Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.

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Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR ... The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. The most affected human age interval ... RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles ... Case management related interventions; health education and vector control efforts are extremely effective in preparedness for ...
... and latitudinal selection that might result in sensitivities to critical day-lengths that trigger diapause between Culex ... J Insect Physiol 33: 751-754.. [Google Scholar] * Robich RM, Denlinger DL, 2005. Diapause in the mosquito Culex pipiens evokes ... Emerging vectors in the Culex pipiens complex. Science 303: 1535-1538.. [Google Scholar] ... f Effects of Latitude and Longitude on the Population Structure of Culex pipiens s.l., Vectors of West Nile Virus in North ...
We examined WNV vector competency of a Galápagos strain of mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus Say). Field specimens were tested ... quinquefasciatus are competent WNV vectors, and therefore should be considered an animal and public health risk for the islands ... Infection rates peaked at 59% and transmission rates peaked at 44% (of mosquitoes tested). Vector efficiency increased after ... J Insect Sci 10: 1-12.[Crossref]. [Google Scholar] * Zinser M, Ramberg F, Willot E, , 2004. Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: ...
... a potent bacterial agent for controlling mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. ... Native Bacillus strains from infected insects: a potent bacterial agent for controlling mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and ... Native Bacillus strains from infected insects: a potent bacterial agent for controlling mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and ... Some of the Bacillus toxins act as insect control agents and few are potential alternatives to chemical control because they ...
Efficacy of three formulations of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, the vector of ... Efficacy of three formulations of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, against Culex ... Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Elephantiasis, Filarial / Humans / Diflubenzuron / Culex / ... Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Elephantiasis, Filarial / Humans / Diflubenzuron / Culex / ...
Breeding patterns of the JE vector Culex gelidus and its insect predators in rice cultivation areas of northern peninsular ... Breeding patterns of the JE vector Culex gelidus and its insect predators in rice cultivat ... Operational vector control through bio-control or with insecticides near the end of the rice cultivation season in RFP may ... Culex gelidus was abundant in RFP and almost absent in DCs. Its densities usually were high during the first and 3rd CC and ...
There is more information on the resistance status to malaria vectors compared to Culicines. It is therefore unfortunate that ... quinquefasciatus to carbamates, pyrethroids and organochlorine and discuss the implications for vector control in four ... an arboviral and filarial vector, is present year round in several cities of the Republic of Benin. ... Subra R. Biology and control of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus with special reference to Africa. Insect Sci Applic. 1981;1:319- ...
The insect vectors for this species are mosquitoes of the genus Culex. Fever in the infected snake is irregular. Garnham P.C. ( ... As in all Plasmodium species, P. wenyoni has both vertebrate and insect hosts. The vertebrate hosts for this parasite are ...
torrentium is crucial for the understanding of their vector-pathogen dynamics. Female mosquitoes were trapped from April- ... For this study, 1476 Culex spp. were sampled. Culex pipiens f. pipiens representing 87.33 % of the total catch was most ... Assessment of seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of Culex pipiens forms and their congener Cx. ... These findings will improve the knowledge of their vector-pathogen dynamics in this country. ...
Vector Resistance: The resistance topic is timely given current events. The emergence of mysterious new diseases, such as SARS ... In three Culex species an estß gene is amplified in resistant insects (Vaughan et al., 1995; Whyard et al., 1995; Karunaratne ... Vector Resistance. The major mosquito vectors span the Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles genera. Culex are the vectors of filariasis ... Collection of vector samples is expensive in both time and personnel. It would be invaluable if the same pools of insects ...
March 2004). "Emerging vectors in the Culex pipiens complex" (PDF). Science. 303 (5663): 1535-1538. doi:10.1126/science.1094247 ... "London underground source of new insect forms". The Times. 26 August 1998. Byrne K, Nichols RA (January 1999). "Culex pipiens ... A study from 2004 analyzing DNA microsatellites suggested that Culex molestus is likely a distinct species from Culex pipiens. ... Genetic similarity between European populations of a potential disease vector Culex pipiens". Infection Ecology & Epidemiology ...
Emerging vectors in the Culex pipiens complex. Fonseca DM, Keyghobadi N, Malcolm CA et al. (March 2004). "Emerging vectors in ... Insect From the Underground , Natural History , Find Articles. ...a mosquito that is closely related to the one inhabiting the ... Surface populations are culex pipiens. Underground populations are culex molestus. The results of the study were that above- ... suggesting that Culex pipens molestus was indeed a descendant of Londons native Culex pipiens pipiens. Had the underground ...
Daily feeding rhythms of blood feeding insects [6,7,13 - 16] are well-studied, particularly in vector species, due to their ... Culex pipiens form pipiens and C.p. f. molestus are two members of the Culex pipiens assemblage and vectors of West Nile Virus ... Although Culex species vector human pathogens and parasites, the daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus, to our ... Background: Blood feeding by free-living insect vectors of disease is rhythmic and can be used to predict when infectious bites ...
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases; Health, general Environmental aspects Biological indicators Indicators (Biology) Insect ... populations Observations Insecticides Usage Malaria Predation (Biology) Vector control Research ... Effect of predation on Anopheles larvae by five sympatic insect families in coastal Kenya.(Report) by ... Thelohaniidae: Microsporidia) in Culex sitiens larvae at the Kenya coast. Insect Sci Appl 1984; 5(4): 269-72. (11.) Global ...
Excreta related insect vectors: Filariasis transmitting Culex mosquitoes prefer to breed in highly polluted water. Badly ... Vector-borne diseases: transmission by insects. Insect vectors represent the largest group of disease transmitting agents. In ... also called vectors or intermediate hosts. A vector is an animal, often an insect, that transmits an infection from one person ... The principal vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (fatigans), breeds in polluted water in ditches, drains, tanks, barrels, tins and ...
Anderson, M. E., et al. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in the West Nile Virus vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say. PloS one. 14, (11 ... RH works for the Insect Transformation Facility, which provides services in insect genetic modification. ... Culex mosquitoes are the major vectors of several diseases that negatively impact human and animal health including West Nile ... Hamer, G. L., et al. Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae): a bridge vector of West Nile virus to humans. Journal of Medical ...
The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some ... Culex quinquefasciatus,/i,. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which ... Culex quinquefasciatus,/i, by following the WHO guidelines. ,i,Results,/i,. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of ... has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. ...
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases; Health, general Anopheles Insecticides Malaria Care and treatment Materia medica, Vegetable ... Larvicidal potential of some plants from west Africa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and anopheles gambiae giles (Diptera ... Insect Sci 2006; 13: 179-88. (9.) Oliveira PV, Ferreira JC, Moura FS, Lima GS, de Oliveira FM, Oliveira PE, et al. Larvicidal ... and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). J Vector Borne Dis 2012; 49: 111-13. (7.) Chouaibou MS, Chabi J, Bingham GV, Knox TB, Ndri L ...
Mosquito immature third instar larval,,i, Anopheles stephensi,,/i, and,i, Culex quinquefasciatus,/i, have been exposed to ... Mosquitoes being vector for many tropical and subtropical diseases are the most important single group of insects well-known ... dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorynchus (Giles.) (Diptera: Culicidae)," ... Asclepiadaceae) against Japanese Encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae)," European Review for ...
... vector, Culex modestus, in the Camargue region, France. From World War II to 1971, populations of these species increased as ... ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, ... In 1970, the striped rice borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), a pest insect that damages rice plants, was introduced into ... Effects of Local Anthropogenic Changes on Potential Malaria Vector Anopheles hyrcanus and West Nile Virus Vector Culex modestus ...
