A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.
A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A family of high molecular weight Maf transcription factors that contain distinct activation domains.
A pancreatic polypeptide of about 110 amino acids, depending on the species, that is the precursor of insulin. Proinsulin, produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, is comprised sequentially of the N-terminal B-chain, the proteolytically removable connecting C-peptide, and the C-terminal A-chain. It also contains three disulfide bonds, two between A-chain and B-chain. After cleavage at two locations, insulin and C-peptide are the secreted products. Intact proinsulin with low bioactivity also is secreted in small amounts.
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.
Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
Src-family kinases that associate with T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR and phosphorylate a wide variety of intracellular signaling molecules.
This enzyme is a lymphoid-specific src family tyrosine kinase that is critical for T-cell development and activation. Lck is associated with the cytoplasmic domains of CD4, CD8 and the beta-chain of the IL-2 receptor, and is thought to be involved in the earliest steps of TCR-mediated T-cell activation.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
NFAT activating protein with ITAM motif 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFAM1 gene. The protein encoded by this ... containing protein (CNAIP), a novel ITAM-containing protein that activates the calcineurin/NFAT-signaling pathway". J. Biol. ... "Entrez Gene: NFAT activating protein with ITAM motif 1". Retrieved 2018-03-13. Yang J, Hu G, Wang SW, Li Y, Martin R, Li K, Yao ... The encoded protein contains an Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and is thought to regulate the signaling ...
Macian, F (June 2005). "NFAT proteins: key regulators of T-cell development and function". Nature Reviews. Immunology. 5 (6): ... ROS also interacts with ERK pathway that leads to activation of Ras, MEK and MEK-like proteins. These proteins activate protein ... One example of a protein that binds to adaptor proteins and become activated is PLC that is very important in the lymphocyte ... Then, it converts adenosine triphosphate into cyclic AMP, which activates Protein kinase A. PKA leads to protein tyrosine ...
Amasaki Y, Masuda ES, Imamura R, Arai K, Arai N (Mar 1998). "Distinct NFAT family proteins are involved in the nuclear NFAT-DNA ... The product of this gene is a DNA-binding protein with a REL-homology region (RHR) and an NFAT-homology region (NHR). This ... Lyakh L, Ghosh P, Rice NR (May 1997). "Expression of NFAT-family proteins in normal human T cells". Molecular and Cellular ... Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFATC2 gene. This gene is a ...
NFAT. NFAT is controlled in part by two proteins, DSCR1 and DYRK1A; these genes are located on chromosome-21 (Epstein 582). In ... show that 41% of the genes on chromosome-21 have no functional purpose, and only 54% of functional genes have a known protein ... APP is an Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein. It is suspected to have a major role in cognitive difficulties. Another gene, ETS2 ... 597). The elevated levels of DSCR1 and DYRK1A keep NFAT primarily located in the cytoplasm rather than in the nucleus, ...
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PP2BA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... and NF-AT". Cell. 96 (5): 611-4. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80571-1. PMID 10089876. S2CID 8817053. Wang HG, Pathan N, Ethell IM ... Universal protein resource accession number Q08209 for "Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B catalytic subunit alpha isoform ... "Entrez Gene: Protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme". Retrieved 2011-12-18. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
"Cyclophilin C-associated protein regulation of phagocytic functions via NFAT activation in macrophages". Brain Research. 1397: ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) family. PPIases catalyze the ... In the brain, PPIC complexes with cyclophilin C-associated protein (CyCAP) to activate microglia and macrophage function via ...
Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFATC1 gene.[5] ... calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade. • transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • transcription, DNA-templated. • positive ... mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 binding. • FK506 binding. • transcriptional activator activity, RNA polymerase II distal ... protein binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal enhancer sequence-specific binding. • RNA polymerase ...
The NFAT family consists of five different forms: NFAT1, NFAT2, NFAT3, NFAT4, and NFAT5 (this protein). The proteins in this ... Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (2003). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using a ... Trama J, Lu Q, Hawley RG, Ho SN (2000). "The NFAT-related protein NFATL1 (TonEBP/NFAT5) is induced upon T cell activation in a ... Lopez-Rodríguez C, Aramburu J, Rakeman AS, Rao A (June 1999). "NFAT5, a constitutively nuclear NFAT protein that does not ...
The other proteins in the complex are the CD3 proteins: CD3εγ and CD3εδ heterodimers and, most important, a CD3ζ homodimer, ... Calcineurin, in turn, activates NFAT, which then translocates to the nucleus. NFAT is a transcription factor that activates the ... T cell membrane protein-3 (TIM3), and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3).[59][60] Soluble molecules such as cytokines ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ...
Transcription factors involved in T cell signalling pathway are the NFAT, NF-κB and AP1, a heterodimer of proteins Fos and Jun ... DAG binds and recruits Protein kinase C θ (PKCθ) to the membrane where it can activated the membrane bound scaffold protein ... T-cell Group - Cardiff University UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes protein/pdbid-2hac - Zeta-zeta dimer of T-cell ... AKT is able to deactivate GSK3 and thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of NFAT, which could contribute to NFAT activation. ...
Chen D, Zhang L, Pang B, Chen J, Xu Z, Abe I, Liu W (May 2013). "FK506 maturation involves a cytochrome p450 protein-catalyzed ... Calcineurin then dephosphorylates the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT), which moves to the ... The biosynthesis of methoxymalonyl CoA to Acyl Carrier protein is proceeded by five enzymes (fkbG, fkbH, fkbI, fkbJ, and fkbK ... Genetic variations within CYP3A5 that result in changes to the activity of the CYP3A5 protein can affect concentrations of ...
... whose cytoplasmic domain is then able to bind the death domain of the adaptor protein FADD (Fas-associated protein with death ... NFAT activated by TCR stimulation activates FasL transcription, possibly indirectly by upregulating early growth response ... However, overexpression of the protein CFLAR (caspase and FADD-like apoptosis regulator) inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis. ... proteins. T cell activation-induced transcription of FasL is further regulated by c-Myc-MAX heterodimers, and can be blocked by ...
OPM protein. 1cwa. Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural ... Calcineurin then dephosphorylates the transcription factor NF-AT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells), which moves to the T- ... CsA binds to cyclophilin D to block the opening of MPTP, and thus decreases the release of protein cytochrome C, which can ... Ciclosporin binds to the cytosolic protein cyclophilin (immunophilin) of lymphocytes, especially of T cells. This ciclosporin- ...
Amasaki Y, Masuda ES, Imamura R, Arai K, Arai N (Mar 1998). "Distinct NFAT family proteins are involved in the nuclear NFAT-DNA ... "Isolation of two new members of the NF-AT gene family and functional characterization of the NF-AT proteins". Immunity. 2 (5): ... "Selective inhibition of NFAT activation by a peptide spanning the calcineurin targeting site of NFAT". Molecular Cell. 1 (5): ... NFATC3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ...
NFAT is a heterodimer of 45 kDa and 90 kDa proteins, the larger of which is the product of this gene. The encoded protein, ... Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a transcription factor required for T-cell expression of interleukin 2. NFAT ... Tang J, Kao PN, Herschman HR (June 2000). "Protein-arginine methyltransferase I, the predominant protein-arginine ... Tang J, Kao PN, Herschman HR (June 2000). "Protein-arginine methyltransferase I, the predominant protein-arginine ...
NFAT). Pathological stress or hypertrophic agonists will trigger G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and activates PLC to form ... DAG activates the calcineurin/NFAT pathway directly. NFAT translocate into the nucleus and induce gene transcription of more ... "TRIP Database". a manually curated database of protein-protein interactions for mammalian TRP channels.. ... Two other proteins, stromal interaction molecules (STIMs) and Orais, however, have more recently been implicated in this ...
Na SY, Choi JE, Kim HJ, Jhun BH, Lee YC, Lee JW (October 1999). "Bcl3, an IkappaB protein, stimulates activating protein-1 ... García-Rodríguez C, Rao A (June 1998). "Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent transactivation regulated by the ... Ko L, Cardona GR, Chin WW (May 2000). "Thyroid hormone receptor-binding protein, an LXXLL motif-containing protein, functions ... "Molecular cloning and functional analysis of the adenovirus E1A-associated 300-kD protein (p300) reveals a protein with ...
"Cooperativity in transcription factor binding to the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP). The mixed lineage leukemia protein ... García-Rodríguez C, Rao A (Jun 1998). "Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent transactivation regulated by the ... DNA-binding protein Transcription factor Wärnmark A, Treuter E, Wright AP, Gustafsson JA (Oct 2003). "Activation functions 1 ... Gill G, Ptashne M (Oct 1987). "Mutants of GAL4 protein altered in an activation function". Cell. 51 (1): 121-6. doi:10.1016/ ...
"Isolation of two new members of the NF-AT gene family and functional characterization of the NF-AT proteins". Immunity. 2 (5): ... NFATC4 has been shown to interact with CREB-binding protein. NFAT ENSG00000285485 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000100968, ... "Selective inhibition of NFAT activation by a peptide spanning the calcineurin targeting site of NFAT". Molecular Cell. 1 (5): ... NFATC4+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ...
NFAT is a heterodimer of 45 kDa and 90 kDa proteins, the smaller of which is the product of this gene. The encoded protein ... NFAT binds to a sequence in the interleukin 2 gene enhancer known as the antigen receptor response element 2. In addition, NFAT ... "DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts with antigen receptor response element binding proteins NF90 and NF45". The Journal of ... "DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts with antigen receptor response element binding proteins NF90 and NF45". The Journal of ...
... and signal transduction through the calcium-PKC-NFAT pathway and G-protein independent PKB-GSK3 pathway. GRCh38: Ensembl ... Upon entering the presynaptic neuron, these compounds activate TAAR1 which, through protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C ... "TAAR1". The Human Protein Atlas. Retrieved 24 August 2017. Bugda Gwilt K, González DP, Olliffe N, Oller H, Hoffing R, Puzan M, ... One of the downstream effects of active TAAR1 is to increase cAMP in the presynaptic cell via Gαs G-protein activation of ...
... s are proteins that act as antioxidants by facilitating the reduction of other proteins by cysteine thiol-disulfide ... Once in the nucleus, reduced HDAC4 downregulates the activity of transcription factors such as NFAT that mediate cardiac ... These two cysteines are the key to the ability of thioredoxin to reduce other proteins. Thioredoxin proteins also have a ... "Identification of thioredoxin-binding protein-2/vitamin D(3) up-regulated protein 1 as a negative regulator of thioredoxin ...
... and signal transduction through the calcium-PKC-NFAT pathway and G-protein independent PKB-GSK3 pathway. GRCh38: Ensembl ... a protein phosphatase-1-interacting protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 274 (28): 19894-900. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.28. ... Universal protein resource accession number P14416 for "D(2) dopamine receptor" at UniProt. Salmas RE, Yurtsever M, Stein M, ... Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene. After work from Paul ...
There are 3 NFAT proteins in the T-cell, NFAT1, NFAT2 and NFAT4 and apparently are redundant to some extent. Thus when an ... Similarly to recessive tolerance, unopposed NFAT signalling is also important for T-reg induction. In this case, the NFAT ... NFAT homodimers are directly responsible for the expression of anergy associated genes such as ubiquitin ligase GRAIL or a ... However, a small number of the body's army of lymphocytes are able to react with proteins that are normally present in a ...
