14 patients; P=0.017 runs). Eleven (12.4%) patients on nicorandil had 37 episodes of transient myocardial ischaemia (mostly silent) compared with 74 episodes in 21 (21.2%) patients on placebo (P=0.12 patients; P=0.0028 episodes). In the overall safety analysis, which included all patients who received at least one dose of study medication, there were no significant differences in the rates of myocardial infarction or death between the nicorandil or placebo-treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: Nicorandil, added to aggressive anti-anginal treatment for unstable angina, reduces transient myocardial ischaemia, non-sustained ventricular, and supraventricular arrhythmia compared to placebo. The anti-arrhythmic activity with nicorandil is probably a secondary effect resulting from its anti-ischaemic action and we suggest that this may be related to its effect on the ATP sensitive potassium channel causing pharmacological preconditioning.  (+info)

Intravenous nicorandil can preserve microvascular integrity and myocardial viability in patients with reperfused anterior wall myocardial infarction. (2/236)

OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether the intravenous administration of nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel opener, exerts beneficial effect on microvascular function and functional and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). BACKGROUND: Experimental studies documented that ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener exerts cardioprotection after prolonged ischemia. METHODS: We randomly divided 81 patients with a first anterior AMI into two groups, nicorandil (n = 40) and control groups (n = 41). All patients received successful coronary angioplasty within 12 h after the symptom onset and underwent myocardial contrast echcardiography (MCE) with the intracoronary injection of sonicated microbubbles. In the nicorandil group, we injected 4 mg of nicorandil followed by the infusion at 6 mg/h for 24 h and by oral nicorandil (15 mg/day). RESULTS: The improvement in regional left ventricular function, wall motion score and regional wall motion was significantly better in the nicorandil group then in the control group. Intractable congestive heart failure, malignant ventricular arrhythmia and pericardial effusion were more frequently found in the control group than in the nicorandil group (15% vs. 37%, 5% vs. 20% and 8% vs. 37%, p < 0.05, respectively). The frequency of sizable MCE no reflow phenomenon was significantly lower in the nicorandil group than in the control group (15% vs. 33%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous nicorandil in conjunction with coronary angioplasty is associated with better functional and clinical outcomes compared to angioplasty alone in patients with an anterior AMI. Myocardial contrast echocardiography findings imply that an improvement in microvascular function with nicorandil may be attributable to this better outcome.  (+info)

Effects of nicorandil on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats: a possible role of K(ATP) channels. (3/236)

The anti-ulcer effects of nicorandil [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nicotinamide nitrate ester] were examined on water-immersion plus restraint stress-induced and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats, compared with those of cimetidine. Nicorandil (3 and 10 mg/kg) given orally to rats dose-dependently inhibited the development of acid-related damage (water-immersion- and aspirin-induced gastric lesions) in the models. Cimetidine (50 mg/kg, p.o.) also had anti-ulcer effects in the same models. However, in the presence of glibenclamide (20 mg/kg, i.v.), an antagonist of K(ATP) channels, nicorandil did not inhibit the formation of gastric lesions. Nicorandil (10 mg/kg) given intraduodenally (i.d.), like cimetidine (50 mg/kg), significantly reduced the volume of the gastric content, total acidity and total acid output in the pylorus ligation model. Glibenclamide reversed the changes caused by i.d. nicorandil. I.v. infusion of nicorandil (20 microg/kg per min) significantly increased gastric mucosal blood flow, without affecting blood pressure and heart rate, but the increase in the blood flow was not observed after i.v. treatment with glibenclamide (20 mg/kg). These results indicate that nicorandil administered orally to rats produces the anti-ulcer effect by reducing the aggressive factors and by enhancing the defensive process in the mucosa through its K(ATP)-channel-opening property.  (+info)

Effects of nicorandil on aortic input impedance: a comparative study with nitroglycerin. (4/236)

A study of aortic input impedance was performed to evaluate the effects of nicorandil on the systemic circulation, and the effects were compared with those of nitroglycerin. Sixteen patients with coronary artery disease were divided into 2 age-matched groups. Aortic input impedance was obtained from Fourier analysis of aortic pressure and flow signals at baseline conditions, after intravenous administration of either 4 mg (Group 1) or 8 mg (Group 2) nicorandil, and 20 min after 0.3 mg sublingual nitroglycerin. In Group 1, the first harmonic impedance modulus (Z1, 304+/-140 dyne x s x cm(-5)) and the average of the first to third harmonics (Z1-3, 207+/-99 dyne x s x cm(-5)), indices of wave reflection, significantly decreased (24.4% (p<0.05) and 24.7% (p<0.01), respectively) after nicorandil, and 41.3% (p<0.01) and 33.9% (p<0.01) after nitroglycerin. The effects between the 2 vasodilators were not significantly different. In Group 2, Z1 and Z1-3 (275+/-138 and 196+/-93 dyne x s x cm(-5), respectively) also decreased after administration of nicorandil (28.4% (p<0.01) and 35.9% (p<0.01), respectively), and after administration of nitroglycerin (23.9% (p<0.01) and 28.7% (p<0.01), respectively), without any significant difference between the 2 drugs. Characteristic impedance and total peripheral resistance (R) in both groups remained unchanged except for R after 8 mg nicorandil (from 1830+/-415 to 1433+/-428 dyne x s x cm(-5); p<0.01). Like nitroglycerin, both doses of nicorandil reduced wave reflection. The reduction in R after 8 mg nicorandil is related to decreased tone in the resistance arteries, probably due to potassium channel opener effects.  (+info)

Effects of nicorandil as compared to mixtures of sodium nitroprusside and levcromakalim in isolated rat aorta. (5/236)

1. The contribution of the relaxant mechanisms of nicorandil (NIC) were analysed by comparing its effects with those of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), levcromakalim (LEM) and mixtures (1:10, 1:30 and 1:100) of SNP:LEM in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. 2. In rings precontracted with KCl (25 mM), the relative inhibitory potency of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ and the K(ATP) channel inhibitor glibenclamide (GLI) on SNP:LEM mixtures showed a good correlation with the relative proportion of SNP and LEM in the mixtures. Furthermore, the degree of the inhibition by ODQ and GLI of the effects of the 1:30 SNP:LEM mixture varied as a function of the relative potency of SNP and LEM in KCl-, noradrenaline- (NA) or NA plus nifedipine-treated arteries. 3. The inhibitory effects of ODQ, GLI and ODQ plus GLI on NIC-induced relaxation was similar to that for the 1:30 SNP:LEM mixture in NA plus nifedipine-contracted arteries, but the inhibition of GLI or ODQ plus GLI was smaller in KCl-contracted arteries. 4. In conclusion, the relative importance of activation of the cyclic GMP pathway and K(ATP) channel opening in mixtures of SNP and LEM could be predicted by the proportion of the drugs in the mixtures and by the relative potency of SNP vs LEM in different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the present results suggest that besides these two mechanisms, a third ODQ- and GLI-insensitive mechanism, possibly involving Ca2+ channel blockade, also participates in the relaxant effects of NIC in KCl-induced contractions.  (+info)

Nonischemic ST-segment elevation induced by negative inotropic agents. (6/236)

The present study investigated whether regional ventricular dyskinesia (ie, systolic bulging) is a direct cause of ST-segment elevation in canine hearts in vivo. Regional ventricular dyskinesia was induced in 33 anesthetized open-chest dogs by injection of negative inotropic agents into the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) without disruption of coronary blood flow. Regional myocardial contraction was assessed in terms of the percent systolic shortening (%SS) and percent systolic bulging (%bulging), which were measured using ultrasonic crystals. The ST-segment elevation of the LAD-perfused area was measured with a unipolar electrode. Lidocaine, a sodium channel blocker, nicorandil, a potassium channel opener, propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker, or verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, was administered by intracoronary injection during maximal vasodilation induced by adenosine. All drugs induced dose-dependent ST-segment elevation in association with a parallel reduction in %SS and a parallel increase in %bulging. The absence of myocardial ischemia was confirmed by the absence of NADH fluorescence. It was concluded that regional ventricular dyskinesia had an important role in ST-segment elevation not associated with myocardial ischemia.  (+info)

Nicorandil abolished repolarisation alternans in a patient with idiopathic long QT syndrome. (7/236)

A 23 year old woman with idiopathic long QT syndrome had repeated syncopal attacks associated with torsades de pointes. T wave alternans (TWA) was recorded and the QT interval was abnormally prolonged during treadmill exercise test. Monophasic action potential (MAP) alternans also appeared after an abrupt shortening of the cycle length in electrophysiological study. After intravenous administration of nicorandil 6 mg, both TWA and MAP alternans disappeared.  (+info)

Three minute, but not one minute, ischemia and nicorandil have a preconditioning effect in patients with coronary artery disease. (8/236)

OBJECTIVES: This study focused on 1) the determination of the optimal preconditioning (PC) duration, and 2) the protective effect of nicorandil (NC), a hybrid nitrate with a KATP channel opening effect, during a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) model in humans. BACKGROUND: The ischemic PC effect is induced in 180 s ischemia, but not in 120 s ischemia in rabbit hearts. However, the duration of ischemia that induces PC effect and the role of the KATP channel in the PC effect in humans are still unclear. METHODS: Forty-six patients with stable angina were randomly allocated to four groups: the duration of the first inflation as PC ischemia was 60 s in the PC60 group (n = 12), and 180 s in the PC180 group (n = 12). In the other groups, NC (80 microg/kg) was intravenously given for 1 min in the NC group (n = 12), and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) (40 microg/kg) was given in the ISDN group (n = 10). Five minutes after first inflation or drug administration, a second inflation was conducted for 120 s in each group. In the ECG, the lead with the largest shift in ST segment (deltaST max), and the sum of elevated ST levels in all leads (sigmaST) were determined. RESULTS: In the PC60 group, no significant difference was observed in either deltaST max or sigmaST between the first and second inflation. However, the second inflation in the PC180 group showed significantly lower levels of deltaST max and sigmaST compared with those of the first inflation. In the NC group, both deltaST max and sigmaST measured at 30 s and 60 s after balloon inflation were significantly lower than those of the first inflation in the PC60 and PC180 control groups. In the ISDN group, no significant difference was observed in deltaST max or sigmaST. CONCLUSION: In human PTCA models, a PC effect is observed in 180 s ischemia, but not in 60 s ischemia. A pharmacological PC effect is induced by NC, a KATP channel opener with a nitrate-like effect but not ISDN. This suggests that the opening of KATP channels plays an important role in the protecting effect of NC.  (+info)