Infravec2 new insect vector research tools: no-cost resources for scientists fighting mosquito-transmitted diseases. Find all ... One of these products is the common European backyard nuisance mosquito, Culex pipiens, infected with Usutu virus. Usutu virus ... Insect vectors: a mosquito capable of limiting viral infection. *Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West ... Insect vectors: a mosquito capable of limiting viral infection. *Insecticide resistance genes affect vector competence for West ...
Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary ... immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes) from ... Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent ... An insight into the salivary transcriptome and proteome of the adult female mosquito Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. Insect ...
... we characterized microbiota associated with adult females of Culex nigripalpus mosquito vectors of Saint Louis Encephalitis and ... Mosquitoes, Insect vectors, Biogeography, Viral disease, Microbiome, Culex Copyright. © 2019 Duguma et al. Licence. This is an ... Culex nigripalpus Theobald is a primary vector of Saint Louis Encephalitis (SLE) virus in North America and also an important ... Mutual exclusion of Asaia and Wolbachia in the reproductive organs of mosquito vectors.. Parasites & Vectors 8(1):278 ...
Wolbachia is naturally present in over 20% of all insects. [1] It was first discovered in the ovaries of Culex pipiens mosquito ... 4. P.E., McMeniman, C.J., ONeill, S.L., Modifying Insect Population Age Structure to Control Vector-Borne Disease. (2008). ... Culex pipiens mosquitoes act as the primary vectors for the West Nile Virus in America while female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes ... the insects become resistant. . This constant development of resistance by pest and vector invertebrates has influenced the ...
Wolbachia is naturally present in over 20% of all insects. [1] It was first discovered in the ovaries of Culex pipiens mosquito ... 4. P.E., McMeniman, C.J., ONeill, S.L., Modifying Insect Population Age Structure to Control Vector-Borne Disease. (2008). ... Culex pipiens mosquitoes act as the primary vectors for the West Nile Virus in America while female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes ... Culex pipiens mosquitoes act as the primary vectors for the West Nile Virus in America while female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes ...
Vectors of WEE virus *Culex tarsalis is the primary vector in the U.S. ... Home , Insects and Ticks , Diseases , Monitoring , Control , Hot Topics , Contacts , Glossary , Resources ... Control of vectors. *Elimination of larval developmental sites often is not feasible. ... Adulticides if warranted by monitoring WEE in birds, in Culex mosquitoes, and disease cases in humans ...
69: 5343-5353.) In particular, B.t.i Cry4Ba-GAV has a 700-fold increase of activity against the insect vector Culex ... Culex pipens and Culex quinquefasciatis as major vectors for filarisis, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis, St. Louis ... namely either into an intermediate vector or into a binary vector. The intermediate vectors can be integrated into the Ti or Ri ... Aquatic Insects. Mosquitoes are vectors for numerous blood-borne diseases, including malaria, yellow fever, West Nile virus, ...
The Culex pipiens, also known as the house mosquito, is also the most common vector for WNV transmission. Culex restuan, Culex ... When the insect feeds on another animal or human, the virus can be transmitted through the bite and cause serious illness. ... These species are Culex pipiens, Culex restuans, and Culex quinquefasciatus.. Mosquitoes acquire the virus when they obtain a ... These species are Culex pipiens, Culex restuans, and Culex quinquefasciatus.. Mosquitoes acquire the virus when they obtain a ...
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association publishes works containing research in the areas of mosquito and vector ... In terms of West Nile virus (WNV) vectors, wetlands predominantly produced Aedes vexans, Culex pipiens pipiens, and Culex ... We analyzed selected water quality factors, water depth, types of vegetation, degree of shade, and level of insect predation in ... The vector competence of Culex tarsalis Coquillett for the BFS1703 strain of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) ...
Culex (Melanoconion) vomerifer. Culex (Melanoconion) pedroi. Culex (Melanoconion) adamesi. Links to suggested vector-control ... Vector insects. The virus that causes VEE is transmitted primarily by mosquitoes that bite an infected animal and then bite and ... When a vector insect feeds on these animals, it picks up the virus and transmits it to other animals or humans. ... Product selection dependent on vector biology and ecology. VectoBac 12AS. VectoBac WDG (WG). VectoBac Granules. VectoLex ...
  • The distribution of Culex p. pipiens and C. p. quinquefasciatus in North America. (ajtmh.org)
  • We examined WNV vector competency of a Galápagos strain of mosquito ( Culex quinquefasciatus Say). (ajtmh.org)
  • quinquefasciatus are competent WNV vectors, and therefore should be considered an animal and public health risk for the islands and controlled wherever possible. (ajtmh.org)
  • Native Bacillus strains from infected insects: a potent bacterial agent for controlling mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. (dipterajournal.com)
  • Therefore, in this study, optimized native Bacillus strains from infected insects were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing method and to perform experiments on the larvicidal effects of the pathogenicity against third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti . (dipterajournal.com)
  • The outcome of the present study identifies the improved bacterial strains B . cersus , B . thuringenesis L. sphaericus obtained from infected insects that can be used as effective and alternate larvicidal agents against the mosquito larvae of C. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti . (dipterajournal.com)
  • Efficacy of three formulations of diflubenzuron, an insect growth regulator, against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, the vector of Bancroftian filariasis in India. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study, two new formulations of the IGR diflubenzuron , 2 per cent granular (GR) and 2 per cent tablet (DT) were tested for its efficacy against Culex quinquefasciatus, in comparison to its 25 per cent wettable powder (WP) formulation. (bvsalud.org)
  • quinquefasciatus under integrated vector management programme. (bvsalud.org)
  • Culex quinquefasciatus , an arboviral and filarial vector, is present year round in several cities of the Republic of Benin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing is a powerful technology that has been used to evaluate the biology of several important mosquito species 11 , 12 , 13 , including the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus 14 , 15 , 16 . (jove.com)
  • Culex quinquefasciatus (originally named Culex fatigans), commonly known as the southern house mosquito, is a medium-sized mosquito found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus . (hindawi.com)
  • belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. (hindawi.com)
  • Culex quinquefasciatus is an important vector of bancroftian filariasis in tropical and subtropical regions. (hindawi.com)
  • Larvicidal potential of some plants from west Africa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and anopheles gambiae giles (Diptera: Culicidae). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Mosquito immature third instar larval, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus have been exposed to different concentrations of 50-250 µ g/ml. (hindawi.com)
  • Culex restuan, Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes Albopictus , and Aedes Vexans are also common carriers of the WNV. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Protection against mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus using a novel insect repellent, ethyl anthranilate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2016. Culex quinquefasciatus larval microbiomes vary with instar and exposure to common wastewater contaminants. (ucr.edu)
  • In tropical areas, Anopheles gambiae , Aedes aegypti , and Culex quinquefasciatus are the most notorious mosquito vectors of infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, and filariasis, respectively. (intechopen.com)
  • Further research has demonstrated that the extract effectively kills larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and repels adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, both of which are serious disease vectors. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Commonly known as the southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus Say is a medium-sized brown insect that exists throughout the tropics and the lower latitudes of temperate regions, and a vector of many pathogens of humans as well as both domestic and wild animals. (intechopen.com)
  • Somatic Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) levels in Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and resistance to West Nile Virus infection. (wadsworth.org)
  • The native Wolbachia endosymbionts of Drosophila melanogaster and Culex quinquefasciatus increase host resistance to West Nile virus infection. (wadsworth.org)
  • Of these, the southern house mosquito ( Culex quinquefasciatus ) is the greatest threat to Hawaiian birds. (mauiforestbirds.org)
  • Here we report the full-length gene sequence of the doublesex gene in Culex quinquefasciatus ( Cxqdsx ) and its male and female-specific isoforms. (beds.ac.uk)
  • albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Here, the overall structure of the fat body of five species of mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus, Aedes fluviatilis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi) was compared through light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. (scielo.br)
