Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Membrane transport proteins found predominately in NEURONS and neuroendocrine cells that facilitate neurotransmitter transport. They include two distinct families of proteins that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS across the PLASMA MEMBRANE and that transport NEUROTRANSMITTERS into SECRETORY VESICLES.
A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
A vesicular transport protein expressed predominately in NEURONS. Synaptotagmin helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A ubiquitous target SNARE protein that interacts with SYNTAXIN and SYNAPTOBREVIN. It is a core component of the machinery for intracellular MEMBRANE FUSION. The sequence contains 2 SNARE domains, one is the prototype for the Qb-SNARES, and the other is the prototype for the Qc-SNARES.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.
A superfamily of small proteins which are involved in the MEMBRANE FUSION events, intracellular protein trafficking and secretory processes. They share a homologous SNARE motif. The SNARE proteins are divided into subfamilies: QA-SNARES; QB-SNARES; QC-SNARES; and R-SNARES. The formation of a SNARE complex (composed of one each of the four different types SNARE domains (Qa, Qb, Qc, and R)) mediates MEMBRANE FUSION. Following membrane fusion SNARE complexes are dissociated by the NSFs (N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE FACTORS), in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEIN, i.e., SNAPs (no relation to SNAP 25.)
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that were originally characterized as sodium dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters. Vesicular glutamate transport proteins sequester the excitatory neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE from the CYTOPLASM into SECRETORY VESICLES in exchange for lumenal PROTONS.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that are INTEGRAL MEMBRANE PROTEINS of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES. They are ANTIPORTERS that exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic NEUROTRANSMITTER and play an essential role in regulating neurotransmission.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
SNARE proteins where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is an ARGININE. They are classified separately from the Q-SNARE PROTEINS where the central amino acid residue of the SNARE motif is a GLUTAMINE. This subfamily contains the vesicle associated membrane proteins (VAMPs) based on similarity to the prototype for the R-SNAREs, VAMP2 (synaptobrevin 2).
A neuronal cell membrane protein that combines with SNAP-25 and SYNAPTOBREVIN 2 to form a SNARE complex that leads to EXOCYTOSIS.
A vesicular transport protein that was originally characterized as an inositol polyphosphate binding protein. Synaptotagmin II helps regulate EXOCYTOSIS of SYNAPTIC VESICLES and appears to serve as a calcium sensor to trigger NEUROTRANSMITTER release. It also acts as a nerve cell receptor for certain BOTULINUM TOXINS.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A family of sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters that transport the amino acid GLYCINE. They differ from GLYCINE RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GLYCINE. They are located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of NEURONS; GLIAL CELLS; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and RED BLOOD CELLS where they remove inhibitory neurotransmitter glycine from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
A family of vesicular amine transporter proteins that catalyze the transport and storage of CATECHOLAMINES and indolamines into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position as syntaxin 1A in the SNARE complex and which also are most similar to syntaxin 1A in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. This subfamily is also known as the syntaxins, although a few so called syntaxins are Qc-SNARES.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
A genus of SQUID in the family Loliginidae, superorder DECAPODIFORMES, with a spindle-shaped body. They are well-studied, common inshore squids of the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans, but their various species are taxonomically unresolved.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A synaptic membrane protein involved in MEMBRANE FUSION of SYNAPTIC VESICLES with the presynaptic membranes. It is the prototype member of the R-SNARE PROTEINS.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM or its components.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.

Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (1/4009)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

Reproducibility studies with 11C-DTBZ, a monoamine vesicular transporter inhibitor in healthy human subjects. (2/4009)

The reproducibility of (+/-)-alpha-[11C] dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) measures in PET was studied in 10 healthy human subjects, aged 22-76 y. METHODS: The scan-to-scan variation of several measures used in PET data analysis was determined, including the radioactivity ratio (target-to-reference), plasma-input Logan total distribution volume (DV), plasma-input Logan Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Logan Bmax/Kd values. RESULTS: The radioactivity ratios, plasma-input Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Bmax/Kd all have higher reliability than plasma-input total DV values. In addition, measures using the occipital cortex as the reference region have higher reliability than the same measures using the cerebellum as the reference region. CONCLUSION: Our results show that DTBZ is a reliable PET tracer that provides reproducible in vivo measurement of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter density. In the selection of reference regions for DTBZ PET data analysis, caution must be exercised in circumstances when DTBZ binding in the occipital cortex or the cerebellum may be altered.  (+info)