A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) then appears to be ligated. Targeted cells signal to NFAT and mTOR if conditions are ... Lacritin's discovery emerged from a screen for factors that stimulate tear protein secretion. Lacritin is a secreted protein ... With a predicted protein core molecular weight of 12.3 kDa, it is possible that mobility is partially retarded by lacritin's ... Here, it forms a complex with PKCα and PLCγ2 from which downstream mTOR and NFAT signaling is initiated. The upstream Gαi or G ...
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by the second ... Inhibition of PKC-θ downregulates transcription factors (NF-κB, NF-AT) and cause lower production of IL-2. It was observed that ... Smith BL, Krushelnycky BW, Mochly-Rosen D, Berg P (1996). "The HIV nef protein associates with protein kinase C theta". J. Biol ... Holmes AM (1996). "In vitro phosphorylation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein by protein kinase C: evidence ...
In humans, the CD4 protein is encoded by the CD4 gene. CD4+ T helper cells are white blood cells that are an essential part of ... These signals lead to the activation of transcription factors, including NF-κB, NFAT, AP-1, to promote T cell activation. CD4 ... Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, Bukrinsky M, Zhao RY (2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen ... Barber EK, Dasgupta JD, Schlossman SF, Trevillyan JM, Rudd CE (May 1989). "The CD4 and CD8 antigens are coupled to a protein- ...
Homeobox protein Hox-D8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD8 gene.[5][6][7] ... 1989). "Complementary homeo protein gradients in developing limb buds". Genes Dev. 3 (5): 641-50. doi:10.1101/gad.3.5.641. PMID ... HOXD8+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... "The thyroid transcription factor-1 gene is a candidate target for regulation by Hox proteins". EMBO J. 13 (14): 3339-47. PMC ...
Rb · RBL1(英语:Retinoblastoma-like protein 1) · RBL2(英语:Retinoblastoma-like protein 2) ... NF-κB(NFKB1、NFKB2、REL、RELA、RELB) · NFAT(C1、C2、C3、C4、5) ... protein homodimerization activity. · sequence-specific DNA binding. · metal ion binding. · protein heterodimerization activity ... FOXP2(Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2))基因,即叉头框P2基因,是一个与言语功能的发育有关的基因。在人
NF-κB (NFKB1, NFKB2, REL, RELA, RELB) • NFAT (C1, C2, C3, C4, 5) ... Bernstein PL, Herrick DJ, Prokipcak RD, Ross J (1992). "Control of c-myc mRNA half-life in vitro by a protein capable of ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding complex ... 1988). "A non-AUG translational initiation in c-myc exon 1 generates an N-terminally distinct protein whose synthesis is ...
protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding ... positive regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade. • positive regulation of NIK/NF-kappaB signaling. ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... protein localization to plasma membrane. • positive regulation of protein catabolic process. • regulation of receptor activity ...
ATP-dependent protein binding. • metal ion binding. • tubulin binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • copper ... negative regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade. • response to copper ion. • negative regulation of apoptotic process ... PRNP (prion protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (proetase-resistant-protein, Pr for prion, and ... negative regulation of protein processing. • protein destabilization. • activation of protein kinase activity. • calcium- ...
UMich Orientation of Proteins in Membranes protein/pdbid-2hac - Zeta-zeta dimer of T cell receptor ... Other downstream pathways are triggered as well (MAPK, NF-κB, NFAT) which results in gene transcription in the nucleus.[18] ... The TCR is composed of two different protein chains (that is, it is a heterodimer). In humans, in 95% of T cells the TCR ... The TCR is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, a large group of proteins involved in binding, recognition, and adhesion ...
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-gamma (HNF-3G), also known as forkhead box protein A3 (FOXA3) or transcription factor 3G (TCF-3G) ... protein domain specific binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. ... HNF-3G is a member of the forkheadclass of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional ... Dintilhac A, Bernués J (2002). "HMGB1 interacts with many apparently unrelated proteins by recognizing short amino acid ...
protein stabilization. • myotube cell development. • positive regulation of DNA replication. • myoblast proliferation. • ... positive regulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling cascade. • positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • ... protein kinase B signaling. • regulation of multicellular organism growth. • positive regulation of cell migration. • platelet ... Ras protein signal transduction. • cell proliferation. • positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division. • positive regulation ...
Protein kodiran ovim genom je član NR1 potfamilije nuklearnih hormonskih receptora. To je DNA-vezujući protein koji se može ... NF-κB (NFKB1, NFKB2, REL, RELA, RELB) • NFAT (C1, C2, C3, C4, 5) ... 2000). "Differential ligand-dependent protein-protein interactions between nuclear receptors and a neuronal-specific cofactor ...
SREB proteins are indirectly required for cholesterol biosynthesis and for uptake and fatty acid biosynthesis. These proteins ... proteins. However, in contrast to E-box-binding HLH proteins, an arginine residue is replaced with tyrosine making them capable ... SREBP precursors are retained in the ER membranes through a tight association with SCAP and a protein of the INSIG family. ... Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA ...
Human regulatory T cells rapidly suppress T cell receptor-induced Ca(2+), NF-κB, and NFAT signaling in conventional T cells. „ ... Tregs utilize beta-galactoside-binding protein to transiently inhibit PI3K/p21ras activity of human CD8+ T cells to block their ... Association of allergen-specific regulatory T cells with the onset of clinical tolerance to milk protein. „J Allergy Clin ... Wasp venom immunotherapy induces activation and homing of CD4(+)CD25(+) forkhead box protein 3-positive regulatory T cells ...
protein binding. • ligand-dependent nuclear receptor binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II distal ... Seol W, Choi HS, Moore DD (Jan 1995). "Isolation of proteins that interact specifically with the retinoid X receptor: two novel ... Seol W, Choi HS, Moore DD (Jan 1995). "Isolation of proteins that interact specifically with the retinoid X receptor: two novel ... negative regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production. • positive regulation of glucose import in response to ...
Lee TI, Young RA (2000). „Transcription of eukaryotic protein-coding genes". Annu. Rev. Genet. 34: 77-137. PMID 11092823. doi: ... NF-κB (NFKB1, NFKB2, REL, RELA, RELB) • NFAT (C1, C2, C3, C4, 5) ... U molekularnoj biologiji i genetici, transkripcioni faktor (za sekvencu-specifični DNK-vezujući faktor) je protein koji se ... Mitchell PJ, Tjian R (1989). „Transcriptional regulation in mammalian cells by sequence-specific DNA binding proteins". Science ...
About 90% of the latter mutations occur in 6 ribosomal protein genes viz., RPS19, RPL5, RPS26, RPL11, RPL35A, and RPS24.[8][10] ... "Entrez Gene: GATA1 GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1)".. *^ a b c Da Costa L, O'Donohue MF, van Dooijeweert ... complexes involving the LIM protein RBTN2 and the zinc-finger protein GATA1". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... GATA1 proteins[edit]. In both GATA1 and GATA1-S, C-ZnF (i.e. C-terminus zinc finger) binds to DNA-specific nucleic acid ...
Myb proto-oncogene protein also known as transcriptional activator Myb is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYB gene.[ ... Myb proto-oncogene protein is a member of the MYB (myeloblastosis) family of transcription factors. The protein contains three ... MYB factors represent a family of proteins that include the conserved MYB DNA-binding domain. Plants contain a MYB-protein ... This protein plays an essential role in the regulation of hematopoiesis and may play a role in tumorigenesis, including the ...
Forkhead box protein A2 is a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are ... "ErbB3 binding protein 1 represses metastasis-promoting gene anterior gradient protein 2 in prostate cancer". Cancer Res. 70 (1 ... Hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-beta (HNF-3B), also known as forkhead box protein A2 (FOXA2) or transcription factor 3B (TCF-3B) is ... protein domain specific binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor binding ...
G protein-coupled receptor 55 also known as GPR55 is a G protein-coupled receptor that in humans is encoded by the GPR55 gene.[ ... "The GPR55 ligand L-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol promotes RhoA-dependent Ca2+ signaling and NFAT activation". FASEB Journal. ... positive regulation of Rho protein signal transduction. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • activation of ... "Entrez Gene: GPR55 G protein-coupled receptor 55".. *^ Brown AJ (Nov 2007). "Novel cannabinoid receptors". British Journal of ...
NF-κB (NFKB1, NFKB2, REL, RELA, RELB) • NFAT (C1, C2, C3, C4, 5) ... McKay DB, Steitz TA (1981). "Structure of catabolite gene activator protein at 2.9 A resolution suggests binding to left-handed ... "Winged helix proteins.". Curr Opin Struct Biol 10 (1): 110-6. PMID 10679470. ... "Helix-turn-helix, zinc-finger, and leucine-zipper motifs for eukaryotic transcriptional regulatory proteins.". Trends Biochem ...
Heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HAND2 gene.[5][6] ... protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • transcription regulatory region DNA binding. Cellular component. • ... protein homodimerization activity. • protein dimerization activity. • AT DNA binding. • transcription coactivator activity. • ... protein complex. • nuclear chromatin. • nucleus. Biological process. • positive regulation of transcription regulatory region ...
Choi B.H., Park G.T., Rho H.M. (1999). Interaction of hepatitis B viral X protein and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha ... CEBPA, C/EBP-alpha, CEBP, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha, CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha. ... CEBPA (англ. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha) - білок, який кодується однойменним геном, розташованим у людей на короткому ... GO:0001948 protein binding. • GO:0000975 transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, RNA ...
The other proteins in the complex are the CD3 proteins: CD3εγ and CD3εδ heterodimers and, most important, a CD3ζ homodimer, ... Calcineurin, in turn, activates NFAT, which then translocates to the nucleus. NFAT is a transcription factor that activates the ... T cell membrane protein-3 (TIM3), and lymphocyte activation gene 3 protein (LAG3).[53][54] Soluble molecules such as cytokines ... so co-stimulation for these cells comes from the CD80 and CD86 proteins, which together constitute the B7 protein, (B7.1 and ...
Recombining binding protein suppressor of hairless is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBPJ gene.[5][6][7] ... protein N-terminus binding. • RNA polymerase II repressing transcription factor binding. • protein binding. • recombinase ... Matsunami N, Hamaguchi Y, Yamamoto Y, Kuze K, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Kawaichi M, Honjo T (1990). "A protein binding to the J ... RBPJ+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
GO:0001948 protein binding. • metal ion binding. • nucleic acid binding. • GO:0001131, GO:0001151, GO:0001130, GO:0001204 DNA- ... Krueppel-like factor 17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KLF17 gene.[4][5] ... KLF17 protein, human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... a germ cell-specific gene encoding a novel zinc finger protein". Mechanisms of Development. 118 (1-2): 233-9. doi:10.1016/S0925 ...
protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • protein binding. • protein kinase binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor ... Protein odd-skipped-related 1 is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the OSR1 gene.[5][6][7] The OSR1 and OSR2 ... Protein odd-skipped related 1 is a zinc-finger transcription factor that, in humans, is encoded by the OSR1 gene found on ... OSR1 is a 266 amino-acid protein and contains three C2H2 zinc finger domains.[12] OSR1 and OSR2 share 65% amino-acid sequence ...