  • We now extended our investigation to include a comparative structural analysis of the fat body of five adult mosquito species including Aedes albopictus , Aedes fluviatilis , Culex quinquefasciatus , Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi . (scielo.br)
  • Total RNA was extracted from individual insects and RVF virus was detected from Culex, Anopheles and Aedes species using RT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, a historical background of the RVF outbreaks was discussed in relation to global climatic anomalies and incriminated vector species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The virus was detected in female, male and larval stages of Culex and Anopheles species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These depressions also serve as good habitats for Culex and Anopheles mosquito species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the other hand, many insects' species may coexist in the larval development sites and are susceptible to the larvicidal activity of Bacillus toxins. (dipterajournal.com)
  • As in all Plasmodium species, P. wenyoni has both vertebrate and insect hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The insect vectors for this species are mosquitoes of the genus Culex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of the Culex ( Culex ) pipiens complex are hardly distinguishable due to their morphological similarity, but differ extensively in behaviour, physiology and host preference. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, resistance to insecticides has appeared in every major species of arthropod vectors- including mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, lice, and sand flies-and various vectors have developed resistance to every class of pesticide. (nap.edu)
  • Although Culex species vector human pathogens and parasites, the daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p . f. molestus, to our knowledge, have not been studied. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Daily feeding rhythms of blood feeding insects [ 6 , 7 , 13 - 16 ] are well-studied, particularly in vector species, due to their implications for disease transmission. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Awareness of peak blood feeding times by vector species, as well as their molecular basis, is useful for the development of control measures that reduce contact between blood feeding insects and their hosts. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • This sub-species of mosquito, named Culex pipiens molestus by biologists, appears to have branched off from an above-ground population of Culex pipiens pipiens mosquitoes around the time the London Underground was being dug in the mid-19th Century and subsequently adapted to the warm subterranean climate of this newly-created environment. (hubpages.com)
  • The results showed that all the alleles found in the Underground variety of mosquito were also found in the above-ground species, suggesting that Culex pipens molestus was indeed a descendant of London's native Culex pipiens pipiens . (hubpages.com)
  • Together with insect pathogens, predation can significantly limit numbers of mosquitoes depending on the species and type of habitat (3). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has been used to induce site-directed mutations by injecting a Cas9 protein that has been complexed with a guide RNA (gRNA) into freshly laid embryos of several insect species, including mosquitoes that belong to the genera Anopheles and Aedes . (jove.com)
  • Manipulating and injecting Culex mosquitoes is slightly more difficult as these mosquitoes lay their eggs upright in rafts rather than individually like other species of mosquitoes. (jove.com)
  • The representative results demonstrate that this technique can be used to induce site-directed mutations in the genome of Culex mosquitoes and, with slight modifications, can be used to generate null-mutants in other mosquito species as well. (jove.com)
  • Studying these and other fascinating aspects of the biology of Culex mosquitoes has been hampered, in part, because Culex mosquitoes are slightly more difficult to rear in the lab than Aedes mosquitoes, which produce quiescent and desiccation-resistant eggs 10 and because functional molecular tools are not as well developed for Culex species. (jove.com)
  • It is taxonomically regarded as a member of the Culex pipiens species complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Hawaii, it is the principal vector of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), to which historic extinctions and significant contemporary population declines in Hawaii's native honeycreeper species are attributed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant species studied were selected on the basis of criteria (Table 1), such as lack of information on activity against Anopheles and Culex larvae, botanical families (Euphorbiaceae, Verbenaceae, and Meliaceae) from which number of larvicidal plant were reported and large distribution in West Africa. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Mosquitoes are very well recognized as vectors of protozoan, viruses, and other pathogenic organisms and it is well-known also that under the influence of environmental conditions a vector species may notice changes in the seasonal distribution in the same area of dominance. (hindawi.com)
  • The increase in density of a vector species is very much dependent on climatologically factors favorable for its breeding and adult survival. (hindawi.com)
  • Majority of the Anopheles and Culex species are night time biters. (hindawi.com)
  • The drastic effects of chemical insecticide based intervention measures for the control of disease vectors have received wide public apprehension and have caused many problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, and environmental organisms. (hindawi.com)
  • One of the newly available mosquito colonies is Anopheles atroparvus , a widespread European species that was the major vector of human malaria until Europe was declared malaria-free in 1975. (pasteur.fr)
  • Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and qualitative (mosquito species) immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several mosquito species of the Anopheles genus are vectors of Plasmodium parasites, the causal agents of malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, female mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens species are of particular concern, as they live in suburban and urban areas, can survive through the winter, prefer to feed on birds, and frequently bite humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Anopheles minimus Complex Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) is composed of the 3 sibling species A, C, and E. The malaria vectors An. (bioone.org)
  • They also colonize different insects - Leishmania is carried by female sandflies, but Crithidia by Anopheles and Culex mosquito species. (news-medical.net)
  • Seasonal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species Proven Vectors of Mediterranean Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania infantum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, several reports have hypothesized the implication of other anopheline species in malaria transmission for the territory Data on the ecology of these other potential vectors is rare or even unexplored in French Guiana. (bioone.org)
  • Northern expansion of the Culex species in the Midwest is expected to result in upwards of 450 additional WNV cases above the 1995 baseline by 2090 absent greenhouse gas mitigation. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the role of the two mosquito species as the primary vectors of WNV in northern United States, little is known about the composition and structure of their microbiota. (springer.com)
  • Understanding current human infection risk from simian malaria species and anticipating possible future zoonotic spillover of vector-borne disease calls for a more comprehensive examination of local anopheline population ecology, as well as surveillance of their Plasmodium infection status. (nature.com)
  • Anopheles species biodiversity and species richness seem to be one of the dominantly evolved blood-feeding insect species race on earth, impacting millions of lives through transmitting deadliest disease malaria around the globe. (intechopen.com)
  • Among other diseases, yellow fever is spread by Aedes species, West Nile fever by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Mansonia , and Stegomyia are the genera containing most of the species involved in the transmission of parasitic and viral pathogens. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any of numerous slender two-winged insects of the family Culicidae, having aquatic larvae and in the adult female a long proboscis, used in most species for sucking blood. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia, and Stegomyia are genera containing most species involved in the transmission of protozoan and other disease-producing parasites. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This present document investigates the principal Culex species that can be observed in the south of Quebec as they are of particular interest to public health. (cfroy.com)
  • Culex species are known for their resistance to polluted environments. (cfroy.com)
  • Culex species use diapause to survive winter as adults. (cfroy.com)
  • Because it carries multiple diseases, Culex species are a danger to the health of Canadian populations. (cfroy.com)
  • Many insect vector species of medical and veterinary importance are found abundantly in areas where animals are held. (mdpi.com)
  • An extremely small percentage of insect species transmit disease-causing pathogens to animals and humans. (usda.gov)
  • Lastly, not all Culicoides are competent vectors and this study will determine vector species and their habitats to help estimate risk in specific geographic regions. (usda.gov)