Augmentation is a potentiation of the exocytotic process. (3/4009)

Short-term synaptic enhancement is caused by an increase in the probability with which synaptic terminals release transmitter in response to presynaptic action potentials. Since exocytosed vesicles are drawn from a readily releasable pool of packaged transmitter, enhancement must result either from an increase in the size of the pool or an elevation in the fraction of releasable vesicles that undergoes exocytosis with each action potential. We show here that at least one major component of enhancement, augmentation, is not caused by an increase in the size of the readily releasable pool but is instead associated with an increase in the efficiency with which action potentials induce the exocytosis of readily releasable vesicles.  (+info)

Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the Ca2+-induced decline of transmitter release at K+-depolarized motor neuron terminals. (4/4009)

The present study tested whether a Ca2+-induced disruption of mitochondrial function was responsible for the decline in miniature endplate current (MEPC) frequency that occurs with nerve-muscle preparations maintained in a 35 mM potassium propionate (35 mM KP) solution containing elevated calcium. When the 35 mM KP contained control Ca2+ (1 mM), the MEPC frequency increased and remained elevated for many hours, and the mitochondria within twitch motor neuron terminals were similar in appearance to those in unstimulated terminals. All nerve terminals accumulated FM1-43 when the dye was present for the final 6 min of a 300-min exposure to 35 mM KP with control Ca2+. In contrast, when Ca2+ was increased to 3.6 mM in the 35 mM KP solution, the MEPC frequency initially reached frequencies >350 s-1 but then gradually fell approaching frequencies <50 s-1. A progressive swelling and eventual distortion of mitochondria within the twitch motor neuron terminals occurred during prolonged exposure to 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+. After approximately 300 min in 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+, only 58% of the twitch terminals accumulated FM1-43. The decline in MEPC frequency in 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+ was less when 15 mM glucose was present or when preparations were pretreated with 10 microM oligomycin and then bathed in the 35 mM KP with glucose. When glucose was present, with or without oligomycin pretreatment, a greater percentage of twitch terminals accumulated FM1-43. However, the mitochondria in these preparations were still greatly swollen and distorted. We propose that prolonged depolarization of twitch motor neuron terminals by 35 mM KP with elevated Ca2+ produced a Ca2+-induced decrease in mitochondrial ATP production. Under these conditions, the cytosolic ATP/ADP ratio was decreased thereby compromising both transmitter release and refilling of recycled synaptic vesicles. The addition of glucose stimulated glycolysis which contributed to the maintenance of required ATP levels.  (+info)

Simultaneous measurement of evoked release and [Ca2+]i in a crayfish release bouton reveals high affinity of release to Ca2+. (5/4009)

The opener neuromuscular junction of crayfish was used to determine the affinity of the putative Ca2+ receptor(s) responsible for evoked release. Evoked, asynchronous release, and steady-state intracellular Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]ss, were measured concomitantly in single release boutons. It was found that, as expected, asynchronous release is highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. Surprisingly, evoked release was also found to be highly correlated with [Ca2+]ss. The quantal content (m) and the rate of asynchronous release (S) showed sigmoidal dependence on [Ca2+]ss. The slope log m/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 1.6 and 3.3; the higher slope observed at the lower [Ca2+]o. The slope log S/log [Ca2+]ss varied between 3 and 4 and was independent of [Ca2+]o. These results are consistent with the assumption that evoked release is controlled by the sum of [Ca2+]ss and the local elevation of Ca2+ concentration near the release sites resulting from Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Y). On the basis of the above, we were able to estimate Y. We found Y to be significantly <10 microM even for [Ca2+]o = 13.5 mM. The dissociation constant (Kd) of the Ca2+ receptor(s) associated with evoked release was calculated to be in the range of 4-5 microM. This value of Kd is similar to that found previously for asynchronous release.  (+info)

D-Aspartate stimulation of testosterone synthesis in rat Leydig cells. (6/4009)