By degrading these proteins, cancer cells are able to breach the ECM and escape. The location of the metastases is not always ... NFAT transcription factors are implicated in breast cancer, more specifically in the process of cell motility as the basis of ... To do so, malignant cells break away from the primary tumor and attach to and degrade proteins that make up the surrounding ... Jauliac S, López-Rodriguez C, Shaw LM, Brown LF, Rao A, Toker A (July 2002). "The role of NFAT transcription factors in ...
Wei, Jinlong «Lead induces COX-2 expression in glial cells in a NFAT-dependent, AP-1/NFκB-independent manner». Toxicology, vol ... Olszowski, Tomasz «The Effect of Cadmium on COX-1 and COX-2 Gene, Protein Expression, and Enzymatic Activity in THP-1 ...
GATA5, GATAS, bB379O24.1, GATA binding protein 5, CHTD5. Зовнішні ІД. OMIM: 611496 MGI: 109497 HomoloGene: 32031 GeneCards: ... GATA5 (англ. GATA binding protein 5) - білок, який кодується однойменним геном, розташованим у людей на короткому плечі 20-ї ...
DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ID2 gene.[5] ... protein dimerization activity. • ion channel binding. • protein binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, ... "Protein-Protein Interaction Panel Using Mouse Full-Length cDNAs". Genome Res. 11 (10): 1758-65. doi:10.1101/gr.180101. PMC ... "The helix-loop-helix protein Id-2 enhances cell proliferation and binds to the retinoblastoma protein". Genes Dev. 8 (11): 1270 ...
These proteins are classified into 19 families called FoxA-FoxS. Mutations in FoxP proteins are implicated in human autoimmune ... FOX proteins. External links[edit]. *Winged-Helix+Transcription+Factors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
NFAT activating protein with ITAM motif 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NFAM1 gene. The protein encoded by this ... containing protein (CNAIP), a novel ITAM-containing protein that activates the calcineurin/NFAT-signaling pathway". J. Biol. ... "Entrez Gene: NFAT activating protein with ITAM motif 1". Retrieved 2018-03-13. Yang J, Hu G, Wang SW, Li Y, Martin R, Li K, Yao ... The encoded protein contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and is thought to regulate the signaling ...
NFAT Dmel\CG11172, dNFAT, EP1335, MESR1, NF-AT5 NFAT Dmel\CG11172, dNFAT, EP1335, MESR1, NF-AT5, Nfat, NFAT-RE, NFAT5, CG11172 ... NFAT Dmel\CG11172, dNFAT, EP1335, MESR1, NF-AT5 NFAT Dmel\CG11172, dNFAT, EP1335, MESR1, NF-AT5, Nfat, NFAT5, CG11172, Dmel_ ... NFAT Dmel\CG11172, dNFAT, EP1335, MESR1, NF-AT5 NFAT Dmel\CG11172, dNFAT, EP1335, MESR1, NF-AT5, Nfat, NFAT5, CG11172, Dmel_ ... NFAT Dmel\CG11172, dNFAT, EP1335, MESR1, NF-AT5 NFAT Dmel\CG11172, dNFAT, EP1335, MESR1, NF-AT5, Nfat, NFAT5, CG11172, Dmel_ ...
Previous studies have identified two NF-AT proteins, NF-ATp and NF-ATc, that are homologous within a 290 aa domain distantly ... The activation of cytokine genes in response to antigenic stimulation of T cells is mediated by NF-AT proteins. ... NF-AT proteins are monomers in solution or bound to DNA. Transfection assays indicate that each of the four NF-AT proteins can ... Isolation of two new members of the NF-AT gene family and functional characterization of the NF-AT proteins Immunity. 1995 May; ...
In addition, the Ets-NF-kappaB/NFAT interaction requires the presence of DNA binding sites for both proteins, as it is ... Physical interactions between Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins play an important role in their cooperative activation of the ... Physical interactions between Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins play an important role in their cooperative activation of the ... Physical interactions between Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins play an important role in their cooperative activation of the ...
Since the discovery of the first nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) protein more than a decade ago, the NFAT family of ... N2 - Since the discovery of the first nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) protein more than a decade ago, the NFAT ... AB - Since the discovery of the first nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) protein more than a decade ago, the NFAT ... the NFAT family of transcription factors has grown to include five members. It has also become clear that NFAT proteins have ...
The crystal structure of an NFAT:FOXP2:DNA complex reveals an extensive protein-protein interaction interface between NFAT and ... Forkhead box protein P2. F, G. 93. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 1 Gene Names: FOXP2, CAGH44, TNRC10. ... FOXP3 Controls Regulatory T Cell Function through Cooperation with NFAT.. Wu, Y., Borde, M., Heissmeyer, V., Feuerer, M., Lapan ... NFAT forms cooperative complexes with the AP-1 family of transcription factors and regulates T cell activation-associated genes ...
Stimulation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes by the G protein-coupled ... p38 signaling regulates NFAT transcriptional responses. (a) Transient transfections in neonatal cardiomyocytes using an NFAT- ... Inhibition of p38 signaling enhances NFAT activity in vivo. Current approaches to evaluate NFAT activation in the heart are ... Arrows, cells with cytoplasmic NFAT-GFP; arrowheads, cells with nuclear NFAT-GFP. Similar results were observed in three ...
Isolation of two new members of the NF-AT gene family and functional characterization of the NF-AT proteins. Immunity 2: 461. ... NFAT proteins are regulated primarily at the level of their subcellular localization by a TCR-dependent signaling pathway ... Based upon these observations, while it is clear that NFAT proteins play a crucial role in the regulated transcription of T ... P-selectin-Ig fusion protein and control CD45-Ig fusion protein were provided by Dr. G. Kansas (Northwestern University, ...
NFAT, nuclear factor of activated T-cells; PI, phosphoinositide; PKA, protein kinase A; VDCC, voltage-dependent calcium channel ... Effects of NFAT consensus site mutations on the insulin gene promoter.. It is significant that each of the NFAT binding site ... The mechanism of NFAT activation is best understood in immune-system cells where NFAT is demonstrated to bind to DNA in complex ... NFAT elements within the rat I insulin gene promoter: relevant position of NFAT elements with respect to other known cis-acting ...
cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein;. TNF,. tumor necrosis factor;. TCR,. T cell receptor;. NFAT,. ... Regulation of TNF-α gene expression is cell type-specific (4, 7). In T cells, binding of NFAT to both the κ3-NFAT and −76-NFAT ... The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)/p300 family of coactivator proteins regulates gene ... p300 coactivator proteins. Furthermore, we show that the composite TNF-α CRE/κ3 site, which binds ATF-2/Jun and NFAT proteins ...
Repressor Of NFAT, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... NRON (Non-Protein Coding RNA, Repressor Of NFAT) is an RNA Gene, and is affiliated with the lncRNA class. ... Protein differential expression in normal tissues , Protein expression , Protein tissue co-expression partners , mRNA ... Search Origene for Purified Proteins, MassSpec and Protein Over-expression Lysates for NRON ...
Repressor Proteins / genetics * Repressor Proteins / metabolism * Signal Transduction / genetics * Transcription Factors / ... adjacent to the earlier myocardial site of NFAT action, to direct valvular elongation and refinement. Thus, NFAT signaling ... A field of myocardial-endocardial NFAT signaling underlies heart valve morphogenesis Cell. 2004 Sep 3;118(5):649-63. doi: ... We show that the initiation of heart valve morphogenesis in mice requires calcineurin/NFAT to repress VEGF expression in the ...
... protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent activation of NF-κB. In the nucleus, NFAT, AP-1, and NF-κB cooperatively drive expression of ... and translocation of NFAT into the nucleus, (2) MAPK-dependent translocation of activator protein 1 (AP-1) to the nucleus, and ... activator protein 1. BAL. bronchoalveolar lavage. cysLT. cysteinyl LT. ILC. innate lymphoid cell. LT. leukotriene. MFI. median ... NFAT pulls the strings during CD4+ T helper cell effector functions. Blood. 115:2989-2997. doi:10.1182/blood-2009-10-233585. ...
NFAT), activated protein-1 (AP-1) pathways, and Nrf2 [75]. ... NFAT. nuclear factor of activated T-cells AP-1. activated ... Oxidative stress is one of the major drivers of protein misfolding as it induces protein oxidation. Misfolded or unfolded ... These genes encode for proteins involved in a multitude of vital biological functions which include protein homeostasis, ... Nrf2 promotes the clearance of oxidized or otherwise damaged proteins through the two major pathways of protein degradation, i. ...
In fact, deletion of all three T cell expression NFAT proteins was necessary to disable NFAT activity in CD8 T cells (44), and ... NFAT proteins are the main effectors of CnB activity in Treg. (A and B) CD4+ CD25+ T cells were purified from LNs and spleens ... Nuclear localization of NFAT proteins was quantified as the signaling index of individual cells (30), which has a value of 0 ... In addition to NFAT proteins, calcineurin might help to activate other signaling activities, such as the NF-κB pathway via the ...
... gene by Notch 1 activation in differentiating keratinocytes is associated with direct targeting of the RBP-Jkappa protein to ... Increased Calcineurin/NFAT activity by Notch signaling involves downregulation of Calcipressin, an endogenous Calcineurin ... Thus, an important interconnection exists between Notch 1 and Calcineurin-NFAT pathways in keratinocyte growth/differentiation ... The Notch and Calcineurin/NFAT pathways have both been implicated in control of keratinocyte differentiation. Induction of the ...
NFAT) proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. Differential localization of NFAT isoforms and induction of NFAT- ... Activated calcineurin subsequently dephosphorylates the cytoplasmic NFAT proteins, leading to NFAT nuclear translocation (10 , ... we generated a NFAT-luciferase reporter stable transfectant, PW NFAT mass1, by cotransfecting the NFAT-luciferase reporter ... These dephosphorylated proteins showed increased affinity for DNA binding (10) . In T cells, transactivation of NFAT is ...
Anjana Raos lab contains the insert NFAT/AP-1 3x and is published in EMBO J. 2000 Sep 1. 19(17):4783-95. This plasmid is ... Tag / Fusion Protein *luciferase (C terminal on backbone). Cloning Information * Cloning method Restriction Enzyme ... Gene expression elicited by NFAT in the presence or absence of cooperative recruitment of Fos and Jun. Macian F, Garcia- ... Three tandem repeats of the NFAT/AP-1 binding site at approximately -287 of the murine IL-2 promotor. Sequence: 5-AGCTTGGATCC ...
NFAT protein binding ISO Inferred from Sequence Orthology. more info. RNA polymerase II cis-regulatory region sequence-specific ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. transcription factor PU.1. Names. SFFV proviral ... Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here.. Reference Rnor_6.0 Primary Assembly. Genomic * NC_005102.4 Reference Rnor_6.0 ... protein coding. RefSeq status. PROVISIONAL. Organism. Rattus norvegicus Lineage. Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; ...
View protein in InterPro. IPR013783. Ig-like_fold. IPR014756. Ig_E-set. IPR002909. IPT. IPR008366. NFAT. IPR008967. p53-like_TF ... View protein in InterPro. IPR013783. Ig-like_fold. IPR014756. Ig_E-set. IPR002909. IPT. IPR008366. NFAT. IPR008967. p53-like_TF ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. B5B2U1. P97305. UPI0004E48973. UPI0004E47742. ...
modulatory calcineurin-interacting protein 1. MLP. muscle LIM protein. MR. mineralcorticoid receptor. NFAT. nuclear factor of ... 2010). The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) cooperates with NFAT to control expression of the calcineurin ... cysteine rich protein. CSI. cardiosomatic index. GR1. glucocorticoid receptor 1. GR2. glucocorticoid receptor 2. HR. high ... Pro-hypertrophic NFAT signaling is upregulated in the HR fish ventricle. To further examine the cardiac hypertrophy of the HR ...