Iona College President Seamus Carey, Ph.D., said: This exciting new relationship with NewYork-Presbyterian is a unique opportunity to shape the future of Iona College, train the next generation of health care professionals, and support the communities we serve. The NewYork-Presbyterian Iona School of Health Sciences will provide Iona students with the opportunity to complement their liberal arts education with the knowledge and skills required to excel in the health care industry. Through our relationship with NewYork-Presbyterian, Iona will offer cutting-edge education in the health sciences with an eye toward meeting the demands of the health care industry. I anticipate it will become a model for mission-based collaboration between higher education and health care in the service of the public good moving forward ...
ニコランジルが、安定冠動脈疾患を有する高齢患者に対する経皮的冠動脈インターベンション施行後の心筋障害発症に与える保護的な影響:ランダム化比較試験(RINC研究)の二次解 ...
Iona Island is one of the four National Estuarine Research Reserves on the Hudson River (including Piermont Marsh, Tivoli Bay, and Stockport Flats). This approximately 120-acre site is located at the southern gate of the Hudson Highlands. Much of the Island was used by the US Navy during WWII. Now the Palisades Interstate Park Commission has several construction and storage buildings on the island. Iona Island and adjacent Salisbury Marsh encompass several distinct habitats, including deciduous forest, freshwater and brackish tidal wetlands and riverine habitats. Food, water, and restrooms are available at the Bear Mountain Inn at nearby Bear Mountain State Park.. For viewing birds and wildlife other than bald eagle, the marsh edge along the road and the railroad causeway is best. The steep sloped knolls and Iona Island east of the railroad are off limits.. Special permission is needed from the Palisades Interstate Park Commission to enter the main portion of the Island. The Island and adjoining ...
If deepthroating were a sport, Iona Grace would have an Olympic gold medal. She is tied down on her back, her naturally huge tits tied so they are thrust rigidly upward and Matt and Dee Williams take turns assaulting her mouth. There seems to be no limit to how much cock she can manage down her throat or how long she can hold her breath. They throat board her without mercy and only after they have railed her pretty face past the point that would leave most girls in a panic does Iona even begin to show signs of wearing down. They add a vibrator to increase the challenge and she has no problem cumming with cock crammed down her open throat. Great work Iona. We are thoroughly impressed.. ...
Iona College is a diverse community of learners and scholars dedicated to academic excellence. Iona has a vibrant student life program with many campus organizations and volunteer and service opportunities.
Dear friends,. I may already have been in touch with you about this retreat week at Camas in September. We still have a few places available, and I do want to be sure that information and the invitation is shared in Church of Scotland and other church/religious/ecumenical networks - and reaches women who have good reason not to be part of such networks any more. So if you know personally of anyone who might be interested, or can think of channels, please do get in touch.. Along with Helen Douglas and Cath Campbell I am planning and will facilitate an autumn holiday/retreat week (Saturday 20 - Friday 26 September) for women who have experienced or been affected by violence and abuse in religious and institutional contexts. We all have experience and longstanding commitment to challenge such violation and abuse, and to the support and empowerment of survivors. At different times we have worked with Rape Crisis, Womens Aid and other organisations at home and abroad. Our venue is the Iona ...
Get info about Iona College public health certificate. Whether you are considering an associates degree (CNA, LVN, or LPN), or a bachelor of science in nursing (RN), you will find many doors opening after graduation.
Liepājas reģiona TIB tūrisma informācijas centrs. Liepājas šarms slēpjas tās īpašajā aurā. Varbūt mazliet atturīga un skarba, bet cēla un nepakļāvīga. Reizēm mierīga, reizēm mutuļojoša - kā jūra, kas apskalo Liepājas krastus. Nesamākslota un īsta - tāda ir Liepāja. Liepāja ir trešā lielākā pilsēta Latvijā.
Get the facts about Iona College forensic nursing. Seek out accredited nursing programs for the best training. Given a brief hospital internship or prior work experience, you can expect a great return on your medical education.
The Bullen Lecture Series in Science and Technology instills a measure of scientific awareness in Iona Colleges science, liberal arts, business students, and in the general public so that they may confront scientific issues as informed citizens.
Session 2: July 8 - August 26. Build muscle and movement using weights and bands. Instructor works with beginners and advanced students to help them progress at their own rate.. All students (including returning students) must fill out a registration form. Download it here, or you can pick one up at the front desk. Note: It is Ionas policy for six or more people to be enrolled in each class for the entire session by the start of the third class of the session. In the event a class does not have at least six or more people enrolled for the entire session, the class will be canceled and a credit will be issued to the current students enrolled. The cost per class on a drop-in rate is $13 per class. A discounted per-class rate of $10 will be offered only to those who sign up - and pay for - the entire session. ...
Globus (1987) refers to much the same psychic territory in discussing three holonomic approaches to thebrain: In the holographic version of image-producing system the system is initially empty, like a tabula rasa, and information is loaded in by input (through experience). This is a weak holonomy in that the enfolded whole -- the implicate order (Bohm) -- is entirely derivative of input, not the primary reality. In a second strong version, the holonomic system initially is full with existence; there is an a priori plenum of enfolded existentia that is the fundamental reality. Bohm views the primary reality as an existentially full holoplenum that enfolds the totality of existence. The matter of the brain holographically enfolds all the matter of the universe. According to Bohm, Various energies such as light, sound, etc., are continually enfolding information in principle concerning the entire universe of matter into each region of space. Through this process, such information may of ...
Zgradba kompleksnih spojine se najprej opiše s koordinacijskim številom, se pravi s številom ligandov, ki so vezani na centralni atom. Gledano bolj natančno, to število pomeni število σ-vezi med ligandi in centralnim atomom. Število ligandov se običajno lahko ugotovi s štetjem, vendar štetje včasih postane dvoumno. Najpogostejša so koordinacijska števila od 2 do 9, pri aktinoidih in lantanoidih pa so pogosto tudi večja. Število vezi je odvisno od velikosti, naboja in elektronske konfiguracije kovinskega iona in ligandov. Kovinski ioni lahko imajo več koordinacijskih števil. Za kemijo kompleksnih spojin je značilno, da v njej prevladujejo interakcije med s in p molekulskimi orbitalami ligandov in d orbitalami kovinskih ionov. s, p in d orbitale kovine lahko sprejmejo skupno 18 elektronov (v bloku f se njihovo število poveča na 32). Maksimalno koordinacijsko število nekaterih kovin je torej odvisno od elektronske konfiguracije njihovega iona, točneje od števila praznih ...
În cadrul ultimei şedinţe a Consiliului Raional, consilierii au intrat în polemică referitor la activitatea taberei de odihnă „Codru
NOTĂ: Vă rugăm să comentați la obiect, legat de conținutul prezentat în material. Orice deviere în afara subiectului, folosirea de cuvinte obscene, atacuri la persoana autorului (autorilor) materialului, afișarea de anunțuri publicitare, precum și jigniri, trivialități, injurii aduse celorlalți cititori care au scris un comentariu se va sancționa prin cenzurarea parțială a comentariului, ștergerea integrală sau chiar interzicerea dreptului de a posta, prin blocarea IP-ului folosit. Site-ul nu răspunde pentru opiniile postate în rubrica de comentarii, responsabilitatea formulării acestora revine integral autorului comentariului. ...
NOTĂ: Vă rugăm să comentați la obiect, legat de conținutul prezentat în material. Orice deviere în afara subiectului, folosirea de cuvinte obscene, atacuri la persoana autorului (autorilor) materialului, afișarea de anunțuri publicitare, precum și jigniri, trivialități, injurii aduse celorlalți cititori care au scris un comentariu se va sancționa prin cenzurarea parțială a comentariului, ștergerea integrală sau chiar interzicerea dreptului de a posta, prin blocarea IP-ului folosit. Site-ul nu răspunde pentru opiniile postate în rubrica de comentarii, responsabilitatea formulării acestora revine integral autorului comentariului. ...
Background: It was reported that patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) frequently have vulnerable plaques in the remote coronary arteries, suggesting ACS is a part of the pan-coronary process and systemic inflammation. MDCT allows us to assess not only culprit lesion but also whole coronary trees. However in patients with ACS, the impact of plaque morphology in remote coronary arteries and C-reactive protein (CRP) on the occurrence of slow flow phenomenon (SF) during PCI is still unclear.. Methods: Consecutive 116 patients (69±9 years, 78% males) with acute coronary syndrome diagnosed by 128-slice dual source MDCT before coronary interventions were enrolled. Non-culprit lesions were defined as plaques with more than 25% diameter stenosis measured by quantitative angiography that had not been treated. The CT value of plaque and plaque morphology in culprit and non-culprit lesions and serum CRP level were compared between patients with and without SF during PCI.. Results: Thirty six ...
Patients on hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease are at high risk for death from ischemic heart disease. It was reported that nicorandil, a hybrid compound on adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener and nitric oxide door, was potentially effective to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with CAD receiving hemodialysis. Therefore, investigators prospectively examine whether nicorandil is effective in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with CAD on hemodialysis.. The primary endpoint is a composite of cardiovascular death, sudden cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for recurrent symptomatic myocardial ischemia and stroke. The secondary endpoints are total mortality, revascularization therapy, hospitalization for heart failure, hospitalization for peripheral artery disease and newly onset of atrial fibrillation.. Patient population that needs to prove the hypothesis is estimate to be 300 cases in total (150 cases in each ...
This is a Iona tibia gold store. Tibia money com specialies in tibia Iona game gold, items sales and tibia power leveling service. Buy and sell tibia gold, tibia items, tibia gp and crystal in Iona World.
The effects of nicorandil on ionic currents recorded from single smooth muscle cells of pig proximal urethra were investigated using patch-clamp techniques. Tension measurement was also performed to study the effects of nicorandil on the resting tone of pig urethra. Nicorandil produced a concentration-dependent sustained outward current that was suppressed by glibenclamide at −50 mV and was carried selectively by K+. In cell-attached configuration, nicorandil activated a 43-pS K+ channel that was reversibly inhibited by 10 μM glibenclamide. This glibenclamide-sensitive 43-pS K+ channel (KGS) ran down after excision of the membrane patch. In inside-out configuration, the application of either 1 mM Mg-ATP or 1 mM nucleotide diphosphate reactivated the KGS. In symmetrical 140 mM K+ conditions, 300 μM nicorandil and 300 μM levcromakalim activated a 2.14-pA K+ channel that exhibited the same amplitude and similar channel-opening kinetics. Methylene blue (10-100 μM), a soluble guanylate ...
We set off again and I tried to encourage the consumption of a pan au chocolate, one of Ionas favourites. Id be lucky if one mouthful went down. There was still gagging happening so we decided if nothing else gets eaten or drunk, it wasnt the end of the world at this stage. I led from here and Iona followed on. When I ran, she ran. When I walked, she walked. She really is a good student. I looked back every so often and I could see she was feeling it. I talked most of the way, not looking for responses but just reminding her of how well she was doing, knowing that some of what I said would help, subconsciously.. Our new friend, Brian had asked Iona if I was a teacher as he found me bossy! This made me laugh. I am not a teacher but I am bossy so he wasnt wrong. I told him he could thank me the next day, which he did. By now we could see the top of the fire track, one more climb and then it was downhill all the way to the finish. Not forgetting the flat mile and a bit along the road on tarmac. ...
