Barium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Neutron Diffraction: The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Fast Neutrons: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: A technique for the treatment of neoplasms, especially gliomas and melanomas in which boron-10, an isotope, is introduced into the target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.Neutron Activation Analysis: Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nuclear Reactors: Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Metals, Alkali: Metals that constitute group 1(formerly group Ia) of the periodic table. They are the most strongly electropositive of the metals. Note that HYDROGEN is not considered an alkali metal even though it falls under the group 1 heading in the periodic table.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Paraffin: A mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It has a wide range of uses including as a stiffening agent in ointments, as a lubricant, and as a topical anti-inflammatory. It is also commonly used as an embedding material in histology.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Boranes: The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Neutron Capture Therapy: A technique for the treatment of neoplasms in which an isotope is introduced into target cells followed by irradiation with thermal neutrons.Porphyrins: A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Cesium Isotopes: Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Fukushima Nuclear Accident: Nuclear power accident that occurred following the Tohoku-Kanto earthquake of March 11, 2011 in the northern region of Japan.Information Centers: Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Actinium: Actinium. A trivalent radioactive element and the prototypical member of the actinide family. It has the atomic symbol Ac, atomic number 89, and atomic weight 227.0278. Its principal isotope is 227 and decays primarily by beta-emission.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
  • From the GeV to the PeV scale, the expected neutron flux is very low and not too different from the antiproton flux, as the same cosmic-ray collisions with the interstellar medium which can produce antiprotons can also produce neutrons and antineutrons. (wikiversity.org)
  • Radium was used in the producing of self-luminous paints, neutron sources, and in medicine for the treatment of disease. (lanl.gov)
  • Other radioisotopes, such as 60 Co, are now being used in place of radium. (lanl.gov)
  • The latter was without radiochemical help so, handing his young German visitor a dish containing about 100 grams of barium salt, he asked him to extract the few milligrams of radium in it according to Marie Curie 's method. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In many therapeutic applications radium has been superseded by the less costly and more powerful artificial radioisotopes cobalt-60 and cesium-137. (slovar-vocab.com)
  • The heaviest of the alkaline earth metals , radium is intensely radioactive and resembles barium in its chemical behavior. (wikidoc.org)
  • Radium is luminescent (giving a faint blue color), reacts violently with water and oil to form radium hydroxide and is slightly more volatile than barium . (wikidoc.org)
  • Measurements were performed using a combination of non-destructive and destructive methods: instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, respectively. (jcmtjournal.com)
  • If the observed 41 K variations are of nucleosynthetic origin, correlations between 41 K and other neutron-rich nuclides in chondrites are expected. (sciencemag.org)
  • More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenylporphyrin compounds and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head, neck, and surrounding tissue. (google.es)
  • A61K41/0095 - Boron neutron capture therapy, i.e. (google.com)
  • these extra neutrons add to the atom's mass and can change the element's physical structure, but otherwise do not change the chemical properties of the element. (reference.com)
  • In other types of activation neutrons may irradiate soil that is dispersed in a mushroom cloud at or near the Earth's surface, resulting in fallout from activation of soil chemical elements. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • The target material is encapsulated in a low-neutron-absorbing material (such as aluminum or magnesium) and sealed by heli-arc welding or an equivalent process, and the capsule is tested for leakage. (persianblog.ir)
  • Neptunium is fissionable , and could theoretically be used as fuel in a fast neutron reactor or a nuclear weapon . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Fig. 1 Aluminum capsule target for high-neutron-flux reactor. (persianblog.ir)
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) played a pioneering role in the development of the first full-scale operating reactor prototype and the initial production of radioisotopes for applications in medical and biological research (Mirzadeh et al. (nap.edu)
  • A method of determining the intermediate energy neutron dose by Dale E. Hankins, National Reactor Testing Station, Idaho (U.S.), Phillips Petroleum Company. (google.com.uy)