The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE family. Previously a large group of serotypes, most are now considered separate species.
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. Serotypes are found in temperate and arctic regions and each is closely associated with a single species of vector mosquito. The vertebrate hosts are usually small mammals but several serotypes infect humans.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.
A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Inflammation, often mild, of the conjunctiva caused by a variety of viral agents. Conjunctival involvement may be part of a systemic infection.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Respiratory and conjunctival infections caused by 33 identified serotypes of human adenoviruses.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A species of COLTIVIRUS transmitted by the tick DERMACENTOR andersonii and causing fever, chills, aching head and limbs, and often vomiting. It occurs in the northwestern United States, except the Pacific Coast.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Virus diseases caused by the ADENOVIRIDAE.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Infections with viruses of the genus HANTAVIRUS. This is associated with at least four clinical syndromes: HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME caused by viruses of the Hantaan group; a milder form of HFRS caused by SEOUL VIRUS; nephropathia epidemica caused by PUUMALA VIRUS; and HANTAVIRUS PULMONARY SYNDROME caused by SIN NOMBRE VIRUS.
A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
Infections with viruses of the genus FLAVIVIRUS, family FLAVIVIRIDAE.
A herpesvirus infection of CATTLE characterized by INFLAMMATION and NECROSIS of the mucous membranes of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA polyplexes for in vivo gene delivery to the liver. (1/6327)

We are developing a self-assembling non-viral in vivo gene delivery vehicle based on poly-l-lysine and plasmid DNA. We have characterized poly-l-lysines of different chain lengths for DNA condensation and strength of DNA binding. Poly-l-lysine chains >20 residues bound DNA efficiently in physiological saline, while shorter chains did not. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid to PLL increased the PLL chain length required for efficient DNA binding in saline and for efficient DNA condensation. By electron microscopy, poly-l-lysine/DNA polyplexes appeared as toroids 25-50 nm in diameter or rods 40-80 nm long; conjugation of asialoorosomucoid to the polylysine component increased the size of resulting polyplexes to 50-90 nm. In water, poly-l-lysine and asialoorosomucoid-PLL polyplexes have effective diameters of 46 and 87.6 nm, respectively. Polyplexes containing only poly-l-lysine and DNA aggregated in physiological saline at all charge ratios and aggregated at neutral charge ratios in water. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid lessened, but did not eliminate, the aggregation of PLL polyplexes, and did not result in efficient delivery of polyplexes to hepatocytes. Conjugation of polyethylene glycol to poly-l-lysine sterically stabilized resulting polyplexes at neutral charge ratios by shielding the surfaces. For efficient in vivo gene delivery, polyplexes will need to be sterically stabilized to prevent aggregation and interaction with serum components.  (+info)

Linear peptide specificity of bovine antibody responses to p67 of Theileria parva and sequence diversity of sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes: implications for a vaccine. (2/6327)

A stage-specific surface antigen of Theileria parva, p67, is the basis for the development of an anti-sporozoite vaccine for the control of East Coast fever (ECF) in cattle. By Pepscan analysis with a series of overlapping synthetic p67 peptides, the antigen was shown to contain five distinct linear peptide sequences recognized by sporozoite-neutralizing murine monoclonal antibodies. Three epitopes were located between amino acid positions 105 to 229 and two were located between positions 617 to 639 on p67. Bovine antibodies to a synthetic peptide containing one of these epitopes neutralized sporozoites, validating this approach for defining immune responses that are likely to contribute to immunity. Comparison of the peptide specificity of antibodies from cattle inoculated with recombinant p67 that were immune or susceptible to ECF did not reveal statistically significant differences between the two groups. In general, antipeptide antibody levels in the susceptible animals were lower than in the immune group and neither group developed high responses to all sporozoite-neutralizing epitopes. The bovine antibody response to recombinant p67 was restricted to the N- and C-terminal regions of p67, and there was no activity against the central portion between positions 313 and 583. So far, p67 sequence polymorphisms have been identified only in buffalo-derived T. parva parasites, but the consequence of these for vaccine development remains to be defined. The data indicate that optimizations of the current vaccination protocol against ECF should include boosting of relevant antibody responses to neutralizing epitopes on p67.  (+info)

Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoite pellicle antigen recognized by a neutralizing monoclonal antibody is a beta-mannosylated glycolipid. (3/6327)

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is an important cause of diarrhea in humans, calves, and other mammals worldwide. No approved vaccines or parasite-specific drugs are currently available for the control of cryptosporidiosis. To effectively immunize against C. parvum, identification and characterization of protective antigens are required. We previously identified CPS-500, a conserved, neutralization-sensitive antigen of C. parvum sporozoites and merozoites defined by monoclonal antibody 18.44. In the present study, the biochemical characteristics and subcellular location of CPS-500 were determined. CPS-500 was chloroform extractable and eluted with acetone and methanol in silicic acid chromatography, consistent with being a polar glycolipid. Following chloroform extraction and silicic acid chromatography, CPS-500 was isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography for glycosyl analysis, which indicated the presence of mannose and inositol. To identify which component of CPS-500 comprised the neutralization-sensitive epitope recognized by 18.44, the ability of the monoclonal antibody to bind CPS-500 treated with proteases, or with alpha- or beta-glycosidases, was determined. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 did not bind antigen treated with beta-D-mannosidase but did bind antigen treated with alpha-D-mannosidase, other alpha- or beta-glycosidases, or a panel of proteases. These data indicated that the target epitope was dependent on terminal beta-D-mannopyranosyl residues. By immunoelectron microscopy, 18.44 binding was localized to the pellicle and an intracytoplasmic tubulovesicular network in sporozoites. Monoclonal antibody 18.44 also bound to antigen deposited and released onto substrate over the course travelled by gliding sporozoites and merozoites. Surface localization, adhesion and release during locomotion, and neutralization sensitivity suggest that CPS-500 may be involved in motility and invasion processes of the infective zoite stages.  (+info)

Serum dilution neutralization test for California group virus identification and serology. (4/6327)

The serum dilution neutralization test was evaluated for serological diagnosis of California group arbovirus infections and identification of virus isolates. The technical advantages and the degree of subtype specificity of the serum dilution neutralization test over the hemagglutination inhibition test and the complement fixation test were demonstrated with paired specimens from human cases, single human survey sera, and sentinel rabbit sera. Twenty-one virus isolates from various geographical areas of the United States were also used to evaluate the efficacy of the serum dilution neutralization test for specific virus identification.  (+info)

Immunoglobulin-specific radioimmunoprecipitation assays for quantitation of nasal secretory antibodies to hemagglutinin of type A influenza viruses. (5/6327)

Radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were developed to selectively quantitate class-specific antibodies to purified hemagglutinins (HA) of type A influenza virus in nasal secretions. Rabbit anti-human secretory piece of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and rabbit anti-human IgG were used as second antibodies. A third antibody, goat anti-rabbit IgG, was incorporated into the system to separate immune complexes formed between iodinated HA, nasal wash test specimen, and second antibody. The utilization of this reagent avoided the need for large quantities of IgA and IgG antibody-negative carrier secretions. Nasal was specimens obtained from 14 adults immunized with an inactivated type A influenza virus vaccine were evaluated by RIP and viral neutralization assays. Significant homologous postvaccination secretory IgA and IgG antibody levels were demonstrable in 13 (93%) of individuals by RIP, whereas only 5 (36%) exhibited rises by viral neutralization tests. Moreover, the geometric mean IgA and IgG antibody levels were at least 20- and 37-fold greater than the neutralizing antibody titer. The pattern of heterologous immunoglobulin-specific antibody responses tended to be similar to those observed with the homologous HA subunit.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis bacteriophages SP82, SPO1, and phie: a comparison of DNAs and of peptides synthesized during infection. (6/6327)

The genomes of Bacillus subtilis phages phie, SPO1, and SP82 were compared by DNA-DNA hybridization, analysis of DNA fragments produced by digestion with restriction endonucleases, comparison of the arrays of peptides synthesized during infection, and phage neutralization. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that about 78% of the SP82 DNA was homologous with SPO1 DNA, whereas 40% of the phie DNA was homologous to either SPO1 or SP82 DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to compare the molecular weights of DNA fragments produced by cleavage of SP82, SPO1, and phie DNAs with the restriction endonucleases Hae III, Sal I, Hpa II, and Hha I. Digestion of the DNAs with Hae III and Sal I produced only a few fragments, whereas digestion with Hpa II and Hha I yielded 29 to 40 fragments, depending on the DNA and the enzyme. Comparing the Hpa II fragments, 51% of the SP82 fragments had mobilities which matched those of SPO1 fragments, 32% of the SP82 fragments matched the phie fragments, and 34% of the SPO1 fragments matched the phie fragments. Comparing the Hha I digestion products, 62% of the SP82 fragments had mobilities matching the SPO1 fragments, 24% of the SP82 fragments matched the phie fragments, and 22% of the SPO1 fragments matched the phie fragments. Analysis of peptides by electrophoresis on one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide slab gels showed that approximately 70 phage-specific peptides were synthesized in the first 24 min of each infection. With mobility and the intervals of synthesis as criteria, 66% of the different SP82 peptides matched the SPO1 peptides, 34% of the SP82 peptides matched the phie peptides, and 37% of the SPO1 peptides matched the phie peptides. Phage neutralization assays using antiserum to SP82 yielded K values of 510 for SP82, 240 for SPO1, and 120 for phie.  (+info)

Specific binding of recombinant foamy virus envelope protein to host cells correlates with susceptibility to infection. (7/6327)

The interaction of simian foamy viruses (FVs) with their putative cellular receptor(s) was studied with two types of recombinant envelope protein (Env). Transient expression of full-length Env in BHK-21 cells induced syncytia formation. However, selected stable transfectants fused with naive cells but not with each other. A soluble fusion protein of the Env surface domain with the Fc fragment of a human IgG1 heavy chain (EnvSU-Ig) was produced in the baculovirus expression system, purified to homogeneity, and used for binding and competition analyses. EnvSU-Ig but not unrelated Ig fusion proteins bound to cells specifically. Neutralizing serum blocked binding of EnvSU-Ig and, vice versa, serum-mediated neutralization was abrogated by the chimeric protein. Concomitant reduction of EnvSU-Ig binding and FV susceptibility was seen in Env-expressing target cells. Although EnvSU-Ig did not inhibit FV infection, very likely due to its displacement by multivalent virus-cell interactions, this divalent ligand should help to characterize functionally and to identify the ubiquitous FV receptor.  (+info)

Flexibility of the major antigenic loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus bound to a Fab fragment of a neutralising antibody: structure and neutralisation. (8/6327)

The interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype C (clone C-S8c1) with a strongly neutralising monoclonal antibody (MAb) 4C4 has been studied by combining data from cryoelectron microscopy and x-ray crystallography. The MAb 4C4 binds to the exposed flexible GH-loop of viral protein 1 (VP1), which appears to retain its flexibility, allowing movement of the bound Fab. This is in striking contrast to MAb SD6, which binds to the same GH-loop of VP1 but exhibits no movement of the bound Fab when observed under identical conditions. However, MAbs 4C4 and SD6 have very similar neutralisation characteristics. The known atomic structure of FMDV C-S8c1 and that of the 4C4 Fab cocrystallised with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the GH-loop of VP1 were fitted to the cryoelectron microscope density map. The best fit of the 4C4 Fab is compatible only with monovalent binding of the MAb in agreement with the neutralisation data on 4C4 MAbs, Fab2s, and Fabs. The position of the bound GH-loop is related to other known positions of this loop by a hinge rotation about the base of the loop. The 4C4 Fab appears to interact almost exclusively with the G-H loop of VP1, making no other contacts with the viral capsid.  (+info)

In this study, we attempted to induce mutations in the MN strain of HIV-1 by subjecting the virus to the immunological selective pressure associated with growth in the presence of human serum with high NA activity directed predominately against the V3 region neutralization determinant. We hypothesized that this selective pressure would result in a mutation(s) in the V3 neutralization determinant itself and that the mutation(s) would result in selective resistance to neutralization by the serum used for the selection process and other sera that reacted selectively with the MN V3 neutralization determinant. The four different NR viruses so derived were found to be broadly resistant to neutralization by all of the human sera that we tested, including some that had NA activity that could not be demonstrated to be directed against the V3 determinant by peptide blocking experiments. Sequencing of the PCR DNA spanning the V3 regions of the four different NR viruses derived by this procedure did not ...
Investigating the neutralizing antibody (NAb) titer against HSV-1 is essential for monitoring the immune protection against HSV-1 in susceptible populations, which would facilitate the development of vaccines against herpes infection and improvement of HSV-1 based oncolytic virotherapy. In this study, we have developed a neutralization test based on the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT-NT) to determine the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 in human serum samples. This optimized assay employed a monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing glycoprotein D to detect the HSV-1 infected cells. With this test, the neutralizing antibody titer against HSV-1 could be determined within one day by automated interpretation of the counts of cell spots. We observed good correlation in the results obtained from ELISPOT-NT and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) by testing 22 human serum samples representing different titers. Moreover, 269 human serum samples collected from a wide range of age
The FAVN (Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation) test is the method of choice for determining the levels of antibody to rabies virus in serum.
Immunization with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) L1 virus‐like particles or L2 capsid protein elicits neutralizing antibodies that mediate protection
Neutralization of virus infectivity by antibodies is an important component of immunity to several virus infections. Here, the immunochemical basis for the action of neutralizing antibodies, and what role their induction of conformational changes in the antigen might play, is reviewed. Theories of the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize virus infectivity in vitro are also presented. The theoretical and empirical foundation of the hypothesis that viruses are neutralized by a single antibody per virion is critically reviewed. The relationship between antibody occupancy on virions and the mechanism of neutralization is explored. Examples of neutralization mediated through antibody interference with virus attachment and entry are discussed and test implications of refined theories of neutralization by antibody coating of virions are formulated.
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The presence of neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus implies immunity. The serum neutralization test is serotype specific. Antibodies against one type does not indicate immunity against type three antibodies. Reference Interval applies to Poliovirus Types 1 and 3 ...
Definition of platelet neutralization procedure in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is platelet neutralization procedure? Meaning of platelet neutralization procedure as a legal term. What does platelet neutralization procedure mean in law?
It is shown in this paper that homologous immune sera are able to neutralize the B. typhosus skin-preparatory factors. The neutralization experiments were performed on a large number of rabbits, at least ten rabbits which showed positive control reactions being used for the titration of each serum. The rabbits into which the mixtures of B. typhosus culture filtrates with immune sera were injected can be divided into the following categories: those showing complete neutralization in highest dilutions (HN), those showing complete neutralization only in lower dilutions (LN) and those showing no neutralization (NN). The results indicate that the potency of a given serum as measured by the method outlined above has a direct relation to the reactions obtained in these groups of rabbits. For practical purposes the highest dilution of the serum which gives complete neutralization of the B. typhosus skin-preparatory factors (HN titer) may be taken as the actual titer of the serum as expressed in terms of ...
In the past few years, several highly potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) specific for the gp120 envelope protein of HIV-1 have been discovered. The goal of this work is to use this information to inform the design of vaccines that are able to induce such antibodies (see the Perspective by Crowe). However, because of extensive somatic hypermutation, the epitope bound by these antibodies often does not bind to the germline sequence. Jardine et al. (p. 711, published online 28 March; see the cover) used computational analysis and in vitro screening to design an immunogen that could bind to VRC01-class bNAbs and to their germline precursors. Georgiev et al. (p. 751) took advantage of the fact that only four sites on the HIV viral envelope protein seem to bind bNAbs, and sera that contain particular bNAbs show characteristic patterns of neutralization. An algorithm was developed that could successfully delineate the neutralization specificity of antibodies present in polyclonal sera from ...
The high overall genetic homology between humans and rhesus macaques, coupled with the phenotypic conservation of lymphocyte populations, highlights the potential use of nonhuman primates (NHPs) for the preclinical evaluation of vaccine candidates. For HIV-1, experimental models are needed to identify vaccine regimens capable of eliciting desired immune responses, such as broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One important neutralization target on the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) is the conserved primary CD4 receptor binding site (CD4bs). The isolation and characterization of CD4bs-specific neutralizing monoclonal Abs (mAbs) from HIV-1-infected individuals have provided insights into how broadly reactive Abs target this conserved epitope. In contrast, and for reasons that are not understood, current Env immunogens elicit CD4bs-directed Abs with limited neutralization breadth. To facilitate the use of the NHP model to address this and other questions relevant to human humoral immunity, ...
View Notes - Heat of Neutralization - Copy from CHEM 120 at Waterloo. Heat of Neutralization Introduction This laboratory report aims to summarize and discuss the experiment where calorimeters were
OBJECTIVE: HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, but the role of neutralising antibodies (nAbs) in its natural history remains poorly defined. We analysed the in vivo role of hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) for HCV virion properties, including nAb susceptibility.. DESIGN: Analysis of HCV from human liver chimeric mice infected with cell-culture-derived prototype genotype 2a recombinant J6/JFH1 or HVR1-deleted variant J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 identified adaptive mutations, which were analysed by reverse genetics in Huh7.5 and CD81-deficient S29 cells. The increased in vivo genomic stability of the adapted viruses facilitated ex vivo density analysis by ultracentrifugation and in vivo neutralisation experiments addressing the role of HVR1.. RESULTS: In vivo, J6/JFH1 and J6/JFH1ΔHVR1 depended on single substitutions within amino acids 867-876 in non-structural protein, NS2. The identified A876P-substitution resulted in a 4.7-fold increase in genomic stability. In vitro, NS2 substitutions ...
a, The predicted relationship between efficacy against any symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and the efficacy against severe infection. The black line indicates the best fit model for the relationship between protection against any versus severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. The shaded areas indicate the 95% CIs. Efficacy against severe infection was calculated using a threshold that was 0.15 times lower than that for mild infection (95% CI = 0.036 0.65) (see Methods and Supplementary Table 5). b, Extrapolation of the decay of neutralization titers over time. This model uses the estimated half-life of SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titer in convalescent subjects of 108 d over the first 250 d5, after which the decay decreases linearly until it achieves a 10-year half-life (consistent with the long-term stability of antibody responses seen after other vaccines47,48). We simulate three scenarios, with decay of neutralization taking 1 year (blue dashed line), 1.5 years (purple dashed line) or 2 years (red dashed ...
Part 8 of Berry Berry Easy notes on Acids and Bases for Form 4 SPM Chemistry students regarding applications of neutralisation reactions in daily life
We study the neutralization of negative hydrogen ions in collisions with multicharged fast ions (including relativistic ions) by using an approach that allows a simple expression for the neutralizatio
We designed synthetic, epitope-focused immunogens that preferentially screen person neutralization epitopes targeted by cross-subtype anti-HIV V3 loop neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). received the DNA excellent three times via Gene Weapon accompanied by two increases with either V32219-CTB, V33074-CTB or V3447-CTB (V3 series is similar with clade B consensus) at weeks 10 and 14. A complete of 100g/per shot of every V3-CTB was given intramuscularly with imperfect Freunds adjuvant (IFA). Bloodstream examples were collected to immunization and fourteen days after every immunization prior. Virus building Chimeric pseudoviruses (psVs) had been constructed and made by regular methods which have been previously referred to( 51). SF162 Env variations containing revised V3 sequences had been produced by sequentially presenting the necessary adjustments by site-directed mutagenesis using the QuikChange package, as referred to by the product manufacturer (Stratagene, Inc.). Belnacasan The ...
Immunogenicity of inter-protomer disulfide stabilized RSV F variants.Neutralization titers of sera from mice immunized with 10 μg of RSV F variants in the pres
While waiting for an efficient vaccine to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection, alternative approaches to treat or prevent acute COVID-19 are urgently needed. Transfusion of convalescent plasma to treat COVID-19 patients is currently being explored; neutralizing activity in convalescent plasma is thought to play a central role in the efficacy of this treatment. Here, we observed that plasma neutralization activity decreased a few weeks... ...
APAM plays a role of electrical neutralization with the suspended particles and makes a bridge to form large f - Manufacturer - Producer - PSL147347YH
The Comparison of Sensitivity and Specificity of ELISA-based Microneutralization Test with Hemagglutination Inhibition Test to Evaluate Neutralizing Antibody against Influenza Virus (H1N1)
To test whether antibodies that are neutralizing or nonneutralizing for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary isolates can be distinguished by their affinities for the oligomeric envelope glycoproteins, we selected HIV-1(JR-FL) as a model primary virus and a panel of 13 human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and evaluated three parameters: (i) half-maximal binding to recombinant monomeric envelope, gp120(JR-FL); (ii) half-maximal binding to oligomeric envelope of HIV-1(JR-FL) expressed on the surface of transfected 293 cells; and (iii) neutralization of HIV-1(JR-FL) in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell-based neutralization assay. Two conclusions can be drawn from these experiments. First, we confirm that antibody interactions with monomeric gp120 do not predict primary virus neutralization. Second, we show that neutralization correlates qualitatively with the relative affinity of an antibody for the oligomeric envelope glycoproteins, at least for HIV-1(JR-FL).. ...