The sustained increase in [Ca2+] activates the protein phosphatase calcineurin and its target, the NFAT family of transcription ... Alterations in protein kinase A and protein kinase C levels in heart failure due to genetic cardiomyopathy. Can. J. Cardiol. ... Regulators of protein synthesis in hypertrophic growth. Regulation of protein synthesis is critical in all forms of hypertrophy ... Protein kinases and phosphatases, such as MAPKs, JAKs, cyclin-dependent kinase-9, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases ...
NF-AT(p), a T lymphocyte DNA-binding protein that is a target for calcineurin and immunosuppressive drugs. / McCaffrey, P. G.; ... McCaffrey, P. G. ; Perrino, B. A. ; Soderling, T. R. ; Rao, A. / NF-AT(p), a T lymphocyte DNA-binding protein that is a target ... McCaffrey, P. G., Perrino, B. A., Soderling, T. R., & Rao, A. (1993). NF-AT(p), a T lymphocyte DNA-binding protein that is a ... McCaffrey PG, Perrino BA, Soderling TR, Rao A. NF-AT(p), a T lymphocyte DNA-binding protein that is a target for calcineurin ...
NFAT), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), as well as receptor endocytosis. In ... C) NFAT transcription factor activation in GPR55-expressing cells. GPR55-HEK293 cells were transfected with 200 ng of NFAT- ... GFP, green fluorescent protein; GPR55, G protein-coupled receptor 55; GPR55-HEK293, stable HEK293 cells expressing 3xHA-GPR55; ... CREB, cAMP response element binding protein; GPR55, G protein-coupled receptor 55; GPR55-HEK293, stable HEK293 cells expressing ...
Abbreviations: PCC, pigeon cytochrome c; Tg, transgenic; TCR, T cell antigen receptor; APC, antigen-presenting cell; NFAT, ... After stripping, the membranes were probed with anti-protein antibodies specific for ZAP-70, LAT, and PLC-γ1. ... The probes specific for activator protein 1 (AP-1) (5′-CGCTTGATGAGTCAGCCGGAA-3′) and NF-κB (5′-AGTTGAGGGGACTTTCCCAGGC-3′) were ... NFAT)p. All of these signaling events were diminished severely in Fyn-deficient naïve cells activated by CD3 crosslinking. ...
The upstream signaling of NF-AT and NF-?B, intracellular calcium concentrations (. ), and protein kinase C theta (PKC ?) ... Figure 6: Effects of 4-HM on NF-AT and NF-. B activation. Jurkat cells (. ) stably transfected with pGL4.30 (luc2P/NFAT-RE/ ... levels, calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, is activated, leading to dephosphorylation of NF-AT and ... units/µm2). In the presence of 4-HM (10?µM), NF-AT and NF-?B decreased in the nuclear (fluorescence ?units/µm2) and remained ...
NFAT. nuclear factor of activated T cells. NPY. neuropeptide Y. PBS. phosphate-buffered saline. PD-184,352. 2-(2-chloro-4- ... 2005) Integration of G protein signals by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases in SK-N-MC neuroepithelioma cells. J ... 2008) Regulation of cyclic AMP response-element binding-protein (CREB) by Gq/11-protein-coupled receptors in human SH-SY5Y ... Endogenous 5-HT2C Receptors Phosphorylate the cAMP Response Element Binding Protein via Protein Kinase C-Promoted Activation of ...
Jerry Crabtrees lab contains the insert 3x NFAT binding sequence and is published in Nature. 1992 Jun 25. 357(6380):695-7. ... Tags / Fusion Proteins *IL2 promoter (C terminal on insert). *Luciferase (C terminal on backbone) ... 3x NFAT binding sequence upstream of a luciferase reporter; can be used to assay signal transduction through Ca2+, calcineurin ... This plasmid has three copies of the NF-AT site cloned upstream of the minimal IL-2 promoter from -89 to +51. ...
TRPC1 mRNA and protein level were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Nuclear translocation of NFAT was ... These were accompanied by up-regulation of TRPC1 gene and protein expression in PASMC. NFAT nuclear translocation was ... and NFAT nuclear translocation. The SOC/Ca2+/NFAT pathway is, at least in part, a downstream mediator for the anti- ... Increase in cytosolic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) is a prerequisite for NFAT nuclear translocation. Elevated [Ca2+]i in PASMC of PAH ...
Protein Coding), Gap Junction Protein Alpha 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Protein Symbol:. P57773-CXA9_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Gap junction alpha-9 protein. Protein Accession:. P57773. Secondary ... GJA9 (Gap Junction Protein Alpha 9) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with GJA9 include Deafness, Autosomal ... Protein attributes for GJA9 Gene. Size:. 515 amino acids. Molecular mass:. 58842 Da. Quaternary structure:. *A connexon is ...
  • The response to GLP-1 was mimicked by forskolin and largely inhibited by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors, H89 and myristoylated PKI(14-22) amide, indicating partial mediation via a cAMP/PKA pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Mechanistically, it is known that GLP-1 increases cyclic AMP in pancreatic β-cells by its action on the Gs-coupled GLP-1 receptor, which in turn, activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) ( 21 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In Th2 cells, signaling through the TCR activates a phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent signaling cascade that drives three primary responses: (1) cytosolic Ca 2+ influx, calcineurin activation, and translocation of NFAT into the nucleus, (2) MAPK-dependent translocation of activator protein 1 (AP-1) to the nucleus, and (3) protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent activation of NF-κB. (rupress.org)
  • In the 20 years since Paul Simpson initially demonstrated that neurohormonal stimulation of cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes results in cellular hypertrophy, characteristic changes in cardiac gene expression, and activation of specific kinase signaling pathways ( 1 - 3 ), protein kinases have attracted attention as candidate mediators of the cardiac biomechanical stress and trophic responses. (jci.org)
  • We evaluated Ca(2+) signalling, stimulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mitogen activated kinase MAP-kinases, induction of transcriptional regulators that are downstream of GPR55, including nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), as well as receptor endocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • the latter is exemplified by receptor-blocking experiments in malignant melanomas where Wnt-5a can signal through frizzled receptor (Fz) 5 and thereby activate protein kinase C (PKC) ( 31 , 65 ). (asm.org)
  • Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a protein that has been the subject of extensive research in recent years. (frontiersin.org)
  • 9 , 10 Activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG)I and phosphorylation of target proteins is involved in each of these processes, although the precise mechanisms that bring about these effects are not fully understood. (ahajournals.org)
  • The SLAP-2 protein contains an NH 2 -terminal myristoylation consensus sequence and SH3 and SH2 Src homology domains, but lacks a tyrosine kinase domain. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, the GEF activity of Vav1 was not required for TCR-induced calcium flux, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase D1, and cell polarization. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, TCR-induced activation and proliferation is greatly reduced in Vav1-deficient T cells, as are multiple TCR-induced signaling pathways, including Ca 2+ flux and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase D1 (PKD1), the serine-threonine kinase Akt, and the transcription factors nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and nuclear factor κB ( 16 - 20 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Extracellular binding of cytokines induces activation of the intracellular Janus kinase that phosphorylates a specific tyrosine residue in the STAT protein which promotes the dimerization of STAT monomers via their SH2 domain. (bionity.com)
  • Though first identified by their role in localizing the pleiotropic cAMP-dependent protein kinase A ( PKA ) to specific intracellular organelles and compartments, A-kinase-anchoring proteins ( AKAPs ) are a structurally and functionally diverse family of multivalent scaffolds that organize "signalosomes" constituting critical nodes in the cell-type-specific network of intracellular signaling pathways. (springer.com)
  • Abrenica B, AlShaaban M, Czubryt MP (2009) The A-kinase anchor protein AKAP121 is a negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (springer.com)
  • Appert-Collin A, Cotecchia S, Nenniger-Tosato M et al (2007) The A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc-signaling complex mediates α1 adrenergic receptor-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. (springer.com)
  • Cariolato L, Cavin S, Diviani D (2011) A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP)-Lbc anchors a PKN-based signaling complex involved in α1-adrenergic receptor-induced p38 activation. (springer.com)
  • Chen L, Kass RS (2006) Dual roles of the A kinase-anchoring protein Yotiao in the modulation of a cardiac potassium channel: a passive adaptor versus an active regulator. (springer.com)
  • Chen L, Kurokawa J, Kass RS (2005) Phosphorylation of the A-kinase-anchoring protein Yotiao contributes to protein kinase A regulation of a heart potassium channel. (springer.com)
  • Chen L, Marquardt ML, Tester DJ et al (2007) Mutation of an A-kinase-anchoring protein causes long-QT syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Diviani D, Soderling J, Scott JD (2001) AKAP-Lbc anchors protein kinase A and nucleates Galpha 12-selective Rho-mediated stress fiber formation. (springer.com)
  • Diviani D, Dodge-Kafka KL, Li J, Kapiloff MS (2011) A-kinase anchoring proteins: scaffolding proteins in the heart. (springer.com)
  • Diviani D, Maric D, Perez Lopez I et al (2013) A-kinase anchoring proteins: molecular regulators of the cardiac stress response. (springer.com)
  • Dodge-Kafka KL, Soughayer J, Pare GC et al (2005) The protein kinase a anchoring protein mAKAP coordinates two integrated cAMP effector pathways. (springer.com)
  • Integrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav proteins was not detected in nonhematopoietic cells unless the protein tyrosine kinase Syk was also expressed, suggesting that integrin activation of Vav proteins may be restricted to cell types that express particular tyrosine kinases. (asm.org)
  • In addition, the best-characterized Vav protein, Vav1, is activated by two common signals generated by multiple classes of plasma membrane receptors: tyrosine phosphorylation and the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3′-kinase product, PI-3,4,5-P 3 ( 3 , 16 ). (asm.org)
  • We found that protein kinase C ε (PKCε), a member of the phospholipid-dependent threonine/serine kinase family, is an endogenous photosensitizer, the overexpression of which in the epidermis increases the susceptibility of mice to UVR-induced cutaneous damage and development of squamous cell carcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Analysis of potential upstream signal transducers demonstrates that prostratin stimulates membrane translocation of classical, novel, and atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One of the best studied signalling routes is the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signal transduction pathway which plays a crucial role in many aspects of immune mediated inflammatory responses. (bmj.com)
  • This has led to current initiation of clinical trials in inflammatory disease states evaluating small molecule inhibitors of MAP kinase proteins and encouraging results have been obtained. (bmj.com)
  • The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. (cancerindex.org)
  • MURF1 interacts with receptor for activated protein kinase C (RACK1) and colocalizes with RACK1 after activation with phenylephrine or PMA. (rupress.org)
  • B) Potent inhibition of DYRKs by CX-4945 was observed in in vitro kinase assays conducted by Life Technologies using recombinant human DYRK1A, DYRK1B, DYRK3 and DYRK4 proteins. (biologists.org)
  • Expression of both Lox-1 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), an essential adaptor protein in the TLR signaling pathway, were suppressed by inhibitors of TLR2, TLR4 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). (deepdyve.com)
  • The kinase LRRK2 is a regulator of the transcription factor NFAT that modulates the severity of inflammatory bowel disease. (ovid.com)
  • Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is key for controlling NFAT function by masking and unmasking nuclear localization signals, as shown by the high number of phosphorylation sites in the NFAT regulatory domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2 , 5 , 6 PKG-mediated phosphorylation of an unknown protein increases opening of mitochondrial K + /ATP channels, thereby diminishing damages resulting from ischemia/reperfusion or myocardial infarction. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 , 12 Moreover, cGMP elevation suppresses β-adrenergic signaling in the heart and is associated with activation of PKG phosphorylation of troponin (Tn)I. 8 , 13 , 14 PKG activation increases the GTPase activity of RGS2 (regulator of G protein-coupled signaling 2) and thereby interferes with Gαq/11-coupled signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • The CLOCK/BMAL1 dimer exhibits a periodic oscillation in both nuclear/cytoplasmic localization and protein levels, both of which are regulated by phosphorylation (4,5). (cellsignal.com)
  • STAT proteins were originally described as latent cytoplasmic transcription factors that require phosphorylation for nuclear retention. (bionity.com)
  • Calcineurin and NFAT kinases regulate the activity of the NFAT proteins by determining the phosphorylation status of the serine residues, interacting with NFAT proteins at the NHR. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Each Vav protein coprecipitated with activated epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, and multiple phosphorylated tyrosine residues on the PDGF receptor were able to mediate Vav2 tyrosine phosphorylation. (asm.org)
  • Termination of NFAT signaling occurs upon declining calcium concentrations and phosphorylation of NFAT by kinases such as GSK-3 or CK1 (3,4). (cellsignal.com)
