A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).
Fever accompanied by a significant reduction in the number of NEUTROPHILS.
FEVER accompanied by a significant reduction in NEUTROPHIL count associated with CHEMOTHERAPY.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Deoxycytidine is a nucleoside consisting of the pentose sugar deoxyribose linked to the nitrogenous base cytosine, which plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair processes within cells.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A rare complication of rheumatoid arthritis with autoimmune NEUTROPENIA; and SPLENOMEGALY.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal pathogens that can infect various tissues and organs, potentially leading to localized or systemic symptoms, depending on the immune status of the host.
Leukopenia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low white blood cell count (less than 4,000 cells per microliter of blood) in peripheral blood, increasing the risk of infection due to decreased immune defense.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Receptors that bind and internalize GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR. Their MW is believed to be 150 kD. These receptors are found mainly on a subset of myelomonocytic cells.
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
Fever in which the etiology cannot be ascertained.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Antagonist of urate oxidase.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Bone marrow diseases, also known as hematologic or blood disorders, refer to conditions that affect the production and function of blood cells within the bone marrow, such as leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, and aplastic anemia, potentially leading to complications like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and increased susceptibility to infections or bleeding.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
Rare congenital X-linked disorder of lipid metabolism. Barth syndrome is transmitted in an X-linked recessive pattern. The syndrome is characterized by muscular weakness, growth retardation, DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY, variable NEUTROPENIA, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (type II) and decreases in mitochondrial CARDIOLIPIN level. Other biochemical and morphological mitochondrial abnormalities also exist.
A piperidinyl isoindole originally introduced as a non-barbiturate hypnotic, but withdrawn from the market due to teratogenic effects. It has been reintroduced and used for a number of immunological and inflammatory disorders. Thalidomide displays immunosuppressive and anti-angiogenic activity. It inhibits release of TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA from monocytes, and modulates other cytokine action.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Guanine is a purine nucleobase, one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA and RNA, involved in forming hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs in double-stranded DNA molecules.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Excess of normal lymphocytes in the blood or in any effusion.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
Glycoproteins found in a subfraction of normal mammalian plasma and urine. They stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow cells in agar cultures and the formation of colonies of granulocytes and/or macrophages. The factors include INTERLEUKIN-3; (IL-3); GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (G-CSF); MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (M-CSF); and GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR; (GM-CSF).
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Formation of MYELOID CELLS from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW via MYELOID STEM CELLS. Myelopoiesis generally refers to the production of leukocytes in blood, such as MONOCYTES and GRANULOCYTES. This process also produces precursor cells for MACROPHAGE and DENDRITIC CELLS found in the lymphoid tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An autosomal recessive syndrome occurring principally in females, characterized by the presence of reticulated, atrophic, hyperpigmented, telangiectatic cutaneous plaques, often accompanied by juvenile cataracts, saddle nose, congenital bone defects, disturbances in the growth of HAIR; NAILS; and TEETH; and HYPOGONADISM.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
A spectrum of disorders characterized by clonal expansions of the peripheral blood LYMPHOCYTE populations known as large granular lymphocytes which contain abundant cytoplasm and azurophilic granules. Subtypes develop from either CD3-negative NATURAL KILLER CELLS or CD3-positive T-CELLS. The clinical course of both subtypes can vary from spontaneous regression to progressive, malignant disease.
Clinical sign or symptom manifested as debility, or lack or loss of strength and energy.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from KANAMYCIN. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Compounds that inhibit the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASE I.
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency and fluorouracil-related toxicity. (1/2974)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) catabolism. We report lymphocytic DPD data concerning a group of 53 patients (23 men, 30 women, mean age 58, range 36-73), treated by 5-FU-based chemotherapy in different French institutions and who developed unanticipated 5-FU-related toxicity. Lymphocyte samples (standard collection procedure) were sent to us for DPD determination (biochemical method). Among the whole group of 53 patients, 19 had a significant DPD deficiency (DD; below 150 fmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, i.e. less than 70% of the mean value observed from previous population study). There was a greater majority of women in the DD group (15 out of 19, 79%) compared with the remaining 34 patients (15 out of 34, 44%, P<0.014). Toxicity was often severe, leading to patient death in two cases (both women). The toxicity score (sum of WHO grading, theoretical range 0-20) was twice as high in patients with marked DD (below 100 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 11, mean score = 13.2) compared with patients with moderate DD (between 150 and 100 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, n = 8, mean score = 6.8), P = 0.008. In the DD group, there was a high frequency of neurotoxic syndromes (7 out of 19, 37%). The two deceased patients both had severe neurotoxicity. The occurrence of cardiac toxicity was relatively rare (1 out of 19, 5%). These data suggest that women are particularly prone to DPD deficiency and allow a more precise definition of the DD toxicity profile.  (+info)

Itraconazole oral solution as prophylaxis for fungal infections in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial. GIMEMA Infection Program. Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell' Adulto. (2/2974)

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution for preventing fungal infections, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial was conducted: 405 neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies were randomly assigned to receive either itraconazole, 2.5 mg/kg every 12 hours (201 patients), or placebo (204 patients). Proven and suspected deep fungal infection occurred in 24% of itraconazole recipients and in 33% of placebo recipients, a difference of 9 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6% to 22.5%; P = .035). Fungemia due to Candida species was documented in 0.5% of itraconazole recipients and in 4% of placebo recipients, a difference of 3.5 percentage points (95% CI, 0.5% to 6%; P = .01). Deaths due to candidemia occurred in none of the itraconazole recipients compared with 4 placebo recipients, a difference of 2 percentage points (95% CI, 0.05% to 4%; P = .06). Aspergillus infection was documented in four itraconazole recipients (one death) and one placebo recipient (one death). Side effects causing drug interruption occurred in 18% of itraconazole recipients and 13% of placebo recipients. Itraconazole oral solution was well-tolerated and effectively prevented proven and suspected deep fungal infection as well as systemic infection and death due to Candida species.  (+info)

Randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole prophylaxis for neutropenic cancer patients: benefit based on purpose and intensity of cytotoxic therapy. The Canadian Fluconazole Prophylaxis Study Group. (3/2974)

A randomized, double-blind trial comparing oral fluconazole (400 mg daily) with placebo as prophylaxis for adult patients receiving intensive cytotoxic therapy for acute leukemia or autologous bone marrow transplantation was conducted in 14 Canadian university-affiliated hospitals. Although fluconazole prophylaxis did not obviate the need for parenteral antifungal therapy compared with placebo (81 [57%] of 141 vs. 67 [50%] of 133, respectively), its use resulted in fewer superficial fungal infections (10 [7%] of 141 vs. 23 [18%] of 131, respectively; P = .02) and fewer definite and probable invasive fungal infections (9 vs. 32, respectively; P = .0001). Fluconazole recipients had fewer deaths attributable to definite invasive fungal infection (1 of 15 vs. 6 of 15, respectively; P = .04) and achieved more frequent success without fungal colonization (52 [37%] of 141 vs. 27 [20%] of 133, respectively; P = .004; relative risk reduction, 85%) than did placebo recipients. Patients benefiting the most from fluconazole prophylaxis included those with acute myeloid leukemia who were undergoing induction therapy with cytarabine plus anthracycline-based regimens and those receiving marrow autografts not supported with hematopoietic growth factors. Fluconazole prophylaxis reduces the incidence of superficial fungal infection and invasive fungal infection and fungal infection-related mortality among patients who are receiving intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy for remission induction.  (+info)

The evolution of antibiotic therapy for neutropenic patients. (4/2974)

Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of infections in neutropenic patients during the past three decades. A major contribution to this progress has been the discovery of effective new therapies and their prompt administration. Unfortunately, successful therapy of each important pathogen has resulted in the emergence of new pathogens, usually with unique patterns of antibiotic susceptibility. Unfortunately, antibiotic resistance has become an increasing threat in recent years, raising the possibility of infections that will be difficult to eradicate. Fortunately, there are new classes of antimicrobials that hold promise for therapeutic success in the future.  (+info)

Protein kinase C mediates experimental colitis in the rat. (5/2974)

Protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in the cell signal transduction of many physiological processes. In contrast to these physiological responses, increases in PKC activity have also been associated with inflammatory disease states, including ulcerative colitis. The objective of this study was to examine the role of PKC as a causative mediator in initiation of experimentally induced colitis in the rat. Colitis was induced in rats by intrarectal (0.6 ml) instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS; 75 mg/kg in 50% ethanol) or the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 1.5-3.0 mg/kg in 20% ethanol). Gross and histological mucosal damage, mucosal neutrophil infiltration, mucosal PKC activity, and PKC protein content for PKC isoforms alpha, beta, delta, and epsilon were assessed 2 h to 14 days after an inflammatory challenge. Both PKC activity and mucosal injury increased significantly within 4 h of TNBS treatment. PKC activity was maximal at 7 days and declined at 14 days, whereas mucosal damage became maximal at 1 day and declined after 7 days. In contrast, neutrophil infiltration as assessed by myeloperoxidase activity only increased 12 h after TNBS treatment, became maximal 1 day after TNBS administration, and declined thereafter. PKCbeta, -delta, and -epsilon were increased in response to TNBS, whereas PKCalpha protein content was decreased. The PKC antagonists staurosporine and GF-109203X (25 ng/kg iv) reduced TNBS-induced changes in mucosal PKC activity and the degree of mucosal damage. In contrast, neutropenia induced by antineutrophil serum treatment did not significantly affect the degree of injury or mucosal PKC activity. Furthermore, activation of mucosal PKC activity with PMA also induced mucosal damage, which was also inhibited by pretreatment with a PKC antagonist. In conclusion, these results suggest that increases in PKC activity play a causative role in TNBS-induced colitis. The PKC-mediated response to TNBS does not appear to involve neutrophil infiltration.  (+info)

A phase I study of the lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor Thymitaq (nolatrexed dihydrochloride) given by 10-day oral administration. (6/2974)

2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxo-5-(4-pyridylthio)-quinazoline dihydrochloride (nolatrexed dihydrochloride, Thymitaq, AG337), a specific inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, was developed using protein structure-based drug design. Intravenously administered nolatrexed is active clinically. As oral bioavailability is high (70-100%), nolatrexed was administered orally, 6 hourly for 10 days, at 3-week intervals, and dose escalated from 80 to 572 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 23 patients. Common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 3 toxicities included nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia (grade 1 or 2) occurred at doses > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) and neutropenia (grade 2) at 429 and 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). An erythematous maculopapular rash occurred at dosages > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) (7 out of 19 patients). LFT abnormalities occurred in two out of six patients (grade 3 or 4 bilirubin and grade 3 alanine transaminase) at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nolatrexed plasma concentrations 1 h after dosing were 6-16 microg ml(-1), and trough 3-8 microg ml(-1), at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Inhibition of thymidylate synthase was demonstrated by elevation of plasma deoxyuridine. Six-hourly oral nolatrexed for 10 days was associated with antiproliferative effects, but nausea and vomiting was dose limiting at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nine patients were treated at 429 mg m(-2) day(-1); three out of nine experienced grade 3 nausea, but 17 out of 22 treatment courses were completed (with the co-administration of prophylactic antiemetics) and this dose level could be considered for phase II testing.  (+info)

Phase I and pharmacologic study of the combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and topotecan administered intravenously every 21 days as first-line therapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. (7/2974)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of administering topotecan in combination with paclitaxel and cisplatin without and with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) support as first-line chemotherapy in women with incompletely resected stage III and stage IV ovarian carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Starting doses were paclitaxel 110 mg/m2 administered over 24 hours (day 1), followed by cisplatin 50 mg/m2 over 3 hours (day 2) and topotecan 0.3 mg/m2/d over 30 minutes for 5 consecutive days (days 2 to 6). Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks. After encountering dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) without G-CSF support, the maximum-tolerated dose was defined as 5 microg/kg of G-CSF subcutaneously starting on day 6. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients received a total of 116 courses at four different dose levels. The DLT was neutropenia. At the first dose level, all six patients experienced grade 4 myelosuppression. G-CSF support permitted further dose escalation of cisplatin and topotecan. Nonhematologic toxicities, primarily fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and neurosensory neuropathy, were observed but were generally mild. Of 15 patients assessable for response, nine had a complete response, four achieved a partial response, and two had stable disease. CONCLUSION: Neutropenia was the DLT of this combination of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and topotecan. The recommended phase II dose is paclitaxel 110 mg/m2 (day 1), followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 (day 2) and topotecan 0.3 mg/m2/d (days 2 to 6) with G-CSF support repeated every 3 weeks.  (+info)

Pneumonia in febrile neutropenic patients and in bone marrow and blood stem-cell transplant recipients: use of high-resolution computed tomography. (8/2974)

PURPOSE: To obtain statistical data on the use of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for early detection of pneumonia in febrile neutropenic patients with unknown focus of infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight HRCT studies were performed prospectively in 112 neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin persisting for more than 48 hours despite empiric antibiotic treatment. Fifty-four of these studies were performed in transplant recipients. All patients had normal chest roentgenograms. If pneumonia was detected by HRCT, guided bronchoalveolar lavage was recommended. Evidence of pneumonia on chest roentgenograms during follow-up and micro-organisms detected during follow-up were regarded as documentation of pneumonia. RESULTS: Of the 188 HRCT studies, 112 (60%) showed pneumonia and 76 were normal. Documentation of pneumonia was possible in 61 cases by chest roentgenography or micro-organism detection (54%) (P < 10(-6)). Sensitivity of HRCT was 87% (88% in transplant recipients), specificity was 57% (67%), and the negative predictive value was 88% (97%). A time gain of 5 days was achieved by the additional use of HRCT compared to an exclusive use of chest roentgenography. CONCLUSION: The high frequency of inflammatory pulmonary disease after a suspicious HRCT scan (> 50%) proves that pneumonia is not excluded by a normal chest roentgenogram. Given the significantly longer duration of febrile episodes in transplant recipients, HRCT findings are particularly relevant in this subgroup. Patients with normal HRCT scans, particularly transplant recipients, have a low risk of pneumonia during follow-up. All neutropenic patients with fever of unknown origin and normal chest roentgenograms should undergo HRCT.  (+info)

Neutropenia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low concentration (less than 1500 cells/mm3) of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in fighting off bacterial and fungal infections. Neutrophils are essential components of the innate immune system, and their main function is to engulf and destroy microorganisms that can cause harm to the body.