  • aegypti is absolutely challenging when this been largely practiced in vector control strategies, with species has deep-rooted and spread extensively in pyrethroid-based formulations massively dominating the disease-endemic regions. (deepdyve.com)
  • The doublesex gene controls somatic sexual differentiation of many metazoan species, including the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Seasonal fluctuations in the environment affect dramatically the abundance of insect species. (prolekare.cz)
  • Controlling the exchange of genetic information between sexually reproducing populations has applications in agriculture, eradication of disease vectors, control of invasive species, and the safe study of emerging biotechnology applications. (nature.com)
  • These approaches will not doubt be valuable to controlling disease vector populations, however, unless the target species is driven to extinction, continuous release will be necessary to prevent reintroduction which may be prohibitively expensive in some settings. (nature.com)
  • To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive species and competent vector of several arboviruses (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, Zika) and parasites (e.g. dirofilaria) of public health importance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among blood-sucking insects, mosquitoes are considered the most important disease vectors, with several species involved in the transmission of pathogens such as helminths, protozoans and arboviruses to humans and animals (Eldridge 2004). (scielo.br)
  • Clearly, the vast number of species encompassing the various mosquito vectors contributes to the difficulty of bridging such knowledge gaps. (scielo.br)
  • After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. (prolekare.cz)
  • Insecticide resistance, including resistance to multiple types of insecticides, has arisen in all the insect species that are the major vectors of human diseases ( Table 1 ). (prolekare.cz)
  • Host responses are important sources of selection upon the host species range of ectoparasites and phytophagous insects. (springermedizin.de)
  • However little is known about the role of host responses in defining the host species range of malaria vectors. (springermedizin.de)
  • This study aimed to estimate the relative importance of host behaviour to the feeding success and fitness of African malaria vectors, and assess its ability to predict their known host species preferences in nature. (springermedizin.de)
  • The feeding success and subsequent fitness of vectors under these conditions were investigated on six host types (humans, calves, chickens, cows, dogs and goats) to assess whether physical movements of preferred host species (cattle for An. (springermedizin.de)
  • This suggests that physical defensive behaviours exhibited by common host species including humans do not impose substantial fitness costs on African malaria vectors. (springermedizin.de)
  • It means that we have a second species of vector involved in transmission. (houstonchronicle.com)
  • Culex is a much more abundant species," Ayres told a news conference in Rio de Janeiro on Thursday, where she presented the results. (houstonchronicle.com)
  • What we need to know now is which species is the most important - if Culex is the primary vector or the secondary vector. (houstonchronicle.com)
  • These insects are generally controlled by conventional insecticides for the greater part, chemicals which cause in the long term side effects (effects on the not aimed bodies and the resistance of the aimed species). (scirp.org)
  • The highest prevalence of WNV, with a seasonal spike each year in August, was in the Culex pipiens/restuans complex, and high WNV prevalence followed a decrease in relative abundance of Wolbachia in this species. (frontiersin.org)
  • The bamboo mosquito, Tripteroides bambusa (Yamada) (Diptera: Culicidae) , is a common insect across East Asia. (mdpi.com)
  • Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are among the best-studied insects because of their role as pathogen vectors [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Mosquitoes that belong to the order Diptera and Culicidae family account for large biomass of insects' community and are one of the most notorious animals on earth which transmit many blood-borne pathogens. (intechopen.com)
  • Oviposition Behavior of Culex annulirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) Is Affected by the Recent Presence of Invasive Gambusia holbrooki (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). (edu.au)
  • A blood-sucking dipterous insect of the family Culicidae. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The results are published in the March, 2013 issue of the Journal of Medical Entomology in an article called "Experimental and Natural Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus by California Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Australian distribution, genetic status and seasonal abundance of the exotic mosquito Culex molestus (Forskal) (Diptera: Culicidae). (edu.au)
  • ABSTRACT: In the cities of Algeria, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the mosquito which presents most interest because of its wide geographical distribution and of its abundance which engender a strong nuisance. (scirp.org)
  • The fact that several of these compounds are repellent to haematophagous insects could be an evolutionary relict from a plant-feeding ancestor, as many of these compounds evolved as repellents to phytophagous insects [ 2 ], and this repellent response to potentially toxic compounds is well conserved in the lineage of Diptera (True Flies). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Weekly visits were performed to each of the 36 sites and mosquito larvae and aquatic insects were sampled from RFP and DCs using dippers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Effect of predation on Anopheles larvae by five sympatic insect families in coastal Kenya. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Since predation is reported to play such a critical role in mortality of mosquito larvae, insect pathogens and predation can significantly reduce numbers of immature stages of mosquitoes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These larvae are the most significant vectors. (hindawi.com)
  • has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. (hindawi.com)
  • Larvicides as needed based on monitoring aquatic sites in which Culex larvae develop. (purdue.edu)
  • The BinAB toxin, produced in crystal form by a bacterium, specifically kills the larvae of Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, but it is inactive on tiger mosquitoes (or Aedes), the vectors for dengue fever and chikungunya. (news-medical.net)
  • and (ii) to review and revise WHO guidelines on laboratory and field testing of chemical and bacterial larvicides and insect growth regulators (IGRs) against mosquito larvae. (who.int)
  • The Group also reviewed and revised the draft guidelines on laboratory and field testing of chemical and bacterial larvicides and insect growth regulators against mosquito larvae, to be published as a separate document by WHOPES. (who.int)
  • 2017. Effects of a larval mosquito biopesticide and Culex larvae on a freshwater nanophytoplankton ( Selenastrum capricornatum ) under axenic conditions. (ucr.edu)
  • A team of Indian researchers from the Vector Control Research Center (VCRC) is importing Australian larvae that are infected with the bacterium Wolbachia, a genus that has the ability to block the growth of viruses like the ones that spread dengue. (atimes.com)
  • Culex pipiens complex taxa are key vectors succouring the transmission of a variety of pathogens such as avian malaria ( Plasmodium spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Toward this goal, insecticides play a major role in controlling major disease vectors-the arthropods that pass pathogens to humans. (nap.edu)
  • Apart from the natural regulation of mosquito numbers, predators and pathogens have raised interest due to their potential for manipulation of biological control as part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) (11). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • dengue, Zika, chikungunya, and yellow fever viruses, are also significant mosquito-borne pathogens that are mainly vectored by Aedes mosquitoes. (intechopen.com)
  • This project has resulted in developing integrated approaches to protect animals and people from vector-borne pathogens. (usda.gov)
  • For vector-borne pathogens the abundance of vectors is a key parameter determining the quality of their environment. (prolekare.cz)
  • Mosquitoes are vectors for the transmission of many human pathogens that include viruses, nematodes and protozoa. (ias.ac.in)
  • This suggests that microbiota may explain some of the variation in vector competence previously attributed to local environmental processes, especially because Wolbachia is known to affect carriage of viral pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, it is not known whether vector competence (i.e., the ability to transmit pathogens) is shaped mainly by environmental conditions, genetic background of the insect vector, or by the vector microbiota. (frontiersin.org)
  • Water related vector-borne diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites (protozoa and helminths) transmitted by water related disease transmitting agents, also called vectors or intermediate hosts. (fao.org)
  • Our primary focus is the transmission of parasites and viruses in wild bird populations, specifically the role of volatile and semi-volatile chemicals in the interactions between birds and mosquito vectors of virus. (oberlin.edu)
  • For example, a single human genetic mutation, linked with increased ingestion of malaria parasites by white blood cells , might make some humans who are otherwise exceptionally susceptible to infection incapable of attaining a high enough volume of parasites in their circulating blood to transmit the parasites to mosquito vectors. (phys.org)
  • Parasites and Vectors , 11(1), 1-11. (edu.au)
