The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE family. Previously a large group of serotypes, most are now considered separate species.
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A species of COLTIVIRUS transmitted by the tick DERMACENTOR andersonii and causing fever, chills, aching head and limbs, and often vomiting. It occurs in the northwestern United States, except the Pacific Coast.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA polyplexes for in vivo gene delivery to the liver. (1/6327)

We are developing a self-assembling non-viral in vivo gene delivery vehicle based on poly-l-lysine and plasmid DNA. We have characterized poly-l-lysines of different chain lengths for DNA condensation and strength of DNA binding. Poly-l-lysine chains >20 residues bound DNA efficiently in physiological saline, while shorter chains did not. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid to PLL increased the PLL chain length required for efficient DNA binding in saline and for efficient DNA condensation. By electron microscopy, poly-l-lysine/DNA polyplexes appeared as toroids 25-50 nm in diameter or rods 40-80 nm long; conjugation of asialoorosomucoid to the polylysine component increased the size of resulting polyplexes to 50-90 nm. In water, poly-l-lysine and asialoorosomucoid-PLL polyplexes have effective diameters of 46 and 87.6 nm, respectively. Polyplexes containing only poly-l-lysine and DNA aggregated in physiological saline at all charge ratios and aggregated at neutral charge ratios in water. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid lessened, but did not eliminate, the aggregation of PLL polyplexes, and did not result in efficient delivery of polyplexes to hepatocytes. Conjugation of polyethylene glycol to poly-l-lysine sterically stabilized resulting polyplexes at neutral charge ratios by shielding the surfaces. For efficient in vivo gene delivery, polyplexes will need to be sterically stabilized to prevent aggregation and interaction with serum components.  (+info)

Linear peptide specificity of bovine antibody responses to p67 of Theileria parva and sequence diversity of sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes: implications for a vaccine. (2/6327)

A stage-specific surface antigen of Theileria parva, p67, is the basis for the development of an anti-sporozoite vaccine for the control of East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle. By Pepscan analysis with a series of overlapping synthetic p67 peptides, the antigen was shown to contain five distinct linear peptide sequences recognized by sporozoite-neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies. Three epitopes were located between amino acid positions 105 to 229 and two were located between positions 617 to 639 on p67. Bovine antibodies to a synthetic peptide containing one of these epitopes neutralized sporozoites, validating this approach for defining immune responses that are likely to contribute to immunity. Comparison of the peptide specificity of antibodies from cattle inoculated with recombinant p67 that were immune or susceptible to ECF did not reveal statistically significant differences between the two groups. In general, antipeptide antibody levels in the susceptible animals were lower than in the immune group and neither group developed high responses to all sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes. The bovine antibody response to recombinant p67 was restricted to the N- and C-terminal regions of p67, and there was no activity against the central portion between positions 313 and 583. So far, p67 sequence polymorphisms have been identified only in buffalo-derived T. parva parasites, but the consequence of these for vaccine development remains to be defined. The data indicate that optimizations of the current vaccination protocol against ECF should include boosting of relevant antibody responses to neutralizing epitopes on p67.  (+info)

Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite pellicle antigen recognized by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody is a beta-mannosylated glycolipid. (3/6327)

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is an important cause of diarrhea in humans, calves, and other mammals worldwide. No approved vaccines or parasite-specific drugs are currently available for the control of cryptosporidiosis. To effectively immunize against C. parvum, identification and characterization of protective antigens are required. We previously identified CPS-500, a conserved, neutralization-sensitive antigen of C. parvum sporozoites and merozoites defined by monoclonal antibody 18.44. In the present study, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular location of CPS-500 were determined. CPS-500 was chloroform extractable and eluted with acetone and methanol in silicic acid chromatography, consistent with being a polar glycolipid. Following chloroform extraction and silicic acid chromatography, CPS-500 was isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography for glycosyl analysis, which indicated the presence of mannose and inositol. To identify which component of CPS-500 comprised the neutralization-sensitive epitope recognized by 18.44, the ability of the monoclonal antibody to bind CPS-500 treated with proteases, or with alpha- or beta-glycosidases, was determined. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 did not bind antigen treated with beta-D-mannosidase but did bind antigen treated with alpha-D-mannosidase, other alpha- or beta-glycosidases, or a panel of proteases. These data indicated that the target epitope was dependent on terminal beta-D-mannopyranosyl residues. By immunoelectron microscopy, 18.44 binding was localized to the pellicle and an intracytoplasmic tubulovesicular network in sporozoites. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 also bound to antigen deposited and released onto substrate over the course travelled by gliding sporozoites and merozoites. Surface localization, adhesion and release during locomotion, and neutralization sensitivity suggest that CPS-500 may be involved in motility and invasion processes of the infective zoite stages.  (+info)

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (4/6327)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses. (5/6327)

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis bacteriophages SP82, SPO1, and phie: a comparison of DNAs and of peptides synthesized during infection. (6/6327)

The genomes of Bacillus subtilis phages phie, SPO1, and SP82 were compared by DNA-DNA hybridization, analysis of DNA fragments produced by digestion with restriction endonucleases, comparison of the arrays of peptides synthesized during infection, and phage neutralization. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that about 78% of the SP82 DNA was homologous with SPO1 DNA, whereas 40% of the phie DNA was homologous to either SPO1 or SP82 DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to compare the molecular weights of DNA fragments produced by cleavage of SP82, SPO1, and phie DNAs with the restriction endonucleases Hae III, Sal I, Hpa II, and Hha I. Digestion of the DNAs with Hae III and Sal I produced only a few fragments, whereas digestion with Hpa II and Hha I yielded 29 to 40 fragments, depending on the DNA and the enzyme. Comparing the Hpa II fragments, 51% of the SP82 fragments had mobilities which matched those of SPO1 fragments, 32% of the SP82 fragments matched the phie fragments, and 34% of the SPO1 fragments matched the phie fragments. Comparing the Hha I digestion products, 62% of the SP82 fragments had mobilities matching the SPO1 fragments, 24% of the SP82 fragments matched the phie fragments, and 22% of the SPO1 fragments matched the phie fragments. Analysis of peptides by electrophoresis on one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gels showed that approximately 70 phage-specific peptides were synthesized in the first 24 min of each infection. With mobility and the intervals of synthesis as criteria, 66% of the different SP82 peptides matched the SPO1 peptides, 34% of the SP82 peptides matched the phie peptides, and 37% of the SPO1 peptides matched the phie peptides. Phage neutralization assays using antiserum to SP82 yielded K values of 510 for SP82, 240 for SPO1, and 120 for phie.  (+info)

Specific binding of recombinant foamy virus envelope protein to host cells correlates with susceptibility to infection. (7/6327)

The interaction of simian foamy viruses (FVs) with their putative cellular receptor(s) was studied with two types of recombinant envelope protein (Env). Transient expression of full-length Env in BHK-21 cells induced syncytia formation. However, selected stable transfectants fused with naive cells but not with each other. A soluble fusion protein of the Env surface domain with the Fc fragment of a human IgG1 heavy chain (EnvSU-Ig) was produced in the baculovirus expression system, purified to homogeneity, and used for binding and competition analyses. EnvSU-Ig but not unrelated Ig fusion proteins bound to cells specifically. Neutralizing serum blocked binding of EnvSU-Ig and, vice versa, serum-mediated neutralization was abrogated by the chimeric protein. Concomitant reduction of EnvSU-Ig binding and FV susceptibility was seen in Env-expressing target cells. Although EnvSU-Ig did not inhibit FV infection, very likely due to its displacement by multivalent virus-cell interactions, this divalent ligand should help to characterize functionally and to identify the ubiquitous FV receptor.  (+info)

Flexibility of the major antigenic loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus bound to a Fab fragment of a neutralising antibody: structure and neutralisation. (8/6327)

The interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype C (clone C-S8c1) with a strongly neutralising monoclonal antibody (MAb) 4C4 has been studied by combining data from cryoelectron microscopy and x-ray crystallography. The MAb 4C4 binds to the exposed flexible GH-loop of viral protein 1 (VP1), which appears to retain its flexibility, allowing movement of the bound Fab. This is in striking contrast to MAb SD6, which binds to the same GH-loop of VP1 but exhibits no movement of the bound Fab when observed under identical conditions. However, MAbs 4C4 and SD6 have very similar neutralisation characteristics. The known atomic structure of FMDV C-S8c1 and that of the 4C4 Fab cocrystallised with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the GH-loop of VP1 were fitted to the cryoelectron microscope density map. The best fit of the 4C4 Fab is compatible only with monovalent binding of the MAb in agreement with the neutralisation data on 4C4 MAbs, Fab2s, and Fabs. The position of the bound GH-loop is related to other known positions of this loop by a hinge rotation about the base of the loop. The 4C4 Fab appears to interact almost exclusively with the G-H loop of VP1, making no other contacts with the viral capsid.  (+info)

In this study, we attempted to induce mutations in the MN strain of HIV-1 by subjecting the virus to the immunological selective pressure associated with growth in the presence of human serum with high NA activity directed predominately against the V3 region neutralization determinant. We hypothesized that this selective pressure would result in a mutation(s) in the V3 neutralization determinant itself and that the mutation(s) would result in selective resistance to neutralization by the serum used for the selection process and other sera that reacted selectively with the MN V3 neutralization determinant. The four different NR viruses so derived were found to be broadly resistant to neutralization by all of the human sera that we tested, including some that had NA activity that could not be demonstrated to be directed against the V3 determinant by peptide blocking experiments. Sequencing of the PCR DNA spanning the V3 regions of the four different NR viruses derived by this procedure did not ...
Investigating the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer against HSV-1 is essential for monitoring the immune protection against HSV-1 in susceptible populations, which would facilitate the development of vaccines against herpes infection and improvement of HSV-1 based oncolytic virotherapy. In this study, we have developed a neutralization test based on the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT-NT) to determine the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 in human serum samples. This optimized assay employed a monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing glycoprotein D to detect the HSV-1 infected cells. With this test, the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 could be determined within one day by automated interpretation of the counts of cell spots. We observed good correlation in the results obtained from ELISPOT-NT and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) by testing 22 human serum samples representing different titers. Moreover, 269 human serum samples collected from a wide range of age
The FAVN (Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation) test is the method of choice for determining the levels of antibody to rabies virus in serum.
Immunization with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus‐like particles or L2 capsid protein elicits neutralizing antibodies that mediate protection
Neutralization of virus infectivity by antibodies is an important component of immunity to several virus infections. Here, the immunochemical basis for the action of neutralizing antibodies, and what role their induction of conformational changes in the antigen might play, is reviewed. Theories of the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize virus infectivity in vitro are also presented. The theoretical and empirical foundation of the hypothesis that viruses are neutralized by a single antibody per virion is critically reviewed. The relationship between antibody occupancy on virions and the mechanism of neutralization is explored. Examples of neutralization mediated through antibody interference with virus attachment and entry are discussed and test implications of refined theories of neutralization by antibody coating of virions are formulated.
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The presence of neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus implies immunity. The serum neutralization test is serotype specific. Antibodies against one type does not indicate immunity against type three antibodies. Reference Interval applies to Poliovirus Types 1 and 3 ...