Neutropenia can be classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the severity of the neutrophil count reduction:

* Mild neutropenia: Neutrophil count between 1000-1500 cells/mm3
* Moderate neutropenia: Neutrophil count between 500-1000 cells/mm3
* Severe neutropenia: Neutrophil count below 500 cells/mm3

Severe neutropenia significantly increases the risk of developing infections, as the body's ability to fight off microorganisms is severely compromised. Common causes of neutropenia include viral infections, certain medications (such as chemotherapy or antibiotics), autoimmune disorders, and congenital conditions affecting bone marrow function. Treatment for neutropenia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, administering granulocyte-colony stimulating factors to boost neutrophil production, and providing appropriate antimicrobial therapy to prevent or treat infections.

Agranulocytosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low concentration of granulocytes (a type of white blood cells) in the peripheral blood. Granulocytes, which include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils, play a crucial role in the body's defense against infections. A significant reduction in their numbers can make an individual highly susceptible to various bacterial and fungal infections.

The condition is typically defined as having fewer than 150 granulocytes per microliter of blood or less than 1% of the total white blood cell count. Symptoms of agranulocytosis may include fever, fatigue, sore throat, mouth ulcers, and susceptibility to infections. The condition can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, medical treatments (such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy), autoimmune disorders, and congenital conditions. Immediate medical attention is required for individuals diagnosed with agranulocytosis to prevent and treat potential infections and restore the normal granulocyte count.

Febrile neutropenia is a medical condition characterized by a fever (temperature over 101°F or 38.3°C) and a low count of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that helps fight infections. Neutropenia is defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of less than 1500 cells/mm3, but in the case of febrile neutropenia, the ANC is typically less than 500 cells/mm3 or is expected to fall below this level. This condition is often a complication of chemotherapy or radiation therapy used to treat cancer, as these treatments can suppress the immune system and lead to a decrease in white blood cell counts. Febrile neutropenia increases the risk of developing severe and potentially life-threatening infections.

Chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia is a medical condition that can occur as a complication of chemotherapy treatment for cancer. The term "febrile" refers to fever, which is a body temperature greater than 100.4°F (38°C). "Neutropenia" is a low level of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that helps fight infections.

Chemotherapy drugs work by targeting and killing rapidly dividing cells, including cancer cells. However, these drugs can also damage other rapidly dividing cells in the body, such as those found in the bone marrow where blood cells are produced. This can lead to a decrease in the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets in the blood.

Febrile neutropenia occurs when the number of neutrophils in the blood is very low (less than 500 cells per microliter), and a fever is present. This combination of factors puts the patient at increased risk for developing severe and potentially life-threatening infections.

Symptoms of febrile neutropenia may include fever, chills, fatigue, muscle aches, headache, and signs of infection such as redness, swelling, or pus at the site of a wound or catheter. Treatment typically involves administering antibiotics to treat any potential infections, as well as supportive care such as fluids and blood transfusions to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, the chemotherapy treatment may need to be modified or delayed until the neutropenia resolves.

Fever, also known as pyrexia or febrile response, is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation in core body temperature above the normal range of 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) due to a dysregulation of the body's thermoregulatory system. It is often a response to an infection, inflammation, or other underlying medical conditions, and it serves as a part of the immune system's effort to combat the invading pathogens or to repair damaged tissues.

Fevers can be classified based on their magnitude:

* Low-grade fever: 37.5-38°C (99.5-100.4°F)
* Moderate fever: 38-39°C (100.4-102.2°F)
* High-grade or severe fever: above 39°C (102.2°F)

It is important to note that a single elevated temperature reading does not necessarily indicate the presence of a fever, as body temperature can fluctuate throughout the day and can be influenced by various factors such as physical activity, environmental conditions, and the menstrual cycle in females. The diagnosis of fever typically requires the confirmation of an elevated core body temperature on at least two occasions or a consistently high temperature over a period of time.

While fevers are generally considered beneficial in fighting off infections and promoting recovery, extremely high temperatures or prolonged febrile states may necessitate medical intervention to prevent potential complications such as dehydration, seizures, or damage to vital organs.

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is a type of growth factor that specifically stimulates the production and survival of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell crucial for fighting off infections. G-CSF works by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into mature granulocytes, primarily neutrophils, in the bone marrow.

Recombinant forms of G-CSF are used clinically as a medication to boost white blood cell production in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer, those with congenital neutropenia, and those who have had a bone marrow transplant. By increasing the number of circulating neutrophils, G-CSF helps reduce the risk of severe infections during periods of intense immune suppression.

Examples of recombinant G-CSF medications include filgrastim (Neupogen), pegfilgrastim (Neulasta), and lipegfilgrastim (Lonquex).

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Taxoids are a class of naturally occurring compounds that are derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia) and other species of the genus Taxus. They are known for their antineoplastic (cancer-fighting) properties and have been used in chemotherapy to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, breast, and lung cancer.

The most well-known taxoid is paclitaxel (also known by the brand name Taxol), which was first discovered in the 1960s and has since become a widely used cancer drug. Paclitaxel works by stabilizing microtubules, which are important components of the cell's skeleton, and preventing them from disassembling. This disrupts the normal function of the cell's mitotic spindle, leading to cell cycle arrest and ultimately apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Other taxoids that have been developed for clinical use include docetaxel (Taxotere), which is a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel, and cabazitaxel (Jevtana), which is a second-generation taxoid. These drugs have similar mechanisms of action to paclitaxel but may have different pharmacokinetic properties or be effective against cancer cells that have developed resistance to other taxoids.

While taxoids have been successful in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including neutropenia (low white blood cell count), anemia (low red blood cell count), and peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage). As with all chemotherapy drugs, the use of taxoids must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia). It is an antimicrotubule agent that promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules, thereby interfering with the normal dynamic reorganization of the microtubule network that is essential for cell division.

Paclitaxel is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including ovarian, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. It works by inhibiting the disassembly of microtubules, which prevents the separation of chromosomes during mitosis, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Common side effects of paclitaxel include neutropenia (low white blood cell count), anemia (low red blood cell count), alopecia (hair loss), peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage causing numbness or tingling in the hands and feet), myalgias (muscle pain), arthralgias (joint pain), and hypersensitivity reactions.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Camptothecin is a topoisomerase I inhibitor, which is a type of chemotherapeutic agent used in cancer treatment. It works by interfering with the function of an enzyme called topoisomerase I, which helps to uncoil DNA during cell division. By inhibiting this enzyme, camptothecin prevents the cancer cells from dividing and growing, ultimately leading to their death.

Camptothecin is found naturally in the bark and stem of the Camptotheca acuminata tree, also known as the "happy tree," which is native to China. It was first isolated in 1966 and has since been developed into several synthetic derivatives, including irinotecan and topotecan, which are used clinically to treat various types of cancer, such as colon, lung, and ovarian cancers.

Like other chemotherapeutic agents, camptothecin can have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). It is important for patients receiving camptothecin-based therapies to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects effectively.

Thrombocytopenia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low platelet count (thrombocytes) in the blood. Platelets are small cell fragments that play a crucial role in blood clotting, helping to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged. A healthy adult typically has a platelet count between 150,000 and 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. Thrombocytopenia is usually diagnosed when the platelet count falls below 150,000 platelets/µL.

Thrombocytopenia can be classified into three main categories based on its underlying cause:

1. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP): An autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys its own platelets, leading to a decreased platelet count. ITP can be further divided into primary or secondary forms, depending on whether it occurs alone or as a result of another medical condition or medication.
2. Decreased production: Thrombocytopenia can occur when there is insufficient production of platelets in the bone marrow due to various causes, such as viral infections, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, leukemia, aplastic anemia, or vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.
3. Increased destruction or consumption: Thrombocytopenia can also result from increased platelet destruction or consumption due to conditions like disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), or severe bacterial infections.

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, prolonged bleeding from cuts, spontaneous nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood in urine or stools, and skin rashes like petechiae (small red or purple spots) or purpura (larger patches). The severity of symptoms can vary depending on the degree of thrombocytopenia and the presence of any underlying conditions. Treatment for thrombocytopenia depends on the cause and may include medications, transfusions, or addressing the underlying condition.

The Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) is a term used in medical research, particularly in clinical trials of new drugs or treatments. It refers to the highest dose of a medication or treatment that can be given without causing unacceptable or severe side effects or toxicity to the patient.

Determining the MTD is an important step in developing new medications, as it helps researchers establish a safe and effective dosage range for future use. This process typically involves gradually increasing the dose in a group of subjects (often healthy volunteers in early phase trials) until intolerable side effects occur, at which point the previous dose is considered the MTD.

It's important to note that the MTD may vary between individuals and populations, depending on factors such as age, sex, genetic makeup, and overall health status. Therefore, individualized dosing strategies may be necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment with new medications.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

A leukocyte count, also known as a white blood cell (WBC) count, is a laboratory test that measures the number of leukocytes in a sample of blood. Leukocytes are a vital part of the body's immune system and help fight infection and inflammation. A high or low leukocyte count may indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder. The normal range for a leukocyte count in adults is typically between 4,500 and 11,000 cells per microliter (mcL) of blood. However, the normal range can vary slightly depending on the laboratory and the individual's age and sex.

Deoxycytidine is a chemical compound that is a component of DNA, one of the nucleic acids in living organisms. It is a nucleoside, consisting of the sugar deoxyribose and the base cytosine. Deoxycytidine pairs with guanine via hydrogen bonds to form base pairs in the double helix structure of DNA.

In biochemistry, deoxycytidine can also exist as a free nucleoside, not bound to other molecules. It is involved in various cellular processes related to DNA metabolism and replication. Deoxycytidine can be phosphorylated to form deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP), which is an important intermediate in the synthesis of DNA.

It's worth noting that while deoxycytidine is a component of DNA, its counterpart in RNA is cytidine, which contains ribose instead of deoxyribose as the sugar component.

Antineoplastic agents, phytogenic, also known as plant-derived anticancer drugs, are medications that are derived from plants and used to treat cancer. These agents have natural origins and work by interfering with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells, helping to slow or stop the spread of the disease. Some examples of antineoplastic agents, phytogenic include paclitaxel (Taxol), vincristine, vinblastine, and etoposide. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments such as surgery, radiation therapy, and other medications to provide a comprehensive approach to cancer care.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

Felty syndrome is a rare complication that can occur in people with long-standing chronic inflammatory arthritis, specifically those with rheumatoid arthritis. It is characterized by the triad of rheumatoid arthritis, an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), and a decrease in white blood cell count (neutropenia). The neutropenia can lead to an increased risk of infections. Additionally, some people with Felty syndrome may also develop other symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, fever, and a purple rash on the legs (purpura).

The exact cause of Felty syndrome is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in people with rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment typically involves medications to manage the symptoms and control the underlying rheumatoid arthritis, such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and/or immunosuppressive therapies. In some cases, removal of the spleen (splenectomy) may be recommended to help improve the neutropenia and reduce the risk of infections.

Leukocyte elastase is a type of enzyme that is released by white blood cells (leukocytes), specifically neutrophils, during inflammation. Its primary function is to help fight infection by breaking down the proteins in bacteria and viruses. However, if not properly regulated, leukocyte elastase can also damage surrounding tissues, contributing to the progression of various diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and cystic fibrosis.

Leukocyte elastase is often measured in clinical settings as a marker of inflammation and neutrophil activation, particularly in patients with lung diseases. Inhibitors of leukocyte elastase have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for these conditions.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream where they circulate and are able to move quickly to sites of infection or inflammation in the body. Neutrophils are capable of engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis. They are also involved in the release of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to tissue damage in some cases. Neutrophils are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, which contain enzymes and other proteins that help them carry out their immune functions.

Fluorouracil is a antineoplastic medication, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug known as an antimetabolite. Fluorouracil works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells and ultimately killing them. It is often used to treat colon, esophageal, stomach, and breast cancers, as well as skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Fluorouracil may be given by injection or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream.

It is important to note that fluorouracil can have serious side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function, mouth sores, stomach and intestinal ulcers, and nerve damage. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, lungs, and internal organs. The severity of mycoses can range from superficial, mild infections to systemic, life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of fungus and the immune status of the infected individual. Some common types of mycoses include candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be topical or systemic, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

Leukopenia is a medical term used to describe an abnormally low white blood cell (WBC) count in the blood. White blood cells are crucial components of the body's immune system, helping to fight infections and diseases. A normal WBC count ranges from 4,500 to 11,000 cells per microliter (μL) of blood in most laboratories. Leukopenia is typically diagnosed when the WBC count falls below 4,500 cells/μL.

There are several types of white blood cells, including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutropenia, a specific type of leukopenia, refers to an abnormally low neutrophil count (less than 1,500 cells/μL). Neutropenia increases the risk of bacterial and fungal infections since neutrophils play a significant role in combating these types of pathogens.

Leukopenia can result from various factors, such as viral infections, certain medications (like chemotherapy or radiation therapy), bone marrow disorders, autoimmune diseases, or congenital conditions affecting white blood cell production. It is essential to identify the underlying cause of leukopenia to provide appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

Vinblastine is an alkaloid derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus) and is primarily used in cancer chemotherapy. It is classified as a vinca alkaloid, along with vincristine, vinorelbine, and others.