Seth, Ankit, Santosh K. Maurya, Ashish Srivastava (2014) Formulation development, characterization and estimation of acid neutralization capacity of shankha bhasma tablets for the treatment of dyspepsia. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced HIV type 1 neutralization by human anti-glycoprotein 120 monoclonal antibodies in the presence of monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte function-associated molecule 1. AU - Hioe, Catarina E.. AU - Hildreth, James. AU - Zolla-Pazner, Susan. PY - 1999/4/10. Y1 - 1999/4/10. N2 - Cellular adhesion receptor LFA-1 and its ICAM ligands are known to play a role in HIV infection. The presence of these molecules on virions and target cells promotes virus infectivity and has previously been shown to hinder virus neutralization by anti-HIV antibodies. To delineate the effect of these molecules on neutralization of HIV-1, human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to V3 and the CD4-binding domain (CD4bd) of gp120 were examined in the presence of anti-LFA-1 MAbs. When either of two anti-LFA-1 MAbs was present, higher levels of virus neutralization were achieved by both anti-V3 and anti- CD4bd MAbs. This effect was observed with primary HIV-1 isolates as well as with a laboratory-adapted strain. ...
Spin-polarized ion neutralization spectroscopy (SPINS), in which a beam of electron-spin-polarized He+ ions is directed onto a surface and analysis is done of the electrons ejected from the surface as a result of ion neutralization, is a unique tool for surface studies that has unparalleled surface specificity. This technique has been used in studies described in this thesis of Mg surfaces and rare gas van der Waals solids. The possibility of plasmon excitation in He+ ion neutralization at Mg has been investigated, but this process is found to be unlikely. Instead, the mechanism for ion neutralization appears to be resonance neutralization followed by electron ejection through Auger deexcitation. Experiments at frozen Xe surfaces found that ion neutralization proceeds by an Auger neutralization-type process above the surface, while experiments at frozen Kr are explained by the formation of two types of collision complexes at the surface, one ejecting an electron by double ionization of a surface ...
The envelope glycoproteins of HIV, gp120 and gp41, contain epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies. Studies of human sera from infected individuals indicate that group-specific neutralization antigens common to most isolates of HIV-1 exist, and that some HIV-2 antisera cross-neutralize HIV-1. Neutralization epitopes for HIV-1 have been identified and mapped, including a group-specific antigen on gp41, and a type-specific antigen on gp120. Neutralization escape mutants have been selected in vitro with a neutralizing mab to the type-specific antigenic loop. The CD4 antigen binds HIV-1 gp120 with high affinity and acts as the receptor on human and simian T-lymphocytes and monocytes for all strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV tested. Following binding to the CD4 receptor, HIV becomes internalized by a pH-independent process. The principle binding domain for gp120 is located in the N-terminal V domain of CD4. Anti-idiotypic sera to CD4 mabs recognizing the same site weakly neutralize HIVs of many
Definition of Neutralisation (immunology) in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Neutralisation (immunology)? Meaning of Neutralisation (immunology) as a legal term. What does Neutralisation (immunology) mean in law?
The isolation of J3 represents a significant improvement on previous nAbs derived from immunized animals as in single-domain VHH form it has a comparable breadth and potency to the best nAbs obtained from a limited number of natural human infections. In contrast, previous nAb clones characterized from immunized animals have only exhibited limited breadth (Forsman et al., 2008; Sundling et al., 2010). A caveat to this is the observation that sera with 17b-like binding specificity can be induced after immunization of humans (Vaine et al., 2010), and it should be noted that 17b and other Abs to CD4-induced epitopes are less broadly neutralizing as full-length mAbs than in Fab form (Labrijn et al., 2003). However, given the previously reported decrease in neutralization ability seen with the Fab of b12 (Labrijn et al., 2003), it appears the CD4-binding site of Env is not per se more easily targeted for neutralization by small Ab fragments as is the CD4-induced binding site, presumably because of the ...
Percentage of Participants who are YF and Dengue Virus (DENV)-naive at Baseline and are Seroprotected against YF on Day 30 as Measured by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) in a Subset of 120 Participants in each Trial ...
The selection of HIV-1 resistance to neutralization by both monovalent and bivalent forms of soluble CD4 was demonstrated under various conditions. Phenotypic traits of the neutralization-resistant variants were systematically explored in order to gain insight into which aspects of the interactions with CD4 are most expendable to HIV-1 replication. The size of the nonneutralized fraction after treatment of preparations of the HIV-1 isolate IIIB and a molecular clone derived from it (HX10), with either monovalent soluble CD4 (sCD4) or bivalent CD4-Ig, was determined. These fractions were greater for the polyclonal IIIB than for the viral clone, and greater after treatment with sCD4 than with CD4-Ig. The virus in the nonneutralized fractions exhibited 2- to 20-fold lower sensitivity to the neutralizing agents than did unselected virus. In addition, clonal HIV-1 (HX10) was cultured in the presence of sCD4 or CD4-Ig for 12 weeks, so as to allow for accumulation of mutations that would confer stronger
We performed a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 146 (18%) of 823 persons tested. Further studies are needed to determine health risks for humans from this potentially deadly group of viruses ...
View Notes - Studio_9_HessLaw_modified-1 from CHEM 025 at Lehigh University. Chem. 25: Studio #8 _ _Heat of Neutralization and Hesss Law STUDIO:_ NAME:_ HEAT OF NEUTRALIZATION OF ACIDS AND BASES
To identify TBE virus-endemic areas, it is effective to conduct an epizootiological survey of wild rodents. The neutralizing test can be used for serological diagnosis of wild rodents, but it is time consuming and uses hazardous live viruses that require a high-level biosafety facility. It is also known that non-infected wild rodents sometime indicated low neutralization antibody titers by the neutralization test. Therefore, a diagnosis which is more convenient for the epizootiological survey of wild rodents is required. In this study, we tried to develop ELISAs using two recombinant antigens. in the serological diagnosis of rodents for the first time. Domain III of the E protein was known to have the neutralizing epitopes (11) and was used for the serological diagnosis in several flaviviruses (13, 14). In this study, the recombinant domain III of the E protein was applied to the diagnosis ELISA for wild rodents. The EdIII-ELISA was shown ...
The antibody response is crucial for preventing many viral infections and may also contribute to resolution of infection. When a vertebrate is infected with a virus, antibodies are produced against many epitopes on multiple virus proteins. A subset of these antibodies can block virus infection by a process that is called neutralization. Antibodies can neutralize viral infectivity…
As commonly induced, weakly neutralizing Abs - such as those against V3 - do not protect against heterologous HIV-1 transmission (17), it was initially surprising that our results implicated these Abs in decreased MTCT risk. However, it is highly relevant to MTCT that V3-specific Abs can neutralize concomitant autologous virus strains (ref. 18 and Moody, MA, et al., in review). In fact, maternal V3-specific IgG Abs neutralized and exerted selection pressure on circulating autologous maternal viruses at inhibitory concentrations compatible with that associated with decreased MTCT risk. Nonetheless, it is important to caution that measuring maternal IgG V3 binding and tier 1 virus neutralization responses may be a surrogate for a yet-unmeasured antiviral function.. The WITS study offered a large historical cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women, yet was limited by case and specimen availability. Propensity score matching was used to maximize the power. Moreover, a pilot study of humoral responses ...
In this study, expanded human trial with M, Gerbil kidney tissue culture inactivated HFRS vaccine was carried out and neutralizing antibody response was assessed by plaque reduction neutralization(PRNT) and CPE neutralization(CPENT) methods. According to the data of all 74 person immune sera assayed by the two methods, the rates of seroconversion and GMT tesed by CPENT were significantly higher than that by PRNT. Several vaccinating groups were studied and the neutralizing antibody levels were as follows: v...
Application: ELISA, In vitro neutralization and Western blot analysis. Isotype: Rabbit Ig. Antigen: For immunization recombinant mouse TNF-alpha (E.coli-derived) is used. Purification: Antibodies were sequentially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and protein A-affinity chromatography. Packaging: Lyophilized and vacuum-packed. Contents: 0.5 mg/vial. Buffer: Prior to lyophilization: 0.5 ml PBS + 125 mM trehalose. Specificity: Binds with high affinity to and efficiently neutralizes both natural and recombinant mouse TNF-alpha. High degree of cross-neutralizing activity with rat TNF-alpha.
Regardless of whether you are developing consumable or industrial products, ensuring product quality, efficacy, and safety is of the utmost importance. In vitro screening and routine quality control testing combined with authenticated models and controls can help ensure product integrity and brand reputation.. Explore our featured content below to learn more about the importance of authenticated in vitro models and control strains for toxicity screening, infectivity studies, virus neutralization assays, microbial analysis, industry-guided quality control testing, and more.. .authentication-wrapper .AFSImage{ margin-bottom:1em; } .Card__main{ display:block !important; } .Card.--expand .Card__header:after{ display:none !important; } @media only screen and (min-width: 47em) { .authentication-wrapper{ margin-bottom:1.5em; } .authentication-wrapper h4{ text-align:center; font-weight:bold; margin:1.25em 0 1em; } .authentication-wrapper h4:hover{ text-decoration:underline; } .authentication-wrapper p{ ...
This Anti-β-Interferon Rabbit pAb is validated for use in Neutralization Studies for the detection of β-Interferon. - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
More than 20.8 million people are infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, with South Africa having one of the fastest growing HIV-1 epidemics, where an estimated 2.4 million people were infected. Thirty-two sera from 25 patients were tested for their ability to neutralize HTLV-III(B) (IIIB) and four primary isolates representing subtypes B, C, D, and a recombinant gag C/env B type. A CEM-SS cell line-based assay was used and the neutralizing titer was defined as the reciprocal of the highest dilution giving a 50% reduction in p24 antigen production. All isolates were neutralized better by subtype-specific sera, except for the C4714 strain, which was neutralized by both subtype B and C sera. C4714 was neutralized by 18/25 (72%) sera, IIIB by 19/32 (59%) sera, D482 by 7/31(23%) sera, B3245 by 6/29 (21%) sera, and the recombinant B/C1491 isolate by 4/25 (16%) sera. Five sera were unable to neutralize any of the isolates. The V3 region of the isolates used in the neutralization assay was amplified ...
Antibody responses peaked by day 28 (median 157 ELISA units - studied in 127 participants) and remained high until the measurement at day 56 in the trial (median 119 ELISA units - studied in 43 participants) for those given a single vaccine. This response was boosted by a second dose (median 639 ELISA units at day 56 in these 10 participants). 28 days after vaccination, neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 32 of 35 participants (91%) (when measured in MNA80 neutralisation assay), and in 35 of 35 participants (100% - when measured in PRNT50 neutralisation assay) who received a single dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. These responses were present in all participants who had a booster dose of the vaccine (nine of nine participants in MNA80 assay at day 42, and ten of ten in Marburg VN assay on day 56 ...