D-Aspartate increases human chorionic gonadotropin-induced testosterone production in purified rat Leydig cells. L-Aspartate, D-,L-glutamate or D-,L-asparagine could not substitute for D-aspartate and this effect was independent of glutamate receptor activation. Testosterone production was enhanced only in cells cultured with D-aspartate for more than 3 h. The increased production of testosterone was well correlated with the amounts of D-aspartate incorporated into the Leydig cells, and L-cysteine sulfinic acid, an inhibitor of D-aspartate uptake, suppressed both testosterone production and intracellular D-aspartate levels. D-Aspartate therefore is presumably taken up into cells to increase steroidogenesis. Intracellular D-aspartate probably acts on cholesterol translocation into the inner mitochondrial membrane, the rate-limiting process in steroidogenesis.  (+info)

Neuroregulation by vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) of mucus secretion in ferret trachea: activation of BK(Ca) channels and inhibition of neurotransmitter release. (7/4009)

1. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulates cholinergic and 'sensory-efferent' (tachykininergic) 35SO4 labelled mucus output in ferret trachea in vitro, using a VIP antibody, (2) the class of potassium (K+) channel involved in VIP-regulation of cholinergic neural secretion using glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channel inhibitor), iberiotoxin (a large conductance calcium activated K+ (BK(ca)) channel blocker), and apamin (a small conductance K(ca) (SK(ca)) channel blocker), and (3) the effect of VIP on cholinergic neurotransmission using [3H]-choline overflow as a marker for acetylcholine (ACh) release. 2. Exogenous VIP (1 and 10 microM) alone increased 35SO4 output by up to 53% above baseline, but suppressed (by up to 80% at 1 microM) cholinergic and tachykininergic neural secretion without altering secretion induced by ACh or substance P (1 microM each). Endogenous VIP accounted for the minor increase in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC), non-tachykininergic neural secretion, which was compatible with the secretory response of exogenous VIP. 3. Iberiotoxin (3 microM), but not apamin (1 microM) or glibenclamide (0.1 microM), reversed the inhibition by VIP (10 nM) of cholinergic neural secretion. 4. Both endogenous VIP (by use of the VIP antibody; 1:500 dilution) and exogenous VIP (0.1 microM), the latter by 34%, inhibited ACh release from cholinergic nerve terminals and this suppression was completely reversed by iberiotoxin (0.1 microM). 5. We conclude that, in ferret trachea in vitro, endogenous VIP has dual activity whereby its small direct stimulatory action on mucus secretion is secondary to its marked regulation of cholinergic and tachykininergic neurogenic mucus secretion. Regulation is via inhibition of neurotransmitter release, consequent upon opening of BK(Ca) channels. In the context of neurogenic mucus secretion, we propose that VIP joins NO as a neurotransmitter of i-NANC nerves in ferret trachea.  (+info)

Profile of neurohumoral agents on mesenteric and intestinal blood flow in health and disease. (8/4009)

The mesenteric and intestinal blood flow is organized and regulated to support normal intestinal function, and the regulation of blood flow is, in part, determined by intestinal function itself. In the process of the development and adaptation of the intestinal mucosa for the support of the digestive processes and host defense mechanisms, and the muscle layers for propulsion of foodstuffs, a specialized microvascular architecture has evolved in each tissue layer. Compromised mesenteric and intestinal blood flow, which can be common in the elderly, may lead to devastating clinical consequences. This problem, which can be caused by vasospasm at the microvascular level, can cause intestinal ischaemia to any of the layers of the intestinal wall, and can initiate pathological events which promote significant clinical consequences such as diarrhea, abdominal angina and intestinal infarction. The objective of this review is to provide the reader with some general concepts of the mechanisms by which neurohumoral vasoactive substances influence mesenteric and intestinal arterial blood flow in health and disease with focus on transmural transport processes (absorption and secretion). The complex regulatory mechanisms of extrinsic (sympathetic-parasympathetic and endocrine) and intrinsic (enteric nervous system and humoral endocrine) components are presented. More extensive reviews of platelet function, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, the carcinoid syndrome, 5-hydroxytryptamine and nitric oxide regulation of vascular tone are presented in this context. The possible options of pharmacological intervention (e.g. vasodilator agonists and vasoconstrictor antagonists) used for the treatment of abnormal mesenteric and intestinal vascular states are also discussed.  (+info)