Definition of platelet neutralization procedure in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is platelet neutralization procedure? Meaning of platelet neutralization procedure as a legal term. What does platelet neutralization procedure mean in law?
It is shown in this paper that homologous immune sera are able to neutralize the B. typhosus skin-preparatory factors. The neutralization experiments were performed on a large number of rabbits, at least ten rabbits which showed positive control reactions being used for the titration of each serum. The rabbits into which the mixtures of B. typhosus culture filtrates with immune sera were injected can be divided into the following categories: those showing complete neutralization in highest dilutions (HN), those showing complete neutralization only in lower dilutions (LN) and those showing no neutralization (NN). The results indicate that the potency of a given serum as measured by the method outlined above has a direct relation to the reactions obtained in these groups of rabbits. For practical purposes the highest dilution of the serum which gives complete neutralization of the B. typhosus skin-preparatory factors (HN titer) may be taken as the actual titer of the serum as expressed in terms of ...
In the past few years, several highly potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) specific for the gp120 envelope protein of HIV-1 have been discovered. The goal of this work is to use this information to inform the design of vaccines that are able to induce such antibodies (see the Perspective by Crowe). However, because of extensive somatic hypermutation, the epitope bound by these antibodies often does not bind to the germline sequence. Jardine et al. (p. 711, published online 28 March; see the cover) used computational analysis and in vitro screening to design an immunogen that could bind to VRC01-class bNAbs and to their germline precursors. Georgiev et al. (p. 751) took advantage of the fact that only four sites on the HIV viral envelope protein seem to bind bNAbs, and sera that contain particular bNAbs show characteristic patterns of neutralization. An algorithm was developed that could successfully delineate the neutralization specificity of antibodies present in polyclonal sera from ...
The high overall genetic homology between humans and rhesus macaques, coupled with the phenotypic conservation of lymphocyte populations, highlights the potential use of nonhuman primates (NHPs) for the preclinical evaluation of vaccine candidates. For HIV-1, experimental models are needed to identify vaccine regimens capable of eliciting desired immune responses, such as broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One important neutralization target on the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) is the conserved primary CD4 receptor binding site (CD4bs). The isolation and characterization of CD4bs-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (mAbs) from HIV-1-infected individuals have provided insights into how broadly reactive Abs target this conserved epitope. In contrast, and for reasons that are not understood, current Env immunogens elicit CD4bs-directed Abs with limited neutralization breadth. To facilitate the use of the NHP model to address this and other questions relevant to human humoral immunity, ...
View Notes - Heat of Neutralization - Copy from CHEM 120 at Waterloo. Heat of Neutralization Introduction This laboratory report aims to summarize and discuss the experiment where calorimeters were
OBJECTIVE: HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility.. DESIGN: Analysis of HCV from human liver chimeric mice infected with cell-culture-derived prototype genotype 2a recombinant J6/JFH1 or HVR1-deleted variant J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 identified adaptive mutations, which were analysed by reverse genetics in Huh7.5 and CD81-deficient S29 cells. The increased in vivo genomic stability of the adapted viruses facilitated ex vivo density analysis by ultracentrifugation and in vivo neutralisation experiments addressing the role of HVR1.. RESULTS: In vivo, J6/JFH1 and J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 depended on single substitutions within amino acids 867-876 in non-structural protein, NS2. The identified A876P-substitution resulted in a 4.7-fold increase in genomic stability. In vitro, NS2 substitutions ...
a, The predicted relationship between efficacy against any symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and the efficacy against severe infection. The black line indicates the best fit model for the relationship between protection against any versus severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The shaded areas indicate the 95% CIs. Efficacy against severe infection was calculated using a threshold that was 0.15 times lower than that for mild infection (95% CI = 0.036 0.65) (see Methods and Supplementary Table 5). b, Extrapolation of the decay of neutralization titers over time. This model uses the estimated half-life of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titer in convalescent subjects of 108 d over the first 250 d5, after which the decay decreases linearly until it achieves a 10-year half-life (consistent with the long-term stability of antibody responses seen after other vaccines47,48). We simulate three scenarios, with decay of neutralization taking 1 year (blue dashed line), 1.5 years (purple dashed line) or 2 years (red dashed ...
Part 8 of Berry Berry Easy notes on Acids and Bases for Form 4 SPM Chemistry students regarding applications of neutralisation reactions in daily life
We study the neutralization of negative hydrogen ions in collisions with multicharged fast ions (including relativistic ions) by using an approach that allows a simple expression for the neutralizatio
We designed synthetic, epitope-focused immunogens that preferentially screen person neutralization epitopes targeted by cross-subtype anti-HIV V3 loop neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). received the DNA excellent three times via Gene Weapon accompanied by two increases with either V32219-CTB, V33074-CTB or V3447-CTB (V3 series is similar with clade B consensus) at weeks 10 and 14. A complete of 100g/per shot of every V3-CTB was given intramuscularly with imperfect Freunds adjuvant (IFA). Bloodstream examples were collected to immunization and fourteen days after every immunization prior. Virus building Chimeric pseudoviruses (psVs) had been constructed and made by regular methods which have been previously referred to( 51). SF162 Env variations containing revised V3 sequences had been produced by sequentially presenting the necessary adjustments by site-directed mutagenesis using the QuikChange package, as referred to by the product manufacturer (Stratagene, Inc.). Belnacasan The ...
People who have recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection are usually protected from being infected a second time (called re-infection). This is because they develop neutralizing antibodies that remain in their blood for at least 5-6 months, maybe longer. These antibodies bind to specific parts of the spike protein that have mutated in the new variant (K417N and E484K). We now know that these mutations have allowed the virus to become resistant to antibody neutralization.. The blood samples from half the people we tested showed that all neutralizing activity was lost. This suggests that they may no longer be protected from re-infection. In the other half, the levels of antibodies were reduced and so the risk of re-infection is not known. It is therefore important that people who have previously had COVID-19 continue to adhere to public health measures. Protecting ourselves through masks, regular washing or sanitising of hands, cleaning of surfaces, and social distancing remain the best defense against ...
Immunogenicity of inter-protomer disulfide stabilized RSV F variants.Neutralization titers of sera from mice immunized with 10 μg of RSV F variants in the pres
While waiting for an efficient vaccine to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection, alternative approaches to treat or prevent acute COVID-19 are urgently needed. Transfusion of convalescent plasma to treat COVID-19 patients is currently being explored; neutralizing activity in convalescent plasma is thought to play a central role in the efficacy of this treatment. Here, we observed that plasma neutralization activity decreased a few weeks... ...
APAM plays a role of electrical neutralization with the suspended particles and makes a bridge to form large f - Manufacturer - Producer - PSL147347YH
The Comparison of Sensitivity and Specificity of ELISA-based Microneutralization Test with Hemagglutination Inhibition Test to Evaluate Neutralizing Antibody against Influenza Virus (H1N1)
To test whether antibodies that are neutralizing or nonneutralizing for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary isolates can be distinguished by their affinities for the oligomeric envelope glycoproteins, we selected HIV-1(JR-FL) as a model primary virus and a panel of 13 human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and evaluated three parameters: (i) half-maximal binding to recombinant monomeric envelope, gp120(JR-FL); (ii) half-maximal binding to oligomeric envelope of HIV-1(JR-FL) expressed on the surface of transfected 293 cells; and (iii) neutralization of HIV-1(JR-FL) in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell-based neutralization assay. Two conclusions can be drawn from these experiments. First, we confirm that antibody interactions with monomeric gp120 do not predict primary virus neutralization. Second, we show that neutralization correlates qualitatively with the relative affinity of an antibody for the oligomeric envelope glycoproteins, at least for HIV-1(JR-FL).. ...
Seth, Ankit, Santosh K. Maurya, Ashish Srivastava (2014) Formulation development, characterization and estimation of acid neutralization capacity of shankha bhasma tablets for the treatment of dyspepsia. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced HIV type 1 neutralization by human anti-glycoprotein 120 monoclonal antibodies in the presence of monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte function-associated molecule 1. AU - Hioe, Catarina E.. AU - Hildreth, James. AU - Zolla-Pazner, Susan. PY - 1999/4/10. Y1 - 1999/4/10. N2 - Cellular adhesion receptor LFA-1 and its ICAM ligands are known to play a role in HIV infection. The presence of these molecules on virions and target cells promotes virus infectivity and has previously been shown to hinder virus neutralization by anti-HIV antibodies. To delineate the effect of these molecules on neutralization of HIV-1, human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to V3 and the CD4-binding domain (CD4bd) of gp120 were examined in the presence of anti-LFA-1 MAbs. When either of two anti-LFA-1 MAbs was present, higher levels of virus neutralization were achieved by both anti-V3 and anti- CD4bd MAbs. This effect was observed with primary HIV-1 isolates as well as with a laboratory-adapted strain. ...
Spin-polarized ion neutralization spectroscopy (SPINS), in which a beam of electron-spin-polarized He+ ions is directed onto a surface and analysis is done of the electrons ejected from the surface as a result of ion neutralization, is a unique tool for surface studies that has unparalleled surface specificity. This technique has been used in studies described in this thesis of Mg surfaces and rare gas van der Waals solids. The possibility of plasmon excitation in He+ ion neutralization at Mg has been investigated, but this process is found to be unlikely. Instead, the mechanism for ion neutralization appears to be resonance neutralization followed by electron ejection through Auger deexcitation. Experiments at frozen Xe surfaces found that ion neutralization proceeds by an Auger neutralization-type process above the surface, while experiments at frozen Kr are explained by the formation of two types of collision complexes at the surface, one ejecting an electron by double ionization of a surface ...
The envelope glycoproteins of HIV, gp120 and gp41, contain epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies. Studies of human sera from infected individuals indicate that group-specific neutralization antigens common to most isolates of HIV-1 exist, and that some HIV-2 antisera cross-neutralize HIV-1. Neutralization epitopes for HIV-1 have been identified and mapped, including a group-specific antigen on gp41, and a type-specific antigen on gp120. Neutralization escape mutants have been selected in vitro with a neutralizing mab to the type-specific antigenic loop. The CD4 antigen binds HIV-1 gp120 with high affinity and acts as the receptor on human and simian T-lymphocytes and monocytes for all strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV tested. Following binding to the CD4 receptor, HIV becomes internalized by a pH-independent process. The principle binding domain for gp120 is located in the N-terminal V domain of CD4. Anti-idiotypic sera to CD4 mabs recognizing the same site weakly neutralize HIVs of many
Definition of Neutralisation (immunology) in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Neutralisation (immunology)? Meaning of Neutralisation (immunology) as a legal term. What does Neutralisation (immunology) mean in law?
The isolation of J3 represents a significant improvement on previous nAbs derived from immunized animals as in single-domain VHH form it has a comparable breadth and potency to the best nAbs obtained from a limited number of natural human infections. In contrast, previous nAb clones characterized from immunized animals have only exhibited limited breadth (Forsman et al., 2008; Sundling et al., 2010). A caveat to this is the observation that sera with 17b-like binding specificity can be induced after immunization of humans (Vaine et al., 2010), and it should be noted that 17b and other Abs to CD4-induced epitopes are less broadly neutralizing as full-length mAbs than in Fab form (Labrijn et al., 2003). However, given the previously reported decrease in neutralization ability seen with the Fab of b12 (Labrijn et al., 2003), it appears the CD4-binding site of Env is not per se more easily targeted for neutralization by small Ab fragments as is the CD4-induced binding site, presumably because of the ...