The First Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena was held September 12-15, 1999 in Santa Barbara, California. This new symposium series is the successor to the highly regarded series of Symposia on Turbulent Shear Flows, which concluded with the 11th biennial conference in 1997. The Symposium aims to be the premier forum for presentation of fundamental and applied research in turbulence. Submissions were solicited in traditional turbulence research areas along with five areas selected for special emphasis: biological and medical flows, multiphase flows, reacting turbulent flows, geophysical and environmental flows, and flow control/MEMS. Five speakers were invited to give review talks covering some aspect of these areas. Over 320 extended abstracts were submitted in response to the call for papers. Each abstract was evaluated by two members of the Advisory and Executive Committees and two members of the Papers Committee. Most of the abstracts were of high quality, requiring many difficult
Introduction: Beneficial hemodynamic effects of nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, in acute heart failure have been demonstrated. However, whether nicorandil has inhibitory effects on the development of chronic heart failure (CHF) remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the effects of chronic administration of nicorandil on ventricular function, the number of premature ventricular contractions (PVC), and electrical and structural ventricular remodeling in transgenic mice with transient cardiac expression of activated G protein alpha q (G alpha q-TG; a model of CHF).. Method and Results: Nicorandil (6 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was orally administered in 24 G alpha q-TG mice from 8 weeks to 32 weeks of age. Ventricular function was investigated at age in 32 weeks using two-dimensionally-directed M-mode echocardiography. The degree of fibrosis was also elucidated using digital microscopic images from left ventricular sections stained with Massons trichrome. Out of 12 vehicle-treated G ...
In the isolated canine mesenteric artery relaxation caused by nicorandil [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nicotinamide nitrate ester; SG-75] in the presence of noradrenaline was accompanied by a concomitant...
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Iona Capital has announced the successful completion of an investment into JFS Howla Hay Biogas Ltd., a joint venture company with developer JFS & Associates Ltd. and a family run Farm in North Yorkshire, England.
The turbulent quantities measured by LDV showed that the flow of surfactant solution from large-diameter channel experienced a transition from drag-reducing flow to turbulent flow in the small-diameter channel. The main velocity profiles varied from drag-reducing pseudo-laminar to turbulent in the transition process. The two components of turbulent velocity fluctuation were very small like turbulent drag-reducing flow in the transitional region till x/H2=21.3 at the tested condition, after which they increased dramatically to be dominated by turbulent flow ...
3 Antibiotic Resistance What is it? Where bacteria are able to survive and reproduce in the presence of antibiotic doses that were previously thought effective against them Why is it such an issue? Cost to EU billion Euros Essential for human and animal health and wellbeing. Returning to a pre-antibiotic era
Many Canadian adults drink alcohol, and do so responsibly. But because alcohol is a drug, there may be risks if you drink any amount of alcohol. In 2005, about two-thirds (62%) of all Ontario students (grade 7 - 12) reported drinking at least once in the past year. This is about 603,400 students. One in 10 students (10%) drank alcohol once a week ...
iona, a friendily suggestion, if you havent already you you might want to get hooked up w/ a good kidney dr. also some universitys had a study drug they were working on. i went years w/o complications then got hit at once. didnt even know i had kidney problems untill i passed out puting up hay in 95 degree heat by myself(never have been acussed of being to bright, except by my dad, he always called me son) good luck and hang tuff! NO SURRENDER NO RETREAT! BARRY BRUCE email @ redacted icq: 10047360 Insulin-Pumpers website http://www.bizsystems.com/Diabetes/ ...
The IONA® test exhibits |99% sensitivity for detecting trisomy 21, 18 and 13. Peer-reviewed data has been published in Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Natura duală a omului manuscris. În funcție de scopul studiului, rezultatele testării adecvate pot fi interpretate. Nu există motive farmacologice pe baza cărora să se presupună că medicamentele prescrise uzual, utilizate pentru tratamentul astmului bronşic, vor interacţiona cu omalizumab.
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The IONA® test shows |99% sensitivity for detecting trisomy 21, 18 and 13. Peer-reviewed data has been published in Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Water supply from underground sources of Central Scotland westwards from Dundee and Stonehaven (quarter-inch geological sheets 10 11 12): Well-catalogues for one-inch sheets 43 Iona 44 Mull 45 Loch Etive 46 Balquhidder 47 Crieff 48 Perth 49 Dundee 56 Blairgowrie Kirriemuir 57 Forfar 66 Banchory and 67 ...
Simple question. Does 4-piece change how you go about opening? Personally I prefer SV but have gotten my BM play to a point where I should be using it as it outperforms SV in certain encounters. Still struggle with the opener a bit and recently picked up 4-piece. Thanks in advance for any input.
Two case studies will be presented which deal with inferior macro and micro flow phenomena. An inferior macro / micro phenomenon cannot be detected by utilizing McCabe-Thiele or simulation software in the conceptual stages. The macro / micro flow phenomena must be reviewed in the mechanical drawing review stage to eliminate the possibility.
TY - GEN. T1 - Computer simulation of flow phenomena in distensible arterial bifurcation models. AU - Perktold, Karl. AU - Peter, Reinfried Odo. AU - Gürtl, Raimund. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. M3 - Conference contribution. SN - 88-7958-001-9. SP - 377. EP - 381. BT - Proceedings - MEDICON. PB - CNR. CY - Pisa. ER - ...
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Copyright in the material you requested is held by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (unless otherwise noted). This email ability is provided as a courtesy, and by using it you agree that you are requesting the material solely for personal, non-commercial use, and that it is subject to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Terms of Use. The information provided in order to email this topic will not be used to send unsolicited email, nor will it be furnished to third parties. Please refer to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Privacy Policy for further information ...
By Nora Roberts. First within the all-new Cousins ODwyer Trilogy. From no 1 New York Times bestselling writer Nora Roberts comes a trilogy in regards to the land were interested in, the kinfolk we discover ways to cherish, and the folk we lengthy to love…. With detached mom and dad, Iona Sheehan grew up yearning devotion and recognition. From her maternal grandmother, she discovered the place to discover either: a land of lush forests, remarkable lakes, and centuries-old legends.. Ireland.. County Mayo, to be particular. the place her ancestors blood and magic have flowed via generations-and the place her future awaits.. Iona arrives in eire with not anything yet her Nans instructions, an unfailingly confident angle, and an innate expertise with horses. no longer faraway from the luxury fort the place she is spending per week, she unearths her cousins, Branna and Connor ODwyer. and because kin is relations, they invite her into their domestic and their lives.. When Iona lands a task on ...
Dead void states differ from mystical illumination in being bereft of the power of the Ground; these experiences are merely episodes of mental vacancy, without any degree of dynamic infusion or absorption. Empty trances differ from mystical illumination in being implosive rather than infusive absorptions; moreover, trances are dense and dark rather than ethereal and bright. Undifferentiated effusions and ecstasies differ from mystical illumination in being wild and impure; they are explosive absorptions or transports that are admixed with derepressing feelings and instincts. And objectless contemplations, although suffering from none of these deficiencies, differ from mystical illumination in being experiences of significantly lesser stature; they fall far short of mystical illumination in the degree to which the ego is infused, illumined, and beatified by spirit. The difference in degree that distinguishes mystical illumination from objectless contemplations is sufficiently great to constitute ...
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The SG-2002 Ganzfeld can deliver flashes of both intensities required by the ISCEV standards plus an additional bright flash level. It also features three background light intensities, allowing you to perform photopic ERG testing and both dilated and undilated EOG testing. The SG-2002 also has 3 embedded LEDs at 0 and ±15°, for fixation and EOG testing. With these features, the SG-2002 is capable of producing flash ERG, EOG, and Flash VEP stimuli as prescribed by the International Society for the Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV).. ...
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The goals of the various processing and display techniques are to derive from the Doppler spectrum a meaningful measure of the flow phenomenon being investigated and to present this measure to the operator. Important measures go beyond indication of velocity of flow or volume flow to include indications of the type of flow, i.e., laminar or turbulent, as well as geometric parameters such as the depth, width or cross-sectional area of the flow stream ...
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Salicilna kiselina pripada skupini fenolnih fitohormona visoke metaboličke i fiziološke aktvnosti. Dva su predložena puta biosinteze salicilne kiseline u biljaka: od fenilalanina deriviranim korizmatom pretvara se u trans-cimetnu kiselinu pomoću fenilalaninamonij- lijaze (PAL) i iz korizmata, putem izokorizmata u reakciji s dva koraka koja je katalizirana izokorizmat sintazom (ICS) i izokorizmat-piruvat lijazom (IPL). Jednom sintetizirana salicilna kiselina u biljkama prolazi kroz niz biološki relevantnih kemijskih modifikacija uključujući glukoziliranje, metiliranje i konjugaciju aminokiselina. Salicilna kiselina ima važnu ulogu u različitim procesima u biljkama kao što su rast i razvoj,termogeneza, fotosinteza, cvjetanje, unos i transport iona te stomatalna transpiracija. Salicilna kiselina ima ključnu ulogu kao signalna molekula u abiotičkom i biotičkom odgovoru na stres. Uključena je u endogenu signalizaciju, posredujući u obrani biljaka od patogena inducirajući proizvodnju ...
I have a daughter who suffers from psychosis/ schizophrenia. Where can I find natural treatments for her? we live in the Netherlands, North of Amsterdam.. Thank you for your kind help.. Iona. ...
I have a daughter who suffers from psychosis/ schizophrenia. Where can I find natural treatments for her? we live in the Netherlands, North of Amsterdam.. Thank you for your kind help.. Iona. ...
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Can you name the Goaulds from SG-1? Test your knowledge on this television quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by oz_lizard
I am not affiliated with anybody from the Stargate Franchise. The characters are not mine. The characters may not seem familiar but many of them are from the Stargate Universe as minor characters. I welcome all reviews suggestions and criticisms.. SG-15 FREE JAFFA NOVEL. Major Jennifer Hailey was ordered to the SGC briefing room to await reassignment. There were two other people in the room a young female Dr. Danielle Shaun. She was an expert in numerous languages including Ancient and Jaffa. Hailey had heard of her working in Atlantis until a few months ago but didnt formally meet her. The other was an African-American Sergeant Chris Lawrence.. Hailey miss the SGC. She especially missed going through the gate. She hadnt been through the Stargate for the past year since she was assigned to participate in the study of the Ancient City-ship Atlantis. The wealth of knowledge and secrets were simple mind-boggling. A man could spend a lifetime studying its secrets but couldnt even scratch the ...
Find trailers, reviews, synopsis, awards and cast information for Stargate SG-1: Season 01 (1997) - on AllMovie - Called back to active duty by Gen. George Hammond…
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As the saying goes, change can be a good thing. However, change can also be a scary proposition for those who are satisfied with the way things currently are...
Despite pressure not to speak out, Zhang has been organising relatives of coronavirus victims in China to demand accountability from officials.