  • NFAT proteins are regulated primarily at the level of their subcellular localization by a TCR-dependent signaling pathway involving the calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This calcineurin-mediated activation pathway is strongly opposed by a number of specific protein kinases, which act to directly rephosphorylate NFAT proteins, resulting in a decrease in their intrinsic DNA binding activity and their rapid nuclear export, thereby attenuating NFAT-dependent transcription ( 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 64 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • One pathway results from the direct effect of increased [Ca 2+ ] i , which activates calcineurin, and in turn, it upregulates insulin gene transcription via NFAT. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Therefore, the present study investigated the NFAT activation and involvement of ROS-calcium-calcineurin pathway in NFAT transactivation by nickel compounds. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3) the anti-proliferative effect of sildenafil is mediated by inhibition of this SOC/Ca 2+ /NFAT pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The SOC/Ca 2+ /NFAT pathway is, at least in part, a downstream mediator for the anti-proliferative effect of sildenafil, and may have therapeutic potential for PAH treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2003). NFAT5 stands out because it does not follow the same calcium/calcineurin signaling pathway that the other four other NFAT proteins exhibit. (davidson.edu)
  • Each domain is characterized by a different function in the NFAT signaling pathway. (davidson.edu)
  • Within this region, there are nine conserved motifs that are directly involved in different aspects of the NFAT signaling pathway (Park et al . (davidson.edu)
  • The Ca2+ dependent calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway has been found to be important in neuronal growth and axon guidance during vertebrate development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: VCP-interacting membrane protein (VIMP, selenoprotein S) is a putative reductase and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident protein involved in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Although each Vav isoform was tyrosine phosphorylated upon activation of representative receptor tyrosine kinases, integrin, and lymphocyte antigen receptors, we found unique aspects of Vav protein coupling in each receptor pathway. (asm.org)
  • 16,17 More recently, we have shown that high glucose activates NFAT in intact arteries ex vivo by a mechanism involving the release of extracellular nucleotides (ie, UTP, UDP) acting on P2Y receptors, leading to increased intracellular Ca 2+ levels and subsequent activation of the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cardiac aging in mice is accompanied by accumulation of mitochondrial protein oxidation, increased mitochondrial DNA mutations and deletions and mitochondrial biogenesis, increased ventricular fibrosis, enlarged myocardial fiber size, decreased cardiac SERCA2 protein, and activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell pathway. (ahajournals.org)
  • We define a novel anti-hypertrophic signaling pathway regulated by muscle ring finger protein-1 (MURF1) that inhibits the agonist-stimulated PKC-mediated signaling response in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Proteasome functional insufficiency activates the calcineurin-NFAT pathway in cardiomyocytes and promotes maladaptive remodelling of stressed mouse hearts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) are degraded by the proteasome, and the calcineurin-NFAT pathway mediates cardiac remodelling. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The present study examined the hypothesis that PFI activates the calcineurin-NFAT pathway and promotes maladaptive remodelling of the heart. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The activation of cytokine genes in response to antigenic stimulation of T cells is mediated by NF-AT proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The transcriptional regulatory elements of many inducible T-cell genes contain adjacent or overlapping binding sites for the Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT families of transcription factors. (asm.org)
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that evolutionarily conserved physical interactions between Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins are important in regulating the inducible expression of T-cell genes and viruses. (asm.org)
  • NFAT forms cooperative complexes with the AP-1 family of transcription factors and regulates T cell activation-associated genes. (rcsb.org)
  • NFAT is a family of transcription activators especially known for its role in activating the transcription of cytokine genes in activated T cells. (davidson.edu)
  • As well as regulating the transcription of genes involved in the immune system, NFAT plays important roles in other bodily systems. (davidson.edu)
  • 1995). The four NFAT (NFAT1-NFAT4) genes encode proteins that range from approximately 700-1,100 amino acid residues. (davidson.edu)
  • Designated NIP45 (NF-AT interacting protein), it has minimal similarity to any known genes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Cooperation of NFAT with AP-1 is required for many different genes to be transcribed including IL-2, GM-CSF, IL-3, and IFN-γ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the majority of the early research in molecular and cellular biology was focused on the protein-coding genes and their transcripts, messenger RNAs (mRNAs). (mdpi.com)
  • 1 , 2 cGMP activation of PKG in cardiomyocytes lowers cellular calcium, which can reduce contractility and counter calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation/activation/nuclear translocation of NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), which promotes expression of a cadre of prohypertrophic genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The positive limb includes the CLOCK and BMAL1 proteins, two basic helix-loop-helix-PAS containing transcription factors that bind E box enhancer elements and activate transcription of their target genes. (cellsignal.com)
  • CLOCK/BMAL1 target genes include the Cry and Per genes, whose proteins form the negative limb of the circadian clockwork system (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • Background: The Silent Information Regulator (SIR2) family of genes is a highly conserved group of genes that encode nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylases, also known as Class III histone deacetylases. (cellsignal.com)
  • Binding of LPS to the TLR4 complex of the host activates two signaling cascades via different adaptor proteins leading to the activation of two main transcription factors: NFκB, a key transcription factor regulating pro-inflammatory genes, and interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), which induces IRF3-responsive genes, most prominently IFNβ. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have isolated human and murine genes of NFAT, a transcription factor that plays a critical role in transcriptional induction of cytokine genes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The expression of those genes is NFAT-dependent and does not seem to require AP-1 cooperation but instead depend on transcriptional complexes formed by NFAT dimers. (yu.edu)
  • The analysis of the specific genes activated in anergic T cells supports the existence of distinct mechanisms of tolerance induction in lymphocytes, including interference with signaling pathways coupled to antigen receptors, protein degradation and transcriptional modulation. (yu.edu)
  • Moreover, barbiturates suppressed the expression of a luciferase reporter gene under control of NFAT (stably transfected Jurkat T cells), and of the cytokine genes interleukin-2 and interferon-γ that contain functional binding motifs for NFAT within their regulatory promotor domains (human peripheral blood CD3 + lymphocytes). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Activated calcineurin dephosphorylates NFAT, allowing it to translocate to the nucleus and to bind response elements of genes critical for lymphocyte activation and regulation of immune function. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 11801724 Mutations in the genes encoding the inner nuclear membrane proteins lamin A/C and emerin produce cardiomyopathy and muscular dystrophy in humans and mice. (jove.com)
  • Antigen stimulation of immune cells activates the transcription factor NFAT, a key regulator of T cell activation and anergy. (rcsb.org)
  • C) NFAT transcription factor activation in GPR55-expressing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulation of calcium-sensitive enzymes such as these often leads to the activation of NFAT (for nuclear factor of activated T cells) transcription factor proteins in many cell types ( 5 , 50 ), but it has been unclear whether the same applies to signaling by Wnt-5a and other Wnts ( 43 , 53 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • The STAT protein can be dephosphorylated by nuclear phosphatases which leads to inactivation of STAT and the transcription factor becomes transported out of the nucleus by exportin crm1/RanGTP. (bionity.com)
  • NFAT-1 (Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells) is a transcription factor that regulates expression of the interleukin-2 gene. (fishersci.com)
  • NFAT-1, a protein of 921 amino acids, is part of an oligomeric transcription factor that also contains Fra-1 and JunB. (fishersci.com)
  • Thus, a single transcription factor, NFAT, regulates two contrasting aspects of T cell function, mediating non-overlapping genetic programs of productive activation or anergy depending on the availability of specific transcriptional partners. (yu.edu)
  • Recently, we reported that high glucose activates the Ca 2+ /calcineurin-dependent transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in arteries ex vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • 14,15 We and others have shown that stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptors effectively activates the Ca 2+ /calcineurin-dependent transcription factor NFAT in arterial smooth muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • We provide evidence that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), an essential transcription factor in T cell activation, is a target of barbiturate-mediated immunosuppression in human T lymphocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Using an mRNA microarray on microdissected tubules from a rat model of cyclosporin A toxicity to describe the related epithelial-specific transcriptional signature in vivo , we found that cyclosporin A induces pathways dependent on the transcription factor ATF4 and identified nuclear protein transcriptional regulator 1 ( Nupr1 ), a stress response gene induced by ATF4, as the gene most strongly upregulated. (asnjournals.org)
  • The scavenging of nickel-induced H 2 O 2 with N -acety- l -cyteine (a general antioxidant) or catalase, or the chelation of nickel with deferoxamine, resulted in inhibition of NFAT activation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of G-protein ß? (abcam.com)
  • Attenuation of microglial activation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease via NFAT inhibition. (abcam.com)
  • Furthermore, the inhibition of NFAT dimer interactions may prevent anergy induction and overcome on of the possible mechanisms responsible for tumor immune evasion. (yu.edu)
  • Inhibition of Nfat proteins adversely affects the capability of oligondendrocytes in rats, mice and also humans to form myelin. (eurekalert.org)
  • We suggest that the transitory interaction of phogrin with insulin receptor enables autocrine insulin action in pancreatic β-cells through stabilization of IRS2 protein by inhibition of negative feedback mechanism. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2) induction of early gene expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1 and 3), followed by 3) inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, including IL-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-1β, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor α. (aspetjournals.org)
  • and patients exhibiting the risk LRRK2 allele have lower LRRK2 protein levels and exhibit less inhibition of NFAT. (ovid.com)
  • In the nucleus, NFAT, AP-1, and NF-κB cooperatively drive expression of type 2 cytokines ( Hermann-Kleiter and Baier, 2010 ). (rupress.org)
  • The goal of cytokine transcription must be preceded by the translocation of NFAT into the nucleus. (davidson.edu)
  • Nuclear import of NFAT proteins is opposed by maintenance kinases in the cytoplasm and export kinases in the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRY and PER proteins (CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2 and PER3) form oligomers that also periodically shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. (cellsignal.com)
  • When in the nucleus, CRY/PER proteins inhibit CLOCK/BMAL1-mediated transcriptional activation, thus completing the circadian transcriptional loop (1,2). (cellsignal.com)
  • The unphosphorylated STAT proteins shuttles between cytosol and the nucleus waiting for its activation signal. (bionity.com)
  • 6-Methoxyflavone inhibits NFAT translocation into the nucleus and suppresses T cell activation. (abcam.com)
  • The activated calcineurin will dephosphorylate the SRRs and SPs of the NHR, resulting in the exposure of the NLS and translocation of the protein to the nucleus. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • they rephosphorylate NFAT in the nucleus and thereby promote the nuclear export of NFAT, stopping the NFAT driven transcription after calcineurin activity declines. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Ligand engagement of receptors at the cell surface induces the assembly of intracellular protein complexes that transduce signals to the cytoplasm and nucleus to activate many cellular responses. (asm.org)
  • Increased intracellular calcium concentrations activate the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine phosphatase calcineurin, which dephosphorylates NFAT proteins, resulting in their subsequent translocation to the nucleus (2). (cellsignal.com)
  • In addition to identifying most previously described PSD components, we also detected proteins involved in signaling to the nucleus as well as regulators of ADP-ribosylation factor signaling, ubiquitination, RNA trafficking, and protein translation. (mcponline.org)