Percentage of Participants who are YF and Dengue Virus (DENV)-naive at Baseline and are Seroprotected against YF on Day 30 as Measured by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) in a Subset of 120 Participants in each Trial ...
The selection of HIV-1 resistance to neutralization by both monovalent and bivalent forms of soluble CD4 was demonstrated under various conditions. Phenotypic traits of the neutralization-resistant variants were systematically explored in order to gain insight into which aspects of the interactions with CD4 are most expendable to HIV-1 replication. The size of the nonneutralized fraction after treatment of preparations of the HIV-1 isolate IIIB and a molecular clone derived from it (HX10), with either monovalent soluble CD4 (sCD4) or bivalent CD4-Ig, was determined. These fractions were greater for the polyclonal IIIB than for the viral clone, and greater after treatment with sCD4 than with CD4-Ig. The virus in the nonneutralized fractions exhibited 2- to 20-fold lower sensitivity to the neutralizing agents than did unselected virus. In addition, clonal HIV-1 (HX10) was cultured in the presence of sCD4 or CD4-Ig for 12 weeks, so as to allow for accumulation of mutations that would confer stronger
We performed a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 146 (18%) of 823 persons tested. Further studies are needed to determine health risks for humans from this potentially deadly group of viruses ...
View Notes - Studio_9_HessLaw_modified-1 from CHEM 025 at Lehigh University. Chem. 25: Studio #8 _ _Heat of Neutralization and Hesss Law STUDIO:_ NAME:_ HEAT OF NEUTRALIZATION OF ACIDS AND BASES
To identify TBE virus-endemic areas, it is effective to conduct an epizootiological survey of wild rodents. The neutralizing test can be used for serological diagnosis of wild rodents, but it is time consuming and uses hazardous live viruses that require a high-level biosafety facility. It is also known that non-infected wild rodents sometime indicated low neutralization antibody titers by the neutralization test. Therefore, a diagnosis which is more convenient for the epizootiological survey of wild rodents is required. In this study, we tried to develop ELISAs using two recombinant antigens. in the serological diagnosis of rodents for the first time. Domain III of the E protein was known to have the neutralizing epitopes (11) and was used for the serological diagnosis in several flaviviruses (13, 14). In this study, the recombinant domain III of the E protein was applied to the diagnosis ELISA for wild rodents. The EdIII-ELISA was shown ...
The antibody response is crucial for preventing many viral infections and may also contribute to resolution of infection. When a vertebrate is infected with a virus, antibodies are produced against many epitopes on multiple virus proteins. A subset of these antibodies can block virus infection by a process that is called neutralization. Antibodies can neutralize viral infectivity…
As commonly induced, weakly neutralizing Abs - such as those against V3 - do not protect against heterologous HIV-1 transmission (17), it was initially surprising that our results implicated these Abs in decreased MTCT risk. However, it is highly relevant to MTCT that V3-specific Abs can neutralize concomitant autologous virus strains (ref. 18 and Moody, MA, et al., in review). In fact, maternal V3-specific IgG Abs neutralized and exerted selection pressure on circulating autologous maternal viruses at inhibitory concentrations compatible with that associated with decreased MTCT risk. Nonetheless, it is important to caution that measuring maternal IgG V3 binding and tier 1 virus neutralization responses may be a surrogate for a yet-unmeasured antiviral function.. The WITS study offered a large historical cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women, yet was limited by case and specimen availability. Propensity score matching was used to maximize the power. Moreover, a pilot study of humoral responses ...
In this study, expanded human trial with M, Gerbil kidney tissue culture inactivated HFRS vaccine was carried out and neutralizing antibody response was assessed by plaque reduction neutralization(PRNT) and CPE neutralization(CPENT) methods. According to the data of all 74 person immune sera assayed by the two methods, the rates of seroconversion and GMT tesed by CPENT were significantly higher than that by PRNT. Several vaccinating groups were studied and the neutralizing antibody levels were as follows: v...
Application: ELISA, In vitro neutralization and Western blot analysis. Isotype: Rabbit Ig. Antigen: For immunization recombinant mouse TNF-alpha (E.coli-derived) is used. Purification: Antibodies were sequentially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and protein A-affinity chromatography. Packaging: Lyophilized and vacuum-packed. Contents: 0.5 mg/vial. Buffer: Prior to lyophilization: 0.5 ml PBS + 125 mM trehalose. Specificity: Binds with high affinity to and efficiently neutralizes both natural and recombinant mouse TNF-alpha. High degree of cross-neutralizing activity with rat TNF-alpha.
Regardless of whether you are developing consumable or industrial products, ensuring product quality, efficacy, and safety is of the utmost importance. In vitro screening and routine quality control testing combined with authenticated models and controls can help ensure product integrity and brand reputation.. Explore our featured content below to learn more about the importance of authenticated in vitro models and control strains for toxicity screening, infectivity studies, virus neutralization assays, microbial analysis, industry-guided quality control testing, and more.. .authentication-wrapper .AFSImage{ margin-bottom:1em; } .Card__main{ display:block !important; } .Card.--expand .Card__header:after{ display:none !important; } @media only screen and (min-width: 47em) { .authentication-wrapper{ margin-bottom:1.5em; } .authentication-wrapper h4{ text-align:center; font-weight:bold; margin:1.25em 0 1em; } .authentication-wrapper h4:hover{ text-decoration:underline; } .authentication-wrapper p{ ...
This Anti-β-Interferon Rabbit pAb is validated for use in Neutralization Studies for the detection of β-Interferon. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
More than 20.8 million people are infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, with South Africa having one of the fastest growing HIV-1 epidemics, where an estimated 2.4 million people were infected. Thirty-two sera from 25 patients were tested for their ability to neutralize HTLV-III(B) (IIIB) and four primary isolates representing subtypes B, C, D, and a recombinant gag C/env B type. A CEM-SS cell line-based assay was used and the neutralizing titer was defined as the reciprocal of the highest dilution giving a 50% reduction in p24 antigen production. All isolates were neutralized better by subtype-specific sera, except for the C4714 strain, which was neutralized by both subtype B and C sera. C4714 was neutralized by 18/25 (72%) sera, IIIB by 19/32 (59%) sera, D482 by 7/31(23%) sera, B3245 by 6/29 (21%) sera, and the recombinant B/C1491 isolate by 4/25 (16%) sera. Five sera were unable to neutralize any of the isolates. The V3 region of the isolates used in the neutralization assay was amplified ...
Antibody responses peaked by day 28 (median 157 ELISA units - studied in 127 participants) and remained high until the measurement at day 56 in the trial (median 119 ELISA units - studied in 43 participants) for those given a single vaccine. This response was boosted by a second dose (median 639 ELISA units at day 56 in these 10 participants). 28 days after vaccination, neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 32 of 35 participants (91%) (when measured in MNA80 neutralisation assay), and in 35 of 35 participants (100% - when measured in PRNT50 neutralisation assay) who received a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. These responses were present in all participants who had a booster dose of the vaccine (nine of nine participants in MNA80 assay at day 42, and ten of ten in Marburg VN assay on day 56 ...
ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
Next, we measured SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs over time using microneutralization (MN50) assays. Similar to S-specific IgG responses, the NAb titer against the CN1 strain emerged at week 1 (titer of 12 for the high-dose immunization), surged after the week 2 booster, and reached a titer up to 1500 for the low and medium doses and 3000 for the high dose at week 7 (Fig. 2A). By contrast, the sham group did not develop detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses (Fig. 2, A and B). In addition, immunogenic evaluations of PiCoVacc in Wistar rats with the same immunization strategy yielded similar results: The maximum neutralizing titers reached 2048 to 4096 at week 7 (Fig. 2C). To investigate the spectrum of neutralizing activities elicited by PiCoVacc, we conducted neutralization assays against the other nine isolated SARS-CoV-2 strains using mouse and rat serum collected 3 weeks after vaccination. Neutralizing titers against these strains demonstrated that PiCoVacc is capable of eliciting ... provides email based homework help and assignment help in Heat of Neutralization. We have 24 / 7 live online tutors available to help you. Get speedy and cost effective homework solutions at for any kind of homework and assignment help.
In this first year we have made considerable progress in achieving our goals. The grant was based on two fundamental observations that led to testable hypotheses. The first was that HIV envelope gp140 trimer, the envelope spike required for infectivity, had a life span in vivo measured in minutes. Additional experiments suggested that Env was progressively metabolized into smaller fragments. We hypothesized that rapid proteolysis destroyed critical antigens. Our experiments were indirect and we turned to direct experimental observations. The Duke Mass Spectroscopy group finds that gp140 is one of the most rapidly proteolized proteins that they have studied. It is broken down into a series of fragments that are then quite stable. We suggest that the observed non-neutralizing antibody response to Env, recognizes these stable fragments. Importantly we find that the membrane proximal segment of gp140 (MPER) is rapidly cleaved from gp140, contributing to the poor response to the MPER. Most ...
2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( Received 31 December 2020, Accepted 6 March 2021, Available online 10 March 2021. We thank N.J. Huang, N. Pishesha, and H.F. Lodish for helpful discussion, advice, and reagents; P.N.P. Gnanapragasam and L.M. Kakutani for producing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and setting up the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay in our laboratory; G.L. Chadwick, R. Galimidi, and A. Moradian (formerly Caltech Proteome Exploration Laboratory) for helpful discussions and reagents; G. Spigolon for guidance with light microscopy performed at the Beckman Institute Biological Imaging Facility; Z. Romero-Garcia and D.B. Kohn for the pCCL-AS3-FB plasmid; J. Voetteler and W.I. Sundquist for the CCF2-AM reagent; J.D. Bloom for 293T-ACE2 cells and plasmids for generating SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus; and the NIH AIDS Reagent Program for reagents. BEL-A2 cell lines were created by Professor Jan Frayne, ...
BOUVIN-PLEY M, MORGAND M, MEYER L, GOUJARD C, MOREAU A, MOUQUET H, NUSSENZWEIG M, PACE C, HO D, BJORKMAN PJ, BATY D, CHAMES P, PANCERA M, KWONG PD, POIGNARD P, BARIN F, BRAIBANT M. Drift of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 toward increased neutralization resistance over the course of the epidemic: a comprehensive study using the most potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Braibant M. J Virol 2014, 88, 13910-13917 ...
Complement and isotype dependence of anti-A33 MAb neutralization of VACV EEV.VACV EEV neutralization activity of purified anti-A33 MAbs in the absence (MAbs) or
A new paper discusses an intriguing new mechanism of immune evasion traceable to specific mutations in the B.1.427/B.1.429 variant of the severe acute…
This simple experiment allows students to follow the pH and temperature changes when an acidic solution is gradually neutralised.
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exactly where K is equivalent to the level of endotoxin permitted for every machine, N is equal to the quantity of devices tested, and V is equivalent to the overall volume from the extract or rinse. If the undiluted rinsing or extracting Resolution is unsuitable for the Bacterial Endotoxins Exam 85 , repeat the inhibition or enhancement take a look at after neutralization and removing with the interfering substances or just after the solution has actually been diluted by a factor not exceeding the Maximum Legitimate Dilution ...