No data available that match "nicorandil"


The effect of nicorandil as a vasodilator is mainly attributed to its nitrate property. Yet, nicorandil is effective in cases ... Nicorandil is an anti-angina medication that has the dual properties of a nitrate and ATP-sensitive K+ channel agonist. In ... Nicorandil is a vasodilatory drug used to treat angina. Angina is chest pain that results from episodes of transient myocardial ... Nicorandil is marketed under the brand names Ikorel (in the United Kingdom, Australia and most of Europe), Angedil (in Romania ...
Antiarrhythmic effects of nicorandil on canine cardiac Purkinje fibers.. Imanishi S, Arita M, Aomine M, Kiyosue T. ... The main results obtained are as follows: (a) nicorandil suppressed three kinds of automaticities, i.e., spontaneous or low-K+- ... These effects of nicorandil could be mostly attributed to an increase in membrane K conductance. ... Antiarrhythmic efficacy of nicorandil (SG-75) (1-100 microM), a coronary vasodilator, was investigated electrophysiologically ...
Nicorandil has vasodilatory effects on both the epicardial coronary arteries and the coronary microvasculature, thereby ... 58 ± 15, P , 0.001). The duration of hyperemia after IV nicorandil was variable (6-570 s, mean 89 ± 98 s). IV nicorandil ... with the FFR by nicorandil , 0.80 and that by adenosine , 0.75. Hyperemia was achieved earlier using nicorandil than adenosine ... Taira N (1989) Nicorandil as a hybrid between nitrates and potassium channel activators. Am J Cardiol 63:18J-24JCrossRefGoogle ...
Results: Nicorandil considerably decreased TNF-α and IL-6 after 4 and 12 hours following the removal of aortic clamping. It ... Aim: To study the role of pre-operative oral nicorandil in decreasing reperfusion cardiac injury in patients subjected to ... Patients and Methods: The study included 62 patients, who were equally randomized into two groups: nicorandil group and control ... Conclusions: Pre-operative oral nicorandil expressively decreased myocardial reperfusion damage during open heart valve ...
Synopsis Nicorandil belongs to the class of compounds known as potassium channel activators which are characterised by their ... Nicorandil does not develop tolerance in patients with congestive heart failure. Symposium: Second Nicorandil Research Society ... Taira N. [Nicorandil] Coronary vasodilator effect: comparison to nitrates and calcium-channel blockers. Abstract. Nicorandil: ... Nitrate tolerance induced by nicorandil or nitroglycerin is associated with minimal loss of nicorandil vasodilator activity. ...
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In the isolated canine mesenteric artery relaxation caused by nicorandil [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nicotinamide nitrate ester; SG-75] ... The relaxation and cGMP level after the administration of nicorandil showed a good correlation. In this respect nicorandil is ... Maruyama M, Satoh K, Taira N (1982) Effects of nicorandil and its congeners on musculature and vasculature on the dog trachea ... In the isolated canine mesenteric artery relaxation caused by nicorandil [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nicotinamide nitrate ester; SG-75] ...
The results of an open prospective study that evaluated the long-term clinical safety of nicorandil are presented. This study ... which gathered 1152 patients treated by nicorandil, including those of the present study. In comparative studies of nicorandil ... At the end of the study, 70% of patients were maintained on nicorandil. These results are in agreement with those reported from ... The results of an open prospective study that evaluated the long-term clinical safety of nicorandil are presented. This study ...
Patients were randomized to control (n=29) or nicorandil groups (n=33). In the nicorandil group, nicorandil was intravenously ... nicorandil).. Conclusions: Administration of nicorandil during PCI of patients with stable angina pectoris reduces ... Nicorandil, p,0.05 for both). The incidence for cTn elevation more than 5-fold of normal range (,0.20 ng/mL) was significantly ... Nicorandil, an ATP sensitive potassium-channel opener, may reduce the incidence of microvascular dysfunction after percutaneous ...
Nicorandil (SG 75). 7/2015. Feasibility and safety of intracoronary nicorandil infusion as a novel hyperemic agent for ... Effect of intravenous nicorandil and preexisting angina pectoris on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with a first ST- ... Effects of intravenous nicorandil before reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycemia.. ... Impact of a single intravenous administration of nicorandil before reperfusion in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial ...
Nicorandil (SG 75). 3/2015. Nicorandil prevents sirolimus-induced production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial ... Inhibitory effects of nicorandil, a K ATP channel opener and a nitric oxide donor, on overactive bladder in animal models.. ... Nicorandil enhances the effect of endothelial nitric oxide under hypoxia-reoxygenation: role of the KATP channel.. ... Nicorandil, a potassium channel opener and nitric oxide donor, improves the frequent urination without changing the blood ...
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Recruiting Phase Trials for Nicorandil (DB09220). Back to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus ...
Nicorandil (Ikorel), indicated for the prevention and treatment of angina, is associated with a risk of gastrointestinal ... Nicorandil and GI ulceration. on the 29 July 2008 Nicorandil (Ikorel), indicated for the prevention and treatment of angina, is ... Ulcers are refractory to treatment and only respond to withdrawal of nicorandil. Withdrawal should take place only under the ... Mouth ulceration has long been a recognised adverse effect of nicorandil, however healthcare professionals should now consider ...
Method and Results: Nicorandil (6 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was orally administered in 24 G alpha q-TG mice from 8 weeks to 32 ... Abstract 3913: Nicorandil Inhibits Ventricular Remodeling and Arrhythmias in a Mouse Model of Chronic Heart Failure. Masamichi ... Out of 12 vehicle-treated G alpha q-TG mice, 3 died before 32 weeks of age (25 %). In contrast, none of 12 nicorandil-treated G ... However, whether nicorandil has inhibitory effects on the development of chronic heart failure (CHF) remains unknown. Therefore ...
EFFECTS OF NICORANDIL. Nicorandil reduced the frequency of premature ventricular contractions by 75% in five of the 11 patients ... Nicorandil is an antianginal drug with coronary vasodilator properties.1 Nicorandil activates the potassium channel in vascular ... All antiarrhythmic agents, including digitalis, were discontinued at least one week before any nicorandil was given. Nicorandil ... Nicorandil treatment caused no significant change in the QTc interval in any group: 0.40 (0.02) v0.41 (0.03) ms in group 1; ...
Prospective Study of End Stage Renal Disease Patients With Coronary Artery Disease Treated by Oral Nicorandil. The safety and ... In this study, event rate of the primary end point for two years was 50% and the risk reduction brought by nicorandil was 60%. ... Nicorandil. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Antihypertensive Agents. Vasodilator Agents. Vitamin B Complex. Vitamins. Micronutrients. ... Nicorandil is potentially effective to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) receiving ...
Nicorandil, combinations, computerized calculation, confidence intervals, dose-additivity, dose-response curves, Nicorandil Aim ... Dose-response curves of vasorelaxants: computerized calculation of combination effects using the example of nicorandil. Journal ... Dual relaxant effects of nicorandil could be split into single components of action by using combination experiments. The ... The usefulness of this approach is exemplified by reevaluation of data from interaction experiments with nicorandil. ...
Is Nicorandil more effective than Atenolol? Comparison between Atenolol and Nicorandil Are Nicorandil and Atenolol harmful? Can ... What can you tell me about Nicorandil side effects, I use them for my angina Is it safe to take Nicorandil and Isosorbide ... What is better: Nicorandil or Atenolol By Guest , 2 posts, last post over a year ago. ... His cardiologist too switched him from atenolol to Nicorandil, but he at least explained to us why he was doing this - dads ...
Inotropic and coronary vasodilatory actions of the K-adenosine triphosphate channel modulator nicorandil in human tissue.. J ... Inotropic and coronary vasodilatory actions of the K-adenosine triphosphate channel modulator nicorandil in human tissue.. J ... Inotropic and coronary vasodilatory actions of the K-adenosine triphosphate channel modulator nicorandil in human tissue.. J ... Inotropic and coronary vasodilatory actions of the K-adenosine triphosphate channel modulator nicorandil in human tissue. ...
Inotropic and coronary vasodilatory actions of the K-adenosine triphosphate channel modulator nicorandil in human tissue.. J ... Inotropic and coronary vasodilatory actions of the K-adenosine triphosphate channel modulator nicorandil in human tissue.. J ... Inotropic and coronary vasodilatory actions of the K-adenosine triphosphate channel modulator nicorandil in human tissue.. J ... The present study aimed to characterize the inotropic and vasodilatory properties of the K-ATP channel opener nicorandil (NIC) ...
Keywords: Myocardial Infarction, Potassium Channels, Creatine Kinase, Nitroprusside, Angina, Stable, Nicorandil, Heparin, ... Intravenous administration of nicorandil prior to PCI would be safe and effective in preventing slow coronary flow (SCF) ... YOU ARE HERE: Home , Latest in Cardiology , Intravenous Administration of Nicorandil Immediately Before Percutaneous Coronary ... The results of this study suggest that administration of intravenous nicorandil prior to PCI may reduce the incidence of SCF in ...
... nicorandil (1.5 mg/kg) + glibenclamide (10.0 mg/kg) group, 0.5 h before SMIR modeling, a mixture of 1.5 mg/kg nicorandil (cat. ... nicorandil groups, referring to the dose of nicorandil in the relevant literature (15-17), the rats were intraperitoneally ... and that 1.5 mg/kg nicorandil may be the most effective dose. Therefore, 1.5 mg/kg nicorandil was used to determine whether the ... injection of glibenclamide together with nicorandil reversed the anti-mechanical nociceptive effects of nicorandil on ...
Keywords: Myocardial Infarction, Potassium Channels, Creatine Kinase, Hyperlipidemias, Nicorandil, Percutaneous Coronary ... Treatment with nicorandil was not associated with differences in infarct size or LVEF compared with control.. Also noteworthy ... No benefit was observed in any of the reported endpoints for nicorandil, a nicotinamide nitrate that activates potassium ... patients were randomized in a double-blind manner to nicorandil (0.067 mg/kg bolus plus 1.67 µg/kg/min for 24 hours; n = 276) ...
Published article number: 2652 - Nicorandil infusion during inter-hospital transfer of patients with acute coronary syndrome - ... Drip and ship nicorandil infusion during inter-hospital transfer is a simple and safe method. Nicorandil injection improves ... After diagnosis of ACS, 12 mg of nicorandil dissolved in 100 mL of 0.9% saline was administered. First, 6 mg of nicorandil (50 ... Nicorandil infusion during inter-hospital transfer of patients with acute coronary syndrome - What can we do in a rural area of ...
