Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor: A neurotrophic factor that promotes the survival of various neuronal cell types and may play an important role in the injury response in the nervous system.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: The founding member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. It was originally characterized as a NERVE GROWTH FACTOR promoting the survival of MIDBRAIN dopaminergic NEURONS, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for PARKINSON DISEASE.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Receptor, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor: Cell surface receptors for CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. They are heterotrimeric proteins formed by the association of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with the LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although the receptor regulates neuronal development, it is structurally similar to the cytokine receptor for INTERLEUKIN-6; (RECEPTORS, INTERLEUKIN-6).Receptor, trkB: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Receptors: A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored cell surface receptors that are specific for GLIAL CELL LINE-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS. They form a multi-component receptor complex with PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-RET and regulate a variety of intracellular SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS in conjunction with c-ret protein.Neurotrophin 3: A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret: Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Neurturin: A glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ligand that is specific for the GFRA2 RECEPTOR. Neurturin is essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic NEURONS.Receptor, trkA: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Receptor, trkC: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUROTROPHIN 3. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and may play a role in mediating the effects of NEUROTROPHIN 3 on the proliferation and differentiation of NEURONS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Mice, Inbred C57BLCorpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Receptors, OSM-LIF: Cell surface receptors formed from the dimerization of LIF RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although originally described as receptors for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR these receptors also bind the closely-related protein ONCOSTATIN M and are referred to as both LIF receptors and type I oncostatin M receptors.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor alpha Subunit: A receptor subunit that combines with CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130 to form the dual specificity receptor for LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR and ONCOSTATIN M. The subunit is also a component of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR. Both membrane-bound and secreted isoforms of the receptor subunit exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. The secreted isoform is believed to act as an inhibitory receptor, while the membrane-bound form is a signaling receptor.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Cytokine Receptor gp130: A cytokine receptor that acts through the formation of oligomeric complexes of itself with a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Saposins: A group of four homologous sphingolipid activator proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of a common protein precursor molecule referred to as prosaposin.Lithium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain lithium as an integral part of the molecule.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Spirostans: Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Helplessness, Learned: Learned expectation that one's responses are independent of reward and, hence, do not predict or control the occurrence of rewards. Learned helplessness derives from a history, experimentally induced or naturally occurring, of having received punishment/aversive stimulation regardless of responses made. Such circumstances result in an impaired ability to learn. Used for human or animal populations. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Oncostatin M: A cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions that depend upon the cellular microenvironment. Oncostatin M is a 28 kDa monomeric glycoprotein that is similar in structure to LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR. Its name derives from the the observation that it inhibited the growth of tumor cells and augmented the growth of normal fibroblasts.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Serpins: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Receptors, Cytokine: Cell surface proteins that bind cytokines and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Retinal Degeneration: A retrogressive pathological change in the retina, focal or generalized, caused by genetic defects, inflammation, trauma, vascular disease, or aging. Degeneration affecting predominantly the macula lutea of the retina is MACULAR DEGENERATION. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p304)Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Parkinson Disease, Secondary: Conditions which feature clinical manifestations resembling primary Parkinson disease that are caused by a known or suspected condition. Examples include parkinsonism caused by vascular injury, drugs, trauma, toxin exposure, neoplasms, infections and degenerative or hereditary conditions. Clinical features may include bradykinesia, rigidity, parkinsonian gait, and masked facies. In general, tremor is less prominent in secondary parkinsonism than in the primary form. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch38, pp39-42)Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Imipramine: The prototypical tricyclic antidepressant. It has been used in major depression, dysthymia, bipolar depression, attention-deficit disorders, agoraphobia, and panic disorders. It has less sedative effect than some other members of this therapeutic group.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate: Specialized PHOTOTRANSDUCTION neurons in the vertebrates, such as the RETINAL ROD CELLS and the RETINAL CONE CELLS. Non-visual photoreceptor neurons have been reported in the deep brain, the PINEAL GLAND and organs of the circadian system.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Rats, Inbred F344Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Huntington Disease: A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Diazinon: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sodium Benzoate: The sodium salt of BENZOIC ACID. It is used as an antifungal preservative in pharmaceutical preparations and foods. It may also be used as a test for liver function.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Eye Proteins
Examples of notable neurotrophic factors include: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic ... "Neurotrophic factors". Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved 31 May 2016. Neurotrophic factors are molecules that enhance the ... Neurotrophic factors are polypeptides or small proteins that support the growth, differentiation, and survival of neurons. They ... As will be discussed below, exercise stimulates the expression of several neurotrophic factors (NTFs). ...