  • This family includes two important medical and veterinary important disease vectors due to their roles for transmission of various viruses, bacteria, and parasites-Anophelinae and Culicinae. (intechopen.com)
  • The Culex is one of the most studied genus in North America because of its ability to pass on many harmful parasites and virus to humans during summer when temperatures rise above 40°C. These mosquitos are considered very active for two reasons. (cfroy.com)
  • Parasites & Vectors (2018) 11:332 Page 2 of 17 increase worldwide, which put an estimation of almost character in implementing these programmes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Second, we show that in avian malaria Plasmodium parasites have the ability to increase transmission after being bitten by uninfected Culex mosquitoes. (prolekare.cz)
  • How have malaria parasites adapted to these temporal fluctuations in vector density? (prolekare.cz)
  • We assessed the structure and latitudinal selection that might result in sensitivities to critical day-lengths that trigger diapause between Culex pipiens populations distributed along North-South and East-West axes in eastern North America. (ajtmh.org)
  • Structure and seasonality of Neartic Culex pipiens populations. (ajtmh.org)
  • The focus of this session of the workshop was an examination of the role that vectors play in a variety of diseases and how management efforts are being used to better control vector populations. (nap.edu)
  • Developing and applying mathematical models can provide a solid basis for identifying new ways to effectively control the emergence of resistance among vector populations-and also to identify methods that are not effective. (nap.edu)
  • We described and compared the daily blood feeding rhythms of three laboratory-reared populations of Culex pipiens , one of which has confirmed molestus ancestry. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • exposure of humans to vector and intermediate host populations. (fao.org)
  • We conducted a 15-month study in two Malaysian villages to determine the effect of habitat on vector populations in understudied high-altitude, high-incidence districts. (nature.com)
  • Some of the modifications under development are designed to be self-limiting, in that they will tend to disappear over time in the absence of recurrent releases (and hence are similar to the sterile insect technique, SIT), whereas other modifications are designed to be self-sustaining, spreading through populations even after releases stop (and hence are similar to traditional biological control). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Most of the work focuses on Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti , the most important vectors of malaria and dengue, respectively, and I henceforth refer to the target vector populations as 'mosquitoes', though similar approaches may in the future be developed for diseases transmitted by other insects. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Determining the extent to which mosquito genetics contributes to traits that determine vector competence in field populations of the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens . (wadsworth.org)
  • The emergence of Anopheles populations capable of withstanding lethal doses of insecticides has weakened the efficacy of most insecticide based strategies of vector control and, has highlighted the need for further studies on the mechanisms of insecticide resistance and the various factors selecting resistant populations of mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. Insecticide resistance mechanisms reported to date in natural populations of the main insect vectors of human diseases. (prolekare.cz)
  • An expert in the area of vector control, Professor A. P. Dash avers that indoor residual spray (IRS) of insecticides and use of long-lasting insecticide impregnated nets (LLINs) remain the mainstay of vector control, as such methods have a proven impact on mosquito populations and disease transmission. (atimes.com)
  • From the results, we estimated the degree of sensibility of the larva populations of Culex pipiens which have proved heterogeneous in partial tolerance in Bacillus thuringiensis for the populations of the sensitive artificial and homogeneous the deposits sites for those stemming from the breeding. (scirp.org)
  • Heterogeneous agricultural areas as areas of coexistence may serve as hybridization zones, resulting in potential bridge vectors between birds and humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The below-ground Culex pipiens molestus feed on humans and rats, have very private sex lives, and are active year-round in the moist and temperate environment of the subway system. (hubpages.com)
  • are opportunistic feeders and will bite both birds and humans 9 , thereby serving as bridge vectors for West Nile virus. (jove.com)
  • The southern house mosquito transmits zoonotic diseases that affect humans and wild and domestic animals, such as lymphatic filariasis, avian malaria, St. Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, and West Nile fever, and may be a vector of the Zika virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vector is an animal, often an insect, that transmits an infection from one person to another person or from infected animals to humans (Cairncross and Feachem, 1983). (fao.org)
  • The genera Culex, Aedes and Anopheles are the most important vectors involved in diseases transmission to humans. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • When a vector insect feeds on these animals, it picks up the virus and transmits it to other animals or humans. (valentbiosciences.com)
  • This result is of particular interest in view of the frequent transmission of medically relevant negative-strand RNA viruses to humans by insect vectors. (pnas.org)
  • Apart from these viruses, which are transmitted between mammalian hosts, several negative-strand RNA viruses are transmitted to humans by insect vectors (arthropod-borne viruses or arboviruses). (pnas.org)
  • Another member of the Bunyavirus family, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, vectored by ticks and causing severe disease in humans (30% mortality), is endemic in many countries in Africa, Europe, and Asia. (pnas.org)
  • A complex, five-step intoxication process explains the environmental safety of BinAB, which is harmless to other insects, crustaceans and humans. (news-medical.net)
  • For instance, Culex mosquitoes are the vectors that transmit West Nile and other viruses to humans. (phys.org)
  • It is important to note that birds such as crows are favoured by Culex mosquitos to complete their blood meals while humans remain a secondary option. (cfroy.com)
  • Virus establishment and amplification in this region was likely facilitated by above average nightly temperatures and a rapid accumulation of degree-days in late summer.Estimated exposure dates for humans and initial detection of WNV-positive mosquitoes occurred concurrently with a late summer increase in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes (which spread western equine encephalitis) in the southern Okanagan Valley.The conditions present during this range expansion suggest that temperature and Cx. (nih.gov)
  • Estimated exposure dates for humans and initial detection of WNV-positive mosquitoes occurred concurrently with a late summer increase in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes (which spread western equine encephalitis) in the southern Okanagan Valley. (nih.gov)
  • Vector control strategies aim at reducing insect vector densities, vector life-span or to limit contact with humans with the final aim of reducing the transmission of diseases and, therefore, the related morbidity and mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Before humans arrived on the islands, there were no mosquitoes or any other biting or blood sucking insects. (mauiforestbirds.org)
  • a prevalent vector-borne pathogen which is found infecting many vertebrate hosts, including humans, reptiles and birds. (prolekare.cz)
  • The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is an aggressive daytime-biting vector of several arboviruses pathogenic to humans (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, Zika). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In California Culex mosquitoes are considered to be the principle vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), which infects birds, humans, and other mammals during the summer. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The authors injected adult female Culex tarsalis mosquitoes, an important vector for WNV in humans, with Wolbachia bacteria, which researchers have shown increases mosquitoes' resistance to dengue and malaria, thus blocking transmission to humans. (umn.edu)
  • Culex mosquitoes are distributed throughout the temperate and tropical regions of the world and transmit several deadly viruses including West Nile virus 1 , St. Louis encephalitis 2 as well as filarial nematodes that cause canine heartworm 3 and elephantiasis 4 . (jove.com)
  • Insect vectors transmit parasitic diseases such as malaria and leishmaniasis, and viral infections such as chikungunya, dengue, Zika, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever. (pasteur.fr)
  • Competence represents the capacity for one human or animal host to cause new infections either in other hosts, or in vectors-biting insects and other carriers that can transmit viral, bacterial, and other infections. (phys.org)
  • Not only may insect vectors transmit diseases to people in flight but also to people in places served by aircraft. (who.int)
  • He uses genetic approaches to elucidate how genetic variation in mosquitoes can modify a mosquito's ability to be infected by, and transmit, virus, primarily studying Culex mosquitoes and their susceptibility to infection by West Nile virus. (wadsworth.org)
  • Ayres said the research proved that Culex can transmit Zika and that it could have played a role in the rapid spread of the disease in Brazil. (houstonchronicle.com)