nicorandil ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... Nicorandil has dual properties, acting as a nitrate and as a K+ATP channel agonist. At low plasma concentrations the nitrate ... Nicorandil is not approeved by the US FDA or EMA. Individual national approval agencies have authorised marketing of this drug ... action dilates the large coronary arteries, and at high plasma concentrations nicorandil induces K+ATP channel opening which ...
Objective: To estimate the net cost of adding nicorandil to usual treatment for patients with angina and to compare this with ... Conclusions: A substantial amount of the additional cost of nicorandil is offset by reduced use of hospital services. The ... Design: Cost effectiveness analysis Setting: Based on results of the IONA (impact of nicorandil on angina) trial. Patients: ... Economic evaluation of the impact of nicorandil in angina (IONA) trial. Heart, 92, pp. 619-624. (doi:10.1136/hrt.2003.026385) ( ...
We show that nicorandil inhibits strain−induced ET−1 expression. Nicorandil also inhibits strain−increased reactive oxygen ... The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that nicorandil may alter strain−induced endothelin−1(ET−1)secretion and ... We demonstrate for the first time that nicorandil inhibits strain−induced ET−1 secretion via the suppression of ROS production ... On the contrary, NO production and eNOS phosphorylation were enhanced by nicorandil treatment in HUVECs. Furthermore, L−NAME, ...
The effect of nicorandil, a new coronary vasodilator, was evaluated in 32 patient ... The effect of nicorandil, a new coronary vasodilator, was evaluated in 32 patients with variant angina pectoris in a single- ... Effect of a new coronary vasodilator, nicorandil, on variant angina pectoris.. Authors * Kishida, H ... The study was comprised of a pretreatment period of 2 days with a placebo, a 3-day nicorandil medication period (20 mg/day), ...
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  • In this crossover randomized study, 49 patients underwent FFR measurement with a consecutive randomized order of patient-blind infusions of continuous IV adenosine administration and a single bolus IV administration of nicorandil. (springer.com)
  • The relaxation and cGMP level after the administration of nicorandil showed a good correlation. (springer.com)
  • Administration of nicorandil during PCI of patients with stable angina pectoris reduces microvascular dysfunction and myocardial damage. (ahajournals.org)
  • Impact of a single intravenous administration of nicorandil before reperfusion in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. (curehunter.com)
  • Intravenous administration of nicorandil prior to PCI would be safe and effective in preventing slow coronary flow (SCF) phenomenon and no-reflow, and would reduce the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events following PCI. (acc.org)
  • Recently, administration of nicorandil, a hybrid of a nitrate and an ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, before PCI, has been shown to improve clinical outcomes 4 . (rrh.org.au)
  • Maximal changes were observed at 60 to 90 minutes following administration of nicorandil. (who.int)
  • In the previous studies on cardioprotection, administration of nicorandil was started early during the coronary occlusion . (bvsalud.org)
  • With administration of nicorandil from the time of recannalization in the ischemia / reperfusion injury model, we could not find any significant cardioprotective effect. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aims to observe the effects of the intracoronary and peripheral venous administration of nicorandil for the postoperative myocardial microcirculation and short-term prognosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) treatment. (amegroups.com)
  • Nicorandil is an anti-angina medication that has the dual properties of a nitrate and ATP-sensitive K+ channel agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the nitrate action of nicorandil dilates the large coronary arteries at low plasma concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of nicorandil as a vasodilator is mainly attributed to its nitrate property. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, nicorandil has venodilating properties which are attributable to a nitrate group in its chemical structure. (springer.com)
  • In patients with cardiovascular disease, the haemodynamic effects of nicorandil which are attributable to its nitrate-like properties include dilation of large coronary arteries (by 10 to 20%) and a spasmolytic action. (springer.com)
  • No benefit was observed in any of the reported endpoints for nicorandil, a nicotinamide nitrate that activates potassium channels. (acc.org)
  • Nicorandil has dual properties, acting as a nitrate and as a K + ATP channel agonist. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The chemical structure of nicorandil is distinct from other PCOs, in part because of a nitrate moiety, which may confer additional cardioprotection. (elsevier.com)
  • We examined whether nicorandil, a nicotinamide-nitrate ester, reduces the incidence of minor cardiac marker elevation after coronary stenting. (elsevier.com)
  • The haemodynamic effects of nicorandil, a new balanced vasodilator exhibiting nitrate-like as well as potassium-channel opening activity in patients with chronic severe valvular lesions have not been reported. (who.int)
  • combined intracoronary administration of adenosine and nicorandil (2mg/ml) in addition to nitrate]. (elsevier.com)
  • Nicorandil, an activator of ATP-sensitive potassium channels with a nitrate-like action, is a potent vasodilator. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • In these preparations the effects of the calcium entry blockers, diltiazem, nifedipine and verapamil, and nicorandil, a nitrate vasodilator thought to produce vasodilatation by an increase in membrane potassium permeability, and nitroglycerin were investigated on rhythmic contractions. (elsevier.com)
  • however, little is known about the additive value of nicorandil, which acts as a nitrate and a K + -ATP channel opener, to induce further hyperemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Pre-operative oral nicorandil expressively decreased myocardial reperfusion damage during open heart valve operations, this evidenced by the decrease in the postoperative use of inotropic drugs, considerable reduction of postoperative elevation of cardiac enzymes and inflammatory cytokines with no reported complications. (scirp.org)
  • here in our study we tried to explore the effect of pre-operative oral nicorandil on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and record its effect in patient subjected to open heart valve surgery. (scirp.org)
  • Orally administered nicorandil 15 to 40mg produced a similar but nonsignificant decrease in coronary vascular resistance (by 10 to 32%) and increase in coronary sinus blood flow (⩽32%), although significant effects were measured during exercise in patients with evidence of old myocardial infarction. (springer.com)
  • Effect of intravenous nicorandil and preexisting angina pectoris on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with a first ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. (curehunter.com)
  • Effects of intravenous nicorandil before reperfusion for acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycemia. (curehunter.com)
  • In patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), peak creatine kinase (CK) and CK-myocardial band (CK-MB) levels were significantly lower in patients treated with nicorandil (1767 ± 1272 vs. 2974 ± 2484 IU/ml and 166 ± 122 vs. 260 ± 180 IU/ml, respectively, p = 0.02 for both comparisons). (acc.org)
  • The goal of these two trials was to evaluate the effect of the human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) carperitide and nicorandil, compared with control, among patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (acc.org)
  • Myocardial blood flow in the LAD territory during occlusion immediately after and 1 hour after reperfusion was 56+/-31 %, 73+/-31 % and 69+/-28%, respectively, of the normal myocardium in the nicorandil group, and 65+/-20%, 101+/-75% and 77+/-42%, respectively, in the control group (p=NS between groups). (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared with intracoronary use alone, the intracoronary and peripheral intravenous use of nicorandil can better improve myocardial microcirculation and short-term prognosis. (amegroups.com)
  • Nicorandil is a very useful and safe drug for pharmacological stress perfusion MRI for the detection of myocardial ischemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antiarrhythmic efficacy of nicorandil (SG-75) (1-100 microM), a coronary vasodilator, was investigated electrophysiologically with regard to the action potentials of canine Purkinje fibers. (nih.gov)
  • Nicorandil belongs to the class of compounds known as potassium channel activators which are characterised by their arterial vasodilator properties. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, by combining these two vasodilator mechanisms, nicorandil represents a novel type of compound for use in the treatment of angina pectoris. (springer.com)
  • In summary, clinical experience thus far indicates that nicorandil, with its novel combination of two distinct vasodilator mechanisms, offers an effective alternative to established vasodilator therapy with conventional nitrates and calcium antagonists in the long term treatment of stable angina pectoris. (springer.com)
  • Nicorandil is an antianginal drug with coronary vasodilator properties. (bmj.com)
  • 1 Nicorandil activates the potassium channel in vascular smooth muscle, which partly explains its vasodilator actions. (bmj.com)
  • Effect of a new coronary vasodilator, nicorandil, on variant a. (mysciencework.com)
  • The effect of nicorandil, a new coronary vasodilator, was evaluated in 32 patients with variant angina pectoris in a single-blind trial. (mysciencework.com)
  • The first therapeutic drug shown to possess an ability to hyperpolarize smooth muscle cell membranes is nicorandil, a potent coronary vasodilator. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Nicorandil, an ATP sensitive potassium-channel opener, may reduce the incidence of microvascular dysfunction after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) by dilating coronary resistance vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • The goal of the trial was to evaluate treatment with nicorandil, a hybrid adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel (K ATP ) activator and vascular smooth muscle relaxant, in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). (acc.org)
  • abstract = "We aimed to clarify the size dependency of nicorandil-induced dilation in coronary microcirculation and the involvement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels. (elsevier.com)
  • ABSTRACT : In the present research, an attempt has been made to formulate sustained release matrix tablet of nicorandil, a novel potassium channel opener used in cardiovascular disease. (healthdocbox.com)
  • It's even weirder that he wants to switch atenolol for nicorandil, when most cardiologist actually prescribe combination of nicorandil and atenolol for angina pectoris patients. (steadyhealth.com)