  • longer exposure leads to NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) translocation to the nucleus and frank spine loss. (jneurosci.org)
  • The encoded protein contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and is thought to regulate the signaling and development of B-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite these findings, the molecular mechanisms by which Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins cooperatively regulate inducible T-cell gene expression remained unknown. (asm.org)
  • In T cells, NFAT proteins not only regulate activation but also are involved in the control of thymocyte development, T-cell differentiation and self-tolerance, The functional versatility of NFAT proteins can be explained by their complex mechanism of regulation and their ability to integrate calcium signalling with other signalling pathways. (elsevier.com)
  • 2003). NFAT was originally identified in the promoter system of the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2), but is also known to regulate other promoter regions such as those of cytokines IL-3, IL-4, and tumor necrosis factorα (TNFα). (davidson.edu)
  • Our data thus demonstrate that NFAT specifically regulate RORγt expression by binding to the RORC locus and promoting its permissive conformation. (nature.com)
  • NFAT works with neurotrophic signaling to regulate axon outgrowth in several neuronal populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, ncRNAs have been shown to regulate a wide range of biological processes, including chromatin remodeling, gene transcription, mRNA translation and protein function. (mdpi.com)
  • Once activated, they divide rapidly and secrete small proteins called cytokines that regulate or assist in the active immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Signal Transducers and Activator of Transcription (STAT, also, called signal transduction and transcription) protein s regulate many aspects of cell growth , survival and differentiation. (bionity.com)
  • Shin DS, Jordan A, Basu S, Thomas RM, Wells AD, Macian F (2014) NFAT-dependent transcriptional mechanisms regulate suppression of effector CD4+ T cell activation by regulatory T cells. (yu.edu)
  • The working group has already identified protein molecules such as 'Sox10' that regulate the formation and preservation of myelin sheaths. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies suggest that the SH3BP2 protein helps regulate signaling pathways that turn on (activate) immune system cells called B cells and macrophages. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor that activates cytokine gene promoters such as the IL-13 and TNF-alpha promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • NFAT binds to three distinct NFAT elements within the rat I insulin promoter and activates insulin gene transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In Th2 cells, T cell receptor (TCR) signaling activates the transcription factors nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and activator protein 1 (AP-1) to induce type 2 cytokines. (rupress.org)
  • Calcium signaling is critical to NFAT activation because calmodulin (CaM), a well-known calcium sensor protein, activates the serine/threonine phosphatase calcineurin (CN). (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate exposure-mediated downregulation of miR-206-3p and miR-381-3p activates inducible nitric oxide synthase transcription by targeting calcineurin/NFAT signaling in macrophages. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we sought to determine whether hyperglycemia activates NFAT in vivo and whether this leads to vascular complications. (ahajournals.org)
  • It primarily binds as a monomer to the conserved AT-rich A3 box (-201/-196 bp) and activates insulin transcription, although this protein also appears to act as a repressor in other gene contexts [18]. (diabetesincontrol.com)
  • This Review focuses on the recent advances in our understanding of the regulation, mechanism of action and functions of NFAT proteins in T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • This aspect of NFAT regulation is likely to be of particular significance, because the extent and duration of NFAT activation have recently been shown to be important parameters that can significantly affect the qualitative pattern of gene transcription induced during T cell activation ( 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Thus, in TNF-α gene regulation, different stimuli result in the assembly of distinct enhancer complexes, which use specific sets of binding sites and cognate proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Elevated [Ca 2+ ] i in PASMC of PAH patients has been demonstrated through up-regulation of store-operated Ca 2+ channels (SOC) which is encoded by the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These were accompanied by up-regulation of TRPC1 gene and protein expression in PASMC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation and TRPC1 up-regulation were inhibited by SKF and NFAT blocker (VIVIT and Cyclosporin A). Sildenafil treatment ameliorated hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation and attenuated hypoxia-induced enhancement of basal [Ca 2+ ] i , SOCE, up-regulation of TRPC1 expression, and NFAT nuclear translocation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Includes other names for each NFAT protein and the controllers of their regulation (Hogan et al . (davidson.edu)
  • NFAT plays a role in the regulation of inflammation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). (wikipedia.org)
  • NFAT binding and regulation of T cell activation by the cytoplasmic scaffolding Homer proteins. (ucsf.edu)
  • STAT proteins play an active role in immune-cell genesis and regulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 1) NFAT : regulation and function in T-cell activation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 19 We therefore hypothesize whether NFAT activation may be involved in the regulation of OPN expression. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is important to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying the thymic regulation of T cell development and of the proteins involved in T cell recognition. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In contrast, barbiturates suppressed the calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of NFAT in intact T cells and also inhibited the enzymatic activity of calcineurin in a cell-free system, excluding upstream regulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that the synergistic action of glucose and GLP-1 to promote insulin gene transcription is mediated through NFAT via PKA- and calcineurin-dependent pathways in pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Two signaling pathways arising from glucose metabolism converge to activate NFAT-mediated insulin gene transcription. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)/p300 family of coactivator proteins regulates gene transcription through the integration of multiple signal transduction pathways. (pnas.org)
  • Integration of Notch 1 and calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathways in keratinocyte growth and differentiation control. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Notch and Calcineurin/NFAT pathways have both been implicated in control of keratinocyte differentiation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This important feature of NFAT transcription factors enables integration and coincidence detection of calcium signals with other signaling pathways such as ras-MAPK or PKC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vav proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho family GTPases which activate pathways leading to actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and transcriptional alterations. (asm.org)
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
  • NFAT5 is a more recently discovered member of the NFAT family that has special characteristics that differentiate it from other NFAT members. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently five known members of the NFAT family as shown in the table below (Hogan et al . (davidson.edu)
  • One or more members of the NFAT family is expressed in most cells of the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • NFATc1 through NFATc4 are regulated by calcium signaling, and are known as the classical members of the NFAT family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several kinases have been identified to rephosphorylate NFAT proteins at multiple sites, thereby controlling their nuclear shuttling. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Recently, we found that FK506-binding protein 12.6/1b (FKBP1b), a small protein that regulates calcium, declines with aging in the hippocampus, a brain region important for memory. (jneurosci.org)
  • Based on these results, we propose a mechanism by which PRS-211,092 stimulates the expression of IL-6, IL-10 and the SOCS proteins that, in turn, negatively regulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sent to destroy: the ubiquitin proteasome system regulates cell signaling and protein quality control in cardiovascular development and disease. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As a result of the opposing influences of calcineurin and the regulatory NFAT kinases, NFAT activity is readily reversible, highly dynamic, and extremely sensitive to changes in [Ca 2+ ] i ( 6 , 7 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Export kinases, such as PKA and GSK-3β, must be inactivated for NFAT nuclear retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of them act as maintenance kinases, to keep the NFAT proteins in the cytosol in a fully phosphorylated state, preventing them from nuclear shuttling. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • In an effort to identify novel therapeutic targets for autoimmunity and transplant rejection, we developed and performed a large-scale retroviral-based functional screen to select for proteins that inhibit antigen receptor-mediated activation of lymphocytes. (rupress.org)
  • In addition to known regulators of antigen receptor signaling, we identified a novel adaptor protein, SLAP-2 which shares 36% sequence similarity with the known Src-like adaptor protein, SLAP. (rupress.org)
  • Overexpression of SLAP-2 in B and T cell lines specifically impaired antigen receptor-mediated signaling events, including CD69 surface marker upregulation, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) promoter activation and calcium influx. (rupress.org)
  • In antigen receptor-stimulated cells, SLAP-2 associated with several tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, including the ubiquitin ligase Cbl. (rupress.org)
  • T cells lacking Vav1 are impaired in antigen-induced cell proliferation, activation of NFAT and NFκB, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production, and clustering of actin with the T-cell receptor (TCR) into patches and caps ( 7 , 12 , 13 , 20 , 41 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Early models postulated that the wild-type Malt1 protein becomes oligomerized and ubiquitinates the IKK complex following antigen receptor engagement, and that this ubiquitination activity of Malt1 was both required for and uniquely responsible for antigen receptor activation of NF-κB. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We found that NFAT family mRNAs are developmentally regulated during the differentiation of T cells in the thymus, and that NFATx protein selectively contributes to the calcineurin-dependent NFAT-DNA binding activity in the DP stage, suggesting that NFAT is also involved in the signals required for generation of T cells in the thymus. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Novel blocker of NFAT activation inhibits IL-6 production in human myometrial arteries and reduces vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • A dominant-negative mutant of NF-kappaB p50 that binds DNA but fails to interact with Ets proteins inhibits the synergistic activation of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 enhancers by NF-kappaB (p50 + p65) and Ets-1, suggesting that physical interaction between Ets and NF-kappaB proteins is required for the transcriptional activity of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 enhancers. (asm.org)
  • U54 inhibits NFAT transcriptional activity. (asm.org)
  • HR hearts had higher mRNA levels of cortisol receptors ( MR , GR1 and GR2 ), increased RCAN1 levels [suggesting enhanced pro-hypertrophic nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) signaling] and increased VEGF gene expression (reflecting increased angiogenesis). (biologists.org)
  • Serotonin 5-HT 2C receptors (5-HT 2C R) activate G q proteins and are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The clustering and activation of T-cell receptors on the cell surface and the actions that follow this activation must precede NFAT translocation. (davidson.edu)
  • Wnt ligands bind to the extracellular cysteine-rich domain of the Frizzled family of G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors, together with a coreceptor, LRP5 or LRP6 ( 37 , 47 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Vav proteins contain several protein binding domains which can link cell surface receptors to downstream signaling proteins. (asm.org)
  • Vav proteins are Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factors that are ideally suited to couple receptors to Rho GTPases because they contain multiple protein domains that can bind to receptors or receptor-associated signaling proteins ( 3 , 35 ). (asm.org)
  • T cell migration is directed by several mediators, including chemokine receptors and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), which are supported by guiding stromal structures and by TECs, including cortical TECs and medullary TECs (mTEC). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The response to neurotransmitter (NT) 1 release at the synapse is provided by a protein matrix of NT receptors and supporting proteins collectively known as the postsynaptic density (PSD) (for review, see Refs. (mcponline.org)
  • The rapid activation of CaN in spines alters spine morphology and reduces postsynaptic proteins including F-actin and GluR1-containing AMPA receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • The NFAT homology region (NFAT-h) is a domain within the larger regulatory domain. (davidson.edu)