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Next, we measured SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs over time using microneutralization (MN50) assays. Similar to S-specific IgG responses, the NAb titer against the CN1 strain emerged at week 1 (titer of 12 for the high-dose immunization), surged after the week 2 booster, and reached a titer up to 1500 for the low and medium doses and 3000 for the high dose at week 7 (Fig. 2A). By contrast, the sham group did not develop detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses (Fig. 2, A and B). In addition, immunogenic evaluations of PiCoVacc in Wistar rats with the same immunization strategy yielded similar results: The maximum neutralizing titers reached 2048 to 4096 at week 7 (Fig. 2C). To investigate the spectrum of neutralizing activities elicited by PiCoVacc, we conducted neutralization assays against the other nine isolated SARS-CoV-2 strains using mouse and rat serum collected 3 weeks after vaccination. Neutralizing titers against these strains demonstrated that PiCoVacc is capable of eliciting ... provides email based homework help and assignment help in Heat of Neutralization. We have 24 / 7 live online tutors available to help you. Get speedy and cost effective homework solutions at for any kind of homework and assignment help.
In this first year we have made considerable progress in achieving our goals. The grant was based on two fundamental observations that led to testable hypotheses. The first was that HIV envelope gp140 trimer, the envelope spike required for infectivity, had a life span in vivo measured in minutes. Additional experiments suggested that Env was progressively metabolized into smaller fragments. We hypothesized that rapid proteolysis destroyed critical antigens. Our experiments were indirect and we turned to direct experimental observations. The Duke Mass Spectroscopy group finds that gp140 is one of the most rapidly proteolized proteins that they have studied. It is broken down into a series of fragments that are then quite stable. We suggest that the observed non-neutralizing antibody response to Env, recognizes these stable fragments. Importantly we find that the membrane proximal segment of gp140 (MPER) is rapidly cleaved from gp140, contributing to the poor response to the MPER. Most ...
2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( Received 31 December 2020, Accepted 6 March 2021, Available online 10 March 2021. We thank N.J. Huang, N. Pishesha, and H.F. Lodish for helpful discussion, advice, and reagents; P.N.P. Gnanapragasam and L.M. Kakutani for producing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and setting up the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay in our laboratory; G.L. Chadwick, R. Galimidi, and A. Moradian (formerly Caltech Proteome Exploration Laboratory) for helpful discussions and reagents; G. Spigolon for guidance with light microscopy performed at the Beckman Institute Biological Imaging Facility; Z. Romero-Garcia and D.B. Kohn for the pCCL-AS3-FB plasmid; J. Voetteler and W.I. Sundquist for the CCF2-AM reagent; J.D. Bloom for 293T-ACE2 cells and plasmids for generating SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus; and the NIH AIDS Reagent Program for reagents. BEL-A2 cell lines were created by Professor Jan Frayne, ...
BOUVIN-PLEY M, MORGAND M, MEYER L, GOUJARD C, MOREAU A, MOUQUET H, NUSSENZWEIG M, PACE C, HO D, BJORKMAN PJ, BATY D, CHAMES P, PANCERA M, KWONG PD, POIGNARD P, BARIN F, BRAIBANT M. Drift of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 toward increased neutralization resistance over the course of the epidemic: a comprehensive study using the most potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Braibant M. J Virol 2014, 88, 13910-13917 ...
Complement and isotype dependence of anti-A33 MAb neutralization of VACV EEV.VACV EEV neutralization activity of purified anti-A33 MAbs in the absence (MAbs) or
A new paper discusses an intriguing new mechanism of immune evasion traceable to specific mutations in the B.1.427/B.1.429 variant of the severe acute…
This simple experiment allows students to follow the pH and temperature changes when an acidic solution is gradually neutralised.
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exactly where K is equivalent to the level of endotoxin permitted for every machine, N is equal to the quantity of devices tested, and V is equivalent to the overall volume from the extract or rinse. If the undiluted rinsing or extracting Resolution is unsuitable for the Bacterial Endotoxins Exam 85 , repeat the inhibition or enhancement take a look at after neutralization and removing with the interfering substances or just after the solution has actually been diluted by a factor not exceeding the Maximum Legitimate Dilution ...
Misrtan (A) is used as a excellent auxiliary tanning agent, it is applied either in the neutralization or retanning of chrame leather or in both processes. ...
... neutralization test, and hemagglutination-inhibition test. In the past, arboviruses were organized into one of four groups: A, ... Seawright, G. L.; Harding, G.; Thomas, F. C.; Hanson, R. P. (1974). "Microculture Plaque Neutralization Test for California ... "Arbovirus Antibodies Test". Medical Health Tests. March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2013. Huang, C.; Slater, B.; Campbell, W ... "Arboviral Diagnostic Testing". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Retrieved April 17, 2013. " ...
... tests and mouse inoculation or feeding trials. The toxins can be typed with neutralization tests in mice. In toxicoinfectious ... These tests may include a brain scan, cerebrospinal fluid examination, nerve conduction test (electromyography, or EMG), and an ... Confirmation of the diagnosis is made by testing of a stool or enema specimen with the mouse bioassay. In people whose history ... and special tests may be needed to exclude these other conditions. ...
Neutralization followed by biotreatment was selected for the Colorado stockpile, and neutralization followed by supercritical ... In September, PCAPP entered into the pilot testing phase, where destruction operations were tested. The main plant began ... The SDC arrived at BGCAPP in August to be assembled, tested and installed. On Oct. 28, BGCAPP declared construction of the main ... PCAPP technicians began testing the Biotreatment Area using a surrogate solution, thiodiglycol. Preliminary results showed the ...
Other methods of diagnosis included hemagglutination inhibition (HI), complement fixation, neutralization tests. However, new ... This study also found using immune response tests that birds and humans in the region appeared to have been exposed to the ...
Diagnosis requires laboratory tests. Serological methods such as complement fixation, serum neutralization and PCR are ...
Plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRINT) can be performed and may be specific. The Zika virus can be identified by RT-PCR ... RT-PCR testing of serum and tissue samples can be used to detect the presence of the Zika virus. However, the RT-PCR test with ... The PRINT test looks for viral-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, this test can still produce false positive results, ... However, it is suggested that a PRINT test be performed following a test for IgM antibodies to help eliminate false positives ...
Staphylococcal agglutination, virus neutralisation (VN), indirect fluorescent antibody testing, ELISA, PCR, and DNA probe ... To prevent the disease, strict isolation, hygiene, and testing procedures should be in place. This virus was first reported in ... The gold standard is virus neutralisation. Alternatively, the identification of degeneration and necrosis of granular cells in ...
Main article: Neutralization (chemistry). An acid-alkali reaction is a special case of an acid-base reaction, where the base ... The Brønsted-Lowry model expanded what could be pH tested using insoluble and soluble solutions (gas, liquid, solid). ... The concept of neutralization is thus absent.[3] Brønsted-Lowry acid-base behavior is formally independent of any solvent, ... The reaction of an acid with a base is called a neutralization reaction. The products of this reaction are a salt and water. ...
These tests include cell cultures, PCR, ELISA antigen assays, plaque neutralization assays, and immunofluorescence essays. ... The FDA has yet to approve a widely validated laboratory test for Lassa, but there are tests that have been able to provide ... An ELISA test for antigen and Immunoglobulin M antibodies give 88% sensitivity and 90% specificity for the presence of the ... The confidence of a diagnosis can be compromised if laboratory tests are not available. One comprising factor is the number of ...
The CDC has used plaque reduction neutralization tests to detect JCV neutralizing antibodies since 1995. The test is ... the New York State Department of Health has performed JCV plaque reduction neutralization tests since 2000 on samples positive ... JCV-antibody testing has only been available at the CDC and the New York State Department of Health. ... Increasing awareness and more testing In the latest US review covering 2000-2013, more than half of cases were identified in ...
Serologic studies have distinguished 71 human enterovirus serotypes on the basis of antibody neutralization tests. Additional ... Poliomyelitis primarily via the fecal-oral route Polio-like syndrome found in children who tested positive for enterovirus 68. ... variants have been defined within several of the serotypes on the basis of reduced or nonreciprocal cross-neutralization ...
Antibody titers can also be measured with complement fixation tests, hemagglutination assays, and neutralization tests. In ... "Amylase Test". Lab Tests Online. Archived from the original on 29 March 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2020. "Changes in the ... Sensitivity to IgM testing is variable, ranging from as low as 24-51% to 75% in the first week and 100% thereafter. Throughout ... In laboratory tests on rodents, MuV appears to enter the CNS first through cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), then spreading to the ...
Perform a test to demonstrate a phospholipid-dependent antibody, such as a platelet neutralization procedure. Spontaneous ... Mixing studies are tests performed on blood plasma of patients or test subjects to distinguish factor deficiencies from factor ... Performing a thrombin time on the test plasma can provide useful additional information for the interpretation of mixing tests ... A test performed after the mixture is incubated for 1 to 2 hours at 37°C will show significant prolongation over the clotting ...
Preliminary tests of samples of freshwater drum collected on May 2 were positive, and the announcement came amidst a die-off of ... Virus neutralisation is another important method of diagnosis, especially for carrier fish. Thoroughly cleaning boats, trailers ... Preliminary tests later indicated VHS in specimens from Lake Winnebago. The lakes drain through the Fox River to Lake ... The sample was not tested for VHS until 2005, after the disease was detected in Lake Ontario. 2005 samples of Lake Ontario ...
He developed in particular a method of titration of yellow fever antibodies by a neutralization test. He also ensured an ... He also developed a method for titrating antiviral antibodies using a seroprotection test. René Panthier was born in the north- ... Panthier, R (1956). "Recherche d'une méthode précise de titrage des anticorps par test de séroprotection" [Research on a ... Panthier, R; Carteaud, AJP; Husson, RA (1957). "Recherche d'une méthode précise de titrage des anticorps par test de ...
These two glycoproteins are the targets of numerous serologic reactions and tests including neutralization and hemagglutination ...
This was assessed by a laboratory test that measures a virus' susceptibility to neutralization by an antibody. HPTN 078 was a ... Findings from HPTN 071 (PopART) show delivery of an HIV prevention strategy that includes offering in-home HIV testing to ... Findings show delivery of an HIV prevention strategy that includes offering in-home HIV testing to everyone, with immediate ... "HPTN 071 Modelling and Economic Analyses Show Benefits of Community-wide HIV Testing and Treatment , The HIV Prevention Trials ...
Most hobby ROVs are tested in swimming pools and lakes where the water is calm, however some have tested their own personal ... The US Navy also uses an ROV called AN/SLQ-48 Mine Neutralization Vehicle (MNV) for mine warfare. It can go 1000 yards away ... tests submarine drone off Santa Catalina Island". latimes. Retrieved 25 May 2015. Blueye Robotics (2018-12-19), The Norwegian ... "AN/SLQ-48 - Mine Neutralization Vehicle". FAS. Retrieved 4 June 2016. "AN/BLQ-11 Autonomous Unmanned Undersea Vehicle". ...
"Identity of Karelian fever and Ockelbo viruses determined by serum dilution-plaque reduction neutralization tests and ...
... and virus neutralization (VN). Virus neutralization identifies type-specific antibodies, which allows for differentiation ... Confirming infection of avian reovirus can be detected through an ELISA test by using and observing the expression of σC and σB ... The other four tests detect group antigens. Maternal antibodies have displayed protection against the development of ...
The common tests of choice include Haemaglutination-Inhibition, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serum Neutralisation. The ... However, proper laboratory testing is still needed to eliminate doubts for a definitive diagnosis. Serological testing can ... Identification of the virus can also be detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction-based test. There is no treatment for EDS '76, ... use of sentinel birds (non-vaccinated susceptible birds) in the flocks is also useful for early detection and tested for ...