Medically, vinblastine is an antimicrotubule agent that binds to tubulin, a protein involved in the formation of microtubules during cell division. By binding to tubulin, vinblastine prevents the assembly of microtubules, which are essential for mitosis (cell division). This leads to the inhibition of cell division and ultimately results in the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells.

Vinblastine is used to treat various types of cancers, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, breast cancer, and others. It is often administered intravenously in a healthcare setting and may be given as part of a combination chemotherapy regimen with other anticancer drugs.

As with any medication, vinblastine can have side effects, including bone marrow suppression (leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding), neurotoxicity (resulting in peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and jaw pain), nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and mouth sores. Regular monitoring by a healthcare professional is necessary during vinblastine treatment to manage side effects and ensure the safe and effective use of this medication.

Hematologic diseases, also known as hematological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the production, function, or destruction of blood cells or blood-related components, such as plasma. These diseases can affect erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets (thrombocytes), as well as clotting factors and hemoglobin.

Hematologic diseases can be broadly categorized into three main types:

1. Anemia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, or hematocrit, leading to insufficient oxygen transport to tissues and organs. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, and aplastic anemia.
2. Leukemia and other disorders of white blood cells: These conditions involve the abnormal production or function of leukocytes, which can lead to impaired immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. Examples include leukemias (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia), lymphomas, and myelodysplastic syndromes.
3. Platelet and clotting disorders: These diseases affect the production or function of platelets and clotting factors, leading to abnormal bleeding or clotting tendencies. Examples include hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Hematologic diseases can have various causes, including genetic defects, infections, autoimmune processes, environmental factors, or malignancies. Proper diagnosis and management of these conditions often require the expertise of hematologists, who specialize in diagnosing and treating disorders related to blood and its components.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptors are specialized protein structures found on the surface of certain types of white blood cells, specifically neutrophils, as well as their precursor cells in the bone marrow. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating the production, differentiation, and function of these important immune cells.

G-CSF is a hormone-like growth factor that is produced by various cells in the body, including monocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. When G-CSF binds to its receptor on the surface of a neutrophil or precursor cell, it activates a series of intracellular signaling pathways that promote the proliferation and differentiation of these cells. This leads to an increase in the number of mature neutrophils available to fight infection and help maintain immune surveillance.

G-CSF receptors are members of the cytokine receptor superfamily, which includes a variety of receptors that bind to different types of growth factors and hormones. The G-CSF receptor is composed of two subunits, an alpha subunit that binds to G-CSF and a beta subunit that is shared with other cytokine receptors. When G-CSF binds to the alpha subunit, it induces a conformational change that allows the beta subunit to activate intracellular signaling pathways, including the JAK/STAT and MAPK pathways.

In addition to their role in regulating neutrophil production and function, G-CSF receptors have also been implicated in a variety of other physiological processes, including hematopoiesis, inflammation, and tissue repair. Dysregulation of the G-CSF signaling pathway has been associated with various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and bone marrow failure syndromes.

Carboplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including ovarian, lung, and head and neck cancer. It is a platinum-containing compound that works by forming crosslinks in DNA, which leads to the death of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells. Carboplatin is often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs and is administered intravenously.

The medical definition of Carboplatin is:

"A platinum-containing antineoplastic agent that forms crosslinks with DNA, inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. It is used to treat a variety of cancers, including ovarian, lung, and head and neck cancer."

Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO) is a medical condition defined as a fever that remains undiagnosed after one week of inpatient evaluation or three days of outpatient evaluation, with temperatures repeatedly measuring at or above 38.3°C (101°F). The fevers can be continuous or intermittent and are often associated with symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, and general malaise.

The causes of FUO can be broadly categorized into four groups: infections, inflammatory diseases, neoplasms (cancers), and miscellaneous conditions. Infections account for a significant proportion of cases, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Other possible causes include connective tissue disorders, vasculitides, drug reactions, and factitious fever.

The diagnostic approach to FUO involves a thorough history and physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. The goal is to identify the underlying cause of the fever and provide appropriate treatment. In some cases, despite extensive evaluation, the cause may remain undiagnosed, and management focuses on supportive care and monitoring for any new symptoms or complications.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Doxorubicin is a type of chemotherapy medication known as an anthracycline. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from growing and multiplying. Doxorubicin is used to treat a wide variety of cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and many others. It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Doxorubicin is usually administered through a vein (intravenously) and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to heart failure in some cases. For this reason, doctors may monitor patients' heart function closely while they are receiving doxorubicin treatment.

It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of doxorubicin therapy with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. This helps to stop the spread of cancer in the body. Cyclophosphamide is used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, multiple myeloma, and breast cancer. It can be given orally as a tablet or intravenously as an injection.

Cyclophosphamide can also have immunosuppressive effects, which means it can suppress the activity of the immune system. This makes it useful in treating certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. However, this immunosuppression can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects.

Like all chemotherapy medications, cyclophosphamide can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and increased susceptibility to infections. It is important for patients receiving cyclophosphamide to be closely monitored by their healthcare team to manage these side effects and ensure the medication is working effectively.

Organoplatinum compounds are a group of chemical substances that contain at least one carbon-platinum bond. These compounds have been widely studied and used in the field of medicine, particularly in cancer chemotherapy. The most well-known organoplatinum compound is cisplatin, which is a platinum-based drug used to treat various types of cancers such as testicular, ovarian, bladder, and lung cancers. Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks with the DNA of cancer cells, disrupting their ability to replicate and ultimately leading to cell death. Other examples of organoplatinum compounds used in cancer treatment include carboplatin and oxaliplatin.

Leucovorin is the pharmaceutical name for a form of folic acid, also known as folinic acid. It is used in medicine as a medication to reduce the toxic effects of certain chemotherapy drugs, such as methotrexate, that work by blocking the action of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin is able to bypass this blockage and restore some of the necessary functions of folic acid, helping to prevent or reduce the severity of side effects like nausea, vomiting, and damage to the mucous membranes.

Leucovorin may also be used in combination with fluorouracil chemotherapy to enhance its effectiveness in treating certain types of cancer. It is important to note that leucovorin should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can interact with other medications and have potentially serious side effects if not used properly.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

Opportunistic infections (OIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in individuals with weakened immune systems, often due to a underlying condition such as HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation. These infections are caused by microorganisms that do not normally cause disease in people with healthy immune function, but can take advantage of an opportunity to infect and cause damage when the body's defense mechanisms are compromised. Examples of opportunistic infections include Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, candidiasis (thrush), and cytomegalovirus infection. Preventive measures, such as antimicrobial medications and vaccinations, play a crucial role in reducing the risk of opportunistic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

Topotecan is a chemotherapeutic agent, specifically a topoisomerase I inhibitor. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of camptothecin and works by interfering with the function of topoisomerase I, an enzyme that helps to relax supercoiled DNA during transcription and replication. By inhibiting this enzyme, topotecan causes DNA damage and apoptosis (programmed cell death) in rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells. It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including small cell lung cancer and ovarian cancer.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Hematologic neoplasms, also known as hematological malignancies, are a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal blood cells or bone marrow cells. These disorders can originate from the myeloid or lymphoid cell lines, which give rise to various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Hematologic neoplasms can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Leukemias: These are cancers that primarily affect the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues. They result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, which interfere with the normal functioning of the blood and immune system. There are several types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers that develop from the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system responsible for fighting infections. Lymphomas can affect lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
3. Myelomas: These are cancers that arise from the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. Multiple myeloma is the most common type of myeloma, characterized by an excessive proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the production of abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins) and bone destruction.

Hematologic neoplasms can have various symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Nausea is a subjective, unpleasant sensation of discomfort in the stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract that may precede vomiting. It's often described as a feeling of queasiness or the need to vomit. Nausea can be caused by various factors, including motion sickness, pregnancy, gastrointestinal disorders, infections, certain medications, and emotional stress. While nausea is not a disease itself, it can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition that requires attention and treatment.

Etoposide is a chemotherapy medication used to treat various types of cancer, including lung cancer, testicular cancer, and certain types of leukemia. It works by inhibiting the activity of an enzyme called topoisomerase II, which is involved in DNA replication and transcription. By doing so, etoposide can interfere with the growth and multiplication of cancer cells.

Etoposide is often administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, although it may also be given orally in some cases. The medication can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and an increased risk of infection. It can also have more serious side effects, such as bone marrow suppression, which can lead to anemia, bleeding, and a weakened immune system.

Like all chemotherapy drugs, etoposide is not without risks and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider. It is important for patients to discuss the potential benefits and risks of this medication with their doctor before starting treatment.

Epirubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic used in cancer chemotherapy. It works by interfering with the DNA in cancer cells and preventing them from dividing and growing. Epirubicin is often used to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and ovarian cancer.

Like other anthracyclines, epirubicin can cause side effects such as hair loss, nausea and vomiting, mouth sores, and increased risk of infection due to damage to the bone marrow. It can also cause heart problems, including congestive heart failure, especially when given in high doses or when combined with other chemotherapy drugs that can also harm the heart.

Epirubicin is usually given by injection into a vein (intravenously) and is typically administered in cycles, with breaks between treatment periods to allow the body to recover from any side effects. The dose and schedule of epirubicin may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health and any other medical conditions they may have.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

A "Blood Cell Count" is a medical laboratory test that measures the number of red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets in a sample of blood. This test is often used as a part of a routine check-up or to help diagnose various medical conditions, such as anemia, infection, inflammation, and many others.

The RBC count measures the number of oxygen-carrying cells in the blood, while the WBC count measures the number of immune cells that help fight infections. The platelet count measures the number of cells involved in clotting. Abnormal results in any of these counts may indicate an underlying medical condition and further testing may be required for diagnosis and treatment.

An immunocompromised host refers to an individual who has a weakened or impaired immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and decreased ability to fight off pathogens. This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed during one's lifetime).

Acquired immunocompromised states may result from various factors such as medical treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive drugs), infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, malnutrition, liver disease), or aging.

Immunocompromised hosts are at a higher risk for developing severe and life-threatening infections due to their reduced immune response. Therefore, they require special consideration when it comes to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

Salvage therapy, in the context of medical oncology, refers to the use of treatments that are typically considered less desirable or more aggressive, often due to greater side effects or lower efficacy, when standard treatment options have failed. These therapies are used to attempt to salvage a response or delay disease progression in patients with refractory or relapsed cancers.

In other words, salvage therapy is a last-resort treatment approach for patients who have not responded to first-line or subsequent lines of therapy. It may involve the use of different drug combinations, higher doses of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or radiation therapy. The goal of salvage therapy is to extend survival, improve quality of life, or achieve disease stabilization in patients with limited treatment options.

Antimetabolites are a class of antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drugs that interfere with the metabolism of cancer cells and inhibit their growth and proliferation. These agents are structurally similar to naturally occurring metabolites, such as amino acids, nucleotides, and folic acid, which are essential for cellular replication and growth. Antimetabolites act as false analogs and get incorporated into the growing cells' DNA or RNA, causing disruption of the normal synthesis process, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of antimetabolite drugs include:

1. Folate antagonists: Methotrexate, Pemetrexed
2. Purine analogs: Mercaptopurine, Thioguanine, Fludarabine, Cladribine
3. Pyrimidine analogs: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), Capecitabine, Cytarabine, Gemcitabine

These drugs are used to treat various types of cancers, such as leukemias, lymphomas, breast, ovarian, and gastrointestinal cancers. Due to their mechanism of action, antimetabolites can also affect normal, rapidly dividing cells in the body, leading to side effects like myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells), mucositis (inflammation and ulceration of the gastrointestinal tract), and alopecia (hair loss).

Neoplasm metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from the primary site (where the original or primary tumor formed) to other places in the body. This happens when cancer cells break away from the original (primary) tumor and enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The cancer cells can then travel to other parts of the body and form new tumors, called secondary tumors or metastases.

Metastasis is a key feature of malignant neoplasms (cancers), and it is one of the main ways that cancer can cause harm in the body. The metastatic tumors may continue to grow and may cause damage to the organs and tissues where they are located. They can also release additional cancer cells into the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further spread of the cancer.

The metastatic tumors are named based on the location where they are found, as well as the type of primary cancer. For example, if a patient has a primary lung cancer that has metastasized to the liver, the metastatic tumor would be called a liver metastasis from lung cancer.

It is important to note that the presence of metastases can significantly affect a person's prognosis and treatment options. In general, metastatic cancer is more difficult to treat than cancer that has not spread beyond its original site. However, there are many factors that can influence a person's prognosis and response to treatment, so it is important for each individual to discuss their specific situation with their healthcare team.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

The term "Area Under Curve" (AUC) is commonly used in the medical field, particularly in the analysis of diagnostic tests or pharmacokinetic studies. The AUC refers to the mathematical calculation of the area between a curve and the x-axis in a graph, typically representing a concentration-time profile.

In the context of diagnostic tests, the AUC is used to evaluate the performance of a test by measuring the entire two-dimensional area underneath the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which plots the true positive rate (sensitivity) against the false positive rate (1-specificity) at various threshold settings. The AUC ranges from 0 to 1, where a higher AUC indicates better test performance:

* An AUC of 0.5 suggests that the test is no better than chance.
* An AUC between 0.7 and 0.8 implies moderate accuracy.
* An AUC between 0.8 and 0.9 indicates high accuracy.
* An AUC greater than 0.9 signifies very high accuracy.