  • Meanwhile, NFAT proteins bind to these regulatory elements and activate RORγt transcription in cooperation with NF-kB. (nature.com)
  • NFAT5 cannot form complexes with AP-1 proteins, however all NFAT proteins recognize similar DNA binding sites in gene regulatory regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • hence, TRP channels expressed in the heart most likely coordinate signaling within local domains or through direct interaction with Ca 2+ -dependent regulatory proteins. (ahajournals.org)
  • The C/EBP proteins also contain activation domains at the N-terminus and regulatory domains. (bionity.com)
  • The first is the NFAT Homology region (NHR) which is the regulatory domain. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Analyses of cytokine gene expression by helper T cell subsets : role of NFAT-mediated gene activation and subset-specific regulatory mechanism. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Furthermore, we show that the composite TNF-α CRE/κ3 site, which binds ATF-2/Jun and NFAT proteins and is required for induction of the TNF-α gene by TCR engagement, virus infection, and calcium influx, is a CBP/p300-dependent element. (pnas.org)
  • Tangles comprise intracellular assemblies of hyperphosphorylated TAU, a protein which as monomer-among other functions-binds to and stabilizes microtubules [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Sirolimus, everolimus, biolimus A9, and zotarolimus all bind to the FKBP12 binding protein, which subsequently binds to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and thereby blocks the cell cycle mainly of the smooth muscle cell from the G1 to S phase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Translocated NFAT binds to consensus DNA sites (WGGAAANHN (H is not G, N is any of the four nucleotides)) and control gene transcription with the help of other nuclear complexes such as the AP1 protein complex (Macian, 2005). (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • It has also become clear that NFAT proteins have crucial roles in the development and function of the immune system. (elsevier.com)
  • The adaptor protein SARM1, a member of the MyD88 family, mediates neuronal death and modulates immune responses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a family of transcription factors shown to be important in immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • NFAT was first discovered as an activator for the transcription of interleukin-2 in T cells, as a regulator for T cell immune response, but has since been found to play an important role in regulating many other body systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best known classes of binding sites for NFAT are the formation of a cooperative complex with AP-1 or other bZIP proteins to form a composite NFAT:AP-1 site that is involved in gene transcription in immune cells and the binding to sites for conventional Rel-family proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of NFAT and AP-1 is known to be required for productive immune responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knockout studies have provided evidence that STAT proteins are involved in the development and function of the immune system and play a role in maintaining immune tolerance and tumor surveillance. (bionity.com)
  • The NFAT family consists of four members (NFATc1-c4) originally described in T cells but later also demonstrated in cells outside the immune system. (ahajournals.org)
  • NFAT proteins are predominantly expressed in cells of the immune system, but are also expressed in skeletal muscle, keratinocytes, and adipocytes, regulating cell differentiation programs in these cells (3). (cellsignal.com)
  • The SH3BP2 protein plays a role in transmitting chemical signals, particularly in certain immune system cells and cells involved in the replacement of old bone tissue with new bone (bone remodeling). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Too much SH3BP2 protein likely increases signaling in certain cells, causing an immune reaction (inflammation) in the bones of the jaw and also triggering the production of an increased number of osteoclasts. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are conflicting results as to whether such Wnt/Ca 2+ -induced signaling leads to the activation of NFAT-dependent transcription or not ( 53 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • Rd domain critical for specific DNA-binding and association with AP-1 proteins, N-terminal domain for calcineurin-regulated activation of NFAT via nuclear translocation, and C-terminal domain for transactivation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Activation of NFAT resulted in increased OPN mRNA and protein in native arteries. (ahajournals.org)
  • NFATc1 and NFAT c2 mRNAs are expressed in peripheral lymphoid tissue, while NFATc4 is highly expressed in the thymus. (wikipedia.org)
  • NFAT family members are normally located in the cytoplasm of resting cells in a hyperphosphorylated latent form, but, following TCR stimulation and the ensuing increase in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ), they are dephosphorylated by activated calcineurin, triggering their rapid nuclear import and causing an increase in their intrinsic DNA binding activity ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Because previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of cells with nickel compounds could result in an increase of free intracellular calcium (12) , which is an essential signal for NFAT activation, it is reasonable to associate the NFAT activation with carcinogenic effects of nickel compounds. (aacrjournals.org)
  • these share a common structural topology consisting of 6 transmembrane domains (TMs), a pore region between TM5 and TM6, and intracellular N and C termini that bind select proteins (see review 3 and Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • 2011) Role of four calcium transport proteins, encoded by nca-1, nca-2, nca-3, and cax, in maintaining intracellular calcium levels in Neurospora crassa . (aimspress.com)
  • In the studies described in this report, we demonstrated a physical interaction between multiple Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins both in vitro and in activated normal human T cells. (asm.org)
  • This interaction is mediated by the Ets domain of Ets proteins and the C-terminal region of the Rel homology domains of NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins. (asm.org)
  • In addition, the Ets-NF-kappaB/NFAT interaction requires the presence of DNA binding sites for both proteins, as it is abolished by the DNA intercalating agents propidium iodide and ethidium bromide and enhanced by the presence of synthetic oligonucleotides containing binding sites for Ets and NF-kappaB proteins. (asm.org)
  • The crystal structure of an NFAT:FOXP2:DNA complex reveals an extensive protein-protein interaction interface between NFAT and FOXP2. (rcsb.org)
  • Structure-guided mutations of FOXP3, predicted to progressively disrupt its interaction with NFAT, interfere in a graded manner with the ability of FOXP3 to repress expression of the cytokine IL2, upregulate expression of the Treg markers CTLA4 and CD25, and confer suppressor function in a murine model of autoimmune diabetes. (rcsb.org)
  • They promote the expression of certain proteins through interaction with DNA . (bionity.com)
  • This model predicts that blockade of the NFAT-AP1 interaction should prevent T-cell activation and induce a long-lasting state of tolerance. (yu.edu)
  • The researchers discovered that other molecules called Nfat proteins are required for this interaction between the known molecules to be successful. (eurekalert.org)
  • Based on CaNA interactions with CaNB and CaM, we developed a FRET assay to measure CaNA-CaNB or CaNA-CaM interaction or conformational change using either endogenous proteins or fluorescent tagged molecules. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, dephosphorylation of NF-AT(p) in cell extracts is inhibited by prior treatment of T cells with the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A or FK506, which inhibit the phosphatase activity of calcineurin when complexed with their specific binding proteins, cyclophilin and FK506-binding protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Up to now, only substances that inhibit the activity of Nfat proteins have been developed, such as Cyclosporin A and Tacrolimus. (eurekalert.org)
  • The new research suggest that these serious side effects are a direct result of the medication to inhibit Nfat proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recent studies reveal that most of these excess transcripts are not transcriptional noise, but rather serve as functional ncRNAs regulating chromatin modifications, gene transcription, mRNA translation and protein function [ 5 - 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 3. Ton V, Rao R (2004) Functional expression of heterologous proteins in yeast: insights into Ca 2+ signaling and Ca 2+ -transporting ATPases. (aimspress.com)
  • p>Describes annotations that are concluded from looking at variations or changes in a gene product such as mutations or abnormal levels and includes techniques such as knockouts, overexpression, anti-sense experiments and use of specific protein inhibitors. (uniprot.org)
  • Furthermore, two-point base pair mutations in any of the three identified NFAT sites within the rat insulin I promoter resulted in a significant reduction in the combined effect of glucose and GLP-1. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here, we reviewed the mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) protein family, namely gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in STAT1 and STAT3 as well as STAT5b deficiency, that show strong association to T1D susceptibility. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • Each of these mutations changes a single protein building block (amino acid) in a critical region of the SH3BP2 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Identification of a novel mutation of SH3BP2 in cherubism and demonstration that SH3BP2 mutations lead to increased NFAT activation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although IL-33 induces AP-1 and NF-κB, NFAT signaling has not been described in ILC2s. (rupress.org)
  • CLEC7A (Dectin-1) induces NFAT activation. (uniprot.org)
  • Downregulation of miR-206-3p and miR-381-3p following by MDI exposure induces Calcineurin/NFAT signaling-mediated iNOS transcription in macrophages and BALCs. (cdc.gov)
  • NFAT amino acid structure is divided into four large domains and many subdomains within these domains. (davidson.edu)
  • It is made up of about 300 amino acid residues on the N-terminal side of the NFAT protein. (davidson.edu)
  • We further analyzed expression and function of the NFAT family in thymocytes in which NFATx is predominantly expressed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Transfection assays indicate that each of the four NF-AT proteins can activate the IL-2 promoter in T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Physical interactions between Ets and NF-kappaB/NFAT proteins play an important role in their cooperative activation of the human immunodeficiency virus enhancer in T cells. (asm.org)
  • Since the discovery of the first nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) protein more than a decade ago, the NFAT family of transcription factors has grown to include five members. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study we have specifically investigated the effects of sustained NFAT signaling on T cell activation by introducing a constitutively active mutant version of NFATc1 (caNFATc1) into primary murine CD4 + T cells and examining its effects on gene expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Glucose and GLP-1 also synergistically activated NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells)-mediated transcription from a minimal promoter construct containing tandem NFAT consensus sequences. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We have previously identified NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) as a key regulator of insulin gene transcription in pancreatic β-cells that is activated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin) in response to increased [Ca 2+ ] i ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Transcriptional induction of the gene does not require de novo protein synthesis and depends on the recruitment of the transcription factors NFATp (nuclear factor of activated T cells) and ATF-2/Jun to cognate sites in the TNF-α promoter ( 2 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • In T cells, binding of NFAT to both the κ3-NFAT and −76-NFAT TNF-α promoter sites is required for transcriptional induction of the gene, whereas in B cells, binding to the κ3-NFAT site is dispensable ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Virus infection of T cells leads to the recruitment of NFAT, ATF-2/Jun, and Sp1 proteins to the TNF-α promoter in vivo , whereas in response to calcium flux, the transcription factors NFAT and ATF-2/Jun, but not Sp1, are recruited to the promoter ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that activation of TNF-α gene expression in T cells by TCR engagement, virus infection, and calcium influx depends on cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)/p300 coactivator proteins. (pnas.org)
  • The present study found that exposure of cells to either Ni 3 S 2 or NiCl 2 could result in specific transactivation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), although it did not show any activation of p53 or AP-1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we use a technique involving elution and renaturation of proteins from SDS-acrylamide gels to identify a DNA-binding component of NF-AT (NF-AT(p)) that is present in hypotonic extracts of T cells prior to activation and appears in nuclear extracts when T cells are activated. (elsevier.com)
  • GPR55 ligands promote oscillatory Ca 2+ transients and NFAT-activation in GPR55-HEK293 cells. (nih.gov)
  • GPR55-HEK293 cells were transfected with 200 ng of NFAT-luciferase-reporter plasmid and 24 h post transfection, cells were stimulated with increasing amounts of LPI, AM251, AM281 and SR141716A for 6 h in serum-free medium. (nih.gov)