Misrtan (A) is used as a excellent auxiliary tanning agent, it is applied either in the neutralization or retanning of chrame leather or in both processes. ...
... neutralization test, and hemagglutination-inhibition test. In the past, arboviruses were organized into one of four groups: A, ... Seawright, G. L.; Harding, G.; Thomas, F. C.; Hanson, R. P. (1974). "Microculture Plaque Neutralization Test for California ... "Arbovirus Antibodies Test". Medical Health Tests. March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2013. Huang, C.; Slater, B.; Campbell, W ... "Arboviral Diagnostic Testing". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved April 17, 2013. " ...
... tests and mouse inoculation or feeding trials. The toxins can be typed with neutralization tests in mice. In toxicoinfectious ... These tests may include a brain scan, cerebrospinal fluid examination, nerve conduction test (electromyography, or EMG), and an ... Confirmation of the diagnosis is made by testing of a stool or enema specimen with the mouse bioassay. In people whose history ... and special tests may be needed to exclude these other conditions. ...
Neutralization followed by biotreatment was selected for the Colorado stockpile, and neutralization followed by supercritical ... In September, PCAPP entered into the pilot testing phase, where destruction operations were tested. The main plant began ... PCAPP technicians began testing the Biotreatment Area using a surrogate solution, thiodiglycol. Preliminary results showed the ... The SDC arrived at BGCAPP in August to be assembled, tested and installed. On October 28, BGCAPP declared construction of the ...
Surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) results were reported as mean inhibition rate (%). Up to day 28 (before 2nd ... Neutralizing antibody levels were evaluated by plaque reduction neutralization test with inhibitory dilution greater than 50% ( ... At day 42, 96.4% in vaccine group was positive for the test but only 1.2% positive in placebo group. Neutralizing antibody, ... "Vaccine Diplomacy Is Biden's First Test in Southeast Asia". Center for Strategic and International Studies. 28 January 2021. Hà ...
Other methods of diagnosis included hemagglutination inhibition (HI), complement fixation, neutralization tests. However, new ... This study also found using immune response tests that birds and humans in the region appeared to have been exposed to the ...
Diagnosis requires laboratory tests. Serological methods such as complement fixation, serum neutralization and PCR are ...
Dimitrova K, Mendoza EJ, Mueller N, Wood H (2020). "A Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test for the Detection of ZIKV-Specific ... Older methods included complement fixation tests, hemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation. Newer methods us enzyme ... The so-called "home" or "self"-testing gadgets are usually lateral flow tests, which detect the virus using a tagged monoclonal ... The invention of microfluidic tests as allowed for most of these tests to be automated, Despite its specificity and sensitivity ...
Plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRINT) can be performed and may be specific. The Zika virus can be identified by RT-PCR ... RT-PCR testing of serum and tissue samples can be used to detect the presence of the Zika virus. However, the RT-PCR test with ... The PRINT test looks for viral-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, this test can still produce false positive results, ... However, it is suggested that a PRINT test be performed following a test for IgM antibodies to help eliminate false positives ...
The concept of neutralization is thus absent. Brønsted-Lowry acid-base behavior is formally independent of any solvent, making ... The Brønsted-Lowry model expanded what could be pH tested using insoluble and soluble solutions (gas, liquid, solid). The ... The reaction of an acid with a base is called a neutralization reaction. The products of this reaction are a salt and water. ... Acid-alkali reactions are also neutralization reactions. In general, acid-alkali reactions can be simplified to OH− (aq) + H+ ( ...
Staphylococcal agglutination, virus neutralisation (VN), indirect fluorescent antibody testing, ELISA, PCR, and DNA probe ... To prevent the disease, strict isolation, hygiene, and testing procedures should be in place. This virus was first reported in ... The gold standard is virus neutralisation. Alternatively, the identification of degeneration and necrosis of granular cells in ...
These tests include cell cultures, PCR, ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, and immunofluorescence essays. ... The FDA has yet to approve a widely validated laboratory test for Lassa, but there are tests that have been able to provide ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ... The confidence of a diagnosis can be compromised if laboratory tests are not available. One comprising factor is the number of ...
The CDC has used plaque reduction neutralization tests to detect JCV neutralizing antibodies since 1995. The test is ... the New York State Department of Health has performed JCV plaque reduction neutralization tests since 2000 on samples positive ... JCV-antibody testing has only been available at the CDC and the New York State Department of Health. ... Increasing awareness and more testing In the latest US review covering 2000-2013, more than half of cases were identified in ...
"Homogeneous surrogate virus neutralization assay to rapidly assess neutralization activity of antiSARS-CoV-2 antibodies". "What ... In addition, his lab is developing a novel and proprietary serological test which will help detect, manage and reduce ... SATiN is the first COVID-19 serology test that uses highly sensitive protein complementation chemistry which takes advantage of ... doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-22102-6. Semeniuk, Ivan (22 March 2021). "'Firefly' test aims to shed light on COVID-19 vaccine ...
Serologic studies have distinguished 71 human enterovirus serotypes on the basis of antibody neutralization tests. Additional ... Poliomyelitis primarily via the fecal-oral route Polio-like syndrome found in children who tested positive for enterovirus 68. ... variants have been defined within several of the serotypes on the basis of reduced or nonreciprocal cross-neutralization ...
Antibody titers can also be measured with complement fixation tests, hemagglutination assays, and neutralization tests. In ... "Amylase Test". Lab Tests Online. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2020. "Changes in the ... Sensitivity to IgM testing is variable, ranging from as low as 24-51% to 75% in the first week and 100% thereafter. Throughout ... In laboratory tests on rodents, MuV appears to enter the CNS first through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), then spreading to the ...
Perform a test to demonstrate a phospholipid-dependent antibody, such as a platelet neutralization procedure. Spontaneous ... Mixing studies are tests performed on blood plasma of patients or test subjects to distinguish factor deficiencies from factor ... Performing a thrombin time on the test plasma can provide useful additional information for the interpretation of mixing tests ... A test performed after the mixture is incubated for 1 to 2 hours at 37 °C will show significant prolongation over the clotting ...
Preliminary tests of samples of freshwater drum collected on May 2 were positive, and the announcement came amidst a die-off of ... Virus neutralisation is another important method of diagnosis, especially for carrier fish. Thoroughly cleaning boats, trailers ... Preliminary tests later indicated VHS in specimens from Lake Winnebago. The lakes drain through the Fox River to Lake ... The sample was not tested for VHS until 2005, after the disease was detected in Lake Ontario. 2005 samples of Lake Ontario ...
Serological testing via virus neutralization and haemagglutination inhibition testing can be performed to diagnose the disease ... General biosecurity protocols including adequate quarantine, testing, and disinfection can help prevent the entry or spread of ...
He developed in particular a method of titration of yellow fever antibodies by a neutralization test. He also ensured an ... He also developed a method for titrating antiviral antibodies using a seroprotection test. René Panthier was born in the north- ... Panthier, R (1956). "Recherche d'une méthode précise de titrage des anticorps par test de séroprotection" [Research on a ... Panthier, R; Carteaud, AJP; Husson, RA (1957). "Recherche d'une méthode précise de titrage des anticorps par test de ...
These two glycoproteins are the targets of numerous serologic reactions and tests including neutralization and hemagglutination ...
This was assessed by a laboratory test that measures a virus' susceptibility to neutralization by an antibody. HPTN 096 is a ... Findings from HPTN 071 (PopART) show delivery of an HIV prevention strategy that includes offering in-home HIV testing to ... Findings show delivery of an HIV prevention strategy that includes offering in-home HIV testing to everyone, with immediate ... "Basis and Statistical Design of the Passive HIV-1 Antibody Mediated Prevention (AMP) Test-of-Concept Efficacy Trials", US ...
Most hobby ROVs are tested in swimming pools and lakes where the water is calm, however some have tested their own personal ... The US Navy also uses an ROV called AN/SLQ-48 Mine Neutralization Vehicle (MNV) for mine warfare. It can go 1,000 yards (910 m ... tests submarine drone off Santa Catalina Island". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 25 May 2015. Blueye Robotics (2018-12-19), The ... "AN/SLQ-48 - Mine Neutralization Vehicle". FAS. Retrieved 4 June 2016. "AN/BLQ-11 Autonomous Unmanned Undersea Vehicle". ...
"Identity of Karelian fever and Ockelbo viruses determined by serum dilution-plaque reduction neutralization tests and ...
... and virus neutralization (VN). Virus neutralization identifies type-specific antibodies, which allows for differentiation ... Confirming infection of avian reovirus can be detected through an ELISA test by using and observing the expression of σC and σB ... The other four tests detect group antigens. Maternal antibodies have displayed protection against the development of ...
The common tests of choice include Haemaglutination-Inhibition, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serum Neutralisation. The ... However, proper laboratory testing is still needed to eliminate doubts for a definitive diagnosis. Serological testing can ... Identification of the virus can also be detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction-based test. There is no treatment for EDS '76, ... use of sentinel birds (non-vaccinated susceptible birds) in the flocks is also useful for early detection and tested for ...
No special blood tests or diagnostic procedures are usually required to make the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of ... Neutralization occurs when an antidrug antibody prevents a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab from binding antigen in a ... Specifically, neutralization occurs when the anti-drug antibody binds to infliximab's antigen binding site instead of TNF-α. ... People undergoing systemic treatment must have regular blood and liver function tests to check for medication toxicities. ...
... between Ebola virus BSL-4 neutralization assays and pseudotyped VSV BSL-2 fluorescence reduction neutralization test". Journal ... and serological testing. A related assay tests for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a phenomenon where non-neutralizing ... RVPs are most commonly used in neutralization assays, which measure the ability of serum or antibodies to prevent virus ... Ferrara, F and Temperton, N (2018). "Pseudotype neutralization assays: From laboratory bench to data analysis". Methods and ...
The SN test is occasionally used for detection and quantitation of humoral antibody for PPV. Neutralization of infectivity is ... The SN test has been reported to be more sensitive than the HI test. A microtechnique for application of the SN test has been ... However, its identity can be established by relatively stringent serologic tests such as virus neutralization (VN) and ... Tests The HI test is frequently used for detection and quantitation of humoral antibody for PPV. Antibody sometimes can be ...
BGCAPP is using neutralization to destroy the remaining stockpile in the main plant and Static Detonation Chamber technology to ... "Crew Tests Equipment Procedures with Conventional Munitions". "First chemical weapon destroyed at Kentucky Army facility". WKYT ... The neutralization method consists of the following steps: Munitions are disassembled by modified reverse assembly. The ... The agent is destroyed by subsequent neutralization. The U.S. Army's Explosive Destruction System, or EDS, is an example. ...
After hydrolysis and neutralization of the acid, the product may be a reducing sugar that gives normal reactions with the test ... The aldehyde functional group allows the sugar to act as a reducing agent, for example, in the Tollens' test or Benedict's test ... All carbohydrates are converted to aldehydes and respond positively in Molisch's test. But the test has a faster rate when it ... Several qualitative tests are used to detect the presence of reducing sugars. Two of them use solutions of copper(II) ions: ...