No special blood tests or diagnostic procedures are usually required to make the diagnosis. The differential diagnosis of ... Neutralization occurs when an antidrug antibody prevents a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab from binding antigen in a ... Specifically, neutralization occurs when the antidrug antibody binds to infliximab's antigen binding site instead of TNF-α. ... People undergoing systemic treatment must have regular blood and liver function tests to check for medication toxicities. ...
BGCAPP is using neutralization to destroy the remaining stockpile in the main plant and Static Detonation Chamber technology to ... "Crew Tests Equipment Procedures with Conventional Munitions". "First chemical weapon destroyed at Kentucky Army facility". WKYT ... The neutralization method consists of the following steps: Munitions are disassembled by modified reverse assembly. The ... Hydrolysate is held and tested to ensure agent destruction. The agent hydrolysate will be shipped to a permitted hazardous ...
... between Ebola virus BSL-4 neutralization assays and pseudotyped VSV BSL-2 fluorescence reduction neutralization test". Journal ... and serological testing. A related assay tests for antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), a phenomenon where non-neutralizing ... RVPs are most commonly used in neutralization assays, which measure the ability of serum or antibodies to prevent virus ... Ferrara, F and Temperton, N (2018). "Pseudotype neutralization assays: From laboratory bench to data analysis". Methods and ...
They cannot be distinguished using routine laboratory tests such as virus neutralisation test, immunofluorescence test or agar ... gel immunodiffusion test. They, however, can be isolated by using the HinDill restriction enzymes to separate their DNA. ...
The SN test is occasionally used for detection and quantitation of humoral antibody for PPV. Neutralization of infectivity is ... The SN test has been reported to be more sensitive than the HI test. A microtechnique for application of the SN test has been ... However, its identity can be established by relatively stringent serologic tests such as virus neutralization (VN) and ... Tests The HI test is frequently used for detection and quantitation of humoral antibody for PPV. Antibody sometimes can be ...
Glass corrosion tests[edit]. Effect of addition of a certain glass component on the chemical durability against water corrosion ... The volume of HCl required for neutralization is classified according to the table below. ... A simple test for measuring corrosion is the weight loss method.[7] The method involves exposing a clean weighed piece of the ... Vapor Hydration Testing (VHT) Archived December 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 2012-07-15. ...
After hydrolysis and neutralization of the acid, the product may be a reducing sugar that gives normal reactions with the test ... The aldehyde functional group allows the sugar to act as a reducing agent, for example, in the Tollens' test or Benedict's test ... All carbohydrates are converted to aldehydes and respond positively in Molisch's test. But the test has a faster rate when it ... Several qualitative tests are used to detect the presence of reducing sugars. Two of them use solutions of copper(II) ions: ...
Electron microscopy, PCR, complement fixation, antibody fluorescence, neutralization test, and haemagglutination can be used to ...
The plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titer of neutralizing antibody for a virus. The serum sample ... "Plaque reduction neutralization test for human cytomegalovirus based upon enhanced uptake of neutral red by virus-infected ... "Dengue Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) in Primary and Secondary Dengue Virus Infections: How Alterations in Assay ... "Comparison of commercial enzyme immunoassay kits with plaque reduction neutralization test for detection of measles virus ...
AHL is pleased to announce that all virus neutralization testing except Avian adenovirus, FAdV08/FAdV11 is now available once ...
Neutralization Assay for Human Group C Rotaviruses Using a Reverse Passive Hemagglutination Test for Endpoint Determination ... Evaluation of a Novel Reporter Virus Neutralization Test for Serological Diagnosis of Zika and Dengue Virus Infection Chao Shan ... Neutralization Assay for Zika and Dengue Viruses by Use of Real-Time-PCR-Based Endpoint Assessment Heather L. Wilson, Thomas ... Comparison of Plaque- and Flow Cytometry-Based Methods for Measuring Dengue Virus Neutralization Annette A. Kraus, William ...
... have developed a new platform that can rapidly test neutralizing antibody activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome ... New assay rapidly tests SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and screens antivirals. *Download PDF Copy ... A nanoluciferase SARS-CoV-2 for rapid neutralization testing and screening of anti-infective drugs for COVID-19. bioRxiv 2020. ... Several serological assays have been developed, but the gold standard so far is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT ...
Shipping (test code: xtrnu) and handling (test code: xhand) fees are also applicable on each submission. External test price is ...
Equine Herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) Serum Neutralization Test Data. *Equine Influenza Virus H3N8 Hemagglutination Inhibition Test Data ... West Nile Virus Serum Neutralization Test Data. West Nile virus is in the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, and species ... Serological testing for Flavivirus exposure can be challenging as there is cross-reactivity among the numerous agents in the ... The chart below represents nearly 300 serum neutralization assays for WNV in equines. The majority of the submissions were for ...
Heat of Neutralization Method) , cement content, heat of neutralization, soil cement, soil stabilization,, ... 15 Standard Test Method for Determining Cement Content of Fresh Soil-Cement ( ... Standard Test Method for Determining Cement Content of Fresh Soil-Cement (Heat of Neutralization Method). Active Standard ASTM ... 1.1 This test method covers the procedure for determining the cement content of fresh soil-cement. This test method can be used ...
Key words: hantavirus; plaque reduction neutralisation test; cross-reaction in neutralisation test; Rio Mamoré virus ... 1992). Using our microplaque reduction neutralisation test for RIOMV, we identified these antibodies in 16.2% of the tested ... However, neutralisation tests are useful for identifying the infecting hantavirus and are included in the four criteria of the ... 2014). Neutralisation assays, which are the most specific serologic tests, are not commonly used for a routine hantavirus ...
However, viral neutralization tests against standard antisera were negative. Phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 ... Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP4 genes is more useful than neutralization tests with enterovirus serotype-specific ... These results were confirmed by remicroneutralization tests with HEV-monospecific antisera or an additional phylogenetic ... HEVs have long been classified on the basis of serotype-specific antisera in virus neutralization tests (1,10), the only method ...
With rare exceptions, heterologous neutralization reactions were observed only among viruses in the same complex; however there ... Abstract Antigenic relationships of 20 group A arboviruses were assessed by the plaque reduction neutralization test, using ... Antigenic Relationships of Group a Arboviruses by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Testing * N. Karabatsos* ... Antigenic relationships of 20 group A arboviruses were assessed by the plaque reduction neutralization test, using highly ...
... and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) for ZIKV and DENV-2. Plaque reduction neutralization test results were ... of these closely related flaviviruses left researchers and clinicians with challenges to interpret serological tests. Thirty- ... and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) for ZIKV and DENV-2. Plaque reduction neutralization test results were ... Interim guidance for interpretation of Zika virus antibody test results. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 65: 543-546.. [Google ...
Optimal methods included the overnight incubation of VHSV aliquots in serial dilutions (starting at 1:16) of whole test plasma ... Methods for a plaque neutralization test (PNT) were optimized for the detection and quantification of viral hemorrhagic ... Optimization of a Plaque Neutralization Test (PNT) to identify the exposure history of Pacific Herring to viral hemorrhagic ... Optimization of a Plaque Neutralization Test (PNT) to identify the exposure history of Pacific Herring to viral hemorrhagic ...
Comparison of three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and the virus neutralization test for the detection of ... Comparison of the neutralization test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against Aujeszky's ... Comparison of a computer assisted kinetics based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and virus neutralization test to infectious ... Comparison of a kinetic-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (KELISA) and virus-neutralization test for infectious bursal ...
Validation of a serum neutralization test for detection of antibodies specific to cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in infected common and ... The results suggest that this non-lethal diagnostic test could be used in the future to improve the epidemiological ... In this study, the analytical and diagnostic performance of an alternative serum neutralization (SN) method based on the ... but no neutralization was observed using sera specific to other aquatic herpesviruses. Diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic ...
... test is the method of choice for determining the levels of antibody to rabies virus in serum. ... FAVN (Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation). The FAVN is a classical virus neutralisation test and is the method of choice ... As the strain of virus used in the test causes little or no Cytopathic effect, the test is then read by immunofluorescence. ... In the rabies FAVN test, multiple serial dilutions of test serum are incubated with 100TCID50 of the CVS strain of rabies virus ...
NEUTRALIZATION; NEUTRALIZATION TEST; NT; POINT IN TIME; QNT; QUAN; QUANT; QUANTITATIVE; RANDOM; SERUM; SR ... Name: Coxsackievirus B IgM Ab [Units/volume] in Serum by Neutralization test System: Ser. Component: Coxsackievirus B Ab.IgM. ... COXSACKIEVIRUS B IGG AB [UNITS/VOLUME] IN SERUM BY NEUTRALIZATION TEST This field contains the LOINC term in a more readable ... Name: Echovirus 30 Ab [Units/volume] in Serum by Neutralization test System: Ser. Component: Echovirus 30 Ab. ...
Plaque reduction neutralization test. Predictive value. Seroepidemiology. Singapore university undergraduates. Issue Date: 2005 ... virus infection in healthy Singapore university undergraduates by enzyme immunoassay and plaque reduction neutralization test. ... virus infection in healthy Singapore university undergraduates by enzyme immunoassay and plaque reduction neutralization test. ...
NEUTRALIZATION; NEUTRALIZATION TEST; NT; PESTIVIRUS; PIG; POINT IN TIME; PORK; QNT; QUAN; QUANT; QUANTITATIVE; RANDOM; SERUM; ... CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS AB [TITER] IN SERUM BY NEUTRALIZATION TEST This field contains the LOINC term in a more readable ... Name: Classical swine fever virus Ab [Presence] in Serum by Neutralization test System: Ser. Component: Classical swine fever ... LOINC 43326-8 : Classical swine fever virus Ab [Titer] in Serum by Neutralization test ...
What is neutralization test? Meaning of neutralization test medical term. What does neutralization test mean? ... Looking for online definition of neutralization test in the Medical Dictionary? neutralization test explanation free. ... neutralization test. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia. neutralization test. one for the ... We tested all 234 samples for Zika virus neutralizing antibody by 50% plaque reduction neutralization test ([PRNT.sub.50]) on ...
While the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is considered the gold standard for determining neutralizing antibody ... Given the significance of Fcγ-receptors (FcγR) in antibody-mediated neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of ... This study, therefore, aimed to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based microneutralization test (EMNT) for ... The new EMNT assay combines the biological functional assessment of virus neutralization activity and the technical advantages ...
To test whether anti-FH IgG affects the FI cofactor activity of FH, we performed an in vitro cofactor test with purified IgG ... Spearman test: ρ = 0.615, p = 0.033 versus ρ = 0.491, p = 0.120, respectively). We then tested the anti-FH IgG avidity. Because ... The binding of FH to C3(H2O), C3c, and C3d was tested in presence of purified IgG from 13 patients, each of them in at least in ... FI cofactor activity test. IgG purified from each patient (20 μg/ml) was incubated with purified FH (CompTech; 20 ng) at 37°C ...
Liver function test, liver infection, Nasal discharge, Neutralization test, Sore throat, Swollen lymph nodes, toxic, ... Tagged as : Acute form, Animal inoculation test, canine health specialist, Canine Hepatitis, Complement fixation test, Gel ... ammonia Appetite Loss blood test chronic infection coma dark urine Diarrhea disease DNA Fatigue fever Headache Hepatic ...