Gary Lewin; Bruce D. Carter (25 March 2014). Neurotrophic Factors. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 490-491. ISBN 978-3- ... 189-. ISBN 978-1-4398-2708-6. Numakawa, Tadahiro (2014). "Possible protective action of neurotrophic factors and natural ... the main receptor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. It has been found to possess poor blood-brain-barrier penetration when ...
... advancing research on neurotrophic factors; identifying biomarkers of PD; understanding patient's unmet needs, like postural ...
... cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor; HSPA14. FAM107B has one paralog, FAM107A, and many orthologs in organisms including ...
A neurotrophic protein around 50 kilodaltons (kDa) was identified and temporarily named RPE-54 before being officially termed ... Neurotrophic activity does not require the serpin reactive loop". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (43): 25992-9. doi: ... PEDF also displays neurotrophic functions. Retinoblastoma cells differentiate into neurons due to the presence of PEDF. ... They isolated proteins unique to RPE cells and tested the individual proteins for neurotrophic function, meaning promoting a ...
Yan, Q.S., Feng, M.J., Yan, S.E. (2005). Different expression of brainderived neurotrophic factor in the nucleus accumbens of ... Pandey, S.C., Zhang, H., Roy, A., Misra, K. (2006). Central and medial amygdaloid brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling ... Soule, J., Messaoudi, E., Bramham, C.R. (2006). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and control of synaptic consolidation in the ... MacLennan, A.J., Lee, N., Walker, D.W. (1995). Chronic ethanol administration decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene ...
It includes inhibitory, excitatory, and neurotrophic neurosteroids as well as pheromones and vomeropherines. In contrast to ... shows neurotrophic activity in vitro; was formerly under development for the treatment of cognitive disorders BNN-20: 17β-spiro ...
The virus is neurotrophic in nature. The frontal nerve is more commonly affected than the nasociliary nerve or lacrimal nerve. ... Neurotrophic: corneal nerve damage causes persistent epithelial defect, thinning and even perforation. Cornea becomes ...
There is an association of the disease[which?] with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). An interactive pathway map of ...
March 1990). "Neurotrophin-3: a neurotrophic factor related to NGF and BDNF". Science. 247 (4949 Pt 1): 1446-51. doi:10.1126/ ... July 1991). "The receptor for ciliary neurotrophic factor". Science. 253 (5015): 59-63. doi:10.1126/science.1648265. PMID ...
Those proteins include neurotrophic factors and insulin-like growth factor 1. Both those proteins are still under clinical ... Ekestern, Eva (2004). "Neurotrophic Factors and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis". Neurodegenerative Dis. 1: 88-100. doi:10.1159/ ... various neurotrophic factors, which has shown promise in both in-vitro and in-vivo models of ALS but is yet to be effective in ...
... (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance ... II: NMDA receptors and neurotrophic factors". Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 72 (13): 1095-101. PMID 1660257 ... convergent evidence for neurotrophic effects as a unifying hypothesis". Bipolar Disorders. 11 Suppl 2: 92-109. doi:10.1111/j. ... demonstrating neurotrophic activities similar to that of NGF. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) can also upregulate NGF ...
The ability of neurotrophic factors to influence the sprouting of axons has been seen with electron microscopic images and in ... Neurotrophic factors are support proteins and factors that help assist in the growth and maintenance of axons throughout the ... Some discussion has led investigators to believe that neurotrophic factors only led to more axonal sprouting rather than ... Some factors include Schwann cell characteristics, neurotrophic factors, and nerve branch size. These factors influence the ...
The effects of IL-6 on depression are mediated through the repression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in ... ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1), cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF ... "Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for ... "The Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic-factor gene is associated with geriatric depression". Neurobiology ...