In pharmacokinetic studies, the AUC is used to assess drug exposure over time by calculating the area under a plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t) or AUC(0-\∞)) following drug administration. This value can help determine dosing regimens and evaluate potential drug interactions:

* AUC(0-t): Represents the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (t).
* AUC(0-\∞): Refers to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity, which estimates total drug exposure.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Carcinoma, non-small-cell lung (NSCLC) is a type of lung cancer that includes several subtypes of malignant tumors arising from the epithelial cells of the lung. These subtypes are classified based on the appearance of the cancer cells under a microscope and include adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. NSCLC accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers and tends to grow and spread more slowly than small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).

NSCLC is often asymptomatic in its early stages, but as the tumor grows, symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss may develop. Treatment options for NSCLC depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and lung function. Common treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxonic Acid" is not a recognized term in medical or clinical sciences. It is, however, a chemical compound with the formula C5H7NO5. It is a type of organic acid that is used in research and industrial settings, particularly as a precursor in the synthesis of other chemicals.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you!

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Tegafur is an antineoplastic agent, which is a type of drug used to treat cancer. It is a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), meaning that it is converted into 5-FU in the body after administration. 5-FU is a chemotherapeutic agent that interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis, ultimately leading to the death of cancer cells.

Tegafur is used alone or in combination with other antineoplastic agents to treat various types of cancers, including colon, rectal, gastric, breast, and head and neck cancers. It works by disrupting the growth of cancer cells, which are rapidly dividing cells.

Like all chemotherapeutic agents, Tegafur has potential side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mouth sores, and hair loss. Additionally, it can cause myelosuppression, a condition in which the production of blood cells in the bone marrow is decreased, leading to an increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding. Therefore, patients receiving Tegafur require regular monitoring of their blood counts and other laboratory tests to ensure that they are tolerating the treatment well.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent, which is a type of chemotherapy medication. It works by interfering with the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Ifosfamide is used to treat various types of cancers, such as testicular cancer, small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and certain types of sarcomas.

The medical definition of Ifosfamide is:

Ifosfamide is a synthetic antineoplastic agent, an oxazaphosphorine derivative, with the chemical formula C6H15Cl2N2O2P. It is used in the treatment of various malignancies, including germ cell tumors, sarcomas, lymphomas, and testicular cancer. The drug is administered intravenously and exerts its cytotoxic effects through the alkylation and cross-linking of DNA, leading to the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription. Ifosfamide can cause significant myelosuppression and has been associated with urotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and secondary malignancies. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Granulocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. They are called granulocytes because they contain small granules in their cytoplasm, which are filled with various enzymes and proteins that help them fight off infections and destroy foreign substances.

There are three types of granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. Neutrophils are the most abundant type and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. Eosinophils play a role in defending against parasitic infections and regulating immune responses. Basophils are involved in inflammatory reactions and allergic responses.

Granulocytes are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream, where they circulate and patrol for any signs of infection or foreign substances. When they encounter a threat, they quickly move to the site of infection or injury and release their granules to destroy the invading organisms or substances.

Abnormal levels of granulocytes in the blood can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a bone marrow disorder.

Aspergillosis is a medical condition that is caused by the infection of the Aspergillus fungi. This fungus is commonly found in decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter and compost piles, and can also be found in some indoor environments like air conditioning systems and old buildings with water damage.

There are several types of aspergillosis, including:

1. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA): This type of aspergillosis occurs when a person's immune system overreacts to the Aspergillus fungi, causing inflammation in the airways and lungs. ABPA is often seen in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis.
2. Invasive aspergillosis: This is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when the Aspergillus fungi invade the bloodstream and spread to other organs, such as the brain, heart, or kidneys. Invasive aspergillosis typically affects people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation.
3. Aspergilloma: Also known as a "fungus ball," an aspergilloma is a growth of the Aspergillus fungi that forms in a preexisting lung cavity, such as one caused by previous lung disease or injury. While an aspergilloma itself is not typically harmful, it can cause symptoms like coughing up blood or chest pain if it grows too large or becomes infected.

Symptoms of aspergillosis can vary depending on the type and severity of the infection. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery to remove the fungal growth, or management of underlying conditions that increase the risk of infection.

Epothilones are a type of microtubule stabilizing agent, which are a group of drugs that inhibit the depolymerization of microtubules in cells. Microtubules are important components of the cell's cytoskeleton and play a crucial role in cell division. By stabilizing the microtubules, epothilones prevent the separation of chromosomes during mitosis, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Epothilones are naturally occurring compounds that were originally isolated from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. They have been found to have potent anticancer activity and have been developed as chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, and lung cancer.

There are currently two epothilone drugs that have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use: ixabepilone and patupilone. These drugs are administered intravenously and work by binding to tubulin, a protein that makes up microtubules, thereby preventing their disassembly and interfering with cell division.

Like other chemotherapeutic agents, epothilones can have significant side effects, including neutropenia (low white blood cell count), neuropathy (nerve damage), and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. However, they are often used in combination with other drugs to improve their efficacy and reduce toxicity.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the use of antibiotics to prevent infection from occurring in the first place, rather than treating an existing infection. This practice is commonly used before certain medical procedures or surgeries that have a high risk of infection, such as joint replacements, heart valve surgery, or organ transplants. The goal of antibiotic prophylaxis is to reduce the risk of infection by introducing antibiotics into the body before bacteria have a chance to multiply and cause an infection.

The choice of antibiotic for prophylaxis depends on several factors, including the type of procedure being performed, the patient's medical history and allergies, and the most common types of bacteria that can cause infection in that particular situation. The antibiotic is typically given within one hour before the start of the procedure, and may be continued for up to 24 hours afterward, depending on the specific guidelines for that procedure.

It's important to note that antibiotic prophylaxis should only be used when it is truly necessary, as overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the decision to use antibiotic prophylaxis should be made carefully and in consultation with a healthcare provider.

Remission induction is a treatment approach in medicine, particularly in the field of oncology and hematology. It refers to the initial phase of therapy aimed at reducing or eliminating the signs and symptoms of active disease, such as cancer or autoimmune disorders. The primary goal of remission induction is to achieve a complete response (disappearance of all detectable signs of the disease) or a partial response (a decrease in the measurable extent of the disease). This phase of treatment is often intensive and may involve the use of multiple drugs or therapies, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy. After remission induction, patients may receive additional treatments to maintain the remission and prevent relapse, known as consolidation or maintenance therapy.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Alopecia is a medical term that refers to the loss of hair or baldness. It can occur in various parts of the body, but it's most commonly used to describe hair loss from the scalp. Alopecia can have several causes, including genetics, hormonal changes, medical conditions, and aging.

There are different types of alopecia, such as:

* Alopecia Areata: It is a condition that causes round patches of hair loss on the scalp or other parts of the body. The immune system attacks the hair follicles, causing the hair to fall out.
* Androgenetic Alopecia: Also known as male pattern baldness or female pattern baldness, it's a genetic condition that causes gradual hair thinning and eventual hair loss, typically following a specific pattern.
* Telogen Effluvium: It is a temporary hair loss condition caused by stress, medication, pregnancy, or other factors that can cause the hair follicles to enter a resting phase, leading to shedding and thinning of the hair.

The treatment for alopecia depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, such as with telogen effluvium, hair growth may resume without any treatment. However, other forms of alopecia may require medical intervention, including topical treatments, oral medications, or even hair transplant surgery in severe cases.

Fungemia is the presence of fungi (fungal organisms) in the blood. It's a type of bloodstream infection, which can be serious and life-threatening, particularly for people with weakened immune systems. The fungi that cause fungemia often enter the bloodstream through medical devices like catheters or from a fungal infection somewhere else in the body.

Fungemia is often associated with conditions like candidemia (caused by Candida species) and aspergillemia (caused by Aspergillus species). Symptoms can vary widely but often include fever, chills, and other signs of infection. It's important to diagnose and treat fungemia promptly to prevent serious complications like sepsis.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Vincristine is an antineoplastic agent, specifically a vinca alkaloid. It is derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). Vincristine binds to tubulin, a protein found in microtubules, and inhibits their polymerization, which results in disruption of mitotic spindles leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including leukemias, lymphomas, and solid tumors. Common side effects include peripheral neuropathy, constipation, and alopecia.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Stomatitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the mucous membrane of any of the soft tissues in the mouth, including the lips, gums, tongue, palate, and cheek lining. It can cause discomfort, pain, and sores or lesions in the mouth. Stomatitis may result from a variety of causes, such as infection, injury, allergic reaction, or systemic diseases. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, mouth rinses, or changes in oral hygiene practices.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Vomiting is defined in medical terms as the forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth. It is a violent, involuntary act that is usually accompanied by strong contractions of the abdominal muscles and retching. The body's vomiting reflex is typically triggered when the brain receives signals from the digestive system that something is amiss.

There are many potential causes of vomiting, including gastrointestinal infections, food poisoning, motion sickness, pregnancy, alcohol consumption, and certain medications or medical conditions. In some cases, vomiting can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as a brain injury, concussion, or chemical imbalance in the body.

Vomiting is generally not considered a serious medical emergency on its own, but it can lead to dehydration and other complications if left untreated. If vomiting persists for an extended period of time, or if it is accompanied by other concerning symptoms such as severe abdominal pain, fever, or difficulty breathing, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

Mitoxantrone is a synthetic antineoplastic anthracenedione drug, which means it is used to treat cancer. Its medical definition can be found in various authoritative sources such as the Merck Manual or Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Here's a brief version of the definition from MedlinePlus, a service of the US National Library of Medicine:

"Mitoxantrone is used to treat certain types of cancer (e.g., breast cancer, leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells. Mitoxantrone belongs to a class of drugs known as antitumor antibiotics."

Please note that this is a simplified definition meant for general information purposes and does not include all the details that might be present in a comprehensive medical definition. Always consult a healthcare professional or refer to authoritative resources for accurate, detailed, and up-to-date information.

Carcinoma, small cell is a type of lung cancer that typically starts in the bronchi (the airways that lead to the lungs). It is called "small cell" because the cancer cells are small and appear round or oval in shape. This type of lung cancer is also sometimes referred to as "oat cell carcinoma" due to the distinctive appearance of the cells, which can resemble oats when viewed under a microscope.

Small cell carcinoma is a particularly aggressive form of lung cancer that tends to spread quickly to other parts of the body. It is strongly associated with smoking and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers.

Like other types of lung cancer, small cell carcinoma may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, as the tumor grows and spreads, it can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, and weight loss. Treatment for small cell carcinoma typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and sometimes surgery.

Bone marrow diseases, also known as hematologic disorders, are conditions that affect the production and function of blood cells in the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones where all blood cells are produced. There are various types of bone marrow diseases, including:

1. Leukemia: A cancer of the blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow. Leukemia causes the body to produce large numbers of abnormal white blood cells, which can crowd out healthy blood cells and impair their function.
2. Lymphoma: A cancer that starts in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. Lymphoma can affect the bone marrow and cause an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells.
3. Multiple myeloma: A cancer of the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell found in the bone marrow. Multiple myeloma causes an overproduction of abnormal plasma cells, which can lead to bone pain, fractures, and other complications.
4. Aplastic anemia: A condition in which the bone marrow does not produce enough new blood cells. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, and an increased risk of infection.
5. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS): A group of disorders in which the bone marrow does not produce enough healthy blood cells. MDS can lead to anemia, infections, and bleeding.
6. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs): A group of disorders in which the bone marrow produces too many abnormal white or red blood cells, or platelets. MPNs can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, itching, and an increased risk of blood clots.

Treatment for bone marrow diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, or targeted therapies that target specific genetic mutations.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a type of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system, which is part of the immune system. It involves the abnormal growth and proliferation of malignant lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), leading to the formation of tumors in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, or other organs. NHL can be further classified into various subtypes based on the specific type of lymphocyte involved and its characteristics.

The symptoms of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma may include:

* Painless swelling of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, or groin
* Persistent fatigue
* Unexplained weight loss
* Fever
* Night sweats
* Itchy skin

The exact cause of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not well understood, but it has been associated with certain risk factors such as age (most common in people over 60), exposure to certain chemicals, immune system deficiencies, and infection with viruses like Epstein-Barr virus or HIV.

Treatment for Non-Hodgkin lymphoma depends on the stage and subtype of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor the progression of the disease and manage any potential long-term side effects of treatment.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Anemia is a medical condition characterized by a lower than normal number of red blood cells or lower than normal levels of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is an important protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia can cause fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and a pale complexion because the body's tissues are not getting enough oxygen.

Anemia can be caused by various factors, including nutritional deficiencies (such as iron, vitamin B12, or folate deficiency), blood loss, chronic diseases (such as kidney disease or rheumatoid arthritis), inherited genetic disorders (such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia), and certain medications.

There are different types of anemia, classified based on the underlying cause, size and shape of red blood cells, and the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, supplements, medication, or blood transfusions.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type I (GSD I) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, which is necessary for the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream. This leads to an accumulation of glycogen in the liver and abnormally low levels of glucose in the blood (hypoglycemia).

There are two main subtypes of GSD I: Type Ia and Type Ib. In Type Ia, there is a deficiency of both glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, and intestine, leading to hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, hyperlipidemia, and growth retardation. Type Ib is characterized by a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme activity only in the neutrophils, leading to recurrent bacterial infections.

GSD I requires lifelong management with frequent feedings, high-carbohydrate diet, and avoidance of fasting to prevent hypoglycemia. In some cases, treatment with continuous cornstarch infusions or liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid, which is a type of corticosteroid hormone. It is primarily used to reduce inflammation in various conditions such as asthma, allergies, arthritis, and autoimmune disorders. Prednisone works by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by the adrenal glands, suppressing the immune system's response and reducing the release of substances that cause inflammation.

It is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken at specific times during the day, depending on the condition being treated. Common side effects of prednisone include increased appetite, weight gain, mood changes, insomnia, and easy bruising. Long-term use or high doses can lead to more serious side effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, cataracts, and increased susceptibility to infections.