Putative Neurotransmitter Receptor, 50 µl. Putative neurotransmitter receptor (PNR) is classified as an Orphan-A GPCR because the ligand has not been identified.
It is well established that the active properties of nerve and muscle cells are stabilized by homeostatic signaling systems. In organisms ranging from Drosophila to humans, neurons restore baseline function in the continued presence of destabilizing perturbations by rebalancing ion channel expression, modifying neurotransmitter receptor surface expression and trafficking, and modulating neurotransmitter release. This review focuses on the homeostatic modulation of presynaptic neurotransmitter release, termed presynaptic homeostasis. First, we highlight criteria that can be used to define a process as being under homeostatic control. Next, we review the remarkable conservation of presynaptic homeostasis at the Drosophila, mouse, and human neuromuscular junctions and emerging parallels at synaptic connections in the mammalian central nervous system. We then highlight recent progress identifying cellular and molecular mechanisms. We conclude by reviewing emerging parallels between the mechanisms of ...
Komal Patel gutbrainconnection Although serotonin is well known as a brain neurotransmitter it is estimated that 90 percent of the body s serotonin is made in the digestive tract guthealth gutflora microbes microrganism serotonin neurotransmitter
Purpose: Sildenafil citrate is an active cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PED 5) inhibitor that is successful in the therapy of male erectile d..
Ca2+-triggered synchronous neurotransmitter release is well described, but asynchronous release-in fact, its very existence-remains enigmatic. Here we report a quantitative description of asynchronous neurotransmitter release in calyx-of-Held synapses. ... Our results reveal that release triggered in wild-type synapses at low Ca2+ concentrations is physiologically asynchronous, and that asynchronous release completely empties the readily releasable pool of vesicles during sustained elevations of Ca2+. We propose a dual-Ca2+-sensor model of release that quantitatively describes the contributions of synchronous and asynchronous release under conditions of different presynaptic Ca2+ dynamics ...
Alterations in the cellular metabolic machinery of the brain are associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers disease. Novel human cellular disease models are essential in order to study underlying disease mechanisms. In the present study, we characterized major metabolic pathways in neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). With this aim, cultures of hiPSC-derived neurons were incubated with [U-(13)C]glucose, [U-(13)C]glutamate or [U-(13)C]glutamine. Isotopic labeling in metabolites was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and cellular amino acid content was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, we evaluated mitochondrial function using real-time assessment of oxygen consumption via the Seahorse XF(e)96 Analyzer. Moreover, in order to validate the hiPSC-derived neurons as a model system, a metabolic profiling was performed in parallel in primary neuronal cultures of mouse cerebral cortex and ...
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
Fast synaptic communication in the brain requires synchronous vesicle fusion that is evoked by action potential-induced Ca(2+) influx. However, synaptic terminals also release neurotransmitters by spontaneous vesicle fusion, which is independent of presynaptic action potentials. A functional role fo …
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers in the brain of all living species. Neurotransmitters work between a neuron and another cell, and are located in vesicles underneath the membrane on the presynaptic side of the synapse of a neuron. Neurotransmitters are released at the arrival of an action potential at the synapse of a neuron, however, they may also be released by graded electrical potentials (Wikipedia, 2008). ...
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an anticonvulsant drug with a unique mechanism of action that is not completely understood. However, its activity profile may involve effects on excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission since the primary target of LEV, synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is ubiquitously expressed in all types of synaptic vesicles. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the effect of LEV (300 mg/kg/day for one week, administered via osmotic mini-pumps) on neurotransmitter release and its probable selective effect on extracellular gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and glycine (Gly) concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high-K+ conditions) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), a region that undergoes major synaptic changes during epilepsy ...