  • C. tarsalis females are capable of flying as far as 10-15 miles from larval developmental sites and therefore can be vectors of WEE in residential areas far removed from irrigated agriculture. (purdue.edu)
  • Using historical data, we highlight the consequences of anthropogenic ecosystem modifications on the abundance of mosquitoes implicated as the current most important potential malaria vector, Anopheles hyrcanus, and the most important West Nile virus (WNV) vector, Culex modestus , in the Camargue region, France. (cdc.gov)
  • Anopheles ( Cellia ) maculatus Theobald is a major malaria vector in southern Thailand and peninsular Malaysia, and previous population genetic studies suggested that mountain ranges act as barriers to gene flow. (bioone.org)
  • In French Guiana, Anopheles darlingi is considered the main malaria vector. (bioone.org)
  • Journal of Vector Ecology 43:110-116. (oberlin.edu)
  • The large-scale land use changes observed in the region are likely to impact the ecology, behavior and transmission potential of Anopheles mosquitoes as vectors of zoonotic malaria 13 . (nature.com)
  • Journal of Vector Ecology , 42(1), 105-112. (edu.au)
  • The eradication of malaria is a global issue requiring professionals to fully understand the ecology of the disease vectors. (gii.co.jp)
  • Vector Biology, Ecology and Control , (pp. 81-96). (edu.au)
  • Despres L, David J-P, Gallet C: The evolutionary ecology of insect resistance to plant chemicals. (springermedizin.de)
  • RVF virus (RVFV) is transmitted between animals and human by mosquitoes, particularly those belonging to the Culex, Anopheles and Aedes genera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of particular concern to the U.S. military are mosquito genera Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, which are important vectors for malaria, dengue and West Nile virus respectively, and sand fly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia, both vectors for leishmaniasis. (sbir.gov)
  • The most important genera are Aedes , Anopheles , and Culex , which are responsible for the transmission of yellow fever , malaria , dengue , and other diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • blood-sucking insect of the genera Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Taeniorhynchus ( Mansonia ) and Psorophora . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Culex mosquitoes are the major vectors of several diseases that negatively impact human and animal health including West Nile virus and diseases caused by filarial nematodes such as canine heartworm and elephantasis. (jove.com)
  • We investigate the mechanisms by which insects (agricultural pests and mosquitoes - major vectors of diseases) develop resistance to insecticides and xenobiotics. (aua.gr)
  • Moreover, it may be spread by Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes which are the insect hosts and vectors for this parasite. (news-medical.net)
  • In tropical and subtropical regions there is a close link between the presence of excess water (due to lack of adequate drainage) and the transmission of water related vector-borne diseases. (fao.org)
  • Mosquitoes being vector for many tropical and subtropical diseases are the most important single group of insects well-known for their public health importance. (hindawi.com)
  • Vector-borne diseases are among the major causes of illness and death, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries. (prolekare.cz)
  • Some of the Bacillus toxins act as insect control agents and few are potential alternatives to chemical control because they can be innovative and more selective than chemical insecticides. (dipterajournal.com)
  • Operational vector control through bio- control or with insecticides near the end of the rice cultivation season in RFP may prove beneficial in reducing the density of Cx. (bvsalud.org)
  • The use of insecticides, however, presents a problem parallel to the use of antimicrobials-the chemical agents themselves frequently promote resistance among the vectors they are intended to control. (nap.edu)
  • The second approach to research involves resistance management- that is, developing and implementing control methods that minimize the likelihood that vectors will evolve strong resistance to important insecticides. (nap.edu)
  • Even though chemical vector program has been carried on for long time, these mosquito vectors remain because of repeated use of synthetic products, house hold spray, and insecticides for mosquito control. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers can access rare and unique research facilities to carry out their own experiments on insecticides or vector infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • These results demonstrated that some field strains of Aedes aegypti have developed relatively high resistance to various pyrethroid insecticides, especially fenvalerate, and therefore these insecticides are not recommended to control the vectors of dengue fever in Kaohsiung and Tainan. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Understanding the mechanisms by which insects (agricultural pests and mosquitoes) develop resistance to insecticides, aiming to develop new means of managing and overcoming this resistance. (aua.gr)
  • Tools for in vitro (such as recombinant detoxification enzymes) and in vivo (such as insect lines with defined resistance mutations and mechanisms) screening of novel insecticides and synergists (additives) are also developed. (aua.gr)
  • The use of insecticides around the world to control mosquitoes is regularly disputed, in particular because of the increasing resistance of these insects to products. (scitechnol.com)
  • Temephos, belongs to the family of organophosphate (OP) insecticides, used in the fight against immature mosquitoes vectors due to its cost-effectiveness and community acceptance [ 14 ]. (scitechnol.com)
  • However, the use of neurotoxic insecticides for vector control is not advised for use in such shelters as these chemicals can pose hazards to animals. (mdpi.com)
  • Relentless vector control efforts are performed to curtail disease transmissions through which pyrethroid insecticides are broadly used as the first line of defense to control Ae. (deepdyve.com)
  • As the induction of sex ratio biases is a central mode of action in many emerging molecular insecticides, it is imperative to elucidate as much of the sex determination pathway as possible in the mosquito disease vectors. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Vector control, through the use of insecticides, plays a key role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, and filariasis [1] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Blood feeding by free-living insect vectors of disease is rhythmic and can be used to predict when infectious bites will occur. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Most pathogen and parasite transmission by disease vectors occurs during peak feeding periods. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Most infections can only be transmitted by a particular, disease-specific vector, e.g., malaria by Anopheles mosquitoes. (fao.org)
  • Vectors and intermediate hosts represent critical elements in various disease transmission cycles of parasitic water related diseases. (fao.org)
  • New opportunities for researchers to work in top-level facilities on different disease vectors, including the sandfly (pictured) are also posted on the site. (pasteur.fr)
  • A new study published online in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases describes the appearance of a new protozoan infection carried by insects which causes symptoms that mimic the disease called visceral leishmaniasis, caused by a different parasite. (news-medical.net)
  • Undertaking research on host finding, feeding and the ecophysiological adaptations of arthropod vectors of disease, such as ticks, mosquitoes, testse flies, sand flies and triatomine bugs. (unine.ch)
  • Applied research to develop technologies and products to control arthropod disease vectors and moth plant pests. (unine.ch)
  • Little is known about the composition and function of the saliva in black flies such as Simulium guianense , the main vector of river blindness disease in Brazil. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Climate-related changes in habitats for disease-carrying insects like the mosquito found in the Midwest ( Culex pipiens and Culex tarsalis ) that transmits West Nile virus (WNV) and the blacklegged, or deer tick ( Ixodes scapularis ) that transmits Lyme disease have been associated with higher rates of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular diagnostics are being developed and used to study resistance dynamics and evolution of resistance in major disease vectors and agricultural pests, in order to inform Insecticide Resistance Management strategies. (aua.gr)
  • WHO Expert Committees have had a long interest in the potential transport of disease vectors by aircraft. (who.int)
  • Effective surveillance of tick and flea vectors is vital to determine the population present, whether they are carrying disease, and whether control campaigns are working. (sbir.gov)
  • Civilian and military organizations throughout the world perform surveillance to combat vector-borne disease. (sbir.gov)
  • Current methods of vector control can reduce dengue transmission, but even the most effective programmes seem unable to eliminate the disease. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Other important (but less studied) vector-borne diseases include leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, viral encephalitis, yellow fever, onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis [ 6 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • To find mosquito-specific proteins, the authors performed data mining and bioinformatic analyses of public genomic databases to identify protein-coding sequences that were restricted to the genomes of three of the most important vectors of human disease: Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquitoes. (eurekalert.org)