Healthcare providers closely monitor patients taking prednisone for extended periods to minimize the risk of adverse effects. It is essential to follow the prescribed dosage regimen and not discontinue the medication abruptly without medical supervision, as this can lead to withdrawal symptoms or a rebound of the underlying condition.

Infection is defined medically as the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites within the body, which can lead to tissue damage, illness, and disease. This process often triggers an immune response from the host's body in an attempt to eliminate the infectious agents and restore homeostasis. Infections can be transmitted through various routes, including airborne particles, direct contact with contaminated surfaces or bodily fluids, sexual contact, or vector-borne transmission. The severity of an infection may range from mild and self-limiting to severe and life-threatening, depending on factors such as the type and quantity of pathogen, the host's immune status, and any underlying health conditions.

Monoclonal murine-derived antibodies are a type of laboratory-produced antibody that is identical in structure, having been derived from a single clone of cells. These antibodies are created using mouse cells and are therefore composed entirely of mouse immune proteins. They are designed to bind specifically to a particular target protein or antigen, making them useful tools for research, diagnostic testing, and therapeutic applications.

Monoclonal antibodies offer several advantages over polyclonal antibodies (which are derived from multiple clones of cells and can recognize multiple epitopes on an antigen). Monoclonal antibodies have a consistent and uniform structure, making them more reliable for research and diagnostic purposes. They also have higher specificity and affinity for their target antigens, allowing for more sensitive detection and measurement.

However, there are some limitations to using monoclonal murine-derived antibodies in therapeutic applications. Because they are composed entirely of mouse proteins, they can elicit an immune response in humans, leading to the production of human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) that can neutralize their effectiveness. To overcome this limitation, researchers have developed chimeric and humanized monoclonal antibodies that incorporate human protein sequences, reducing the risk of an immune response.

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and often life-threatening fungal infections. It works by binding to the ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to the loss of essential cell components and ultimately cell death.

The medical definition of Amphotericin B is:

A polyene antifungal agent derived from Streptomyces nodosus, with a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Amphotericin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis, among others. It may be administered intravenously or topically, depending on the formulation and the site of infection.

Adverse effects associated with Amphotericin B include infusion-related reactions (such as fever, chills, and hypotension), nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalances, and anemia. These side effects are often dose-dependent and may be managed through careful monitoring and adjustment of the dosing regimen.

A platelet count is a laboratory test that measures the number of platelets, also known as thrombocytes, in a sample of blood. Platelets are small, colorless cell fragments that circulate in the blood and play a crucial role in blood clotting. They help to stop bleeding by sticking together to form a plug at the site of an injured blood vessel.

A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter (µL) of blood. A lower than normal platelet count is called thrombocytopenia, while a higher than normal platelet count is known as thrombocytosis.

Abnormal platelet counts can be a sign of various medical conditions, including bleeding disorders, infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about your platelet count or if you experience symptoms such as easy bruising, prolonged bleeding, or excessive menstrual flow.

"Drug evaluation" is a medical term that refers to the systematic process of assessing the pharmacological, therapeutic, and safety profile of a drug or medication. This process typically involves several stages, including preclinical testing in the laboratory, clinical trials in human subjects, and post-marketing surveillance.

The goal of drug evaluation is to determine the efficacy, safety, and optimal dosage range of a drug, as well as any potential interactions with other medications or medical conditions. The evaluation process also includes an assessment of the drug's pharmacokinetics, or how it is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body.

The findings from drug evaluations are used to inform regulatory decisions about whether a drug should be approved for use in clinical practice, as well as to provide guidance to healthcare providers about how to use the drug safely and effectively.

Barth syndrome is a rare X-linked genetic disorder that primarily affects boys. It is caused by mutations in the TAFazzin (TAZ) gene, which provides instructions for making a protein involved in the formation of energy-producing structures called mitochondria within cells.

The main features of Barth syndrome include:
1. Cardiomyopathy: Weakened heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) that can lead to heart failure and life-threatening arrhythmias.
2. Neutropenia: Low levels of white blood cells called neutrophils, which increases the risk of recurrent infections.
3. Skeletal muscle weakness: Weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles, leading to decreased exercise tolerance and mobility issues.
4. Growth delay: Slowed growth and development during childhood.
5. Fatigue: Persistent fatigue and reduced endurance.
6. Arrhythmias: Irregular heart rhythms.
7. Low levels of carnitine, a nutrient that helps transport fatty acids into mitochondria for energy production.

Treatment for Barth syndrome is primarily supportive and focuses on addressing the specific symptoms and complications present in each individual case. This may include medications to manage heart function, antibiotics to treat infections, physical therapy to improve muscle strength and mobility, and dietary supplements like carnitine. Regular monitoring by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is essential for managing the condition effectively.

Thalidomide is a pharmaceutical drug that was initially developed and marketed as a sedative and treatment for morning sickness in pregnant women. However, it was later found to cause severe birth defects when given during pregnancy, particularly damage to the limbs, ears, and eyes of the developing fetus. As a result, thalidomide was banned in many countries in the 1960s.

In recent years, thalidomide has been reintroduced as a treatment for certain medical conditions, including multiple myeloma (a type of cancer that affects plasma cells) and leprosy. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease.

Thalidomide works by suppressing the immune system and inhibiting the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). However, its use is tightly regulated due to its teratogenic effects, meaning it can cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not take thalidomide, and healthcare providers must follow strict guidelines when prescribing the drug to ensure that it is used safely and effectively.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the soft inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. In AML, the immature cells, called blasts, in the bone marrow fail to mature into normal blood cells. Instead, these blasts accumulate and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia).

AML is called "acute" because it can progress quickly and become severe within days or weeks without treatment. It is a type of myeloid leukemia, which means that it affects the myeloid cells in the bone marrow. Myeloid cells are a type of white blood cell that includes monocytes and granulocytes, which help fight infection and defend the body against foreign invaders.

In AML, the blasts can build up in the bone marrow and spread to other parts of the body, including the blood, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and brain. This can cause a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, fever, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and weight loss.

AML is typically treated with a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, and the type and stage of the leukemia.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Guanine is not a medical term per se, but it is a biological molecule that plays a crucial role in the body. Guanine is one of the four nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, along with adenine, cytosine, and thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA). Specifically, guanine pairs with cytosine via hydrogen bonds to form a base pair.

Guanine is a purine derivative, which means it has a double-ring structure. It is formed through the synthesis of simpler molecules in the body and is an essential component of genetic material. Guanine's chemical formula is C5H5N5O.

While guanine itself is not a medical term, abnormalities or mutations in genes that contain guanine nucleotides can lead to various medical conditions, including genetic disorders and cancer.

Hematopoiesis is the process of forming and developing blood cells. It occurs in the bone marrow and includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), white blood cells (leukopoiesis), and platelets (thrombopoiesis). This process is regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and cytokines. Hematopoiesis begins early in fetal development and continues throughout a person's life. Disorders of hematopoiesis can result in conditions such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis.

Lymphocytosis is a medical term that refers to an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) in the peripheral blood. A normal lymphocyte count ranges from 1,000 to 4,800 cells per microliter (μL) of blood in adults. Lymphocytosis is typically defined as a lymphocyte count greater than 4,800 cells/μL in adults or higher than age-specific normal values in children.

There are various causes of lymphocytosis, including viral infections (such as mononucleosis), bacterial infections, tuberculosis, fungal infections, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, allergies, and certain cancers like chronic lymphocytic leukemia or lymphoma. It is essential to investigate the underlying cause of lymphocytosis through a thorough clinical evaluation, medical history, physical examination, and appropriate diagnostic tests, such as blood tests, imaging studies, or biopsies.

It's important to note that an isolated episode of mild lymphocytosis is often not clinically significant and may resolve on its own without any specific treatment. However, persistent or severe lymphocytosis requires further evaluation and management based on the underlying cause.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of diverse bone marrow disorders characterized by dysplasia (abnormal development or maturation) of one or more types of blood cells or by ineffective hematopoiesis, resulting in cytopenias (lower than normal levels of one or more types of blood cells). MDS can be classified into various subtypes based on the number and type of cytopenias, the degree of dysplasia, the presence of ring sideroblasts, and cytogenetic abnormalities.

The condition primarily affects older adults, with a median age at diagnosis of around 70 years. MDS can evolve into acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in approximately 30-40% of cases. The pathophysiology of MDS involves genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities that lead to impaired differentiation and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, ultimately resulting in cytopenias and an increased risk of developing AML.

The diagnosis of MDS typically requires a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, along with cytogenetic and molecular analyses to identify specific genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities. Treatment options for MDS depend on the subtype, severity of cytopenias, and individual patient factors. These may include supportive care measures, such as transfusions and growth factor therapy, or more aggressive treatments, such as chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation.

Drug-related side effects and adverse reactions refer to any unintended or harmful outcome that occurs during the use of a medication. These reactions can be mild or severe and may include predictable, known responses (side effects) as well as unexpected, idiosyncratic reactions (adverse effects). Side effects are typically related to the pharmacologic properties of the drug and occur at therapeutic doses, while adverse reactions may result from allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, overdoses, or interactions with other medications or substances.

Side effects are often dose-dependent and can be managed by adjusting the dose, frequency, or route of administration. Adverse reactions, on the other hand, may require discontinuation of the medication or treatment with antidotes or supportive care. It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for any signs of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions and to take appropriate action when necessary.

Hematology is a branch of medicine that deals with the study of blood, its physiology, and pathophysiology. It involves the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to the blood and blood-forming organs such as the bone marrow, spleen, and lymphatic system. This includes disorders of red and white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, blood vessels, and coagulation (blood clotting). Some common hematological diseases include anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, sickle cell disease, and bleeding disorders like hemophilia.

Anthracyclines are a class of chemotherapeutic agents that are derived from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius. These drugs include daunorubicin, doxorubicin, epirubicin, and idarubicin. They work by intercalating into DNA and inhibiting the enzyme topoisomerase II, which leads to DNA damage and ultimately cell death. Anthracyclines are used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, including leukemias, lymphomas, breast cancer, and sarcomas. However, they can also cause cardiotoxicity, which limits their long-term use.

Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are a group of growth factors that stimulate the production of blood cells in the bone marrow. They include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). These factors play an important role in the regulation of hematopoiesis, which is the process of producing different types of blood cells.

G-CSF stimulates the production of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that helps fight against bacterial and fungal infections. GM-CSF stimulates the production of both neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, which are important in the immune response to infection and tissue injury. M-CSF stimulates the production and activation of macrophages, which play a role in the immune response, wound healing, and the regulation of hematopoiesis.

Colony-stimulating factors are used clinically to stimulate the production of white blood cells in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy, which can suppress bone marrow function and lead to low white blood cell counts. They are also used to mobilize stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood for collection and transplantation.

Antineoplastic agents, alkylating, are a class of chemotherapeutic drugs that work by alkylating (adding alkyl groups) to DNA, which can lead to the death or dysfunction of cancer cells. These agents can form cross-links between strands of DNA, preventing DNA replication and transcription, ultimately leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Examples of alkylating agents include cyclophosphamide, melphalan, and cisplatin. While these drugs are designed to target rapidly dividing cancer cells, they can also affect normal cells that divide quickly, such as those in the bone marrow and digestive tract, leading to side effects like anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and nausea/vomiting.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ovary, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various cell types within the ovary, including epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian neoplasms are often classified based on their cell type of origin, histological features, and potential for invasive or metastatic behavior.

Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are the most common type and can be further categorized into several subtypes, such as serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and Brenner tumors. Some of these epithelial tumors have a higher risk of becoming malignant and spreading to other parts of the body.

Germ cell ovarian neoplasms arise from the cells that give rise to eggs (oocytes) and can include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Stromal ovarian neoplasms develop from the connective tissue cells supporting the ovary and can include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas.

It is essential to diagnose and treat ovarian neoplasms promptly, as some malignant forms can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if not managed appropriately. Regular gynecological exams, imaging studies, and tumor marker tests are often used for early detection and monitoring of ovarian neoplasms. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the type, stage, and patient's overall health condition.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

Glutamates are the salt or ester forms of glutamic acid, which is a naturally occurring amino acid and the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate plays a crucial role in various brain functions, such as learning, memory, and cognition. However, excessive levels of glutamate can lead to neuronal damage or death, contributing to several neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Glutamates are also commonly found in food as a natural flavor enhancer, often listed under the name monosodium glutamate (MSG). While MSG has been extensively studied, its safety remains a topic of debate, with some individuals reporting adverse reactions after consuming foods containing this additive.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Myelopoiesis is the process of formation and development of myeloid cells (a type of blood cell) within the bone marrow. This includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), platelets (thrombopoiesis), and white blood cells such as granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils), monocytes, and mast cells. Myelopoiesis is a continuous process that is regulated by various growth factors and hormones to maintain the normal levels of these cells in the body. Abnormalities in myelopoiesis can lead to several hematological disorders like anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication used to treat parasitic worm infections. It works by paralyzing the worms, allowing the body to remove them from the system. In addition, levamisole has been used in veterinary medicine as an immunomodulator, a substance that affects the immune system.

In human medicine, levamisole was previously used in the treatment of colon cancer and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, its use in these areas has largely been discontinued due to side effects and the availability of more effective treatments.

It is important to note that levamisole has also been identified as a common adulterant in cocaine, which can lead to various health issues, including agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), skin lesions, and neurological symptoms.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Glucose-6-phosphatase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. It is primarily located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells in liver, kidney, and intestinal mucosa. The main function of this enzyme is to remove the phosphate group from glucose-6-phosphate (G6P), converting it into free glucose, which can then be released into the bloodstream and used as a source of energy by cells throughout the body.