  • His cardiologist too switched him from atenolol to Nicorandil, but he at least explained to us why he was doing this - dad's cardiac function tests results weren't as good as when he first started atenolol and he switched him to Nicorandil to prevent his angina pectoris from worsening in the future. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Nicorandil is used to treat chronic stable angina pectoris. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • The results demonstrate the effectiveness of nicorandil in the treatment of variant angina pectoris. (mysciencework.com)
  • Nicorandil, marketed in the UK as Ikorel, is a powerful potassium-channel activator to treat angina pectoris (severe chest pains), and a recent study suggests it is a very effective one. (healthy.net)
  • Nicorandil and long-acting nitrates are vasodilatory drugs used commonly in the management of chronic stable angina pectoris. (ecrjournal.com)
  • Diabetic rats were randomized into groups of six rats and received 50mg/kg, intraperitoneally of aminoguanidine (an anti- advanced glycation end products (AGE) which prevents the formation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation in cells), 0.1mg/kg, orally of nicorandil (nicotinamide derivative which is efficacious in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris and a potassium channel opener) and their combination once daily for one month. (kenzpub.com)
  • Key words: Sustained release, xanthan gum, guar gum, nicorandil INTRODUCTION Hypertension and angina pectoris, the most common cardiovascular diseases, require constant monitoring. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Currently nicorandil, a potassium channel opener is being frequently used for the prevention and long-term treatment of angina pectoris. (ijbcp.com)
  • Comparative studies of up to 3 months' duration suggest that nicorandil is equivalent in efficacy to isosorbide dinitrate, propranolol, atenolol, nifedipine or diltiazem in the treatment of stable angina. (springer.com)
  • These findings demonstrated that nicorandil inhibited ventricular electrical and structural remodeling and VT in a mouse model of CHF and suggest that nicorandil is useful for the treatment of CHF as well as acute heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • The limited comparisons possible with other CHD interventions suggest that nicorandil compares favourably. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Method and Results: Nicorandil (6 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was orally administered in 24 G alpha q-TG mice from 8 weeks to 32 weeks of age. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nicorandil was given orally at a dose of 15 to 30 mg daily for the first two weeks, and 15 to 60 mg daily for the next two weeks. (bmj.com)
  • Nicorandil was administered orally (15mg/day). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Group III was treated orally with nicorandil (0.3mg/kg body wt) for 28 days. (ijbcp.com)
  • drop out rate 10%, an event rate of the primary end point for two years 50%, a risk reduction rate brought by nicorandil 60%, a statistical power 80% and two-sided significant level 0.05. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The number of attacks during the pretreatment period, 3.6 +/- 0.4 per day, became significantly reduced to 0.7 +/- 0.2 per day during nicorandil therapy (P less than 0.001) and significantly increased to 1.3 +/- 0.3 per day after withdrawal of the drug (P less than 0.05). (mysciencework.com)
  • In 17 patients with continuous ECG monitoring, the frequency of occurrence of ST-segment elevation was 8.6 +/- 2.7 per day during the preobservation period, significantly decreased to 0.4 +/- 0.2 per day during nicorandil therapy (P less than 0.01), and significantly increased to 1.9 +/- 0.7 per day after withdrawal of the drug (P less than 0.05). (mysciencework.com)
  • Antiarrhythmic effects of nicorandil on canine cardiac Purkinje fibers. (nih.gov)
  • To study the role of pre-operative oral nicorandil in decreasing reperfusion cardiac injury in patients subjected to cardiac valve surgery. (scirp.org)
  • The present study aimed to characterize the inotropic and vasodilatory properties of the K-ATP channel opener nicorandil (NIC) in isolated human cardiac tissue. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, there was no reduction in incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 12 months with nicorandil therapy. (acc.org)
  • The composite of cardiac death or heart failure was lower with carperitide than control (hazard ratio [HR] 0.27, p = 0.011), but did not differ for nicorandil versus control (HR 0.78, p = 0.60). (acc.org)
  • Comparative effects of nicorandil with isosorbide mononitrate on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and left ventricular function in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusions: The results demonstrated that nicorandil reduces minor cardiac marker elevation after coronary stenting. (elsevier.com)
  • Treatment of DS rats with nicorandil improved cardiac function and attenuated the development of heart failure. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Nicorandil inhibits oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes through a nitric oxide/cGMP-dependent mechanism as well as by activating mitochondrial K ATP channels. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Cardiac enzyme levels were significantly lower in the Nicorandil group at 6 and 12 hours after angioplasty,(p value=0.001) while no significant differences were observed in the symptoms and four-month prognosis of the study groups(p value=0.8). (magiran.com)
  • Nicorandil (Ikorel), indicated for the prevention and treatment of angina, is associated with a risk of gastrointestinal ulceration, including perianal ulceration, according to a recent safety update from the MHRA. (mims.co.uk)
  • Mouth ulceration has long been a recognised adverse effect of nicorandil , however healthcare professionals should now consider nicorandil treatment as a possible cause in patients with symptoms of gastrointestinal ulceration. (mims.co.uk)
  • Two cases of Nicorandil-induced ulceration mimicking skin malignancy. (heartofengland.nhs.uk)
  • We present the first reported cases of nicorandil-induced ulceration on the temple and the nasal mucosa, which were referred as possible skin malignancies. (heartofengland.nhs.uk)
  • Nicorandil-associated ulceration was initially reported in the oral mucosa. (tga.gov.au)
  • Seven of 51 reports received by the TGA for nicorandil describe ulceration. (tga.gov.au)
  • Where stated, the daily dose was 20 mg (n=3) or 40 mg (n=2) and the time to onset of ulceration after starting nicorandil ranged from one day to many months. (tga.gov.au)
  • Failure to recognise nicorandil-induced ulceration can lead to substantial morbidity, inappropriate investigation and treatment, and unnecessary surgery. (tga.gov.au)
  • Nicorandil induced anal ulceration. (tga.gov.au)
  • Five illustrated cases of skin conditions, including pityriasis/tinea amiantacea, morphea (localised scleroderma), nicorandil-induced ulceration and two cases showing the effectiveness of topical chemotherapy agents in skin dysplasia. (gponline.com)
  • It has been well established that the anti-anginal medication nicorandil can cause different types of ulceration. (gponline.com)
  • The association of the anti-anginal drug nicorandil with oral and anal ulceration is becoming more widely recognised, but there are no reports of isolated nicorandil-induced rectal ulceration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report a case of nicorandil-induced rectal ulceration causing rectal bleeding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, there are currently no reports in the English literature linking nicorandil therapy with ulceration of the rectum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, there is still a lack of awareness of nicorandil-induced ulceration, and consequently this diagnosis is often overlooked. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We present a case of rectal bleeding secondary to nicorandil-induced rectal ulceration and aim to increase awareness of this reversible condition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More serious underlying causes for rectal ulceration should be excluded before implicating nicorandil. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At high plasma concentrations nicorandil reduces coronary vascular resistance, which is associated with increased ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) opening. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nicorandil activates KATP channels in the mitochondria of the myocardium, which appears to relay the cardioprotective effects, although the mechanism is still unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nicorandil enhances the effect of endothelial nitric oxide under hypoxia-reoxygenation: role of the KATP channel. (curehunter.com)
  • Therefore, the changes in p120 were observed in the DRG and spinal cord of rats following the intraperitoneal injection of nicorandil, a KATP agonist. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Notably, nicorandil is the first clinical KATP opener, which has been reported to exhibit activities in models of inflammatory and nociceptive pain ( 12 , 13 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The study included 62 patients, who were equally randomized into two groups: nicorandil group and control group. (scirp.org)
  • Whilst the efficacy of nicorandil in other types of angina has not been extensively studied, preliminary results indicate that intravenous nicorandil is as effective as isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of unstable angina and is also effective in patients with variant angina. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the limited data available indicate that nicorandil may be effective in patients with unstable and variant angina who are refractory to therapy with conventional antianginal agents, a potentially important area for further study. (springer.com)
  • Headache, mostly of mild to moderate intensity was the most commonly reported adverse event, occurring in one-third of patients receiving the recommended therapeutic regimen of nicorandil 10 to 20mg twice daily. (springer.com)
  • In comparative trials involving a total of 84 patients who received nicorandil, the incidence of headache was similar to that produced by isosorbide mononitrate and isosorbide dinitrate. (springer.com)
  • To date, approximately 5% of patients participating in European trials have withdrawn due to headache, although this rate may be reduced by using a lower starting dose of nicorandil (5mg twice daily). (springer.com)
  • At the end of the study, 70% of patients were maintained on nicorandil. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These results are in agreement with those reported from the nicorandil safety database, which gathered 1152 patients treated by nicorandil, including those of the present study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Patients were randomized to control (n=29) or nicorandil groups (n=33). (ahajournals.org)
  • Design and patients The effect of oral nicorandil (15 to 60 mg daily for four weeks) on premature ventricular contractions was investigated in 20 patients (11 female, nine male, mean (SD) age 63 (17) years) who underwent 24 hour ambulatory ECG. (bmj.com)
  • Results Nicorandil reduced the frequency of premature ventricular contractions by 75% in five patients in group 2, but was not effective in any patient in group 1. (bmj.com)