The neurotrophic theory is the leading hypothesis used to explain the role of programmed cell death in the developing nervous ... Therefore, it is speculated that PCD in the PNS is dependent on the release of neurotrophic factors and thus follows the ... The prevailing theory explaining this observation is the neurotrophic theory which states that PCD is required to optimize the ... Furthermore, disruption of TrkB, a receptor for brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), did not affect cell death. It has ...
This gene interacts with brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Cadps2 has been linked to autism and is in the 7q autism ...
"neurotrophic factor delivery provides neuroprotection, J Neuroscience 2005". ResearchGate. "Integration of striatal allografts ...
1992). "Neurotrophic action of gliostatin on cortical neurons. Identity of gliostatin and platelet-derived endothelial cell ...
Schooltink H, Stoyan T, Roeb E, Heinrich PC, Rose-John S (Dec 1992). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein ... Schooltink H, Stoyan T, Roeb E, Heinrich PC, Rose-John S (1992). "Ciliary neurotrophic factor induces acute-phase protein ... Interleukin-6 receptor has been shown to interact with Interleukin 6 and Ciliary neurotrophic factor. Cluster of ... "Signaling of human ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) revisited. The interleukin-6 receptor can serve as an alpha-receptor for ...
Neurotrophic factors are those that promote survival and growth of neurons. A trophic factor can be described as a factor that ... Neurotrophic factors act through retrograde transport in neurons, in which they are taken up by the growth cone of the injured ... Schwann cells play an important role in not only producing neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and ciliary ... Localized delivery of soluble neurotrophic factors may help promote the rate of axon regeneration observed within these graft ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic factor found originally in the brain, but also found in the ... Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors. Neurotrophic ... The term neurotrophic factor generally refers to these four neurotrophins, the GDNF family of ligands, and ciliary neurotrophic ... Neurotrophic survival signals in neurons are mediated by the high-affinity binding of neurotrophins to their respective Trk ...
April 19, 2009). "Novel neurotrophic factor secreted by amniotic epithelial cells". Retrieved April 9, 2012. ScienCell Research ...
It is a neurotrophic factor that signals predominantly through the TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase. Tropomyosin receptor kinase B ... 2008). "Association study of 10 genes encoding neurotrophic factors and their receptors in adult and child attention-deficit/ ... 2005). "Sortilin controls intracellular sorting of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to the regulated secretory pathway". J. ... Götz R, Schartl M (1994). "The conservation of neurotrophic factors during vertebrate evolution". Comp Biochem Physiol ...
Neurotrophic protein S100 beta stimulates glial cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 1;88(9):3554-8. PMID ...
Fruit bodies contains neurotrophic cyathane diterpene compounds called cyrneines. Maas Geesteranus RA. (1975). "Corrections". ...
... referred to as truncated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (truncated GDNF) proteins, that promote dopamine uptake by ... The dopaminergic neurotrophic activity assay is used to identify neurotrophic factors that may be beneficial in treating ... neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3, neurotrophin-4/5, neurotrophin-6, insulin-like ... Since neurotrophic factors are typically present in small amounts in tissues (e.g., Hofer and Barde Nature 331:261, 1988; Lin ...
The aim of the present study was to verify cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and somatostatin levels in cerebrospinal fluid of patients affected by chronic ...
However, few studies have investigated the concentrations of S100B protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and glial ... cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in human milk. The associations of the concentrations of S100B protein, BDNF, and ...
Neurotrophic factors are small secretory proteins with important functions both in the nervous system and in peripheral tissues ... Our findings indicate that the trafficking of GDNF is very different from that of other neurotrophic factors, and in contrast ... By regulating the availability of GDNF and its co-receptors, SorLA can inhibit GDNF-induced neurotrophic activity in SY5Y cells ... Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is best known for its ability to support the survival of midbrain ...
4 Effects of GGA administration on mRNA levels of neurotrophic factors in the stressed mouse hippocampus.. Mice were ... HSP105 prevents depression-like behavior by increasing hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in mice ... HSP105 prevents depression-like behavior by increasing hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in mice ... HSP105 prevents depression-like behavior by increasing hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in mice ...
Neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on mesencephalic ...
Title: Polynucleotides encoding truncated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Abstract: Disclosed are novel proteins, ... referred to as truncated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (truncated GDNF) proteins, that promote dopamine uptake by ...