The reaction catalyzed by glucose-6-phosphatase is as follows:

Glucose-6-phosphate + H2O → Glucose + Pi (inorganic phosphate)

This enzyme is essential for maintaining normal blood glucose levels, particularly during periods of fasting or starvation. In these situations, the body needs to break down stored glycogen in the liver and convert it into glucose to supply energy to the brain and other vital organs. Glucose-6-phosphatase is a key enzyme in this process, allowing for the release of free glucose into the bloodstream.

Deficiencies or mutations in the gene encoding glucose-6-phosphatase can lead to several metabolic disorders, such as glycogen storage disease type I (von Gierke's disease) and other related conditions. These disorders are characterized by an accumulation of glycogen and/or fat in various organs, leading to impaired glucose metabolism, growth retardation, and increased risk of infection and liver dysfunction.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the triad of poikiloderma, juvenile cataracts, and skeletal abnormalities. Poikiloderma is a skin condition that involves changes in coloration, including redness, brownish pigmentation, and telangiectasia (dilation of small blood vessels), as well as atrophy (wasting) of the skin.

The syndrome is caused by mutations in the RECQL4 gene, which plays a role in DNA repair. RTS has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent, to develop the condition.

Individuals with RTS may also experience other symptoms, such as sparse hair, short stature, small hands and feet, missing teeth, and a predisposition to developing certain types of cancer, particularly osteosarcoma (a type of bone cancer). The severity of the condition can vary widely among individuals.

RTS is typically diagnosed based on clinical features and genetic testing. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms of the condition and may include measures such as sun protection to prevent skin damage, eye exams to monitor for cataracts, and regular cancer screenings.

Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced proteins that mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens such as viruses and cancer cells. They are created by fusing a single B cell (the type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies) with a tumor cell, resulting in a hybrid cell called a hybridoma. This hybridoma can then be cloned to produce a large number of identical cells, all producing the same antibody, hence "monoclonal."

Humanized monoclonal antibodies are a type of monoclonal antibody that have been genetically engineered to include human components. This is done to reduce the risk of an adverse immune response in patients receiving the treatment. In this process, the variable region of the mouse monoclonal antibody, which contains the antigen-binding site, is grafted onto a human constant region. The resulting humanized monoclonal antibody retains the ability to bind to the target antigen while minimizing the immunogenicity associated with murine (mouse) antibodies.

In summary, "antibodies, monoclonal, humanized" refers to a type of laboratory-produced protein that mimics the immune system's ability to fight off harmful antigens, but with reduced immunogenicity due to the inclusion of human components in their structure.

Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein involved in immune response and hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells). GM-CSF's specific role is to stimulate the production, proliferation, and activation of granulocytes (a type of white blood cell that fights against infection) and macrophages (large white blood cells that eat foreign substances, bacteria, and dead or dying cells).

In medical terms, GM-CSF is often used in therapeutic settings to boost the production of white blood cells in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer. This can help to reduce the risk of infection during these treatments. It can also be used to promote the growth and differentiation of stem cells in bone marrow transplant procedures.

Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a rare type of blood cancer that affects a specific group of white blood cells called large granular lymphocytes (LGLs), which include both T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell populations. This disorder is characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of these LGL cells in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, and spleen.

In LGL leukemia, the overproduction of these abnormal lymphocytes can lead to cytopenias (low counts) of one or more types of blood cells, such as anemia, neutropenia, or thrombocytopenia. These cytopenias are caused by the abnormal LGL cells infiltrating and disrupting the normal function of the bone marrow, where blood cells are produced.

There are two main types of large granular lymphocytic leukemia: T-cell LGL leukemia and natural killer (NK)-cell LGL leukemia. The T-cell type is more common and tends to have a better prognosis compared to the NK-cell type.

Symptoms of LGL leukemia can vary but may include fatigue, recurrent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, and enlarged lymph nodes. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of blood tests, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, and sometimes immunophenotyping to identify the specific type of LGL cells involved. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy, or targeted therapies, depending on the individual case and the patient's overall health.

Asthenia is a medical term that refers to a condition of unusual physical weakness or exhaustion that is not relieved by rest. It can be a symptom of various underlying health issues, such as infections, neurological disorders, endocrine diseases, and mental health conditions. Asthenia should not be confused with general fatigue or tiredness, as it is more severe, persistent, and debilitating.

The term "asthenia" comes from the Greek words "a" (without) and "sthenos" (strength), which together mean "without strength." In medical contexts, asthenia is often used to describe a significant decrease in muscle strength or energy levels that interferes with daily activities and reduces the overall quality of life.

Asthenia can manifest as a general feeling of weakness, fatigue, lethargy, or lack of stamina. In some cases, it may be accompanied by other symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, headaches, irritability, and depression. Depending on the underlying cause, asthenia may be treated with various interventions, including medication, lifestyle changes, physical therapy, or counseling.

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans. It can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, mucous membranes (such as the mouth and vagina), and internal organs (like the esophagus, lungs, or blood).

The symptoms of candidiasis depend on the location of the infection:

1. Oral thrush: White patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, gums, or roof of the mouth. These patches may be painful and can bleed slightly when scraped.
2. Vaginal yeast infection: Itching, burning, redness, and swelling of the vagina and vulva; thick, white, odorless discharge from the vagina.
3. Esophageal candidiasis: Difficulty swallowing, pain when swallowing, or feeling like food is "stuck" in the throat.
4. Invasive candidiasis: Fever, chills, and other signs of infection; multiple organ involvement may lead to various symptoms depending on the affected organs.

Risk factors for developing candidiasis include diabetes, HIV/AIDS, use of antibiotics or corticosteroids, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing tight-fitting clothing that traps moisture. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as fluconazole, nystatin, or clotrimazole, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

Amikacin is a type of antibiotic known as an aminoglycoside, which is used to treat various bacterial infections. It works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, inhibiting protein synthesis and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. Amikacin is often used to treat serious infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It may be given intravenously or intramuscularly, depending on the severity and location of the infection. As with all antibiotics, amikacin should be used judiciously to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

Fungal lung diseases, also known as fungal pneumonia or mycoses, refer to a group of respiratory disorders caused by the infection of fungi in the lungs. These fungi are commonly found in the environment, such as soil, decaying organic matter, and contaminated materials. People can develop lung diseases from fungi after inhaling spores or particles that contain fungi.

There are several types of fungal lung diseases, including:

1. Aspergillosis: This is caused by the Aspergillus fungus and can affect people with weakened immune systems. It can cause allergic reactions, lung infections, or invasive aspergillosis, which can spread to other organs.
2. Cryptococcosis: This is caused by the Cryptococcus fungus and is usually found in soil contaminated with bird droppings. It can cause pneumonia, meningitis, or skin lesions.
3. Histoplasmosis: This is caused by the Histoplasma capsulatum fungus and is commonly found in the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated histoplasmosis, which can spread to other organs.
4. Blastomycosis: This is caused by the Blastomyces dermatitidis fungus and is commonly found in the southeastern and south-central United States. It can cause pneumonia, skin lesions, or disseminated blastomycosis, which can spread to other organs.
5. Coccidioidomycosis: This is caused by the Coccidioides immitis fungus and is commonly found in the southwestern United States. It can cause flu-like symptoms, lung infections, or disseminated coccidioidomycosis, which can spread to other organs.

Fungal lung diseases can range from mild to severe, depending on the type of fungus and the person's immune system. Treatment may include antifungal medications, surgery, or supportive care. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to contaminated soil or dust, wearing protective masks in high-risk areas, and promptly seeking medical attention if symptoms develop.

Adjuvant chemotherapy is a medical treatment that is given in addition to the primary therapy, such as surgery or radiation, to increase the chances of a cure or to reduce the risk of recurrence in patients with cancer. It involves the use of chemicals (chemotherapeutic agents) to destroy any remaining cancer cells that may not have been removed by the primary treatment. This type of chemotherapy is typically given after the main treatment has been completed, and its goal is to kill any residual cancer cells that may be present in the body and reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. The specific drugs used and the duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure where hematopoietic stem cells (immature cells that give rise to all blood cell types) are transplanted into a patient. This procedure is often used to treat various malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, inherited immune deficiency diseases, and certain genetic metabolic disorders.

The transplantation can be autologous (using the patient's own stem cells), allogeneic (using stem cells from a genetically matched donor, usually a sibling or unrelated volunteer), or syngeneic (using stem cells from an identical twin).

The process involves collecting hematopoietic stem cells, most commonly from the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The collected cells are then infused into the patient after the recipient's own hematopoietic system has been ablated (or destroyed) using high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This allows the donor's stem cells to engraft, reconstitute, and restore the patient's hematopoietic system.

HSCT is a complex and potentially risky procedure with various complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infections, and organ damage. However, it offers the potential for cure or long-term remission in many patients with otherwise fatal diseases.

Dacarbazine is a medical term that refers to a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various types of cancer. It is an alkylating agent, which means it works by modifying the DNA of cancer cells, preventing them from dividing and growing. Dacarbazine is often used to treat malignant melanoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and soft tissue sarcomas.

The drug is typically administered intravenously in a hospital or clinic setting, and the dosage and schedule may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health and response to treatment. Common side effects of dacarbazine include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weakness or fatigue. More serious side effects, such as low white blood cell counts, anemia, and liver damage, may also occur.

It is important for patients receiving dacarbazine to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly. Regular monitoring of blood counts and other laboratory tests may be necessary to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Lymphopenia is a term used in medicine to describe an abnormally low count of lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the body's immune system. Lymphocytes help fight off infections and diseases by producing antibodies and attacking infected cells.

A normal lymphocyte count ranges from 1,000 to 4,800 cells per microliter (cells/μL) of blood in adults. A lymphocyte count lower than 1,000 cells/μL is generally considered lymphopenia.

Several factors can cause lymphopenia, including viral infections, certain medications, autoimmune disorders, and cancer. It's important to note that a low lymphocyte count alone may not indicate a specific medical condition, and further testing may be necessary to determine the underlying cause. If left untreated, lymphopenia can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Intravenous injections are a type of medical procedure where medication or fluids are administered directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. This route of administration is also known as an IV injection. The solution injected enters the patient's bloodstream immediately, allowing for rapid absorption and onset of action. Intravenous injections are commonly used to provide quick relief from symptoms, deliver medications that are not easily absorbed by other routes, or administer fluids and electrolytes in cases of dehydration or severe illness. It is important that intravenous injections are performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

Topoisomerase I inhibitors are a class of anticancer drugs that work by inhibiting the function of topoisomerase I, an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the relaxation and replication of DNA. By inhibiting this enzyme's activity, these drugs interfere with the normal unwinding and separation of DNA strands, leading to DNA damage and ultimately cell death. Topoisomerase I inhibitors are used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including colon, small cell lung, ovarian, and cervical cancers. Examples of topoisomerase I inhibitors include camptothecin, irinotecan, and topotecan.

Peritoneal neoplasms refer to tumors or cancerous growths that develop in the peritoneum, which is the thin, transparent membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the organs within it. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant peritoneal neoplasms are often associated with advanced stages of gastrointestinal, ovarian, or uterine cancers and can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the abdomen.

Peritoneal neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests like CT scans or MRIs, followed by a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancerous cells. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm.