  • There are two case reports which described the efficacy of nicorandil on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with the idiopathic long QT syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • 7-9 In the present study we investigated the effect of nicorandil in patients with frequent premature ventricular contractions, using 24 hour ECG recordings, and we also examined the relation between the frequency of premature contractions and heart rate in these patients. (bmj.com)
  • We studied 20 patients (nine men and 11 women) aged 19 to 91 years (mean (SD) age 63 (17) years) with frequent premature ventricular contractions (table 1 ), defined as more than 1000 premature contractions per 24 hours before the start of nicorandil treatment. (bmj.com)
  • Nicorandil is potentially effective to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) receiving hemodialysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to prospectively investigate whether nicorandil is effective in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with CAD on hemodialysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It was reported that nicorandil, a hybrid compound on adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener and nitric oxide door, was potentially effective to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with CAD receiving hemodialysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Therefore, investigators prospectively examine whether nicorandil is effective in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with CAD on hemodialysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI were stratified according to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n = 108) or non-ACS (n = 300), and randomized to treatment with 6 mg intravenous nicorandil (n = 206, 47 with ACS and 159 with non-ACS) or placebo (n = 202, 61 with ACS and 141 with non-ACS) prior to stent placement. (acc.org)
  • Corrected TIMI frame count (cTFC) was significantly lower in both ACS and non-ACS patients treated with nicorandil. (acc.org)
  • The incidence of post-PCI SCF (cTFC >20 frames) was also significantly lower in patients treated with nicorandil (4.4% vs. 17.8%, p (acc.org)
  • Nicorandil infusion during inter-hospital transfer of patients with acute coronary syndrome - What can we do in a rural area of Japan? (rrh.org.au)
  • Nagayoshi Y, Kai Y, Yumoto S, Sakaguchi K, Shudo C, Takino S, Hashiyama M, Kawano H, Kuroda Y, Ogawa H. Nicorandil infusion during inter-hospital transfer of patients with acute coronary syndrome - What can we do in a rural area of Japan? (rrh.org.au)
  • Adjunctive nicorandil infusion protocol was performed if EMS took ACS patients to the non-PCI-capable hospital or the patients directly presented to the non-PCI-capable hospital. (rrh.org.au)
  • Nicorandil is a vasodilatory drug, which is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, right ventricular infarction, left ventricular failure with low filling pressure and hypotension. (rrh.org.au)
  • Between April 2011 and February 2013, 12 patients with ACS underwent adjunctive nicorandil infusion during inter-hospital transfer. (rrh.org.au)
  • Chest discomforts were reduced by nicorandil infusion in all seven patients. (rrh.org.au)
  • Objective: To estimate the net cost of adding nicorandil to usual treatment for patients with angina and to compare this with indicators of health benefit. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Patients: Patients with angina fulfilling the entry criteria for the IONA trial Interventions: In one arm of the trial nicorandil was added to existing antianginal treatment and compared with existing treatment alone. (gla.ac.uk)
  • While there is some evidence to suggest a modest reduction in cardiovascular events among patients with stable angina treated with nicorandil compared to placebo, this prognostic benefit has yet to be proven conclusively. (ecrjournal.com)
  • In this proposed scheme based on expert consensus, vasodilatory drugs - including nicorandil and nitrates - are preferred over beta-blockers and other rate-limiting anti-angina drugs for patients with effort-induced angina and a low resting heart rate or atrioventricular conduction defects, and are avoided in patients with low systemic blood pressure who are most susceptible to the haemodynamic side-effects of these medications. (ecrjournal.com)
  • 7 However, long-acting nitrates are effective in only ~50 % of patients with microvascular angina 8 as, unlike nicorandil, they have little effect on small resistance vessels. (ecrjournal.com)
  • Methods: Patients (n = 192) undergoing coronary stenting were randomly assigned to receive nicorandil (nicorandil group, n = 91) or vehicle (control group, n = 101). (elsevier.com)
  • Nicorandil (2 μg/kg/min, intravenously) was administered immediately after the patients were transferred into the catheterization laboratory and continued for 6 h. (elsevier.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Acute haemodynamic effects of nicorandil in patients with chronic severe regurgitant valvular lesions. (who.int)
  • We conclude that nicorandil has a favourable acute haemodynamic effect in patients with chronic severe valve regurgitation. (who.int)
  • We will evaluate the feasibility and hyperemic efficacy of IV adenosine in patients with HFrEF in comparison with IC nicorandil for invasive physiological assessment using a coronary pressure wire. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conclusions: Intracoronary administration of adenosine combined with nicorandil may improve both the occurrence of no-reflow in patients during PCI for AMI and short-term clinical outcome, compared with adenosine alone. (elsevier.com)
  • A total of 140 STEMI patients were divided into three groups according to different patterns of administration: sequential nicorandil group, intracoronary nicorandil group and control group. (amegroups.com)
  • Results Physiologic measurements were completed without any severe adverse effects from ATP and nicorandil in all patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Aims The study was to investigate the effects of Intravenous Nicorandil on blood pressure and drug safety in patients with coronary heart disease. (authorea.com)
  • And Nicorandil could decrease patients blood pressure in a concentration-dependent manner. (authorea.com)
  • Conclusion Intravenous Nicorandil could significantly reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients without affecting heart rate, and it reduced in depending on concentrations, suggesting that Intravenous Nicorandil may be a new intravenous antihypertensive drug in future clinical application. (authorea.com)
  • It is recommended that a randomized clinical trial be conducted for the close evaluation of the effects of Nicorandil on unstable angina patients. (magiran.com)
  • Main outcome measures: Costs were for use of hospital resources (for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and gastrointestinal reasons), nicorandil, and care after hospital discharge. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This study delivers important new insight in the molecular pathways that may contribute to thebeneficial effects of nicorandil in the cardiovascular system. (pieronline.jp)
  • and (c) in the presence of nicorandil (50 microM), membrane potentials at which the earliest premature response could be elicited were significantly more negative than control, thus leading to a much faster upstroke velocity of the premature response. (nih.gov)
  • Postreperfusion end-diastolic pressures were significantly increased in control, 300 μmol/L nicorandil, and nicorandil plus glibenclamide groups. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions: Nicorandil (100 μmol/L and 1 mmol/L) significantly improved functional recovery compared with control and was as effective as KCl cardioplegia. (elsevier.com)
  • Nicorandil pretreatment in the dose of 5mg/kg increased onset time and significantly decreased the duration of convulsions,while the doses of 10, 20, 40mg/kg prevented the convulsions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nicorandil significantly reduced contrast-induced nephropathy by 62%, compared with controls. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Nicorandil (Ikorel) is a synthetic nicotine derivative, which causes arterial and venous dilatation. (tga.gov.au)
  • The anti-anginal drug nicorandil has been shown to inhibit apoptosis by activating mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP ) channels. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Nicorandil, an adenosine triphosphate−sensitive potassium channel opener, induces vasodilation, blood pressure decrease and cardioprotection. (pieronline.jp)
  • DS rats on such a diet were treated with a nonantihypertensive oral dose of nicorandil (6 mg/kg per day) or vehicle from 11 to 18 weeks of age. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The protective effect of nicorandil was eliminated by glibenclamide, indicating that nicorandil is cardioprotective primarily through its capability as a PCO. (elsevier.com)
  • The nitric oxide donor (±)-S-nitroso-N- acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, 50 μmol/l) mimicked the protective effect of nicorandil in a manner sensitive to ODQ but not to 5-HD. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The haemodynamic effects of nicorandil reach a peak within 1 to 2 minutes of intravenous administration or 30 to 60 minutes after a single oral dose (20 to 40 mg) and persist for up to 8 hours (40 to 60mg). (springer.com)
  • In the nicorandil group, nicorandil was intravenously administered as a 6-mg bolus injection just before PCI and as a constant infusion at 6-mg/hour for 24-hours thereafter. (ahajournals.org)
  • Methods In order to evaluate the blood pressure lowering effects and safety of Intravenous Nicorandil, we recruited 43 inpatients with unstable angina to intravenously pump Nicorandil, and the pumping speeds (2mg/h, 4mg/h and 6mg/h, respectively) were adjusted according to the patient's blood pressure. (authorea.com)
  • Nicorandil is a potassium channel opener, and it has been known to have a cardioprotective effect against ischemia / reperfusion injury . (bvsalud.org)
  • The cardioprotective effect of nicorandil may be associated with preconditioning before reperfusion . (bvsalud.org)
  • In 2002 a landmark randomised controlled trial, the IONA study, showed that as well as providing symptomatic benefit nicorandil also had cardioprotective properties [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These effects of nicorandil could be mostly attributed to an increase in membrane K conductance. (nih.gov)
  • Nicorandil has vasodilatory effects on both the epicardial coronary arteries and the coronary microvasculature, thereby increasing coronary blood flow. (springer.com)
  • Maruyama M, Satoh K, Taira N (1982) Effects of nicorandil and its congeners on musculature and vasculature on the dog trachea in situ. (springer.com)
  • Nicorandil prevents endothelial dysfunction due to antioxidative effects via normalisation of NADPH oxidase and nitric oxide synthase in streptozotocin diabetic rats. (curehunter.com)
  • Inhibitory effects of nicorandil, a K ATP channel opener and a nitric oxide donor, on overactive bladder in animal models. (curehunter.com)