While it is well established that PACAP mediates both neurotrophic and neurodevelopmental effects, the signaling cascades that ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor[edit]. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is structurally similar to NGF, NT-3, and NT- ... "Neurotrophic" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Neurotropic.. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are a family of ... Ciliary neurotrophic factor[edit]. Ciliary neurotrophic factor affects embryonic motor neurons, dorsal root ganglion sensory ... Most neurotrophic factors belong to one of three families: (1) neurotrophins, (2) glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor ...
BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ANON2, BULN2, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin,[5] is a protein[6] that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.[7][8] ... Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery. BDNF was first isolated from pig brain in 1982 by Yves-Alain ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P23560 (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor) at the ...
... Clemens Suter-Crazzolara un691cs at genius.embnet.dkfz-heidelberg.de Tue Sep 13 02:03:04 EST 1994 * ... hello, several neurotrophic factors, but also tgf-betas are synthesized as precursors, consisting of a leader sequence (spliced ...
Most of the neurotrophic electrode is made by hand. The gold wires are cut to the correct length, coiled, and then bent to an ... The term neurotrophic means "relating to the nutrition and maintenance of nerve tissue" and the device gets its name from the ... The neurotrophic electrode is an intracortical device designed to read the electrical signals that the brain uses to process ... Kennedy adapted the neurotrophic electrode to read local field potentials (LFPs). He demonstrated that they are capable of ...
Mus musculus brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor transcript variant IIA ... Mus musculus brain-derived neurotrophic ... Delta-secretase-cleaved Tau antagonizes TrkB neurotrophic signalings, mediating Alzheimers disease pathologies. [Proc Natl ... Delta-secretase-cleaved Tau antagonizes TrkB neurotrophic signalings, mediating Alzheimers disease pathologies.. Xiang J, Wang ... Mus musculus brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor transcript variant IIA (Bdnf) mRNA, complete cds, alternatively ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cocaine addiction.. McGinty JF1, Whitfield TW Jr, Berglind WJ. ... The effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on cocaine-seeking are brain region-specific. Infusion of BDNF into ...
... brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, and the neurotrophic receptors-p75NTR and Trk receptors-in the developing human fetal ... The expression patterns of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, and the neurotrophic receptors-p75NTR and ... From the neurotrophic receptors, p75NTR was found in the inner pillar cells, TrkB in the inner hair cells and TrkC in both the ... The present study focused on the role of BDNF, p75NTR, TrkA, TrkB and TrkC neurotrophic receptors during human inner ear ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacol. Rev. 64, 238-258 (2012).. ... Variant brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism alters vulnerability to stress and response to antidepressants ... Neurotrophic-priming of glucocorticoid receptor signaling is essential for neuronal plasticity to stress and antidepressant ... Bridging the gap between brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid effects on brain networks. Neuroendocrinology doi ...
S.-S. Shi, S.-H. Shao, B.-P. Yuan, F. Pan, and Z.-L. Li, "Acute stress and chronic stress change brain-derived neurotrophic ... M. Kairisalo, L. Korhonen, M. Sepp et al., "NF-κB-dependent regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal ... T. A. Sakharnova, M. V. Vedunova, and I. V. Mukhina, "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its role in the functioning ... TrkB-Mediated Neuroprotective and Antihypoxic Properties of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor. Maria V. Vedunova,1,2 Tatiana A ...
A brain-derived neurotrophic factor is a type of protein that is capable of regulating the development of neurons. In most ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein capable of regulating the development of neurons. It is found primarily ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is most prevalent in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain.. ... While people are born with most of their neurons already in place, as are many other mammals, brain-derived neurotrophic factor ...
Ciliary neurotrophic factor prevents the degeneration of motor neurons after axotomy. Nature 345:440-441 (1990).PubMedCrossRef ... Purification of the chick eye ciliary neurotrophic factor, J Neurochem 43:1468-1478 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Q. Yan, C, Matheson, and O.T. Lopez, In vivo neurotrophic effects of GDNF on neonatal and adult facial motor neurons. Nature ... Y.W. Kwon, and M.E. Gurney, Systemic injections of ciliary neurotrophic factor induce sprouting by adult motor neurons, ...