The effect of incubation at 37C on the neutralization test with various encephalitis viruses including Lansing strains of ... The effect of incubation at 37C on the neutralization test with various encephalitis viruses including Lansing strains of ... article{Olitsky1948TheEO, title={The effect of incubation at 37C on the neutralization test with various encephalitis viruses ...
Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT). What is the test?. *PRNT can detect specific neutralizing antibodies against ... IgM antibody test results may be forwarded for confirmation by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT), see below. ... Some IgM tests can be performed on plasma and whole blood but these tests have not been extensively evaluated for these ... Combined testing with a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and MAC-ELISA usually provides a diagnostic result during the ...
... quality a COVID Neutralization Antibody Test ELISA photos - Wuxi BioHermes Bio & Medical Technology Co., Ltd. ... Product images of COVID Neutralization Antibody Test ELISA, with high definition & ... COVID Neutralization Antibody COVID Neutralization Antibody Test Neutralization Antibody Test ELISA New COVID Neutralization ... Description:COVID Neutralization Antibody,COVID Neutralization Antibody Test,Neutralization Antibody Test ELISA ...
manejo plaque reduction neutralization test protocol clínico 2017 ministério da saúde. jev-pv-based neutralization assay offers ... left: also known plaque reduction neutralization test protocol as: serum neutralization assay can efficiently replace plaque ... Plaque reduction neutralization test protocol cadeau grossesse original. février 12, 2019. Connor Post in Uncategorized ... plaque reduction neutralization test protocol compared with the current standard plaque-reduction neutralization test (prnt), ...
neutralization synonyms, neutralization pronunciation, neutralization translation, English dictionary definition of ... neutralization. n. 1. a. The act or process of neutralizing. b. The state or quality of being neutralized. 2. Chemistry A ... Related to neutralization: neutralization test. neu·tral·i·za·tion. (no͞o′trə-lĭ-zā′shən, nyo͞o′-). n.. 1. a. The act or ... neutralisation, neutralisation reaction, neutralization reaction. chemical reaction, reaction - (chemistry) a process in which ...
Neutralization data for a substantial subset of the viruses tested in this study have previously been reported for other human ... When the neutralization data are stratified by subtype, J3 exhibits 100% neutralization of all viruses from subtypes A, B, D, ... Comparison of breadth of neutralization achieved by VRCO1/2, b12, and CD4-Ig. Percent neutralization for the matched subset of ... which were previously tested in the same laboratory (Table S3). Within this subset, neutralization (defined as an IC50 value , ...
Skin Testing. Intradermal Serial Dilution Endpoint Titration and Provocation/Neutralization Testing (Subcutaneous, Intradermal ... Immunotherapy based on Serial Dilution Endpoint Titration, Provocation/Neutralization Testing, or appropriate In-Vitro testing ... oral elimination/challenge feeding tests, and/or provocation/neutralization tests, as deemed appropriate from the patients ... Provocation/Neutralization Testing. Subcutaneous, Intradermal or Sublingual forms of this procedure are appropriate to aid in ...
Data represent the mean ± SD of three independent experiments, *P , 0.05; **P , 0.01; ***P , 0.001; paired t-test. ... Autophagy-associated dengue vesicles promote viral transmission avoiding antibody neutralization.. Wu YW1,2, Mettling C3, Wu SR ... Data represent the mean ± SD of three independent experiments, *P , 0.05; ***P , 0.001; paired t-test. ...
  • Several serological assays have been developed, but the gold standard so far is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), since it directly determines the levels of neutralizing antibodies needed to inhibit wild-type virus. (
  • On using the assay to measure antibody neutralization in the sera of patients with COVID-19, the results generated were comparable to those of conventional PRNT. (
  • This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. (
  • Positive result from immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) with confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). (
  • We tested all 234 samples for Zika virus neutralizing antibody by 50% plaque reduction neutralization test ([PRNT.sub.50]) on Vero cells (Appendix, (
  • While the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is considered the gold standard for determining neutralizing antibody levels to flaviviruses, the assay is time-consuming and laborious. (
  • Consequently, presumed positive, indeterminate, and equivocal, IgM antibody test results may be forwarded for confirmation by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT), see below. (
  • PRNT is a labor-intensive and relatively costly test. (
  • A single PRNT test result cannot help determine the timing of infection. (
  • jev-pv-based neutralization assay offers several advantages plaque reduction neutralization test protocol compared with the current standard plaque-reduction neutralization test (prnt), including simplicity, safety, and speed. (
  • GenScript cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection Kit , also known as SARS-CoV-2 Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test (sVNT) Kit, is faster, easier, more scalable and automatable alternative to the traditional neutralizing antibody tests, such as virus neutralization test (VNT), pseudo-virus neutralization test (pVNT) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). (
  • Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is indicated to confirm positive samples for being more specific, however it is laborious intensive and time consuming, representing a major bottleneck for patient diagnosis. (
  • Using 226 human specimens, we showed that the new test presented higher throughput than traditional PRNT, maintaining the correlation between results. (
  • Neutralization titers obtained from PRNT or fluorescent neutralization test are compared. (
  • Here we describe the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which quantifies ZIKV - neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) by incubating infectious ZIKV with different dilutions of sera and applying the mixture to a susceptible Vero cell monolayer. (
  • 11. The immunotherapeutic composition of claim 1 wherein the monoclonal antibody is at a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) titer of 15,000-30,000. (
  • 16) should be tested by the PRNT assay. (
  • An issue with this assay that has recently been identified is that the neutralization ability of the antibodies is dependent on the virion maturation state and the cell-type used in the assay. (
  • Therefore, if the wrong cell line is used for the assay it may seem that the antibodies have neutralization ability when they actually do not, or vice versa they may seem ineffective when they actually possess neutralization ability. (
  • Sixty-four serotypes of HEV have been recognized antigenically by neutralization tests with anti-HEV antibodies ( 9 ) . (
  • In this study, the analytical and diagnostic performance of an alternative serum neutralization (SN) method based on the detection of CyHV-3-specific antibodies was assessed using 151 serum or plasma samples from healthy and naturally or experimentally CyHV-3-infected carp. (
  • Samples testing positive for YFV-specific IgM antibodies were evaluated using the plaque reduction neutralization test , with a 90% cutoff value for neutralizing antibody titers against YFV (the standard evaluation at CDC for determining serologic response to YF vaccine virus). (
  • This study, therefore, aimed to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based microneutralization test (EMNT) for the detection of neutralizing antibodies to mosquito-borne flaviviruses. (
  • left: also known plaque reduction neutralization test protocol as: serum neutralization assay can efficiently replace plaque reduction neutralization test for międzynarodowe targi poznańskie pawilon 5 detection and quantitation action sports outlet oakville of west nile virus antibodies in human and. (
  • The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) is routinely used in the United States to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA). (
  • With over 1,400 antibodies that have been validated, our selection of neutralization and blocking antibodies is unmatched. (
  • cPass Neutralization Antibody Detection kit detects circulating neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 that block the interaction between the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike glycoprotein with the ACE2 cell surface receptor. (
  • The kit has the capability of measuring functional neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) within an hour instead of the days required by the traditional tests. (
  • There is an urgent need for a robust serological test to detect neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. (
  • The first type is the virus neutralization test (VNT) which detects neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in a patient's blood. (
  • All other assays, such as ELISA and lateral flow rapid tests, represent the second assay type which detect only binding antibodies, and not Nab. (
  • SAN DIEGO, July 23, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) - AXIM® Biotechnologies, Inc. (OTCQB: AXIM) ("AXIM® Biotech," "AXIM" or "the Company"), an international healthcare solutions company targeting oncological and COVID-19 research, announces the completion of a study highlighting the performance of NeuCovix™, AXIM's rapid test to measure levels of neutralizing anti-COVID-19 antibodies. (
  • In contrast to current tests using live viruses, which are time-consuming, expensive and require trained personnel in a tightly controlled laboratory environment to measure neutralizing antibodies, NeuCovix™ is a portable, low cost, rapid point-of-care test that determines levels of neutralizing antibodies in approximately 10 minutes. (
  • AXIM's NeuCovix TM is the first rapid diagnostic test measuring levels of functional neutralizing antibodies that are believed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 from entering the host cells. (
  • Antibodies were quantified using the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein and neutralisation tests. (
  • Certain vaccines can generate specific antibodies in humans, but they do not inhibit HIV infection in laboratory tests. (
  • Pseudotype viruses have also been applied in neutralization tests for antibodies and vaccine development (Table 1 ). (
  • The escape of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from effects of neutralizing antibodies was studied by using neutralization-resistant (NR) variants generated by growing the neutralization-sensitive (NS) wild-type MN virus in the presence of human serum with neutralizing antibodies, more than 99% of which were directed at the V3 region of gp120. (
  • Lupus anticoagulant testing is often done in conjunction with tests for cardiolipin antibody and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies to help diagnose antiphospholipid syndrome . (
  • Whilst it is well established that fusion protein-specific antibodies can block particle attachment and/or entry into the cell (canonical virus neutralization), their capacity to inhibit cell-cell fusion and the consequences of this neutralization for the control of infection are not well characterized, in part because of the lack of specific tools to assay and quantify this activity. (
  • Using an adapted bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay, based on a split GFP-Renilla luciferase reporter, we have established a micro-fusion inhibition test (mFIT) that allows the identification and quantification of these neutralizing antibodies. (
  • In addition, the repertoire of antibodies that inhibit cell-cell fusion may be different to those that inhibit particle entry, shedding light on the mechanisms underpinning antibody-mediated neutralization of viral spread. (
  • Furthermore, this virus was efficiently neutralized by V5 antibodies, highlighting that even buried epitopes can function as neutralization targets. (
  • Finally, we analyzed the timing of antibody neutralization activity during cell entry and found that all antibodies blocked a step after cell attachment. (
  • Serum samples from adults were tested by Ab-ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay), to detect specific antibodies against pestivirus and 197 of them were further characterized by VNT (virus neutralization test) for the detection of neutralizing antibodies specific for BDV and for Bovine virus diarrhea virus (BVDV-1 and BVDV-2). (
  • A good correlation can be seen between titers of antibodies in neutralization toxin test and ELISA. (
  • To overcome the problem of discrepancies between ELISA and TN titers, one possibility may be the use of an ELISA reference serum (calibrated by TN test) with similar affinity antibodies or similar immunization status as the test serum. (
  • The efficacy of vaccination in chicken flocks can be evaluated by detecting neutralizing antibodies with the neutralization test . (