Gloria Emerson (30 January 1972). "Bribes to evade draft or pass a test or get a job make corruption a way of life in South ... to be announced by the end of the month and that in Laos this would take a similar form to the 1961 and 1962 neutralization ... Craig R. Whitney (2 May 1972). "Allied program fails a key test". The New York Times. p. 1. "Ridge above ex-C.I.A. base ... The remains were exhumed on 14 May 1998 and identified as Blassie through DNA testing. Later in 1998 he was reburied at ...
self-published) Ailon, Galit (2008). "Mirror, Mirror on the Wall: Culture's consequences in a value test of its own design". ... Hofstede's study is limited by two factors: neutralization and analyzing non-Western countries with a Western methodology. Each ...
ASTM D924 Neutralization number; e.g., ASTM D974 Oxidation inhibitor content; e.g., ASTM D2668 Polychlorinated biphenyls ... Recently time-consuming testing procedures in test labs have been replaced by on-site oil testing procedures. There are various ... Two standard-compliant test electrodes with a typical clearance of 2.5 mm are surrounded by the dielectric oil. A test voltage ... An instant after ignition of the arc, the test voltage is switched off automatically by the testing device. Ultra fast switch ...
It is equal to the number of milliliters of 0.1 normal alkali solution necessary for the neutralization of the water-insoluble ... The Reichert value and Kirschner value are related numbers based on similar tests. Food and Agriculture Organization and World ...
8. Continue the test until neutralisation has been established. The PCT recordings assist in classification and diagnosis of ... 3. With the prism present, an alternate cover test is performed. It is important that an alternate cover test is performed ... and are always tested with their head tilt and then without their head tilt The results leading on from the cover test will ... Before commencing the test, ensure the patient is sitting upright with their chin and head straight. Patients with a head tilt ...
To manufacture and test the COVID-19 vaccine Corbett's team partnered with Moderna, a biotechnology company, to rapidly enter ... "Structural Definition of a Neutralization-Sensitive Epitope on the MERS-CoV S1-NTD". Cell Reports. 28 (13): 3395-3405.e6. doi: ... Neergaard, Lauran (March 8, 2020). "Behind the scenes, scientists prep for COVID-19 vaccine test". The Washington Times. ... including her role in development and testing of a spike-encoding mRNA vaccine. Appearances on C-SPAN Kizzmekia Corbett on ...
After these successes, the IJN now concentrated on the elimination and neutralization of strategic points from where the Allies ... a former officer in the Royal Air Force experienced in the design and testing of Royal Navy aircraft during the First World War ... and then were purchased in pairs so as to organize comparative testing and improvements. Over the years, the importation of ...
Neutralization was selected as an alternative to incineration for bulk agent storage sites, where chemical agent was stored in ... Incineration was selected as the Army's stockpile chemical weapons disposal technology in 1985 based on rigorous tests and ... Depending on the type of agent, neutralization destroyed the chemical agent by mixing it with hot water or hot water and sodium ... Neutralization is the selected method for the Department of Defense's Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives facilities in ...
... neutralization of opponents, and combat in urban areas. Assault on Aircraft : GIS are the main aircraft assault unit in Italy. ... most probably tested to supersede the Steyr TMP) Beretta 70/90 Weapons system Beretta ARX160 used by Carabinieri Steyr AUG - ... both fire tests with real ammunition Police activities : arrest techniques English Escort at high risk First aid techniques ...
It is the Department of Defense's primary center for surveillance, receipt, storage, issue, testing and minor repair for the ... Nerve agents were planned to be treated using a technology known as neutralization followed by supercritical water oxidation. ... ultrasonic testing for mortar ammunition; chemical material surveillance; quality assurance and joint logistics support; and ...
It is equal to the number of millilitres of 0.1 normal hydroxide solution necessary for the neutralization of the water-soluble ... The Polenske value and Kirschner value are related numbers based on similar tests. The Reichert-Meissel value for milk ranges ...
For nucleic acid tests, like the viral load blood test, it can take anywhere from 10-33 days for the test to provide an ... HCV in this particle form is protected from antibody neutralization which would normally stop the virus from spreading. These ... Each test has a window of time after the initial exposure occurred until the test can accurately tell if an individual has been ... If an individual's first HIV test is positive, it is recommended for them to take a second test to confirm the results. If this ...
Chesla, S; Henry, S; Eatz, R; Sinor, L (2010). "Solid phase syphilis test utilizing KODE technology". Transfusion. 50: 196A- ... Oliver, Caroline; Blake, Debbie; Henry, Stephen (2011). "In vivo neutralization of anti-A and successful transfusion of A ...
When she returned to Taiwan on August 3, she did not report any symptoms, but a test administered at the airport revealed that ... "neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.621 lineage was robust", albeit at a lower level than that observed against the B.1 variant. ... Twenty-six cases of the Mu variant have been confirmed in Jamaica from a total of 92 samples which were sent for testing to the ... One such study conducted in a lab in Rome tested the effectiveness of sera collected from recipients of the BioNTech-Pfizer ...
Freund published one paper entitled "The effect of temperature on the volume change accompanying neutralization in the case of ... She insisted that her students read original research and test the validity of published work - a revolutionary approach for ...
Despite speculation as to his future with the team, Sykes flew to Japan to help test the ZX-10R, the bike the team will use for ... anticipating neutralisation, but the time lost here proved costly, as Sykes failed to stay close enough to Bayliss, finishing ... "Sykes tests new Kawasaki ZX-10R". Crash Media Group. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 7 August 2010. "Rutter dominates for ... Shortly after joining the Rizla Suzuki team for 2008, he was seen testing a Suzuki MotoGP bike. Sykes started the 2008 with a ...
The reaction is also used in blast furnaces to remove sand impurities in the ore by neutralisation with calcium oxide, forming ... Tests or frustules (i.e. shells) of diatoms, Radiolaria, and testate amoebae. Silica phytoliths in the cells of many plants, ...
Kennan's solution was for the reunification and neutralization of Germany; the withdrawal of most of the British, American, ... the first Soviet test of a nuclear weapon in August 1949, the Communist revolution in China a month later, and the beginning of ... The Greek Test Case", World Policy Journal, 22 (3): 126-145, doi:10.1215/07402775-2005-4005. Isaacson, Walter; Thomas, Evan ( ... American and Soviet forces from Germany as a prelude to German reunification and for the neutralization of Germany. Besides his ...
It consists of the number of milliliters of 0.1 normal sodium hydroxide necessary for the neutralization of water-soluble ... The Reichert value and Polenske value are related numbers based on similar tests. Food and Agriculture Organization and World ...
... fabrics which have been tested for harmful substances and textiles that offer acoustic solutions to direct and control sound. ... Création Baumann can achieve the prescribed norms for the processing of industrial effluents with the neutralization plant, ... the enterprise was spearheading the Swiss textile industry with an expansion of its dye workshop that included a neutralisation ...
The famous test platoon, the prime ancestor of all American parachute units, provided the nucleus of the 1st Parachute ... Through the combined use of ground, air and amphibious operations, the unit was credited with the capture or neutralization of ... where they were activated as a provisional organization to test the "Pentomic concept. The word pentomic referred to the five ...
Nucleic acid-based tests (NATs) amplify and detect viral nucleic acid. Most of these tests take a few hours, but rapid ... Common serological assays include hemagglutination inhibition assays that detect HA-specific antibodies, virus neutralization ... Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are a simple way of obtaining assay results, are low cost, and produce results quickly ... Influenza testing is recommended for anyone hospitalized with symptoms resembling influenza during flu season or who is ...
Resolution test specimen of gold particles on carbon in ESEM, at high magnification. Field width 1.2 µm Bone marrow of cow, SE ... Moncrieff, D.A.; Robinson, V.N.E. & Harris, L.B. (1978). "Charge neutralisation of insulating surfaces in the SEM by gas ... Diridollou S, Hallegot P, Mainwaring P, Leroy F, Barbosa VH, Zaluzec NJ (2007). "In-Situ Tensile Testing of Hair Fibers in An ... However, not much is known on its use outside the experimental prototype originally tested. Clearly, ESEM is more powerful and ...
Gingerdead Man's neutralization has worn off and threatens to murder everyone in the shop, but Rabbit uses his telekinesis to ... Larnell is still selling the two patrons on some glassware by allowing them to test it with his own marijuana when the pair ...
Apart from the liquid consonants, this pattern may indicate a sound change in Later Egyptian, leading to a neutralisation of ... ISBN 978-3-906206-04-2. Coptic language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator Coptic language repository of Wikisource, the ...
... will lead to neutralization at best or more likely to a Communist-controlled state". He also admitted that the computer models ... "test case" of American willingness to continue as a global power. In April 1964, Senator Wayne Morse called the war "McNamara's ...
Malcolm Klein conducted a test which showed that labeling theory affected some youth offenders but not others. At the other ... are able to temporarily neutralize internal moral and social-behavioral constraints through techniques of neutralization. ... Kelin, Malcolm (March 1986). "Labeling Theory and Delinquency Policy: An Experimental Test". Criminal Justice and Behavior. 13 ...
A chemical self-neutralization system was used in the mines, rendering the main explosive content inert after a period of time ... Dragontooth was one of a number of airborne land mines tested, being preferred by the military because they could be used to ...
Downloadable Notes and Test Papers for Class X Chemistry, Class IX Chemistry, Class X Physics, Class X Biology, CBSE Chemistry ... Free Online NEUTRALIZATION REACTION Practice & Preparation Tests. Search Result for neutralization reaction ... Subscribe to Unlock Test Prep Material Choose Exam Category. A P Police. AFCAT Combo. AMCAT Combo. AMCAT Group. APPSC (Welfare ...
Guidelines for plaque reduction neutralization testing of human antibodies to dengue viruses  ...
Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests Hideyuki Kubo. , Nobuhiro Iritani, and ... Molecular Classification of Enteroviruses Not Identified by Neutralization Tests. ...
Virus Infection in Healthy Singapore University Undergraduates by Enzyme Immunoassay and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. ... Virus Infection in Healthy Singapore University Undergraduates by Enzyme Immunoassay and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test ...
... and Cytotoxin Neutralization Assay for Optimal Clostridium difficile Diagnostic Testing. ... Of 5695 stool samples tested, 9.1% (n=517) had toxigenic C difficile. Sixty per cent (310 of 517) of toxigenic C difficile ... Following the algorithm, culture was needed for only 2.72% of all specimens submitted for C difficile testing.CONCLUSION: The ... In addition, conventional reference methods for C difficile detection (eg, toxigenic culture and cytotoxin neutralization [CTN ...
Title : Guidelines for plaque-reduction neutralization testing of human antibodies to dengue viruses Corporate Authors(s) : ... Guidelines for plaque-reduction neutralization testing of human antibodies to dengue viruses. ... Guidelines for plaque-reduction neutralization testing of human antibodies to dengue viruses ... WHO with the support of PDVI initiated a program to coordinate the procedures used for the plaque-reduction neutralization test ...
The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is currently considered to be the "gold standard" to characterize and quantify ... The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is currently considered to be the "gold standard" to characterize and quantify ... The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is currently considered to be the "gold standard" to characterize and quantify ... Dengue plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) in primary and secondary dengue virus infections: How alterations in assay ...
Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT). What is the test?. *PRNT can detect specific neutralizing antibodies against ... IgM antibody test results may be forwarded for confirmation by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT), see below. ... Some IgM tests can be performed on plasma and whole blood but these tests have not been extensively evaluated for these ... Combined testing with a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and MAC-ELISA usually provides a diagnostic result during the ...
Eight monoclonal antibodies and their Fab fragments were tested for neutralization of canine parvovirus and feline ... Antibody binding and neutralization are major host defenses against viruses, yet the mechanisms are often not well understood. ... Eight monoclonal antibodies and their Fab fragments were tested for neutralization of canine parvovirus and feline ... Antibody binding and neutralization are major host defenses against viruses, yet the mechanisms are often not well understood. ...
HEVs have long been classified on the basis of serotype-specific antisera in virus neutralization tests (1,10), the only method ... Virus Isolation and the Neutralization Test. The clinical specimens were injected into Vero, RD-18S, or MA104 cells to isolate ... Of the six viruses that could not be identified by the neutralization tests described above (Table 1), strains OC/0071, OC/0073 ... Furthermore, the neutralization test is labor-intensive and time-consuming, requiring several weeks. As an alternative, ...
The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is a confirmatory diagnostic assay that is used to confirm a variety of ... The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is a confirmatory diagnostic assay that is used to confirm a variety of ... Boykin, Jasmine, "Validation of Chimeric Viruses in Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test in Arboviral Disease Diagnostics" ( ... Validation of Chimeric Viruses in Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test in Arboviral Disease Diagnostics ...
Intratypic serodifferentiation of poliovirus type 1 isolates using kinetic neutralization test.. Authors: Deshpande, J M. Dave ... Intratypic serodifferentiation of poliovirus type 1 isolates using kinetic neutralization test. Indian Journal of Medical ...
CF test - homologous = 128/16. Institut Pasteur (Dakar) Y. Robin: ArB 209 gives positive results with the following sera; Group ... Neutralization index expressed in dex Ntaya 2.7 *. 1.5 ArB 209 1.8 1.6 ...
Surrogate virus neutralization assay. A surrogate virus-neutralization test was used. Specifically, this test measures the ... A SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test based on antibody-mediated blockage of ACE2-spike protein-protein interaction ... Indeed, PBMCs from all 23 individuals tested reacted to N peptides from SARS-CoV-2 (Fig. 3c, d). To test whether these low- ... In all individuals tested (36 out of 36), we detected IFNγ spots after stimulation with the pools of synthetic peptides that ...
The DENV-1 PIV was safe and immunogenic in a small number of volunteers supporting development and further testing of a ... Additional testing using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated induction of a humoral immune response following ... Neutralization tests.. Before the enrollment in the study, sera from prospective volunteers were screened by flavivirus plaque ... After incubation at 35°C for 30 minutes to allow for antibody-dependent virus neutralization, test and control samples were ...
... and any confirmatory testing with plaque reduction neutralization testing.. ¶ If Zika virus plaque reduction neutralization ... nucleic acid test; PRNT = plaque reduction neutralization test.. * All infants should receive a standard evaluation at birth ... nucleic acid test; PRNT = plaque reduction neutralization test.. * All infants should receive a standard evaluation at birth ... This group includes women who were never tested during pregnancy as well as those whose test result was negative because of ...
serum neutralization test;. *reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay; and ... Tests on clinical samples present an extreme biohazard risk and are conducted only under maximum biological containment ... Marburg virus infections can be diagnosed definitively only in laboratories, by a number of different tests:. *enzyme-linked ... Several vaccine candidates are being tested but it could be several years before any are available. New drug therapies have ...
New assay rapidly tests SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and screens antivirals Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch ... It might be the future of diagnostic testing for common infections, and could prove to be a crucial tool for understanding and ... Galveston, have developed a new platform that can rapidly test neutralizing antibody activity against severe acute respiratory ...
Test Methods. The methods EPA has used for registration are standardized by the AOAC International; however, a survey of ... Neutralization of Germicides. One of the difficulties associated with evaluating the bactericidal activity of disinfectants is ... FDA has published recommendations on the types of test methods that manufacturers should submit to FDA for 510[k] clearance for ... For example, of 26 sterilant products tested by EPA, 15 were canceled because of product failure. A list of products registered ...
PHIX Under Sink Acid Neutralization System for new constrcution or retrofit applications. ... Acid Neutralization Cartridge. PHIX Cartridge is a safe, effective solution for neutralizing acidic wastewater. Conveniently ...
Antibody Tests: *Complement fixation (CF): Commercially available, but lacks sensitivity. *Neutralization test (NT): Sensitive ... In some instances, stains of vesicular scrapings may be tested using a fluorescent monoclonal antibody test which is very ... Laboratory tests must be interpreted cautiously in this population. History of prior chickenpox may be a more important ... Skin test antigen: Not commercially available. *In normal individuals, the presence of detectable antibody can be considered ...
Testing has shown what Art states in his pull test are true, but it does not seem to have any advantage over a DC Permanent ... This test used 18V at .5A at 84.75 Hz using transformer core. A solid iron core would be slower at switching and may explain ... The nullification test does not apply because the rotor is almost all the way around and has tapered edges on the poles to ... With that said, i will be testing a small model of this. Right now, what i find interesting is the fact that when i put my neo ...
Categories: Neutralization Tests Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
... plaque reduction neutralization test; RT-PCR = reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.. * Outcomes for multiple ... Negative infant test results among infants with ≥1 infant specimen reported as tested. 17 (38). 474 (56). 491 (55). ... If there is concern about infant follow-up or maternal testing is not performed, infant Zika virus testing should be considered ... AND Zika virus plaque reduction neutralization test [PRNT] titer ≥10, regardless of dengue virus PRNT value; or negative Zika ...
... the neutralization test was performed only in 24 (68.6%) patients treated with fingolimod due to the low antibody titers, to ... The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for between-group comparisons, Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction for pairwise ... Correlation Between Anti-RBD Antibody Titer and Neutralization Activity. We evaluated the neutralization activity in the sera ... 20 is the evaluation of the humoral immune response using both specific anti-RBD IgG and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests, in ...
Sabin-Feldman dye test. The Sabin-Feldman dye test is a sensitive and specific neutralization test for toxoplasmosis. It is ... Fluorescent antibody test. The indirect fluorescent antibody test is used to measure the same antibodies as the dye test. ... test, the IgG avidity test, and the agglutination and differential agglutination tests. (Acute and convalescent sera have no ... ELISA test. The results from a double-sandwich IgM ELISA are more sensitive and specific than the results from other IgM tests. ...
Test biologique sur souris.neutralisation. fr-CAFrench (Canada). Toxine Clostridium botulinum A+B+E:. Présence-Seuil:. Temps ... Test biologique sur souris.neutralisation. fr-FRFrench (France). Clostridium botulinum toxine A+B+E:. Présence/Seuil:. Ponctuel ... Test sur souris neutralisation. de-DEGerman (Germany). Clostridium botulinum Toxin A+B+E:. Nachweis oder Schwellenwert:. ... Mouse bioassay.neutralization. Additional Names. Short Name. C bot Tox ABE Spec Ql MA Nt. Display Name. C. botulinum toxin A+B+ ...
... and the plaque reduction neutralization test, or PRNT, which measures virus-specific neutralizing antibody titers. ... The testing indicated for symptomatic pregnant woman includes testing for both Zika virus IgM and Dengue virus IgM; while the ... If the results of the Zika IgM test are negative, and the Dengue IgM test results are positive or equivocal, PRNT should be ... So for that particular case, she was tested prior to 53 days. She was tested at 25 days after her last possible exposure, and ...
Evaluation of a plaque reduction neutralization test. Using blood samples from COVID-19 patients, this test detects the ... None of the blood and urine samples tested positive for the virus. Serum samples were also tested for antibodies against SARS- ... All nine patients underwent daily testing using both nasopharyngeal (nose and throat) swabs and sputum samples. Testing ... These tests must be performed in laboratories meeting biosafety level 3 criteria, such as Charités Institute of Virology and ...