  • any of various small winged insects, many of which are blood-sucking and important vectors of disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chagas, a parasitic disease transmitted by Triatominae insects, so-called "kissing bugs. (paho.org)
  • Leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease transmitted by a variety of insects, present in 19 countries of the Americas. (paho.org)
  • Sub-objective 3.B: Identify potential Culicoides vectors of epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue. (usda.gov)
  • however these same characteristics may be targeted by control measures to limit pathogen spread or disease vector abundance. (usda.gov)
  • The common purpose of these projects is to understand key components of the host-pathogen-vector cycle to reduce or prevent pathogen transmission by the most common disease vectors: house flies, mosquitoes, and biting midges (Fig. 1). (usda.gov)
  • This plan aims to limit pathogen transmission by targeting the connections between hosts, vectors, and their environments via the insects' unique characteristics using novel disease control methods. (usda.gov)
  • Objective 3A, the first account of double-knockdown of gene expression in the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a collaborative effort between ARS and Kansas State University scientists, showed that this tool can be used to manipulate genes, and phenotypes, in these important disease vectors. (usda.gov)
  • Tom obtained a Dphil from the University of Oxford, MSc (Distinction) Biology and Control of Disease Vectors from LSHTM and BSc Biology from Imperial College. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Disease control failure, however, need not follow from vector control failure. (prolekare.cz)
  • Public health officials have feared that Culex mosquitoes could be involved in Zika transmission, something that would necessitate new strategies to combat the disease - which is blamed for an outbreak of the birth defect microcephaly. (houstonchronicle.com)
  • While infecting mosquitoes with disease-resistant bacteria shows promise for interrupting transmission of dengue and possibly of malaria, the opposite appears to be true for West Nile virus (WNV), in that the manipulation appears to render the insects more prone to WNV rather than less, researchers from Penn State University and elsewhere noted in a study published yesterday in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases . (umn.edu)
  • Abstract Laboratory tests of commercial repellent formulations were conducted against Anopheles farauti Laveran, Culex annulirostris Skuse, Ochlerotatus vigilax (Skuse) and Stegomyia aegypti (L.). The majority of repellent formulations tested contain N,N ,-diethyl- 3 -methylbenzamide (also known as diethyl- m -toluamide, commonly called deet). (wiley.com)
  • The free distribution of Insecticide-Treated Nets (ITN) and the implementation of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) as vector control methods against malaria have contributed to the great success of this program. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, successful implementation of these vector control strategies requires sound knowledge of vector distributions, biology and changing trends on susceptibility status to available insecticide compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, these chemical interventions are severely compromised by the development of insecticide resistance in some mosquito vectors and environmental concerns (6-8). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Exploring biotechnology based approaches for insect control and discovery of novel insecticide targets. (aua.gr)
  • Resistance to temephos insecticide was studied on Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected in three localities of Southern Tunisia. (scitechnol.com)
  • Insecticide Control of Vector-Borne Diseases: When Is Insecticide Resistance a Problem? (prolekare.cz)
  • Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors that survive the insecticide treatment. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here, we review evidence that insecticide resistance may have an impact on the quality of vectors and, specifically, on three key determinants of parasite transmission: vector longevity, competence, and behaviour. (prolekare.cz)
  • We argue that, in some instances, insecticide resistance is likely to result in a decrease in vector longevity, a decrease in infectiousness, or in a change in behaviour, all of which will reduce the vectorial capacity of the insect. (prolekare.cz)
  • What is the impact of insecticide resistance on the transmission of vector-borne diseases? (prolekare.cz)
  • St. Louis encephalitis is transmitted by Culex genus mosquitoes. (scielo.edu.uy)
  • Culex pipiens form pipiens and C.p. f. molestus are two members of the Culex pipiens assemblage and vectors of West Nile Virus throughout North America. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • The circadian clock of blood-feeding insects provides a mechanism whereby the timing of host-seeking can be synchronized with 1) host availability, 2) predator inactivity, and 3) suitable environmental conditions. (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • Insect growth regulators (IGRs) offer alternatives to conventional chemical larvicides that pose problem of resistance and environmental safety . (bvsalud.org)
  • There is more information on the resistance status to malaria vectors compared to Culicines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Research on resistance among vectors now takes two basic approaches. (nap.edu)
  • The next challenge will be to use this molecular understanding to develop novel vector-control methods that avoid or minimize resistance problems. (nap.edu)
  • The aim was to establish the possible contribution of oil spillage in the selection of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compiled results from field and laboratory research point out clear relationships between oil spillage and pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Direct pathogen transfer and the transmission by vectors and intermediate hosts require specific environmental and socio-economic conditions. (fao.org)
  • Identify factors associated with Flavivirus infections, pathogenesis, and maintenance in vectors and animal hosts to inform prevention and mitigation strategies. (usda.gov)
  • Yet data on the degree of contact between vectors and human hosts and how this differs according to land use type in the context of rapid anthropogenic environmental change are not well understood 14 . (nature.com)
  • Natural selection for increased Culex tarsalis mosquito fitness for various habitats and animal hosts has left genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) throughout the genome. (usda.gov)
  • Overall, the blood meal size, oviposition rate, fecundity and post-feeding survival of mosquito vectors were significantly higher after feeding on hosts free to exhibit behaviour, than those who were immobilized during feeding trials. (springermedizin.de)
  • Vectorial capacity refers to the ability of an intermediate (vector) host to transfer a pathogen between susceptible vertebrate hosts. (genetics.org)
  • health education and vector control efforts are extremely effective in preparedness for viral hemorrhagic fever and other seasonal outbreaks. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Through sampling insect vectors, VEM enables broad survey of viral diversity and has significantly increased our knowledge of the DNA viruses present in mosquitoes. (usf.edu)
  • The Culex pipiens , also known as the house mosquito, is also the most common vector for WNV transmission. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Also utilizing NGS data, we construct a full-length gene sequence for the dsx homolog of the northern house mosquito Culex pipiens form pipiens ( Cxpipdsx ). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Journal of Insect Physiology (2016) 95: 8-16. (unine.ch)
  • 2016. Oviposition of Culex tarsalis differs on water conditioned by potential fish and insect predators. (ucr.edu)
  • 2016. Large-volume gravid traps enhance collection of Culex vectors. (ucr.edu)
  • Mosquitoes are vectors for numerous devastating diseases, including malaria that is spread by Anopheles mosquitoes, and filariasis transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. (news-medical.net)
  • Lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic infection caused by worms and transmitted by Culex mosquitoes in the Americas. (paho.org)
  • To begin addressing this knowledge gap, we characterized microbiota associated with adult females of Culex nigripalpus mosquito vectors of Saint Louis Encephalitis and West Nile viruses sampled from three locations in Florida (Vero Beach, Palmetto Inland, and Palmetto Coast). (peerj.com)
  • This finding raises the question whether antiviral RNAi, which is triggered by the presence of dsRNA in insects, represents an effective host-defense mechanism against negative-strand RNA viruses. (pnas.org)
  • Recognized insect 'transmitters' tend to 'sequester' viruses inside their bodies/cells - and bugs are not on the list for transmitting Ebola in this way. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • This study utilized vector-enabled metagenomics (VEM) to provide a snapshot of the diversity of DNA viruses present in three mosquito samples from San Diego, California. (usf.edu)
  • The mosquito viromes contained sequences related to a broad range of animal, plant, insect and bacterial viruses. (usf.edu)
  • Numerous bacteriophages and insect viruses were also detected, including a novel densovirus likely infecting Culex erythrothorax . (usf.edu)
  • As a vector to many diseases, the mosquito is not sick but serves as a carrier of the viruses that will be injected into human through an exchange of blood which can be lethal. (cfroy.com)
  • Journal of Insect Physiology (2014) 71: 52-60. (unine.ch)
  • The most downloaded articles from Journal of Insect Physiology in the last 90 days. (elsevier.com)