Neurotrophic factor GDNF regulates intestinal barrier function in inflammatory bowel disease. Michael Meir,1 Natalie Burkard,1 ... Glial-derived neurotrophic factor regulates apoptosis in colonic epithelial cells. Gastroenterology. 2003;124(7):1748-1757. ... In the present study, we found that the neurotrophic factor GDNF was reduced in samples from patients with IBD, which ... Glial-derived neurotrophic factor regulates intestinal epithelial barrier function and inflammation and is therapeutic for ...
This retrospective case series included 7 neurotrophic keratopathy patients who underwent acellular nerve allograft (Avance ... Consequently, more surgeons may consider neurotization for those individuals with severe neurotrophic keratopathy. ... invasive surgical technique using acellular nerve allograft to re-establish corneal sensibility in patients with neurotrophic ...
While previous studies have reported that glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes IEB function, the ...
An experimental inquiry into the possible role of neurotrophic mechanisms in skeletal development following removal of neural ... An experimental inquiry into the possible role of neurotrophic mechanisms in skeletal development following removal of neural ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Details. Name. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Kind. protein. Organism. Humans. ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. P23560. Details. Drug Relations. Drug Relations. DrugBank ID. Name. Drug group. ...
  • Neurotrophic factors are small secretory proteins with important functions both in the nervous system and in peripheral tissues. (helsinki.fi)
  • Our findings indicate that the trafficking of GDNF is very different from that of other neurotrophic factors, and in contrast to apoptotic proneurotrophins, proGDNF is a trophic protein with increased specificity to GDNF receptor complex GFRα1-RET. (helsinki.fi)
  • By regulating the availability of GDNF and its co-receptors, SorLA can inhibit GDNF-induced neurotrophic activity in SY5Y cells. (helsinki.fi)
  • While it is well established that PACAP mediates both neurotrophic and neurodevelopmental effects, the signaling cascades that underlie these diverse actions remain incompletely characterized. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The study will evaluate the safety, tolerability and therapeutic effects of transplantation of escalating doses of autologous cultured mesenchymal bone marrow stromal cells secreting neurotrophic factors (MSC-NTF), in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This is a phase IIa prospective, open label, dose-escalating, three patient-group clinical study, to evaluate the safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of autologous cultured mesenchymal bone marrow stromal cells secreting neurotrophic factors (MSC-NTF), as a potent treatment for patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) at the early disease stages. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A Phase IIa, Open Label, Dose-escalating Clinical Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability and Therapeutic Effects of Transplantation of Autologous Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Secreting Neurotrophic Factors (MSC-NTF), in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Delta-secretase-cleaved Tau antagonizes TrkB neurotrophic signalings, mediating Alzheimer's disease pathologies. (nih.gov)
  • Although RET's ligand has remained elusive, it is expected to be an extracellular neurotrophic molecule expressed in the developing gut and kidney mesenchyme, based on the phenotypes of intestinal aganglionosis and renal agenesis observed in homozygous RET knockout (Ret -/-) mice. (nih.gov)
  • Currently, neurotrophic factors are being intensely studied for use in bioartificial nerve conduits because they are necessary in vivo for directing axon growth and regeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), we have now performed the sural nerve graft procedure on 3 children (ages 6, 7, and 8 years old) with neurotrophic cornea and a history of corneal ulceration, scarring, and tarsorrhaphy. (chop.edu)
  • Cross-talk between these pathways affects experience-dependent neuroplasticity and behavior, extending previous implications of neurotrophic priming of glucocorticoid response for adaptive plasticity to chronic stress and antidepressant response. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, a disruption of cross-talk between these pathways by, for example, the misalignment of circadian glucocorticoid release and experience-dependent neurotrophic signaling may contribute to the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. (pnas.org)
  • This small case series evaluated the clinical benefit of adding thymosin beta 4 eye drops to the treatment regimens of four patients with longstanding neurotrophic corneal epithelial defects due to herpes zoster ophthalmicus, diabetes or both. (aao.org)
  • The authors conclude that these results suggest a promising role for thymosin beta 4 drops in the treatment of patients with recalcitrant, nonhealing, neurotrophic corneal epithelial defects. (aao.org)
  • Corneal neurotization is an especially exciting potential treatment option and cure for young patients with neurotrophic cornea. (chop.edu)