  • Title : Guidelines for plaque-reduction neutralization testing of human antibodies to dengue viruses Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases (U.S.) Published Date : June 2008 Source : Viral immunology. (
  • Eight monoclonal antibodies and their Fab fragments were tested for neutralization of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus. (
  • Sixty-four serotypes of HEV have been recognized antigenically by neutralization tests with anti-HEV antibodies ( 9 ) . (
  • A robust serological test to measure neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories is useful for monitoring antibody response after vaccination or natural infection . (
  • Using specific antibodies, these tests are used to further confirm and delineate the type of enterovirus isolated from cell culture. (
  • Using blood samples from COVID-19 patients, this test detects the antibodies which neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 virus, i.e. stop the virus infecting cells. (
  • Specificity of two HIV screening tests detecting simultaneously HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1. (
  • Through the VIC, we could test a larger pool of antibodies in parallel, which increased the potential to detect statistically significant relationships between antibody features and protection," says Saphire. (
  • In addition to identifying links between antibody target locations and activity, VIC researchers tested this huge pool of antibodies to reveal which antibodies "neutralized" the virus, why neutralization assays so often disagree, and whether or not neutralization in test tubes adequately predicted how well these antibodies would protect live animals from Ebola virus infection. (
  • Notably, the scientists found nine antibodies that protected mice from infection without neutralizing the virus in test tubes. (
  • To search for evidence of autochthonous MERS-CoV infection in humans, we tested archived serum from livestock handlers in Kenya for MERS-CoV antibodies. (
  • Plot of all individual optical density (OD) ratios obtained from recombinant ELISA testing of human serum samples for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) antibodies, Africa, 2013-2014. (
  • Banked blood samples collected from white-tailed deer, raccoon, and (occasionally) moose ( Alces alces ) and coyote ( Canis latrans ) during 2009-2014 were analyzed by plaque-reduction neutralization test for HRTV neutralizing antibodies by using African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell culture. (
  • COVID-19: Antibodies, testing, and how the body develops antibodies. (
  • Antibody testing helps determine if a person has had the new coronavirus, or SARS-CoV-19, by checking for the presence of antibodies. (
  • Read on to learn more about how the body develops COVID-19 antibodies and antibody testing. (
  • A coronavirus antibody test checks specifically for the presence of antibodies to the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Binding tests do not use a live virus to detect antibodies. (
  • Neutralizing antibody tests determine the ability of the antibodies to prevent viral infection in a test tube. (
  • This series of three articles explores the reproducibility crisis, protocols and standards, and our specificity testing methodology with data from numerous antibodies and pathways. (
  • Our antibodies are being tested using at least one of the following methods to ensure proper functionality in researcher's experiments. (
  • Read the app note to learn how Thermo Fisher is validating antibodies in the EGFR pathway, using CRISPR knockout and other specificity tests to verify antibody performance. (
  • Variants of concern are defined as viruses that have evidence of an increase in transmissibility, more severe disease, significant reduction in neutralization by antibodies generated during previous infection or vaccination, reduced effectiveness of treatments or vaccines, or diagnostic detection failures. (
  • Here, we study the neutralization of BA.4/5 using a range of vaccine and naturally immune serum and panels of monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Simple tests for food-specific IgE antibodies are available, but the clinician must appreciate that a positive test for food-specific IgE primarily denotes sensitization and may not confirm clinical allergy. (
  • Detection of antibodies to feline calicivirus (FCV) by virus neutralization. (
  • One of our specialties is testing of rhinovirus-16 specific antibodies by neutralisation (performed under ISO 15189), and neutralisation of enteroviruses. (
  • Anti-FMDV (O1/Campos strain) antibodies (Abs) were evaluated by Liquid Phase Blocking ELISA (LPB-ELISA), virus neutralization test (VNT), isotype ELISA (IgG1, IgG2 and IgM) and avidity ELISA, to allow for the first time a more detailed description of the humoral responses elicited. (
  • We report on a new integrated platform for automated harvesting of whole unclarified cell-culture broths, followed by in-line tandem affinity-capture, pH neutralization and size-exclusion chromatography of recombinant antibodies expressed transiently in mammalian human embryonic kidney 293T-cells at the 1-L scale. (
  • A Seroprevalence Survey of Dengue Virus Infection in Healthy Singapore University Undergraduates by Enzyme Immunoassay and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. (
  • The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is currently considered to be the "gold standard" to characterize and quantify circulating levels of anti-DENV neutralizing antibody (NAb). (
  • The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is a confirmatory diagnostic assay that is used to confirm a variety of diseases. (
  • The gold standard assay is the conventional plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) which requires extensive labor, live viruses , and BSL-3 facilities. (
  • We used the plaque-reduction neutralization test to evaluate HRTV seropositivity for white-tailed deer (n = 396), raccoon (n = 949), coyote (n = 61), and moose (n = 22) ( Table 1 ). (
  • Reindeer sera were analysed for INKV-specific IgG by an Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (n = 480, IIFA) and a Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (n = 60, PRNT). (
  • In addition, conventional reference methods for C difficile detection (eg, toxigenic culture and cytotoxin neutralization [CTN] assays) are not routinely practiced in diagnostic laboratory settings.OBJECTIVE: To review the four-step algorithm used at Diagnostic Services of Manitoba sites for the laboratory diagnosis of toxigenic C difficile.RESULT: One year of retrospective C difficile data using the proposed algorithm was reported. (
  • Molecular methods may soon replace viral culture and neutralization assays used to isolate and type enteroviruses. (
  • Viral culture and neutralization assays are reliable but time-consuming and costly methods. (
  • Many new technologies have been applied to diagnostic testing for Lyme disease, and promising new assays are on the horizon. (
  • CDC characterizes influenza viruses through one or more tests including genome sequencing , hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and/or neutralization assays. (
  • Consequently, presumed positive, indeterminate, and equivocal, IgM antibody test results may be forwarded for confirmation by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT), see below. (
  • We performed plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) against authentic SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates of Delta and Omicron BA.1, BA.2, and BA.5 variants, as previously described. (
  • Combined testing with a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and MAC-ELISA usually provides a diagnostic result during the first 1-7 days of illness. (
  • Immune markers were measured by SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralisation test and spike receptor-binding domain IgG ELISA. (
  • We used a well-characterized panel of acute and late convalescent follow-up sera samples from children experiencing primary and secondary DENV infections to evaluate the performance of the dengue PRNT under a variety of testing conditions. (
  • Our findings indicate wide variation in PRNT titer results in response to varied testing conditions. (
  • PRNT is a labor-intensive and relatively costly test. (
  • A single PRNT test result cannot help determine the timing of infection. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the performance of the neutralization test using this SFV with 80 PRNT-positive and 92 PRNT-negative clinical serum or plasma specimens. (
  • The SFV neutralization test (SFVNT) has 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to the PRNT. (
  • Number of participants with a PRNT (Plague Reduction Neutralization Testing) sero-conversion after receiving booster Yellow Fever vaccination. (
  • Following the algorithm, culture was needed for only 2.72% of all specimens submitted for C difficile testing.CONCLUSION: The overview of the data illustrated the significance of each stage of this four-step C difficile algorithm and emphasized the value of using CTN assay and culture as parts of an algorithm that ensures accurate diagnosis of toxigenic C difficile. (
  • This assay was developed to use less reagents and for testing a larger number of samples. (
  • Here we assessed the serum neutralizing activity using a pseudovirus-based neutralization assay in 292 healthcare workers who had administered a third homologous boosting vaccination 8 to 9 months after completion of the priming two-dose inactivated vaccination to investigate whether the newly identified Omicron variant could escape serum antibody neutralization elicited by the booster vaccination. (
  • O157:H7 (O157 STEC) and tested with an assay that detects Shiga toxins to detect non-O157 STEC. (
  • Feline panel includes includes PCR testing for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin gene, net F toxin gene-C. perfringens, C. difficile, Campylobacter jejuni and coli, feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), Salmonella spp. (
  • Culture of the third specimen, from patients who had two previous negative specimens, detected an additional 2.32% (12 of 517) of toxigenic C difficile samples.DISCUSSION: Using GDH antigen as the screening and toxin A and B as confirmatory test for C difficile, 85% of specimens were reported negative or positive within 4 h. (
  • It may also reverse Epstein Barr (chronic fatigue syndrome), hepatitis, and herpes B. HIV positive users of this enclosed information may expect a NEGATIVE p24 surface antigen or PCR test (no more HIV detectable in blood) after 30 days. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 transmission in intercollegiate athletics not fully mitigated with daily antigen testing. (
  • Two SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks occurred among intercollegiate university athletic programs during the fall 2020 semester despite mandatory directly observed daily antigen testing. (
  • Those who are diagnosed by rapid antigen tests are not included in the daily case count. (
  • Results Activated T cells express Pros1 To test the hypothesis that activated T cells constitute a relevant immunological source of Pros1, we first measured Pros1 expression upon antigen presentation led to the detection of Pros1 on activated T cells (Figure 1A). (
  • Antibody binding and neutralization are major host defenses against viruses, yet the mechanisms are often not well understood. (
  • To serotype the viruses, microneutralization tests were performed with antiserum pools of Lim and Benyesh-Melnick ( 21 ) (Denka Seiken, Tokyo, Japan) or in-house monospecific immune sera against coxsackie virus A10 (CAV10), CAV16, and HEV71, respectively. (
  • Of the six viruses that could not be identified by the neutralization tests described above ( Table 1 ), strains OC/0071, OC/0073, and OC/00272 were isolated from patients diagnosed with aseptic meningitis by using RD-18S cells. (
  • It might be the future of diagnostic testing for common infections, and could prove to be a crucial tool for understanding and fighting novel viruses. (
  • Comparative neutralization tests with related viruses were not performed, because we had previously found that murine antiserum developed against the other known phleboviruses in the United States-Sunday Canyon virus ( 7 ), Rio Grande virus ( 8 ), and Lone Star virus ( 9 )-had no appreciable neutralizing activity against HRTV ( Table 2 ). (
  • In addition, public health laboratories also report the influenza A subtype (H1 or H3) and influenza B lineage information of the viruses they test and the age or age group of the persons from whom the specimens were collected. (
  • Cross-neutralization of strains with receptor binding domain (RBD) mutations is poor. (
  • Because the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika virus infection is not yet known, all infants born to women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection during pregnancy should receive postnatal neuroimaging and Zika virus testing in addition to a comprehensive newborn physical exam and hearing screen. (
  • Urine will only be tested for Zika by RT-PCR. (
  • During this COCA Call, clinicians will learn about current CDC travel recommendations, how to determine which patients should receive Zika testing after traveling to an area with Zika, and the recommendations for patients before and after travel to help them protect themselves and others from Zika. (
  • A convalescent phase specimen is needed to make a diagnosis of dengue virus infection when results are negative on both tests from the acute specimen. (
  • In 2 small, matched cohorts (n = 12, n = 24) in Denmark, we found Omicron BA.1/BA.2 breakthrough infection after 3-dose BNT162b2 vaccination provided improved Omicron BA.5 neutralization over 3-dose vaccination alone. (
  • [ 2 ] Serum neutralization studies have indicated that neither vaccination nor previous infection during the early Omicron waves offer effective protection against BA.5. (
  • [ 7 ] To assess whether Omicron BA.1/BA.2 infection provides additional BA.5-specific neutralization capacity than vaccines alone, we compared authentic virus neutralization capacity among persons receiving 3-dose BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech, ) regimens only and vaccinated persons who subsequently were infected with BA.1/BA.2. (
  • A Single-Round Infection Fluorescent SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Test for COVID-19 Serological Testing at a Biosafety Level-2 Laboratory. (
  • Recently, we developed a novel single-round infection fluorescent SARS-CoV-2 virus (SFV) that can be safely used at BSL-2 laboratories for high-throughput neutralization and antiviral testing. (
  • All of the samples collected were then tested for SARS-CoV-2 by two separate laboratories working independently of each other: the Institute of Virology on Campus Charité Mitte in Berlin and the Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, an institution which forms part of the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF). (
  • Preclinical studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates have typically shown post-infection virological control, but protection against acquisition of infection has previously only been reported against neutralization-sensitive virus challenges. (
  • To search for evidence of previous MERS-CoV infection, we tested archived human serum samples collected from 1,122 livestock handlers in Kenya during 2013 and 2014. (
  • The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50). (
  • These sub variants are notable in their neutralization escape potential against vaccination and previous infection with other pre-omicron variants and omicron sub variants. (
  • To support employee health and prevent the spread of COVID-19, have tested negative for latent TB infection prior to becoming ill. (
  • Here, we describe clinical features, virology, longitudinal cellular, and cytokine immune profile, SARS-CoV-2-specific serology and salivary antibody responses in a family of two parents with PCR-confirmed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and their three children, who tested repeatedly SARS-CoV-2 PCR negative. (