  • Developmental and Hormonal Regulation of Juvenile Hormone Esterase Gene in Drosophila Melanogaster Journal of Insect Physiology. (jove.com)
  • Endophytic insects provide the textbook examples of herbivores that manipulate their host plant's physiology, putatively altering source/sink relationships by transferring cytokinins (CK) to create 'green islands' that increase the nutritional value of infested tissues. (elifesciences.org)
  • Simulium guianense appears to be the main vector in this focus [ 3 , 4 ], but its biology is not well studied. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mites and ticks have substantially different biology from, and are classed separately from, insects (the class Insecta). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vector Biology Journal. (scitechnol.com)
  • Mating insects infected with different strains of Wolbachia bacteria can also result in embryonic lethality 13 . (nature.com)
  • Novel Wolbachia strains in Anopheles malaria vectors from Sub-Saharan Africa. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Genome evolution of Wolbachia strain wPip from the Culex pipiens group. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Ankyrin repeat domain-encoding genes in the wPip strain of Wolbachia from the Culex pipiens group. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Wolbachia, a natural bacterium first identified in 1924 in Culex mosquitoes, could be used as a novel form of biological control by getting it into the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that spread dengue, Prof. Dash tells Asia Times. (atimes.com)
  • While Plasmodium is known to frequently express its virulence by partially castrating its mosquito vectors, the effects of Wolbachia infections on mosquito fecundity are, in contrast, highly variable. (cambridge.org)
  • It is a vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, avian malaria, and arboviruses including St. Louis encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Zika virus and West Nile virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aedes (in order notably to control the spread of Zika virus), Culex (the vector for filariasis) and Anopheles (the vector for malaria). (news-medical.net)
  • We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • RIO DE JANEIRO - Brazilian researchers said Thursday they have found Zika in Culex mosquitoes in the northeastern city of Recife in what could prove to be an important discovery. (houstonchronicle.com)
  • They found Zika-infected insects in three of these pools. (houstonchronicle.com)
  • He said that a study at the institution in Rio by researcher Ricardo Lourenço-de-Oliveira had so far failed to find Zika in around 750 Culex mosquitoes. (houstonchronicle.com)
  • Hotez was skeptical that Culex mosquitoes are going to start spreading Zika in a significant way. (houstonchronicle.com)
  • 2018 . Attraction of Culex pipiens to House Sparrows is influenced by host age but not uropygial gland secretions. (oberlin.edu)
  • 2018 . Attraction of Culex pipiens to uropygial gland secretions of American Robins. (oberlin.edu)
  • Insects represent the largest and most diverse group of organisms on Earth, including many crop pests. (elifesciences.org)
  • Holistic biotechnology based approaches using state-of the-art technologies (transcriptomics, proteomics, functional and cell based assays) are applied to enable the identification of potential molecular targets in insect pests and mosquitoes. (aua.gr)
  • The widespread planting of insect‐resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impacts on both target and non‐target pests. (usda.gov)
  • It is in this context that many are working to expand the arsenal of vector control tools to include novel genetic approaches and heritable bacterial endosymbionts. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This research defines the role of bacteria in fly development, bacterial persistence during microbe and insect interactions, and pathogen dissemination. (usda.gov)
  • In the southern U.S., it is the primary vector of St. Louis encephalitis virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In India and Southeast Asia, it is the primary vector of Wuchereria bancrofti, a nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Culex tarsalis is the primary vector in the U.S. (purdue.edu)
  • Like most flaviviruses, the WNV is maintained in a natural host-vector-host cycle, where the primary vector is the mosquito. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Introduced in 1826, it is the primary vector of Avian Malaria and Avian Pox, and is implicated in the decline and extinction of many native forest birds. (mauiforestbirds.org)
  • is crucial for the understanding of their vector-pathogen dynamics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings will improve the knowledge of their vector-pathogen dynamics in this country. (biomedcentral.com)
  • are additionally vectors of Sindbis virus and differ in vector competence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infravec2 is a European Union funded network supporting research on diseases spread by mosquitoes, other insects and ticks by developing and sharing resources. (pasteur.fr)
  • Washington, D.C., 7 April 2014 (PAHO/WHO) - Mosquitoes, ticks, flies and other insects can be far more than a nuisance. (paho.org)
  • As a result of these findings, research is underway to evaluate the plant extract's use as an insect repellent, with preliminary findings suggesting that it is a non-irritant to the skin of rats. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Wear long-sleeved clothing, apply insect repellent, and use window screens or bed nets as appropriate to reduce exposure to bites. (paho.org)
  • For example, Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), a Bunyavirus that is transmitted by Aedes and Culex mosquitoes, can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • An interesting feature of the sequences was a stretch of Ts that distinguished between Aedes and Culex on the one hand, and Anopheles on the other. (ias.ac.in)
  • In Malaysia , JEV activity has been first detected in Culex gelidus in 1976. (bvsalud.org)
  • gelidus and their potential insect predators, in relation to habitat /niche and rice growing period. (bvsalud.org)
  • Culex gelidus was abundant in RFP and almost absent in DCs. (bvsalud.org)
  • vagus , Culex gelidus , Cx. (mdpi.com)
  • Paired evaluations of the feeding success and fitness of African vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto in the presence and limitation of host behaviour were conducted in a semi-field system (SFS) at Ifakara Health Institute, Tanzania. (springermedizin.de)
  • In lowland areas of Malaysia, Plasmodium knowlesi infection is associated with land use change and high proportions of the vector Anopheles balabacensis . (nature.com)
  • The best reported examples are dormancy in plants and diapause in insects, but similar strategies have also evolved in microbes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Phytophagous insects can be categorized as either endophytic or free-living depending on the relationships that they establish with their host plant. (elifesciences.org)
  • Most plants contain compounds that they use in preventing attack from phytophagous (plant eating) insects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Jaenike J: Host specialization in phytophagous insects. (springermedizin.de)
  • Sequence analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene has been used for molecular taxonomy in many insects. (ias.ac.in)
  • In California Culex mosquitoes are considered to be the principle vect. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The present study evaluated the efficacy of pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth regulator, applied to polypropylene sheets and resting boxes on the reproductivity of mosquitoes found in animal shelters in Chiang Mai, Thailand. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, this parasite has been known only to infect insects so far. (news-medical.net)
  • Over the last few decades, from 1980 onwards, people have been observed to have leishmaniasis along with other protozoan infections that are more typically found in insects, such as the parasite Crithidia. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers found that the parasitic genome was quite unlike Leishmania but more like Crithidia fasciculata , another parasite which is known to infect only insects. (news-medical.net)
  • The authors call for research to find and identify more cases, learn about the parasite and which insects it infests, and develop new treatments. (news-medical.net)
  • This is because mosquitoes cannot survive the cool climate at these altitudes and the parasite (Avian Malaria) cannot develop in its vector. (mauiforestbirds.org)
  • Malaria, schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) and lymphatic filariasis are important water related vector-borne diseases. (fao.org)
  • an important vector of arboviruses in Australia. (wiley.com)
  • These fluctuations have important consequences for the transmission of vector-borne diseases. (prolekare.cz)
  • Above-ground Culex pipiens pipiens in London feed primarily on birds, mate openly in large swarms, and live seasonal lifestyles - lying dormant in warm, sheltered areas during the winter. (hubpages.com)
  • However, the incidence of WEE has increased with the expansion of irrigated agriculture that creates habitats conducive both to reservoir birds and vector mosquitoes. (purdue.edu)
  • However, without an effective vector, these diseases did not pose a threat to Hawai'i's native forest birds. (mauiforestbirds.org)
  • If possible, manage irrigation water to avoid creating flooded habitats that support Culex tarsalis larva. (purdue.edu)
  • The larva of Culex salinarius is completely described and illustrated, except for the mouth parts, and compared with the morphologically similar larva of Cx. (bioone.org)
  • Therefore, it is of great interest to study the interaction of negative-strand RNA arboviruses with their insect host. (pnas.org)