  • Introduction: Beneficial hemodynamic effects of nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive K + channel opener, in acute heart failure have been demonstrated. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, whether nicorandil has inhibitory effects on the development of chronic heart failure (CHF) remains unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Dual relaxant effects of nicorandil could be split into single components of action by using combination experiments. (kup.at)
  • The present study attempted to extend the investigation on the antinociceptive activity of nicorandil by evaluating its effects on the expression of p120 and also to evaluate the possible mechanisms involved in the antinociceptive activity of this drug through the p120 pathway. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • No patient died during transport, and adverse effects of nicorandil were not observed. (rrh.org.au)
  • What Are The Side Effects Of Nicorandil? (saveonmedicals.com)
  • We have now investigated the effects of nicorandil on vascular growth and gene expression in the failing heart of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) hypertensive rats. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Pretreatment of cells with nicorandil (100 μmol/l) inhibited these effects of H 2 O 2 . (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • After treatment, the effects of Intravenous Nicorandil on blood pressure and drug safety were observed. (authorea.com)
  • The duration of action of Nicorandil is 2 to 3 minutes, its effects on hemodynamics are minimal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Oral nicorandil 15 to 60mg did not consistently affect the systolic blood pressure response to exercise, although a decrease in preload is still evident (33%) and a transient increase in exercise heart rate may be apparent 30 minutes post dose (20 to 30mg). (springer.com)
  • Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) was administered in the dose of 100mg/kg i.p, 30mins after Nicorandil / control drug pre- treatment . (bvsalud.org)
  • 2,3 The reaction occurs rarely, appears to be dose-related and the time to ulcer onset may be up to months after starting nicorandil. (tga.gov.au)
  • In 16 dogs, nicorandil was infused into the coronary in a cumulative fashion (0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 μg/kg/min, for 5 min for each dose). (elsevier.com)
  • Of note, in 2008, his nicorandil dose was increased to 30 mg twice daily, and it was a few months after this that his rectal bleeding worsened. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have reported that high-dose Nicorandil is known to increase coronary blood flow. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Feasibility and safety of intracoronary nicorandil infusion as a novel hyperemic agent for fractional flow reserve measurements. (curehunter.com)
  • Background: This study aimed to clarify the effect of intracoronary administration of combined adenosine and nicorandil on the no-reflow phenomenon. (elsevier.com)
  • FFR was measured using a coronary pressure wire during an intravenous ATP infusion alone (150 mcg/kg/min) (FFR ATP) and repeated after an adjunctive intracoronary nicorandil injection (2.0 mg) (FFR ATP+Nico). (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion An adjunctive intracoronary nicorandil injection is safe, but appears to have little effect in inducing further hyperemia. (elsevier.com)
  • Extracellular potassium dependent negative dromotropic action of nicorandil in guinea pig myocardium. (elsevier.com)
  • Although the antiarrhythmic action of nicorandil is drawing an increasing attention, dromotropic effect of this agent is unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Extracellular potassium dependent negative dromotropic action of nicorandil in guinea pig myocardium. (elsevier.com)
  • Cultured HUVECs were exposed to cyclic strain in the presence of nicorandil, ET−1 expression was examined by reverse transcriptase− polymerase chain reaction and ELISA. (pieronline.jp)
  • Ulcers are refractory to treatment and only respond to withdrawal of nicorandil. (mims.co.uk)
  • Healing began only after withdrawal of nicorandil, with complete resolution over several weeks. (tga.gov.au)
  • The duration of hyperemia after IV nicorandil was variable (6-570 s, mean 89 ± 98 s). (springer.com)
  • In conclusions, the results of the present study suggest that IV nicorandil can achieve maximal hyperemia easily and rapidly, providing an acceptable diagnostic performance for FFR assessment. (springer.com)
  • The incidence of adverse events was not modified when nicorandil was given in combination with a beta-blocker, a calcium antagonist, or both agents. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In comparative studies of nicorandil versus beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, or nitrates, the overall incidence of adverse events was no different between the two treatment groups, although the safety profile differed according to the drug category. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results of this study suggest that administration of intravenous nicorandil prior to PCI may reduce the incidence of SCF in both the ACS and non-ACS populations. (acc.org)
  • Among the secondary endpoints, reperfusion injury was reduced 25.9% with carperitide compared with control, but did not differ between nicorandil and control. (acc.org)
  • The perfusion defect immediately after and 1 hour after reperfusion was 13.0+/-8.7% and 8.4 +/-7.6%, respectively, in nicorandil group, and 16.7 +/-11.1 % and 13.4+/-8.8%, respectively, in the control group , (p=NS between groups). (bvsalud.org)
  • Nicorandil, a potassium channel opener and nitric oxide donor, improves the frequent urination without changing the blood pressure in rats with partial bladder outlet obstruction. (curehunter.com)
  • Nicorandil ameliorated hypertensive renal injury without lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (curehunter.com)
  • Nicorandil improves glomerular injury in rats with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis via inhibition of proproliferative and profibrotic growth factors. (curehunter.com)
  • It was demonstrated that nicorandil administration could relieve mechanical pain experienced following SMIR in rats, and decrease the expression of p120 in the DRG and spinal cord. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The effect of aminoguanidine, nicorandil and their combination against oxidative stress in streptozotocin (STZ) - induced diabetes mellitus was assessed in rats by determining changes in blood glucose level, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in healthy and experimentally induced diabetic rats. (kenzpub.com)
  • Treatments of the diabetic rats with aminoguanidine, nicorandil and their combination led to improvement of the abnormalities in SOD, CAT, GSH, MDA, NO and also the histhopathological abnormalities of kidney and liver. (kenzpub.com)
  • Treatment of DS rats with nicorandil greatly increased capillary and arteriolar densities and inhibited the downregulation of eNOS, VEGF, fms-like tyrosin kinase-1, and bFGF gene expression. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • This, nicorandil stimulates coronary capillary and arteriolar growth and thereby likely suppresses the development of heart failure in DS rats. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • To evaluate the pharmacodynamic interaction present study has been taken to study the effect of Nicorandil, a potassium channel opener on blood glucose level of alloxan induced diabetic rats and its pharmacodynamics interaction with Glibenclamide. (ijbcp.com)
  • Study of influence of nicorandil on hypoglycemic action of glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats. (ijbcp.com)
  • Effect of nicorandil on basal glucose levels and after glucose challenge in normal euglycemic albino wistar rats. (ijbcp.com)
  • Gastrointestinal fistulation has been widely reported as an adverse effect of nicorandil therapy in Europe. (cdc.gov)
  • No adverse effect of nicorandil occurred during the study. (who.int)
  • Both nicorandil and long-acting nitrates exert anti-angina properties via activation of nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathways, triggering vascular smooth muscle cell relaxation. (ecrjournal.com)
  • Akai K, Wang Y, Sato K, Sekiguchi N, Sugimura A, Kumagai T, Komaru T, Kanatsuka H, Shirato K (1995) Vasodilatory effect of nicorandil on coronary arterial microvessels: its dependency on vessel size and the involvement of the ATP-sensitive potassium channels. (springer.com)
  • Objective To assess the clinical antiarrhythmic effect of nicorandil, a potassium channel opener, on premature ventricular contractions. (bmj.com)
  • The results revealed that p120 may contribute to the prophylactic analgesic effect of nicorandil, thus providing a novel insight into the mechanism of CPSP prevention. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Furthermore, L−NAME, an inhibitor of NO synthase, and the siRNA transfection for eNOS partially attenuated the inhibitory effect of nicorandil on strain−induced ET−1 expression. (pieronline.jp)
  • To evaluate or screen the anticonvulsant effect of Nicorandil a potassium channel opener in Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convusions in albino mice . (bvsalud.org)
  • Both the mitochondrial K ATP channel antagonist 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, attenuated the anti-apoptotic effect of nicorandil in concentration-dependent manners. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The effect of nicorandil was also reduced by an inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (KT5823, 1 μmol/l). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The results of an open prospective study that evaluated the long-term clinical safety of nicorandil are presented. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Moreover, nicorandil has been approved for human use and has not been shown to exhibit significant toxicity in clinical trials. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions Nicorandil may suppress premature ventricular contractions when they occur mainly at a low heart rate. (bmj.com)
  • All antiarrhythmic agents, including digitalis, were discontinued at least one week before any nicorandil was given. (bmj.com)
  • We Are Offering Wide Range Of Quality Pharmaceutical Products And Niksan Healthcare Is Eminent & Largest Manufacturer, Exporter, Suppliers, Distributor, Trader And Dealer Of Excellent Quality Nicorandil 5 Mg Tablets. (niksanhealthcare.com)
  • Nicorandil is a vasodilatory drug used to treat angina. (wikipedia.org)
  • IV nicorandil decreased systolic blood pressure by 32 ± 16 mm Hg (24 ± 10%) from baseline. (springer.com)
  • The objective is to assess the efficacy and safety of Nicorandil in stress perfusion MRI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From these results it can be concluded that aminoguanidine, nicorandil and their combination have the ability to attenuate oxidative stress induced by streptozotocin. (kenzpub.com)
  • Nicorandil stimulates guanylate cyclase to increase formation of cyclic GMP (cGMP).cGMP activates protein kinase G (PKG) which phosphorylates and inhibits GTPase RhoA and decreases Rho-kinase activity. (salvavidaspharmaceutical.com)
  • Nicorandil Stimulates Guanylate Cyclase to Increase Formation of Cyclic Gmp (Cgmp).cgmp Activates Protein Kinase G (Pkg) Which Phosphorylates and Inhibits. (apmplifescience.com)
  • Nicorandil stimulates guanylate cyclase to increase formation of cyclic GMP (cGMP). (wikipedia.org)

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