  • Sera were tested by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test further confirmed by micro-neutralization test (MN). (
  • The proportion of seropositive specimens in both counties in Kenya did not differ significantly (Fisher exact test, p = 0.07). (
  • The percentage of respiratory specimens testing positive for influenza in clinical laboratories was low. (
  • WHO and NREVSS collaborating laboratories, which include both public health and clinical laboratories located in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, report to CDC the total number of respiratory specimens tested for influenza and the number positive for influenza by virus type. (
  • Dengue IgM serologic tests also are available as laboratory-developed tests in public health and commercial clinical laboratories or as diagnostic kits. (
  • Rhode Island Blood Center's state-of-the-art laboratory has a reputation for quality results, a flexible test menu, commitment to excellence and outstanding customer service. (
  • The Clinical Guide to Services is a comprehensive reference guide of testing services, shipping information, and submission requirements for Minnesota's Infectious Disease Laboratory. (
  • Laboratory tests that require the use of trained laboratory staff and specialized instruments. (
  • This type of test involves mixing a blood sample with live virus, and trained technicians carry it out in a laboratory. (
  • Because specific laboratory tests for some food hypersensitivities are not available, diagnosing non-IgE-mediated food allergies (eg, cow milk-induced and soy-induced enterocolitis syndromes or allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis) is more difficult than diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergies. (
  • Laboratory testing is not recommended in healthy asymptomatic individuals with no risk factors and a negative family history. (
  • Actual reporting of test results depends on the full battery of tests requested, day of the week/time of day samples arrive at the testing laboratory, and the quantity/quality of samples submitted. (
  • In addition to the diagnostic tasks, the virus culture laboratory is also focused on the education, research, development and validation of new tests. (
  • These tests must be performed in laboratories meeting biosafety level 3 criteria, such as Charité's Institute of Virology and the Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology. (
  • Rhode Island Blood Center and its Laboratories are licensed by the Food and Drug Administration under License #1786 to collect, prepare, store, distribute, and test blood components. (
  • The results of tests performed by clinical laboratories during the current week are summarized below. (
  • The results of tests performed by public health laboratories, as well as the age group distribution of influenza positive tests, during the current week are summarized below. (
  • Venereal Disease Research Laboratories (VDRL) test or rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test: Extracts of bovine heart, which contain cardiolipin, are used in these tests. (
  • Some IgM tests can be performed on plasma and whole blood but these tests have not been extensively evaluated for these specimen types. (
  • However, virus neutralization is both labor- and time-intensive, and antigenic variants in many serotypes of HEV can affect test results ( 1 ) . (
  • Rapid and quantitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody in serum using optofluidic point-of-care testing fluorescence. (
  • These include improvements to serologic tests, sensitive molecular detection, and "omics" approaches including metabolomics and immune profiles. (
  • Detection of fecal occult blood by the stool Guaiac test. (
  • En 2001, le programme de vaccination antirougeoleuse en Arabie saoudite est passé à deux doses du vaccin antirougeoleux-antiourlien-antirubéoleux, la première à 12 mois et la seconde à 6 ans. (
  • If results are positive for LAC, a 4:1 or 3:1 (patient-to-normal) plasma mix test should be performed to correct for any coagulation factor deficiencies but not dilute out a low-titer antiphospholipid antibody. (
  • These results were confirmed by remicroneutralization tests with HEV-monospecific antisera or an additional phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences. (
  • As early diagnosis of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) clearly results in improved outcomes, the investment in diagnostic testing should include increases in targeted Federal funding, improvements in the product development pipeline, and access to adequate patient samples for validation of novel diagnostic tests. (
  • Donor test results by Network Transfer via FTP files. (
  • At its seventeenth meeting, the Committee allocated an ADI of 0 50 mg/kg bw on the basis of the results of biochemical and metabolic studies and feeding tests in animals. (
  • All screen-positive samples were repeat-tested to confirm results. (
  • This European Standard specifies requirements for a waste testing programme regarding mainly objectives, planning and report with the intent to ensure reliable and comparable results when using the reference methods that have been developed and/or adopted by CEN/TC 292. (
  • These tests can show results in as little as 30 minutes. (
  • To help ensure superior antibody results, we've expanded our specificity testing methodology using a two-part approach for advanced verification. (
  • Testing that an antibody generates acceptable results in a specific application is the second part of confirming antibody performance. (
  • 2 , 8 , 10 ) Tests that do not specify a high air flow or allow selection from a range of air flows can be easily manipulated to produce results that suggest a filter will be more effective than they will actually perform. (
  • However, although the serum test provides information similar to the skin prick test, it is more expensive and results are not immediate. (
  • Studies have correlated the outcomes of physician-supervised oral food challenges with serum test results. (
  • Test systems vary with regard to measurements, and similarly reported results may not be equivalent. (
  • Fees charged to animal owners by veterinarians may exceed test prices shown herein, reflecting the time, expertise, and expense necessary to collect the sample, ship it in an appropriate manner, interpret results, and provide treatment advice. (
  • Results: We find that these offenders' neutralizations vary by drug type and by differential access to resources. (
  • The results of testing the breakdown voltage of the water content of jatropha oil (Jatropha Curcas Oil), used as one basis for determining the feasibility of Jatropha oil (Jatropha Curcas Oil) as an alternative to transformer oil. (
  • Based on the test results obtained the best value of breakdown voltage of Jatropha oil samples according to IEC 156 of 24.5 kV / 2,5 mm and great views of the breakdown voltage is not used as a viable alternative to transformer oil were adjusted to standardize SPLN 49-1: 1982. (
  • Physical dependence is the adaptive state that results in the occurrence of acute physical disorders when the administration of the substance is stopped or after the neutralization of its action by a specific antagonist. (
  • Of 5695 stool samples tested, 9.1% (n=517) had toxigenic C difficile. (
  • All nine patients underwent daily testing using both nasopharyngeal (nose and throat) swabs and sputum samples. (
  • Only samples from healthy live-trapped animals or deceased animals from anthropogenic causes (i.e., hunting, culls, and automobile strikes) were tested. (
  • A neutralization threshold of 70% relative to HRTV-only controls was used to determine positive samples. (
  • The Realtime Corona Virus reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (
  • This extent of reduction in ARD may not meet discharge water quality criteria, but has the potential to significantly reduce lime consumption and sludge production in a conventional neutralisation facility. (
  • Due to high sensitivity , specificity , accuracy, and reproducibility, the SFVNT can be deployed for the large-scale testing of COVID-19 patients or vaccinated people in general lab settings. (
  • Given the limited sensitivity of the goldstandard diagnostic test for Lyme disease, the two-tier serologic test, new diagnostic tests are critically needed. (
  • The Omicron variant did cause significantly lower neutralization sensitivity compared to the wild-type strain of the booster elicited serum, with about 20.1-fold reduction. (
  • Coronavirus antibody tests also check for the total antibody count. (
  • VRDL and RPR tests are usually less sensitive than direct antibody tests but have a rapid turn-around time. (
  • However, viral neutralization tests against standard antisera were negative. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP4 genes is more useful than neutralization tests with enterovirus serotype-specific antisera in identifying enterovirus serotypes. (
  • HEVs have long been classified on the basis of serotype-specific antisera in virus neutralization tests ( 1 , 10 ), the only method available for serotyping HEVs. (
  • Yet, little research examines how offenders' neutralizations vary when they follow questions about guilt and when they are spontaneously incorporated into life stories (but see Maruna 2001). (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Intratypic serodifferentiation of poliovirus type 1 isolates using kinetic neutralization test. (
  • CF test - homologous = 128/16. (
  • Virus isolation from stool, pleural fluid or the pharynx is most specific, but not sensitive, test and can render a positive result for up to 2 weeks after resolution of symptoms. (
  • The cell line of choice for virus isolation is channel catfish ovary, followed by serum neutralization to confirm identification. (
  • Patients with a positive IgM test result are classified as presumptive, recent dengue virus infections. (
  • Finally, we argue that studies of neutralization theory relying on direct, standardized questions or the presentation of abstract vignettes may fail to capture a sizable part of the neutralization process among offenders. (
  • Bilirubin is one of the most common diagnostic tests utilised in the diagnosis and monitoring of hepatic dysfunction. (
  • Cell-mediated response was analyzed by a whole-blood test quantifying interferon (IFN)-γ response to spike peptides. (
  • Researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, have developed a new platform that can rapidly test neutralizing antibody activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and perform high-throughput screening of potential antiviral agents. (
  • For decades, respirator researchers have been asked whether filters need to be tested with aerosols similar to those encountered in the environment (Figure 1). (
  • Researchers have developed an understanding of how different test conditions affect respirator filtration efficiency. (
  • Finally, researchers note that persistent violent offenders use neutralizations despite exhibiting little or no guilt for their crimes (e.g. (
  • Penetration tests were performed for filter cartridges before and after charge neutralization. (
  • The test aerosol should be charge neutralized (have an equal distribution of positively and negatively charged particles), because charge neutralization has been shown to lower the filter collection of particles. (
  • 9 ) Test protocols that do not require charge neutralization of the challenge aerosol may suggest that filters will perform with higher efficiency than may be the case in the "real world. (
  • Antibody responses in New World camelids (NWC) infected with Mycobacterium microti were studied by two serological methods, multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) and lateral-flow-based rapid test (RT). (
  • Relying on routine virological and serological testing may not identify exposed children, with implications for epidemiological and clinical studies across the life-span. (
  • Only highefficiency particulate air filters performed consistently for both spherical test aerosols and the three types of asbestos fibers. (
  • When properly selected and used, respirators tested using these types of filter tests should provide expected levels of protection against all types of workplace aerosols. (
  • Four types of test respirator filters were selected: two for passive respirators, one for a powered respirator, and one disposable respirator. (
  • The dashed green line represents the 0.3 um mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) sodium chloride aerosol used by NIOSH for respirator filter testing of N95-class air purifying respirators. (
  • The test conditions used by NIOSH in 42 Code of Federal Regulations Part 84 for respirator certification testing of air purifying respirators are believed to represent near "worst case" conditions for all types of workplaces. (
  • Each lot of this antibody is quality control tested by intracellular immunofluorescent staining with flow cytometric analysis . (
  • berkhoffi, Bartonella henselae, and Bartonella koehlerae by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA). (
  • Healthcare providers can answer questions about pregnant patients and, based on the responses, receive information regarding the type of testing indicated as well as clinical management recommendations. (
  • Baloxavir is given to patients with this icon indicate that you are a type of diagnostic testing for BRCA-related cancers and their most recent year for the procedure. (
  • Patients should be cleocin best price performed when IgM antibody test or that retailers stop selling raw turkey products with other people outside the house when possible. (
  • Patients with abnormal liver function tests were at a significantly higher risk of progressing to a severe disease, such as pneumonia. (
  • Therefore, the test result could be positive for cured TB patients. (
  • For instance, one task of neutralization research is to investigate whether and how neutralizations vary with offender characteristics. (
  • We have implemented additional specificity tests to help ensure the highest confidence levels in our products. (
  • For testing human IL-2 in serum or plasma, BioLegend's LEGEND MAX™ Kit (Cat. (
  • There was no specific correlation between Fab binding affinity and neutralization. (
  • Clone-specific: Neutralization). (
  • 2 , 4 , 7-9 ) This information can be exploited to create most rigorous or "worst case" type conditions for testing. (
  • The literature cited in this Science Blog suggest that it is not necessary to test a respirator filter with a biological aerosol, but rather to focus on "worse-case" type test conditions. (
  • The serum test may offer advantages over skin prick testing when skin testing is limited by dermatographism, generalized dermatitis, or a clinical history of severe anaphylactic reactions to a given food. (
  • By empirically testing neutralization reactions between different acids and alkalis in a virtual lab, students should find out why some of the resulting salt solutions have a pH other than 7 / neutral. (
  • The third booster dose with BBIBP-CorV lead to a significant rebound in neutralizing immune response against SARS-CoV-2, and the neutralization GMT on day 28 after the third booster dose was 6.1 times higher than the GMT on day 28 after the second dose. (
  • Our study demonstrated that a third booster dose of BBIBP-CorV lead to a significant rebound in neutralizing immune response against SARS-CoV-2, while the Omicron variant showed extensive but incomplete escape of the booster elicited neutralization. (
  • For example, EPA requires manufacturers of sanitizers, disinfectants, or chemical sterilants to test formulations by using accepted methods for microbiocidal activity, stability, and toxicity to animals and humans. (
  • FDA has published recommendations on the types of test methods that manufacturers should submit to FDA for 510[k] clearance for such agents. (
  • Specifically, NIOSH is seeking information and comments to assess whether NIOSH should consider additional filter test methods to enhance existing requirements. (
  • The term RAST (radioallergosorbent test) is antiquated because modern methods do not use radiation. (