  • The pELISA could detect antibodies against different types of IBV in all tested sera. (
  • A Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test for the Detection of ZIKV-Specific Antibodies. (
  • The plaque reduction neutralization test is used to quantify the titer of neutralizing antibody for a virus. (
  • Plaque reduction neutralization test for human cytomegalovirus based upon enhanced uptake of neutral red by virus-infected cells" (PDF). (
  • Antigenic relationships of 20 group A arboviruses were assessed by the plaque reduction neutralization test, using highly specific hyperimmune mouse ascitic fluids and antisera. (
  • Thirty-six women attending a prenatal clinic in Honduras and with positive DENV IgM enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISAs) were screened with a ZIKV immunoglobulin M ELISA, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for ZIKV and DENV 1-4, and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) for ZIKV and DENV-2. (
  • Plaque reduction neutralization test results were interpreted using the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. (
  • Plaque-reduction neutralization tests (3) indicated that patient A had been infected with Zika virus, dengue virus serotype 1, or both, but that patient B had been infected only with Zika virus. (
  • manejo plaque reduction neutralization test protocol clínico 2017 ministério da saúde. (
  • simplified plaque reduction neutralization assay for dengue viruses by semimicro methods in bhk-21 cells: growth and metabolism bacterial genetics and molecular biology environment microbilogy medical microbiology & immunology control of microbial. (
  • To do this, 425 horse sera were collected in 2007 and analyzed by plaque reduction neutralization tests. (
  • Microplate test gives titer values 2-4 fold higher than the plaque reduction assay and is more economical. (
  • If SLE is suspected, two neutralization assays are needed to assess SLE exposure. (
  • The chart below represents nearly 300 serum neutralization assays for WNV in equines. (
  • Neutralisation assays, which are the most specific serologic tests, are not commonly used for a routine hantavirus infection diagnosis because are the tests are laborious and demand biosafety level (BSL)-3 laboratories to handle the virus. (
  • When interpreting WR samples, one should look at the whole profile of HBV tests, including the HBsAg neutralization test and assays of other hepatitis serologic markers, to provide the most accurate status of HBV infection to clinicians. (
  • Eurofins BioPharma Product Testing Munich provides you with a broad range of immunology cellular assays, which can help during the drug development process to predict the likelihood of immune responses to new substances. (
  • Can be done with plasma, but starting dilution of neutralization assays will be higher in order to dilute out anti-coagulant. (
  • Human sera with complement fixation titers to CMV of 1/32 or greater and fluorescein-conjugated rabbit anti-human globulin are the primary and secondary reagents in the fluorescent-antibody test. (
  • Of 10 patients sampled, 8 seroconverted after 2 or 3 serial bleeds, as evidenced by a 4-fold increase in the hemagglutination inhibition assay or virus neutralization test titers (Appendix Table 1), and had RVFV-specific IgM, confirming their recent RVFV infection status. (
  • In all tested patients, high titers of FH-containing circulating immune complexes were detected. (
  • The anti-HSV-1 IgG values of this cohort were tested by commercial anti-HSV-1 IgG ELISA kit, the NAb titers were assayed by ELISPOT-NT and were shown as log 2 (NT 50 ). (
  • 50% pseudoparticle neutralization test titers against lentiviruses bearing WT or mutant spikes (I529T or D510G) in serum samples from mice (n = 6) immunized with WT spike antigen are plotted. (
  • While we still have work to do for the EUA, our 10-minute point-of-care test is showing almost identical protective immune responses in plasma samples from patients with low titers and high titers as other more expensive and time-consuming lab tests," said Sergei Svarovsky, Ph.D., MBA, Chief Scientific Officer of Sapphire Biotech, a wholly-owned subsidiary of AXIM® Biotech. (
  • The pELISA could indirect evaluate neutralizing antibody titers against different types of IBV in all tested sera. (
  • A good correlation in antibody titres was obtained with the 3 commercial ELISA kits (Flockchek, Proflok, and Trop) used on 131 serum samples, but there was considerable variation between these and the virus neutralization titres. (
  • Despite several advantages, ELISA tests have been reported to have lower sensitivity than neutralization tests [79-81]. (
  • Red indicates roe deer serum samples that showed positive results in the TBEV neutralization test , and blue indicates roe deer serum samples that showed negative results in this test or an ELISA. (
  • The new EMNT assay combines the biological functional assessment of virus neutralization activity and the technical advantages of ELISA and, is simple, reliable, practical, and could be automated for high-throughput implementation in flavivirus surveillance studies and vaccine trials. (
  • Combined testing with a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and MAC-ELISA usually provides a diagnostic result during the first 1-7 days of illness. (
  • 96 well ELISA format test with ACE2 protein attached to the plate and HRP labeled RBD is used for detection. (
  • Using purified receptor binding domain (RBD) protein from the viral spike (S) protein and the host cell receptor ACE2, the test is designed to mimic the virus-host interaction by direct protein-protein interaction in a test tube or an ELISA plate well. (
  • All samples were tested by RT-PCR as well as by Ag-ELISA, to detect Persistently Infected (PI) animals. (
  • Furthermore, when tested with dengue virus samples, it showed 50.53% less cross reactivity than MAC-ELISA. (
  • To serotype the viruses, microneutralization tests were performed with antiserum pools of Lim and Benyesh-Melnick ( 21 ) (Denka Seiken, Tokyo, Japan) or in-house monospecific immune sera against coxsackie virus A10 (CAV10), CAV16, and HEV71, respectively. (
  • Of the six viruses that could not be identified by the neutralization tests described above ( Table 1 ), strains OC/0071, OC/0073, and OC/00272 were isolated from patients diagnosed with aseptic meningitis by using RD-18S cells. (
  • The effect of incubation at 37C on the neutralization test with various encephalitis viruses including Lansing strains of poliomyelitis virus. (
  • Pseudovirus-based virus neutralization test (pVNT) is similar, but still requires the use of live viruses and cells although handled in a BSL2 laboratory. (
  • In characterizing these viruses, we found that the strength of antibody binding to an epitope is the major determinant of the neutralization potential of an antibody, that even a buried region of the envelope protein can be efficiently targeted, and that the sole potential envelope glycan does not impact nearby epitope antibody binding and neutralization. (
  • Traditional test used for flavivirus antibody detection where cross-reactivity with other viruses may occur, e.g. (
  • To examine the antigenic relationship among viruses categorized in different clusters, we conducted a cross-neutralization test. (
  • Although 11 serotypes have been identified in the serogroup by a cross-neutralization test, the pathogenesis of these viruses was not well understood. (
  • Below please find general information about the viruses tested including a description of the disease, transmission, whether or not a vaccine is available and geographic and seasonal distribution. (
  • Serological testing for Flavivirus exposure can be challenging as there is cross-reactivity among the numerous agents in the genus as exemplified by the Zika virus outbreak in South and Central America. (
  • Testing for Zika virus infection in pregnancy: key concepts to deal with an emerging epidemic. (
  • Unfortunately, despite an unprecedented surge in attempts to rapidly advance perinatal clinical testing for a previously obscure arbovirus, there are several ongoing hindrances to molecular- and sonographic-based screening and diagnosis of congenital Zika virus infection. (
  • Development and evaluation of a novel high-throughput image-based fluorescent neutralization test for detection of Zika virus infection. (
  • French CyHV-3 isolate 07/108b was neutralized efficiently by sera from carp infected with European, American and Taiwanese CyHV-3 isolates, but no neutralization was observed using sera specific to other aquatic herpesviruses. (
  • A D50 endpoint titre (i.e. where 50% of the wells at that serum dilution show the presence of virus) is calculated for each test serum and the control sera by the Spearman Karber method. (
  • The sera were collected in 1996/97 and stored at -20°C until testing. (
  • The variants obtained had broad neutralization resistance to human sera, without limitation with respect to the V3 specificity of the sera. (
  • The serum sample or solution of antibody to be tested is diluted and mixed with a viral suspension. (
  • Since the COVID-19 pandemic began in Wuhan, China, late last year, nucleic based RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) testing has been used to diagnose people with acute viral infection and to trace and control contact transmission. (
  • However, viral neutralization tests against standard antisera were negative. (
  • Methods for a plaque neutralization test (PNT) were optimized for the detection and quantification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) neutralizing activity in the plasma of Pacific Herring Clupea pallasii. (
  • Autophagy-associated dengue vesicles promote viral transmission avoiding antibody neutralization. (
  • As previously occurred with other largely asymptomatic viral infections posing perinatal transmission risk (such as HIV or cytomegalovirus), we must develop and implement rapid, sensitive, and specific screening and diagnostic testing for both viral detection and estimation of timing of exposure. (
  • Representative image of negative and positive infection controls (A). Assay overview of serial dilution (1/20 to 1/43740) of a negative sample (26885) and two positive samples (LRV/16 1306 and LRV/16 1260) (B). Curve fitting of results and calculation of neutralization titer that inhibit 90% of viral infection (NT 90 ) (C). (
  • AHL is pleased to announce that all virus neutralization testing except Avian adenovirus, FAdV08/FAdV11 is now available once again at AHL. (
  • They then used the assay to test various approved and investigational antiviral and anti-infective drugs, including ones known to work against HIV, hepatitis C virus, and human rhinovirus. (
  • the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated) and RIOMV was used for the test. (
  • HEVs have long been classified on the basis of serotype-specific antisera in virus neutralization tests ( 1 , 10 ), the only method available for serotyping HEVs. (
  • However, virus neutralization is both labor- and time-intensive, and antigenic variants in many serotypes of HEV can affect test results ( 1 ) . (
  • The FAVN is a classical virus neutralisation test and is the method of choice for determining the levels of antibody to rabies virus in serum. (
  • In the rabies FAVN test, multiple serial dilutions of test serum are incubated with 100TCID50 of the CVS strain of rabies virus. (
  • After the initial serum virus incubation, BHK-21 cells are added and the test plate is incubated for 48 hours at 37 degrees Celsius. (
  • As the strain of virus used in the test causes little or no Cytopathic effect, the test is then read by immunofluorescence. (
  • For more information on virus neutralisation tests visit our VNT page. (
  • a test to determine the antimicrobial activity of a serum or to identify a given organism by inoculating a susceptible animal or cell culture with a mixture of the serum and the virus or other microbe being tested. (
  • The anti-FMD "O" antibody titer in serum of the vaccinated animals is determined using complement fixation test and virus neutralization test (Grist et al. (
  • A convalescent phase specimen is needed to make a diagnosis of dengue virus infection when results are negative on both tests from the acute specimen. (
  • Patients with a positive IgM test result are classified as presumptive, recent dengue virus infections. (
  • In order to do so, direct and indirect laboratory tests have been developed to identify the virus or part of its structure that generally detects the antibody response. (
  • Diagnostic tests providing a proper identification of DENV infection by any of its four serotypes in symptomatic or asymptomatic cases in the population, and especially in areas that have more than one arbovirus or another micro-organism (virus, bacteria or parasite) producing similar signs and symptoms are the key aspect of any dengue research and surveillance programs [ 2 ]. (
  • Laboratory tests are based on the detection of the virus, part of its genome or structure, or specific result from an infected person or animal as immune response. (
  • In this chapter, the most used laboratory tests in an arbovirus study focused on diagnosis and research of dengue virus (DENV) will be assessed, some comparisons will be carried out with other laboratory tests, its features, advantages and disadvantages, and cautions need to be considered during the process. (