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... is the development of fever, often with other signs of infection, in a patient with neutropenia, an ... Fever Febrile neutropenia can develop in any form of neutropenia, but is most generally recognized as a complication of ... Febrile neutropenia entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms (Articles with short description, Short ... A prospective trial demonstrated that a modified MASCC score can identify patients with febrile neutropenia at low risk of ...
... (CyN), like severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), is a rare disorder. It is considered that in the general ... Cyclic neutropenia (CyN) is a rare hematologic disorder and form of congenital neutropenia that tends to occur approximately ... The common symptoms of neutropenia are recurrent fever, malaise, inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth, mouth ... In comparison to severe congenital neutropenia, it responds well to treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor ( ...
In infants neutropenia is defined by absolute neutrophil counts less than 1000/uL. After the first year of life neutropenia is ... Autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) is a form of neutropenia which is most common in infants and young children where the body ... Ancliff P. "Neutropenia (Severe Chronic)".[permanent dead link]page=2&f=N&page=2&f=N Mayo Clinic staff. "Neutropenia symptoms ... In neutropenia discovered at birth or shortly after birth, a diagnosis of allo-immune neutropenia (from maternal white blood ...
Neutropenia Cyclic neutropenia GATA2 deficiency Dale DC, Makaryan V (2018) [2002]. "ELANE-Related Neutropenia". GeneReviews. ... Search for Neutropenia to see on-going projects at Orphanet Severe Congenital Neutropenia (SCN) of Inherited Bone Marrow ... A small but significant percentage of individuals with GATA2 deficiency's present with congenital neutropenia. This neutropenia ... Isolated neutropenia in infants can occur in viral infections, autoimmune neutropenia of infancy, bone marrow suppression from ...
"Neutropenia". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 15 August 2021. Circular of Information for Blood Products (Pages ... The product is collected by automated apheresis and is used for systemic infections in patients with neutropenia. The donor is ...
In Felty's syndrome, chronic activation of neutrophils progresses to neutropenia and unabated infections. Neutropenia is a ... neutropenia). As a result of neutropenia, affected individuals are increasingly susceptible to certain infections. ... Splenectomy may improve neutropenia in severe disease. Use of rituximab and leflunomide have been proposed. Use of gold therapy ... A major challenge in treating FS is recurring infection caused by neutropenia. Therefore, in order to decide upon and begin ...
The terms refractory neutropenia and refractory thrombocytopenia have sometimes been used to describe these cases. A diagnosis ... "Neutropenia". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 15 August 2021. Myelodysplastic Syndrome. The Leukemia & Lymphoma ... Occasionally, cases of MDS present with isolated neutropenia or thrombocytopenia without anemia and with dysplastic changes ... severe neutropenia or thrombocytopenia; high blast count in the bone marrow (20-29%) or blasts in the blood; Auer rods; absence ...
A dosage of 90 mg/kg every 6 hours is suggested for infants and children diagnosed with neutropenia. Common side effects ... 1997). Febrile Neutropenia. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-60443-0. ISBN 978-3-540-61230 ... neutropenia (10%), and eosinophilia (10%) in adult patients. The combination of piperacillin-tazobactam with other antibiotics ...
Autoimmune neutropenia. N Engl J Med. 1975; 293:748-793. 31. Stossel TP, Hartwig JH. Interactions of actin, myosin and a new ... Chronic neutropenia in childhood. Analysis of 16 cases and review of the literature. Am J Med. 1976; 61:849-861. 34. Hartwig JH ... Drug-induced immunologic neutropenia. Lancet. 1978; 1:1068-1072. 42. Brotschi EA, Hartwig JH, Stossel TP. The gelation of actin ... Therapy of neutropenia. In: Conn HF, ed. Current Therapy. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1977: 273-76. 17. Stossel TP. ...
Neutropenia patients are advised to avoid contact with people who are ill, monitor closely for signs of infection, and take ... "Neutropenia - MeSH - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2019-08-14. "Cytopenia Overview, Types - Cytopenia - ... Leukopenia - a deficiency of white blood cells, or leukocytes Neutropenia - a type of leukopenia, with a specific deficiency in ...
Canine cyclic neutropenia is a cyclic blood disorder that is usually fatal to affected puppies. The disease is also referred to ... "Canine Cyclic Neutropenia". Collie Health Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-05-14. Retrieved 2008-02-14. "The ...
Neutropenia, meaning a low neutrophil count, may occur as a response to drug treatment (especially chemotherapy) or in certain ... Neutropenia also occurs in many hematologic disorders, such as leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome, and in a variety of ... 2011). p. 8. Atallah-Yunes, Suheil Albert; Ready, Audrey; Newburger, Peter E. (2019). "Benign ethnic neutropenia". Blood ... this is termed benign ethnic neutropenia. Very low neutrophil counts are associated with immunosuppression. When stimulated by ...
HAX1 Neutropenia, severe congenital, autosomal recessive 4; 612541; G6PC3 Neutropenia, severe congenital, X-linked; 300299; WAS ... PNPLA2 Neutropenia, nonimmune chronic idiopathic, of adults; 607847; GFI1 Neutropenia, severe congenital, autosomal dominant 1 ... 202700; ELANE Neutropenia, severe congenital, autosomal dominant 2; 613107; GFI1 Neutropenia, severe congenital, autosomal ... FLCN Poikiloderma with neutropenia; 604173; C16orf57 Polycystic kidney and hepatic disease; 263200; FCYT Polycystic kidney ...
Toxicity: Allergic response & neutropenia. Mechanism of action: Recombinant form of human TNF receptor that binds TNF. Clinical ...
An ANC less than 1500 cells/µL is defined as neutropenia and increases risk of infection. Neutropenia is the condition of a low ... Boxer, Laurence A. (2012). "How to approach neutropenia". Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program. 2012: ...
... s are used to detect bloodstream infections in febrile neutropenia, a common complication of chemotherapy in which ... Territo, M (July 2018). "Neutropenia - Hematology and Oncology". Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Archived from the original ...
Common toxicities are neutropenia (. ...
Klastersky, Jean A. (2014), "Prevention of Febrile Neutropenia", Febrile Neutropenia, Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd., pp. ... A neutropenic fever, also called febrile neutropenia, is a fever in the absence of normal immune system function. Because of ... 2001). Textbook of febrile neutropenia. Martin Dunitz. ISBN 978-1-84184-033-8. OCLC 48195937. Grunau BE, Wiens MO, Brubacher JR ...
Neutropenia has also been reported. Hallmark diagnostic markers of PNP deficiency include hypouricemia, complete or near ...
Low retic is observed in infants treated with IUT and in those with HDN from anti-Kell Neutrophils - as Neutropenia is one of ... Koenig, J. M.; Christensen, R. D. (1989). "Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in infants with Rh hemolytic disease". The Journal ... Lalezari, P; Nussbaum, M; Gelman, S; Spaet, T. H. (1960). "Neonatal neutropenia due to maternal isoimmunization". Blood. 15 (2 ... The hemolytic process can result in anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, neonatal thrombocytopenia, and neonatal neutropenia. With the ...
The opposite of neutrophilia is neutropenia. Neutrophils are the primary white blood cells that respond to a bacterial ...
Treatment is also aimed at the underlying cause of the neutropenia. One severe consequence of neutropenia is that it can ... Neutropenia can be acquired or intrinsic. A decrease in levels of neutrophils on lab tests is due to either decreased ... Like neutropenia, lymphocytopenia may be acquired or intrinsic and there are many causes. This is not a complete list. ... For example, the most common cause of acquired neutropenia is drug-induced, so an individual may have symptoms of medication ...
Neutropenia makes an individual highly susceptible to infections. It can also be the result of colonization by intracellular ... Low neutrophil counts are termed neutropenia. This can be congenital (developed at or before birth) or it can develop later, as ... Any ANC < 1500 cells / mm3 is considered neutropenia, but < 0.001) the phagocytic index Rubin-Bejerano I, Abeijon C, Magnelli P ... Neutropenia Information Absolute Neutrophil Count Calculator Neutrophil Trace Element Content and Distribution (Webarchive ...
Neutrophils - as neutropenia is one of the complications of HDN, the neutrophil count should be checked. Thrombocytes - as ... It is possible for a newborn with this disease to have neutropenia and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia as well.[citation ... Koenig JM, Christensen RD (April 1989). "Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in infants with Rh hemolytic disease". The Journal of ... Lalezari P, Nussbaum M, Gelman S, Spaet TH (February 1960). "Neonatal neutropenia due to maternal isoimmunization". Blood. 15 ( ...
Low retic is observed in infants treated with IUT and in those with HDN from anti-Kell Neutrophils - as Neutropenia is one of ... Koenig, J. M.; Christensen, R. D. (1989). "Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in infants with Rh hemolytic disease". The Journal ... Lalezari, P; Nussbaum, M; Gelman, S; Spaet, T. H. (1960). "Neonatal neutropenia due to maternal isoimmunization". Blood. 15 (2 ... rising bilirubin Prolonged hyperbilirubinemia Bilirubin Induced Neurological Dysfunction Cerebral Palsy Kernicterus Neutropenia ...
Low retic is observed in infants treated with IUT and in those with HDN from anti-Kell Neutrophils - as neutropenia is one of ... Koenig, J. M.; Christensen, R. D. (1989). "Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia in infants with Rh hemolytic disease". The Journal ... Lalezari, P; Nussbaum, M; Gelman, S; Spaet, T. H. (1960). "Neonatal neutropenia due to maternal isoimmunization". Blood. 15 (2 ... The hemolytic process can result in anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, neonatal thrombocytopenia, and neonatal neutropenia. With the ...
The mechanism of neutropenia is complex. An increased platelet count occurs when inflammation is Uncontrolled. The role of the ...
... neutropenia (40%; 34% grade 3/4), thrombocytopenia (15%; 11% grade 3/4), anemia (12%), and pyrexia and cough (10% each). More ...
Mutations in this gene are a cause of Kostmann syndrome, also known as severe congenital neutropenia. Mutations in the ... Zeidler C, Welte K (April 2002). "Kostmann syndrome and severe congenital neutropenia". Semin. Hematol. 39 (2): 82-8. doi: ... "Identification of a nonsense mutation in the granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor receptor in severe congenital neutropenia". ... colony-stimulating-factor receptor in patients with acute myeloid leukemia preceded by severe congenital neutropenia". N. Engl ...
... neutropenia, cyclic neutropenia, autoimmune neutropenia, and congenital neutropenia. Neutropenia that is developed in response ... Neutropenia can be divided into congenital and acquired, with severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and cyclic neutropenia (CyN) ... rather than isolated neutropenia. Other causes of congenital neutropenia are Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Cyclic neutropenia, ... Acquired neutropenia (immune-associated neutropenia) is due to anti-neutrophil antibodies that target neutrophil-specific ...
Poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN) is a disorder that mainly affects the skin and the immune system. Explore symptoms, ... Neutropenia makes it more difficult for the body to fight off pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. As a result, people with ... Poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN) is a disorder that mainly affects the skin and the immune system. This condition begins with ... Arnold AW, Itin PH, Pigors M, Kohlhase J, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Has C. Poikiloderma with neutropenia: a novel C16orf57 mutation ...
... Psychosomatics. 2001 Jul-Aug;42(4):368. doi: 10.1176/appi.psy.42.4.368. ...
Chronic benign neutropenia can be regarded as a synonym for autoimmune neutropenia (primary autoimmune neutropenia [AIN]) in ... The most common type of chronic neutropenia in pediatric patients is chronic benign neutropenia of childhood, ie, neutropenia ... Immune neutropenia in children may be classified into autoimmune neutropenia and alloimmune neutropenia. The former then can be ... Autoimmune neutropenia of childhood secondary to other autoimmune disorders: Data from the Italian neutropenia registry. Am J ...
Keywords: Febrile Neutropenia, Myelosupression, Baseline Electrolyte Abnormalities Citation styles. APA Copy. Shaikh, A.J., ... BACKGROUND: Febrile neutropenia (FN) and myelosupression remain a challenging oncologic medical emergency and dose limiting ... Incidence and Impact of Baseline Electrolyte Abnormalities in Patients Admitted with Chemotherapy Induced Febrile Neutropenia ... Incidence and Impact of Baseline Electrolyte Abnormalities in Patients Admitted with Chemotherapy Induced Febrile Neutropenia. ...
Neutropenia. Neutropenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells, which are the bodys main defense against infection ...
Top Neutropenia Sites from FastHealth.com
Discover top-quality neutropenia chemicals for research and medical applications. ... Neutropenia symptoms may not always be obvious, but when they do appear, they typically include: Individuals with neutropenia ... Neutropenia is a medical disorder defined by an abnormally low neutrophil count, a kind of white blood cell that is essential ... Neutropenia can be caused by a variety of factors, ranging from underlying medical disorders to specific medications or ...
Neutropenia Tell patients to promptly report any indication of infection (eg, sore throat, fever) which could be a sign of ... Neutropenia/Agranulocytosis. Another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has been shown to cause agranulocytosis and bone marrow ... Agranulocytosis did occur during quinapril treatment in one patient with a history of neutropenia during previous captopril ... neutropenia.. NOTE: As with many other drugs, certain advice to patients being treated with quinapril is warranted. This ...
Cyclic neutropenia caused by defects in ELA2 is an autosomal dominant disease in which blood-cell production from the bone ... During intervals of neutropenia, affected individuals are at risk for opportunistic infection. Monocytes, platelets, ...
Neutropenia is a decrease in circulating neutrophils in the nonmarginal pool, which constitutes 4-5% of total body neutrophil ... Mild neutropenia is present when the ANC is 1000-1500 cells/µL, moderate neutropenia is present with an ANC of 500-1000/µL, and ... Congenital or chronic neutropenias. Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), or Kostmann syndrome, is most often caused by a ... Acquired neutropenia caused by infection. Infections are the most common form of acquired neutropenia. Infections that may ...
... types of neutropenia. What are causes & symptoms of neutropenia. How is neutropenia diagnosed and treated ... Congenital neutropenia. Congenital neutropenia or Kostmanns syndrome, is a form of severe chronic neutropenia 63. Kostmann, a ... Cyclic neutropenia is a subdivision of severe chronic neutropenia. Severe chronic neutropenia is estimated to affect ... This is known as benign neutropenia.. Neutropenia prevention. You cannot prevent neutropenia from occurring, but you can ...
Oral Health & Cyclic Neutropenia. Photo: Cyclic Neutropenia. Clinical Case Report [Internet]. Karla Ivette Oliva Olvera, ...
17.2 Neutropenia 17.3 Symptomatic Hypotension 17.4 Pregnancy 17.5 Hyperkalemia * Sections or subsections omitted from the full ... 5.4 Neutropenia and Agranulocytosis 5.5 Hypotension 5.6 Fetal Toxicity 5.7 Dual Blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin-System 5.8 ... 17.2 Neutropenia. Advise patients to report promptly any indication of infection (e.g., sore throat, fever), which could be a ... 5.4 Neutropenia and Agranulocytosis. In rare instances, treatment with ACE inhibitors may be associated with mild reductions in ...
Neutropenia - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... The treatment of neutropenia itself depends on its cause and severity. Drugs that may cause neutropenia are stopped whenever ... Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell Overview of White Blood Cell Disorders White ... Severity of neutropenia The typical lower limit of the neutrophil count is about 1500 cells per microliter of blood (1.5 × 109 ...
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Neutropenia is alleviated by CSF3 (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) therapy in most cases, but dose requirements vary ... Neutropenia is alleviated by CSF3 (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) therapy in most cases, but dose requirements vary ... PML-controlled responses in severe congenital neutropenia with ELANE-misfolding mutations. Olofsen, Patricia A;Bosch, Dennis A; ... Mutations in ELANE cause severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), but how they affect neutrophil production and contribute to ...