  • and dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)p. (pnas.org)
  • Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is thought to be involved in PASMC proliferation and PAH. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crabtree, G. R. & Olson, E. N. NFAT signaling: choreographing the social lives of cells. (nature.com)
  • transient overexpression of NIP45 with NF-ATp and c- maf in B lymphoma cells induced measurable endogenous IL-4 protein production. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here, we review the emerging evidence that TRP channels, especially TRPCs, are critical regulators of microdomain signaling in the heart to control pathological hypertrophy in coordination with signaling through effectors such as calcineurin and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells). (ahajournals.org)
  • A) 293T cells were transfected with 4TO, 4TO-U54, 4TO-U11 and NFAT-Luc reporter plasmids. (asm.org)
  • Cells were stimulated for 24 h or left unstimulated, and luciferase activity was determined and normalized to protein content ( n = 9). (asm.org)
  • U54-Myc and U11-FLAG proteins were expressed in cells that had been transfected with 4TO-U54 and 4TO-U11 plasmids (top). (asm.org)
  • This protein is expressed in the mammalian nervous system and has many implications in the nerve cells. (bionity.com)
  • Additionally, Rcan1-1L significantly inhibited calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling. (osti.gov)
  • NFAT-1 was initially described as a phosphoprotein and is dephosphorylated in activated T cells transformed with the leukemia virus HTLV-l. (fishersci.com)
  • NFAT proteins play a central role in tolerance induction in T cells. (yu.edu)
  • Vav1 was first identified by the isolation of a truncated, constitutively active form of this protein (lacking 67 amino acids at its amino terminus) that induced oncogenic transformation of NIH 3T3 cells ( 23 ). (asm.org)
  • However, the endogenous Vav1 protein is expressed exclusively in hematopoietic cells ( 2 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • The PKCε transgenic mouse (FVB/N) lines 224 and 215 overexpressed 8- and 18-fold PKCε protein, respectively, over endogenous levels in basal epidermal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The presence of Nfat proteins in the oligodendrocytes ensures that all other required protein molecules can exist together in these cells without displacing each other. (eurekalert.org)
  • Phogrin, a member of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases, primarily localize on secretory granules (SGs) in a variety of neuroendocrine cells including pancreatic β-cells, and recycle between SGs and the plasma membrane upon stimulation of regulated secretion. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Background: The NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) family of proteins consists of NFAT1 (NFATc2 or NFATp), NFAT2 (NFATc1 or NFATc), NFAT3 (NFATc4), and NFAT4 (NFATc3 or NFATx). (cellsignal.com)
  • In resting cells, NFAT proteins are heavily phosphorylated and localized in the cytoplasm. (cellsignal.com)
  • Title: Effects of deficiency of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 on skeletal organization: a mechanism for diminished nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 during osteoclastogenesis. (genscript.com)
  • The SH3BP2 gene provides instructions for making a protein whose exact function is unclear, although it is known to interact with other proteins within cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein is also involved in the production of osteoclasts, which are specialized cells that break down bone tissue when it is no longer needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Furthermore, cyclosporin A decreased protein synthesis and abolished proliferation in wild-type tubular cells, but only reduced proliferation in Nupr1 -deficient cells. (asnjournals.org)
  • Beta cells lacking calcineurin but with active NFAT behaved normally, multiplying as the mice aged and producing normal amounts of insulin. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Orthologous to human CHERP (calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein). (jax.org)
  • More recently the genome sequences of filamentous fungi of Aspergillus genus, some of which threatening pathogens, and dimorphic fungi Ustilago maydis were published, giving the chance to identify several proteins involved in calcium signaling based on their homology to yeast or mammalian counterparts. (aimspress.com)
  • It contains a strong transactivation domain and many serine residues that are phosphorylated when the protein is inactive and resides in the cytoplasm. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Induction of the p21(WAF1/Cip1) gene by Notch 1 activation in differentiating keratinocytes is associated with direct targeting of the RBP-Jkappa protein to the p21 promoter. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Two NFAT-responsive sequences in the osteopontin (OPN) promoter were identified. (ahajournals.org)
  • Increase in cytosolic free [Ca 2+ ] ([Ca 2+ ] i ) is a prerequisite for NFAT nuclear translocation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nuclear translocation of NFAT was determined by immunofluoresence microscopy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NFAT nuclear translocation was significantly enhanced by hypoxia, which was dependent on SOCE and sensitive to SOC inhibitor SKF96365 (SKF), as well as cGMP analogue, 8-brom-cGMP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in increased NFATc3 transcriptional activity in arteries of NFAT-luciferase transgenic mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Each different class of NFAT contributes to different steps in the neural development. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, emerging data suggest that the wild-type Malt1 protein uniquely contributes to NF-κB activation primarily through the control of two proteolytic cleavage mechanisms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • NFAT is activated through calcineurin and interacts with NFsmall ka, CyrillicB after P. aeruginosa lung infection, and contributes to the host inflammatory response. (genscript.com)
  • Vav proteins play a critical role in various biological processes, including angiogenesis, axon guidance, the functions of macrophages, neutrophils, and osteoclasts, and in the development and function of lymphocytes ( 4 - 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • NFAT-h is a serine-rich region that is highly conserved among the four NFAT proteins. (davidson.edu)
  • Activated CN rapidly dephosphorylates the serine-rich region (SRR) and SP-repeats in the amino termini of NFAT proteins, resulting in a conformational change that exposes a nuclear localization signal, resulting in NFAT nuclear import. (wikipedia.org)
  • In response to transdermal delivery of menthol, microencapsulated cell implants harboring this gene circuit, coupled to expression of either of two therapeutic proteins, insulin or a modified, activin type IIB, receptor ligand trap protein (mActRIIB ECD -hFc), could alleviate hyperglycemia in alloxan-treated mice (a model of type 1 diabetes) or reverse muscle atrophy in dexamethasone-treated mice (a model of muscle wasting), respectively. (nature.com)
  • The TRPM8 protein is a testosterone receptor: II. (nature.com)
  • Lindén describes how the adaptor protein Act1 mediates interleukin-17 receptor signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • We expressed Vav1, Vav2, and Vav3 at equivalent levels to directly compare the responses of the Vav proteins to receptor activation. (asm.org)
  • In addition, we found that Vav1, but not Vav2 or Vav3, can efficiently cooperate with T-cell receptor signaling to enhance NFAT-dependent transcription, while Vav1 and Vav3, but not Vav2, can enhance NFκB-dependent transcription. (asm.org)
  • Neither GABA receptor-initiated signaling nor direct interactions of barbiturates with nuclear proteins affected the activity of NFAT. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Another, highly conserved region of the NFAT family is the DNA binding domain that is structurally related to the DNA binding domain of the Rel -Family of transcription factors. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Although other members of the Rel family bind DNA as dimers, NF-AT proteins are monomers in solution or bound to DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, to effectively bind DNA, NFAT proteins must cooperate with other nuclear resident transcription factors generically referred to as NFATn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar arrays of functionally important NF-kappaB/NFAT and Ets binding sites are present in the transcriptional enhancers of human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2), suggesting that this pattern of nuclear protein binding sites reflects an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for regulating inducible T-cell gene expression that has been co-opted during HIV evolution. (asm.org)
  • The NFAT family of transcription factors is believed to play an important role in coupling these quantitative differences in TCR-induced signaling events into changes in gene expression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that sustained NFAT signaling, mediated by ectopic expression of caNFATc1, acts to promote a Th1-like pattern of gene expression and thereby serves to highlight the important relationship between the degree of NFAT signaling and the qualitative pattern of gene expression induced during T cell activation. (jimmunol.org)
  • We show that the initiation of heart valve morphogenesis in mice requires calcineurin/NFAT to repress VEGF expression in the myocardium underlying the site of prospective valve formation. (nih.gov)
  • In the thymus, FasL expression, which allows for potential cell death, also requires cooperation between NFAT and AP-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this part, we will discuss the lncRNAs in four categories based on their activities, including regulating gene expression, acting as miRNA decoys, mediating mRNA translation, and modulating protein activities. (mdpi.com)
  • Western blot analysis confirmed the expression of proteins of interest for each condition tested. (asm.org)
  • Rcan1-1L clearly promoted mitochondrial autophagy in HACMs, with elevated autophagy protein (ATG) 5 and light chain 3 (LC3) expression. (osti.gov)
  • In control offspring, cardiac calreticulin protein expression declined between 2 and 3 weeks of age, and remained suppressed until adulthood. (biochemj.org)
  • Previously, we found that expression of the gene encoding FK506-binding protein 12.6/1b (FKBP1b), a small immunophilin that stabilizes RyR-mediated Ca 2+ release in cardiomyocytes, declines in hippocampus of aged rats and Alzheimer's disease subjects. (jneurosci.org)
  • Because this family of transcription factors is known to be highly inducible in response to TCR stimulation ( 3 , 4 , 5 ), NFAT family members are believed to play a pivotal role in the T cell activation-induced transcriptional response during Th cell differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Targeted stimulation of Nfat proteins could perhaps be used in the future to promote the formation of new myelin sheaths in MS patients, for example after a relapse. (eurekalert.org)
  • NFAT-dependent promoters and enhancers tend to have 3-5 NFAT binding sites, which indicates that higher order, synergistic interactions between the relevant proteins in a cooperative complex is needed for effective transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, an understanding of the protein composition of the PSD is a prerequisite for modeling the molecular interactions regulating synaptic strength. (mcponline.org)
  • Based on Addgene's full plasmid sequence, the NFAT binding sequence appears to be ACGCCTTCTGTATGAAACAGTTTTTCCTCC. (addgene.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • NFAT is also involved in the development of cardiac, skeletal muscle, and nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of the conserved Ca 2+ -binding proteins calreticulin and calsequestrin impairs cardiac function, leading to premature death. (biochemj.org)
  • We have isolated two additional members of this gene family, NF-AT3 and NF-AT4, which encode proteins 65% identical to the other NF-AT proteins within the Rel domain. (nih.gov)
  • The NFAT family is evolutionarily related to the Rel/NFκB family (Hogan et al . (davidson.edu)
  • The best known classes of binding sites for NFAT are the formation of a cooperative complex with AP-1 or other bZIP proteins and the binding to sites for conventional Rel-family proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (or C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are composed of six members C/EBP α to C/EBP ζ. (bionity.com)
  • NFATc2 is part of the NFAT family of transcription factors. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that IL-10 and IL-6 counteract inflammation by a mechanism that involves the induction of the suppressor of cytokines signaling (SOCS) family of proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • ncRNA: An RNA transcript that does not encode for a protein rather the RNA molecule is the gene product. (genecards.org)
  • Epigenetic marks, represented by different chemical groups added on both the DNA molecule and histone proteins, play key roles in the control of chromatin structure and function ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ca 2+ ] i was measured with a dynamic digital Ca 2+ imaging system by loading PASMC with fura 2-AM. TRPC1 mRNA and protein level were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Western blots of known pre- and postsynaptic proteins confirm the purity of the biochemically prepared PSD fraction used in this study. (mcponline.org)
  • The four domains are: the N-terminal domain, the NFAT homology region, the Rel homology domain, and the C-terminal domain. (davidson.edu)
  • This domain, called the REL homology region (RHR) is also responsible for binding partner proteins like the AP1 complex. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • It is now well established that the members of the PTP (protein tyrosine phosphatase) superfamily play critical roles in fundamental biological processes. (biochemj.org)