  • We hypothesized that VP1 mutations might allow the virus to evade antibody-mediated neutralization. (
  • CDC laboratory scientists have optimized testing so we now have a rapid, highly sensitive test that can be used in urine or blood that can pretty accurately detect the virus in someone who is acutely infected. (
  • DTRA donated three surrogate virus neutralization test kits, manufactured in New Jersey, which offer a novel technology for determining neutralization antibody levels to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (
  • Professor Lin-Fa Wang's lab at Duke-NUS Medical School established a Surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) which detects NAbs, but without the need to use any live virus or cells and can be completed in 1-2 hours in a BSL2 lab. (
  • Micro-fusion inhibition tests: quantifying antibody neutralization of virus-mediated cell-cell fusion. (
  • A high-throughput platform would greatly facilitate COVID-19 serological testing and antiviral screening," say the researchers. (
  • The antigenic similarities of these closely related flaviviruses left researchers and clinicians with challenges to interpret serological tests. (
  • This contrasted with serological results for healthy individuals, most of whom robustly cross-neutralized all tested JCV variants. (
  • The neutralizing antibody test is the method of choice in conducting serological surveys to identify epidemiologically important immunity gaps in the population. (
  • After that, serological tests must be applied, and, as expected, high cross-reactivity between ZIKV and other flavivirus serology is observed. (
  • To overcome this limitation, we developed a high-throughput image-based fluorescent neutralization test for ZIKV infection by serological detection. (
  • This protocol can be utilized for research applications and serological diagnostic testing with the use of additional controls. (
  • Thus, the assay can be readily deployed for large-scale vaccine evaluation and neutralizing antibody testing in humans," write the researchers. (
  • In the current study, the micro-neutralization test was compared to the RFFIT using 129 mouse serum samples from rabies vaccine studies. (
  • Vaccine: Several vaccines are being tested but none are available for clinical use. (
  • The difference in time and money for blood centers and vaccine developers that our test delivers is staggering. (
  • The Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health has developed a live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccine (TV003), which is currently being tested in phase 3 clinical trials. (
  • Peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pELISA) as a possible alternative to the neutralization test for evaluating the immune response to IBV vaccine. (
  • This fluorescent neutralization test could be used for clinical diagnosis confirmation of ZIKV infection, as well as for vaccine clinical trials and seroprevalence studies. (
  • Given the significance of Fcγ-receptors (FcγR) in antibody-mediated neutralization and antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of flavivirus infection, non-FcγR and FcγR-expressing cell lines were used in the EMNT to allow the detection of the sum of neutralizing and immune-enhancing antibody activity as the neutralizing titer. (
  • There are two types of antibody tests that aim for detecting COVID-19 infection with sufficient specificity and sensitivity. (
  • this study will test reactivity during the early stage of infection. (
  • It is possible that low-level neutralization or other activities may lead to an improvement or worsening in disease course following infection. (
  • Diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity and repeatability of 95.9%, 99.0% and 99.3%, respectively, were obtained, as well as a compliance rate of 89.9% in reproducibility testing. (
  • The results suggest that this non-lethal diagnostic test could be used in the future to improve the epidemiological surveillance and control of CyHV-3 disease. (
  • Dengue IgM serologic tests also are available as laboratory-developed tests in public health and commercial clinical laboratories or as diagnostic kits. (
  • A diagnostic test intends to identify whether or not a patient has a disease that cannot be recognized by signs and symptoms. (
  • Regarding diagnostics, emphasis was placed on utilizing allergy tests judiciously in the context of the medical history because positive test results are not, in isolation, diagnostic. (
  • Additionally, the Company is developing rapid diagnostic tests for the early detection of cancer and proprietary small molecules drugs to treat cancer and block metastasis. (
  • It is beyond the scope of this test method to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design. (
  • Optimal methods included the overnight incubation of VHSV aliquots in serial dilutions (starting at 1:16) of whole test plasma containing endogenous complement. (
  • The dynamism of the company can be seen from their constant challenging of the status quo to see if new and improved methods of water testing are possible. (
  • G. Combinations of tests or measurements with methods of regulating a chemical reaction not otherwise provided for in a chemical synthesis class or otherwise. (
  • B. Testing Processes: Methods of chemical testing or analysis are classifiable on the basis of the specie tested for if such specie is claimed or solely disclosed. (
  • Other methods used include vega testing, the K-Test , hair testing ,and applied kinesiology . (
  • guides readers through the various microbiological methods listed in the compendia with easy-to-follow diagrams and approaches to validations of such test methodologies. (
  • Intradermal Serial Dilution Endpoint Titration and Provocation/Neutralization Testing (Subcutaneous, Intradermal or Sublingual) are the preferred techniques to aid in the evaluation of biologic inhalants suspected to be contributing to this type of illness. (
  • Standard Test Method for Water in Insulating Liquids by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration. (
  • cPass Neutralization Antibody detection kit does not require live biological materials or strict biosafety containment for testing (i.e. (
  • When PTT-LA is measured, the assay is called a hexagonal phase phospholipid neutralization assay). (
  • It has a higher sensitivity than other tests like hemagglutination and many commercial Enzyme immunoassay without compromising specificity. (
  • If significant sensitivity to any of the above groups is found, then testing for additional members of the incriminated group(s) in the patient's geographic area may be appropriate. (
  • Recently, we developed the LEADQuick field test kit for the detection of lead in water with 3 #22;g/L sensitivity. (
  • This test is further modified to detect lead in soil with a sensitivity 0.03 #22;g. (
  • however, the neutralization sensitivity varied highly. (
  • We measured the antibody binding efficiency and found that this closely matched the pattern of neutralization sensitivity. (
  • Microneutralization test has been used for determination of antibody levels. (
  • These results were confirmed by remicroneutralization tests with HEV-monospecific antisera or an additional phylogenetic analysis with the complete VP4 nucleotide sequences. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis with complete VP4 genes is more useful than neutralization tests with enterovirus serotype-specific antisera in identifying enterovirus serotypes. (
  • New research from Boston Medical Center shows that routine Hepatitis C (HCV) testing at federally qualified health centers improves diagnosis rates and health outcomes for people with HCV infections in the United States, and is cost-effective. (
  • The kits offer rapid testing that can be completed in research, clinical and hospital settings. (
  • However, the test is relatively cumbersome and time intensive (few days) relative to EIA kits that give quick results (usually several minutes to a few hours). (
  • All cases with pending results will be queued for testing. (
  • Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this standard. (
  • Our results show that anti-FH autoantibodies induce neutralization of FH at acute phase of the disease, leading to an overall impairment of several functions of FH, extending the role of autoantibodies beyond the impairment of the direct cell surface protection. (
  • Further testing based on positive screen results may also be appropriate. (
  • Neutralization of the haemorrhagic activities of viperine snake venoms and venom metalloproteinases using synthetic peptide inhibitors and chelators Envenoming by the West African saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus resembles that of most vipers, in that it results in local blistering, necrosis and sometimes life-threatening systemic haemorrhage. (
  • This guarantees objective test results with a high informative value. (
  • This ensures that the neutrality of our test results is maintained. (
  • We are extremely pleased with the initial test results that NeuCovix showed," commented AXIM® Biotech CEO John W. Huemoeller II. (
  • Participants who are seronegative or whose status is unknown are tested for HIV at each visit, with post-test counseling when participants return to the clinic for test results. (
  • If results indicate the presence of lupus anticoagulant, testing is usually repeated about 12 weeks later to confirm that it is still present, especially for individuals being tested for APS. (
  • The results of the series of LA tests either lead toward or away from the likelihood of having LA. The laboratory report may be somewhat complicated, but it usually provides an interpretation of the results and states whether LA is present or absent. (
  • LA testing results, like those of other tests for clotting disorders, are difficult to interpret and are best evaluated by physicians with experience with excessive clotting disorders . (
  • Laboratory comparison test results show that, with neutralized tailings, when the cement dosage is at 19%, backfill UCS after 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days are 105%-163%, 80%-102%, and 33%-43%, respectively, which are higher than those of flotation tailings. (
  • Test results are then reviewed by "naturopathic medical professionals" who will describe the foods and other products that you are intolerant to, and your degree of intolerance. (
  • Acid-base neutralizations are double displacement reactions because the positive ions are exchanged between the acid and base reactants. (
  • Acids and bases have a wide variety of uses and can react together in neutralisation reactions. (
  • They range from the use of cell cultures, animal models, inoculation by insects, and serology tests to the use of detection molecular tests and quantification of genetic material that are described in this chapter herein, a brief explanation of this methodology, its strengths and weaknesses, and its application in the dengue research. (
  • Consistent with this hypothesis, neutralization serology revealed that plasma samples from PML patients neutralized wild-type JCV strains but failed to neutralize patient-cognate PML-mutant JCV strains. (
  • To test this, we created a panel of ZIKV mutants with epitope insertions in different regions of the envelope protein. (
  • This assay was developed to use less reagents and for testing a larger number of samples. (
  • The test has been modified over the years to use smaller volumes of reagents and samples, but requires a 50 μL minimum volume of test serum. (
  • An unexplained prolonged PTT test (PTT measures the time it takes in seconds for a person's blood sample to clot in a test tube after reagents are added. (
  • The most sensitive tests are dilute Russell viper venom test (DRVVT) and a LA-sensitive PTT (PTT-LA), one that uses low levels of phospholipid reagents. (
  • Virtual chemistry experiment to test acid and base and its neutralization. (
  • Year 10 Chemistry Topic Test Revision notes/help. (
  • This test method can be used for determining the cement content of specimens that contain 3 to 16 % cement. (
  • This work-up may also involve various laboratory tests, medical imaging studies, and/or surgical procedures. (
  • The inspections of packaging and labelling are conducted in rooms separate from the sensory analysis and laboratory tests. (
  • Depending on the product and the scope of the tests, scientific partner institutions and organizations conduct product-specific, microbiological, chemical and physical laboratory tests on behalf of DLG and in accordance with recognized official examination procedures. (
  • report that JCV strains found in the cerebrospinal fluid of PML patients have mutations that prevent antibody neutralization and that these blind spots can be overcome with vaccination. (
  • It is unclear if all regions of the envelope protein surface or even buried epitopes can function as neutralization targets. (
  • Because Class F pozzolan may not contain any calcium hydroxide for reaction, this test method will not determine percentage Class F pozzolan in the mix. (
  • The wastewater neutralization process is modeled based on the reaction between a strong basic solution and a strong acidic solution in a semibatch reactor. (
  • Fluorescent neutralization assay setting definition. (