Cyclical neutropenia; 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 2; 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 8; ... Testing genes (68): ACTB ( ... Cyclical neutropenia; 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 2; 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 8; ... ... The Invitae Phagocytic Disorders Including Neutropenia Panel analyzes genes that are associated with primary immunodeficiencies ...
Agranulocytosis and neutropenia1,2. Agranulocytosis, defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) less than 500/µL, is the ... If neutropenia (ANC between 500 and 1500/µL) develops, clozapine therapy should be interrupted until the ANC normalises. ... Agranulocytosis tends to develop during the first six months of treatment, whereas neutropenia (ANC between 500 and 1500/µL) ... Treatment interruption and review is recommended for patients showing evidence of neutropenia, severe constipation/ileus, ...
Real-Time TDM-based optimization of continuous-infusion meropenem for improving treatment outcome of febrile neutropenia in ... Real-Time TDM-based optimization of continuous-infusion meropenem for improving treatment outcome of febrile neutropenia in ... Real-Time TDM-based optimization of continuous-infusion meropenem for improving treatment outcome of febrile neutropenia in ... among oncohaematological patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). Methods: A monocentric, interventional, prospective study was ...
4.2 Evidences from neutropenia type 4. The first evidence for the use of empagliflozin in G6PC3 deficiency were recently ... Treating neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction in glycogen storage disease type ib with an SGLT2 inhibitor. Blood (2020) 136: ... Neutropenia in glycogen storage disease ib. Curr Opin Hematol (2019) 26:16-21. doi: 10.1097/MOH.0000000000000474 ... Successful use of empagliflozin to treat neutropenia in two G6PC3-deficient children: impact of a mutation in SGLT5. J Inherit ...
Some people experience neutropenia at regular intervals; this is known as cyclic neutropenia. Some people are always ... Some people experience neutropenia with no predictability whatsoever; this is known as intermittent neutropenia. A common cold ... NEUTROPENIA. When well, a BTHS individual can have an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) approaching zero, but this can rise to ... Neutropenia places the individual with BTHS at an increased risk of acquiring serious infections such as bacterial pneumonia ...
On day 14 of antibiotic treatment, the patient developed an isolated neutropenia with an absolute neutrophil count of 288 cells ... neutropenia, and leukopenia, but the exact incidence in children is unknown. The case describes a full-term, 26-day-old neonate ... Van Tuyl, Joseph S.; Jones, Aubrey N.; and Johnson, Peter N., "Meropenem-induced neutropenia in a neonate" (2016). Pharmacy ... On day 14 of antibiotic treatment, the patient developed an isolated neutropenia with an absolute neutrophil count of 288 cells ...
Anaemia and neutropenia in a cohortof non-infected children of HIV-positive mothers * Fernández Ibieta, M. ...
Neutropenia. 2 (1.1). Other baseline conditions and characteristics#. 70 (37.6). Lung infection. 186 (100.0). ...
Congenital Neutropenia. *MDS and AML have been reported to occur in the natural history of congenital neutropenia without ... CONGENITAL NEUTROPENIA. MUTATIONS. INCIDENCE. ANALYSIS. SURVIVAL. CLASSIFICATION. CRITERIA. DRUGS. CERTAIN TYPES. PHASE. TESTES ...
Early-onset neutropenia was defined as the lowest ANC,2.0×109/L before the end of cycle 2, non-early onset CIN defined as the ... 7. Liu R, Huang M, Zhao X, Peng W, Sun S, Cao J, Ji D, Wang C, Guo W, Li J, Yin J, Zhu X. Neutropenia predicts better prognosis ... Assessment of neutropenia Complete blood cell (CBC) count was checked prior to infusion of agents (Days 1 and 8) and every 7 ... Lack of neutropenia may suggest weak biological effect of chemotherapy, which is possible due to a low dose for an individual ...
neutropenia *lymphopenia Blood counts are carefully monitored during treatment with Darzalex. If they are too low, your doctor ...
Neutropenia. *ANC 3: Reduce to 135 mcg SC once weekly. *ANC 3: Discontinue treatment until ANC values return to >1000 cells/mm3 ... Neutropenia (CHC). * ANC 750-999 cells/mm^3. *Week 1-2: Immediately decrease dose to 135 mcg/1.73 m2 x BSA ... Neutropenia (CHB). *ANC 750-999 cells/mm3: No dosage modification. *ANC 500-749 cells/mm3: Immediately decrease dose to 135 mcg ... Avoid use of deferiprone with other drugs known to be associated with neutropenia or agranulocytosis; if an alternative is not ...
  • Neutropenia can be divided into congenital and acquired, with severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and cyclic neutropenia (CyN) being autosomal dominant and mostly caused by heterozygous mutations in the ELANE gene (neutrophil elastase). (wikipedia.org)
  • Other causes of congenital neutropenia are Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Cyclic neutropenia, bone marrow failure syndromes, cartilage-hair hypoplasia, reticular dysgenesis, and Barth syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The congenital neutropenia (severe and cyclic type) is autosomal dominant, with mutations in the ELA2 gene (neutrophil elastase) as the most common genetic reason for this condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANC alone does not allow differentiation of AIN from severe congenital neutropenia, since in both disorders the ANC may be extremely low. (medscape.com)
  • Indeed, differentiation from severe congenital neutropenia and benign chronic neutropenia may be difficult. (medscape.com)
  • When severe congenital neutropenia is suspected, a molecular diagnostic test is indicated. (medscape.com)
  • Mutations in ELANE cause severe congenital neutropenia (SCN), but how they affect neutrophil production and contribute to leukemia predisposition is unknown. (univaq.it)
  • Neutrophil elastase mutations and risk of leukaemia in severe congenital neutropenia. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cyclic neutropenia and severe congenital neutropenia in patients with a shared ELANE mutation and paternal haplotype: evidence for phenotype determination by modifying genes. (umassmed.edu)
  • Neutropenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the body can manufacture a normal level of neutrophils, in some cases the destruction of excessive numbers of neutrophils can lead to neutropenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are: Bacterial or fungal sepsis Necrotizing enterocolitis, circulating neutrophil population depleted due to migration into the intestines and peritoneum Alloimmune neonatal neutropenia, the mother produces antibodies against fetal neutrophils Inherited autoimmune neutropenia, the mother has autoimmune neutropenia Autoimmune neutropenia of infancy, the sensitization to self-antigens The pathophysiology of neutropenia can be divided into congenital and acquired. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with PN have chronic neutropenia, which is a persistent shortage (deficiency) of neutrophils. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Despite the fact that the condition is called autoimmune neutropenia, antibodies against neutrophils may not be demonstrated in a significant number of cases. (medscape.com)
  • Neutropenia is a decrease in circulating neutrophils in the nonmarginal pool, which constitutes 4-5% of total body neutrophil stores. (medscape.com)
  • can make antibodies that destroy neutrophils and result in neutropenia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In my experience, which mirrors the experience with ivosidenib reported by Montesinos et al, 3 neutrophils are improving in the first cycle and there is a lower incidence of febrile neutropenia. (ascopost.com)
  • The causes of neutropenia can be divided between problems that are transient and those that are chronic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pediatric chronic autoimmune neutropenia (pediatric chronic AIN, also called chronic benign neutropenia or chronic idiopathic neutropenia) is a benign, self-limiting condition affecting infants and toddlers. (medscape.com)
  • ELA2 mutation, GATA2 deficiency Barth syndrome Copper deficiency Vitamin B12 deficiency Pearson syndrome Some types of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome Transient neutropenia: Typhoid Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Cytomegalovirus Influenza Human Immunodeficiency Virus Propylthiouracil Levamisole Penicillamine Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Clozapine Valproate Vaccination Venetoclax Severe bacterial infections, especially in people with underlying hematological diseases or alcoholism, can deplete neutrophil reserves and lead to neutropenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutropenia symptoms may not always be obvious, but when they do appear, they typically include: Individuals with neutropenia may suffer from recurring or severe infections, notably bacterial infections of the skin, respiratory tract, or urinary tract. (chemicalbull.com)
  • Neutropenia, if severe, significantly increases the risk of life-threatening infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • When the neutrophil count falls below 500 cells per microliter (severe neutropenia), the risk of infection increases greatly. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our daughter was diagnosed with severe chronic benign neutropenia. (blogspot.com)
  • Neutropenia is a medical disorder defined by an abnormally low neutrophil count, a kind of white blood cell that is essential for combating infections. (chemicalbull.com)
  • These symptoms may exist because individuals with neutropenia often have infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 8 ] It is important to establish chronicity, since transient acute neutropenia associated with an infection is far more common in infants and toddlers than AIN. (medscape.com)
  • Neutropenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells, which are the body's main defense against infection. (cdc.gov)
  • During intervals of neutropenia , affected individuals are at risk for opportunistic infection. (lu.se)
  • Tuberculosis (see the image below) is one type of infection that may cause neutropenia. (medscape.com)
  • Antibiotics are given if the person has neutropenia and fever or other signs of infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Neutropenia may resolve quickly when the infection resolves or the exposure stops. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In this prospective, case-control study , participants were divided into 3 groups ALL patients with FN (Group A), ALL patients without neutropenia and fever (Group B), and healthy children without infection and chronic disease (Group C). There were 30 cases in each group. (bvsalud.org)
  • The diversity of mutations and clinical outcomes for ELANE-associated neutropenia. (umassmed.edu)
  • Dissecting ELANE neutropenia pathogenicity by human HSC gene editing. (umassmed.edu)
  • Cyclic neutropenia caused by defects in ELA2 is an autosomal dominant disease in which blood-cell production from the bone marrow oscillates with 21-day periodicity. (lu.se)
  • Cyclic neutropenia in animals. (umassmed.edu)
  • Serum interleukin-33 and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 in pediatric leukemia with febrile neutropenia. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between interleukin-33 ( IL-33 ) and its receptor Soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity-2 (sST2) levels and bacterial infections during febrile neutropenia (FN) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). (bvsalud.org)
  • â ¢ Febrile neutropenia has a high mortality rate if not treated effectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • What is New â ¢ Febrile neutropenia is not only caused by bacterial infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • â ¢ Specific biomarkers are needed to diagnose bacterial sepsis in the early phase of febrile neutropenia . (bvsalud.org)
  • It is a fallacy that if you arbitrarily restrict the number of days of venetoclax during the first cycle you can decrease the risk of toxicity," Dr. Erba said, citing a recent French retrospective analysis in which patients who preemptively received only 7 days of venetoclax (plus 7 days of azacitidine) had a rate of febrile neutropenia of 49% during the first cycle. (ascopost.com)
  • Furthermore, emerging research suggests neutropenia without an identifiable etiology (idiopathic neutropenia) may be the result of a low-grade, chronic inflammatory process with an abnormal excessive production of myelosuppressive cytokines in a study conducted in the island of Crete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some authors differentiate neutropenia without demonstrable antibodies from AIN, designating the former as chronic idiopathic neutropenia. (medscape.com)
  • Neutropenia can be acute (temporary) or chronic (long lasting). (wikipedia.org)
  • Causes can be divided into these groups: Chronic neutropenia: Aplastic anemia Evans syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nutritional deficiencies, such as deficiency in vitamin B12, folate, copper or protein-calorie malnutrition are associated with chronic neutropenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronicity means that the neutropenia persists longer than 3 months, although some authors define the chronic condition as neutropenia lasting more than 6 months. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic neutropenia may last for months or years. (msdmanuals.com)
  • IL-33 and sST2 levels were not associated with fever duration, neutropenia duration or length of hospitalization . (bvsalud.org)
  • The treatment is determined by the underlying cause and severity of the neutropenia. (chemicalbull.com)
  • The duration and severity of neutropenia directly correlate with the total incidence of all infections and of those infections that are life threatening. (medscape.com)
  • People with neutropenia are more susceptible to bacterial infections and, without prompt medical attention, the condition may become life-threatening (neutropenic sepsis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses that infect neutrophil progenitors can also be the cause of neutropenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquired neutropenia (immune-associated neutropenia) is due to anti-neutrophil antibodies that target neutrophil-specific antigens, ultimately altering neutrophil function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutropenia is defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of less than 1000/μL in infants and less than 1500/μL in older children. (medscape.com)
  • However, the term granulocytopenia is often used synonymously with neutropenia and, in that sense, is again confined to the neutrophil lineage alone. (medscape.com)
  • Only 7.7% of the SAIN patients recovered from neutropenia. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with neutropenia must take steps to avoid infections, such as exercising excellent hygiene, avoiding people who have contagious illnesses, and leading a healthy lifestyle to support their immune system. (chemicalbull.com)
  • Neutropenia is alleviated by CSF3 (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) therapy in most cases, but dose requirements vary between patients. (univaq.it)
  • Cutting back on the venetoclax dose during cycle 1 in this AML subtype to try to decrease myeloid toxicity, number one, will not avoid or shorten the duration of neutropenia, and number two, may be doing patients a disservice by restricting exposure to an effective agent. (ascopost.com)
  • Medical Conditions: Neutropenia can be caused by diseases such as leukemia, aplastic anemia, autoimmune disorders such as lupus, and viral infections such as HIV. (chemicalbull.com)
  • [ 1 ] Whether antibodies are found or not, their presence has no prognostic or therapeutic implications, since equal proportions of antibody-positive and antibody-negative cases recover spontaneously, and both represent primary neutropenia. (medscape.com)
  • Concurrent anemia, thrombocytopenia, and/or an abnormal result on a peripheral blood smear from a patient with neutropenia suggest an underlying hematologic disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN) is a disorder that mainly affects the skin and the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Among the most common causes are: Medications: Chemotherapy medications, which are used to treat cancer, frequently impair the bone marrow's ability to create white blood cells, resulting in neutropenia. (chemicalbull.com)
  • A blood sample is used to make the diagnosis of neutropenia, and a sample of bone marrow may be needed if the cause is not apparent. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Doctors suspect neutropenia in people who have frequent or unusual infections. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Neutropenia can be caused by a variety of factors, ranging from underlying medical disorders to specific medications or therapies. (chemicalbull.com)
  • Neutropenia is often a side effect of the treatment of cancer with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In general, the most common oral manifestations of neutropenia include ulcer, gingivitis, and periodontitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutropenia makes it more difficult for the body to fight off pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dr. Sienko has experience treating conditions like Neutropenia among other conditions at varying frequencies. (sharecare.com)