Neurotransmitters are distinct among cell-cell communication molecules, which makes the neurons that use them unique research subjects. Neurotransmitters are chemical compounds which relay messages between neurons and other cells through the stimulation of action potentials. They are released in vesicles formed on one side of a synaptic cleft and are received by receptors of neighboring cells. Once the neurotransmitter activates the receptor on the post-synaptic cell, an action potential based on chemical and electrical gradients is triggered and propogates through the axon to the cell body and the dendrites. When the action potential reaches the cell body and the dendrites of the receiving neuron, the same neurotransmitter is usually released and the electrical message is carried further along the pathway of neurons. This method of communication is incredibly fast (milliseconds) relative to transcriptional transfer of information (which usually takes hours), which allows us to see results of ...
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit signals from a neurone to a target cell across a synapse. They are stored in chemical packages known as vesicles and are found in the end of the neurone. Upon arrival of an action potential, neurotransmitters are released into the synapse where they then diffuse and bind to receptors on the post-synaptic neurone.
These neurotransmitters are nowadays, writing 2017, well-known, but some twenty years ago this wasnt the case. The best known is oxytocin, first given the popular name of love hormone because it stimulates motherly care. And later on it was joined by vasopressine, the neurotransmitter that was proven to be involved in male-female bonding. With other ones they can be called tertiary neurotransmitters, with glutamate and GABA being the first layer, and norepinephrine etc. being the second. These tertiary neurotransmitters are then the agents of the real i.e. commonly denoted as such emotions, and their associated structures the real emotion organs. Which shall not be dealt with in detail, because even the neurotransmitters themselves have given rise to controversy ...
SCIENCE DAILY Researchers have uncovered a novel mechanism in which a protein--neuregulin 3--controls how key neurotransmitters are released in the brain during schizophrenia. The protein is elevated in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses, but the study is... Researchers have uncovered a novel mechanism in which a protein--neuregulin 3--controls how key neurotransmitters are released in the brain during schizophrenia. The protein is elevated in people with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses, but the study is the first... 7 hours ...
The truth is around 90% of neurotransmitters are made in the gut. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers for the brain. It has become common knowledge that antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs cure mental illness and today they are some of the most prescribed and sold drugs. Lots of people believe it is their only treatment option. They are so commonly used that they have around 30 million users. Most of the users of antidepressants are women. An astonishing 1 in 7 women are being medicated and 1 in every 4 women between the ages 40 and 50 are using antidepressants. This is an extraordinary number of women that dont feel well and are struggling with major symptom of depression. read more ...
Neurotransmitters associated with pediatric neurotransmitter diseases include the catecholamines, serotonin, and the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobuytric (GABA).. The pathways leading to the metabolism (production), synthesis (building up of), and catabolism (break down) of neurotransmitters are extremely complicated systems. The following is the pathways for the dopamine neurotransmitters pathway.. When there is a disruption within the neurotransmitter system, it can cause abnormalities with many of the brains essential functions. In pediatric neurotransmitter diseases children are born with genetic defects that affect the neurotransmitter pathways and the use of the related neurotransmitter. The specific pediatric neurotransmitter disease is determined by where the defect in the pathway occurs. For example in Aromatic L Amino Acid Decarboxylase (AADC) Deficiency the AADC enzyme is affected in the dopamine pathway and children cannnot effectively utilize the neurotransmitter ... Suggested Use: 2-4 capsules daily, in divided doses, between meals. NeuroPure - Pure Encapsulations presents, NeuroPlus, formul
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Are opioid peptides co-transmitters in noradrenergic vesicles of sympathetic nerves? by Steven P Wilson et al.
The goal of this project is the development of a scalable n x n electrochemical detector array platform with on- chip amplifiers for massively parallel recordin...
Antibodies for proteins involved in regulation of neurotransmitter levels pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Austrian scientist Otto Loewi discovered the first transmitter in 1921, during research with the vagus nerve of frog hearts (Chamberlin and Narins 2005). He named this chemical vagusstoff but it is now known as acetylcholine.. Most neurons are composed of four main components: A soma, or cell body, which contains the nucleus; one or more dendritic trees that typically receive input; an axon that carries an electric impulse; and an axon terminal that often functions to transmit signals to other cells.. Neurotransmitters are manufactured in a neurons cell body. They are then transported to the axon terminal, where small-molecule neurotransmitter molecules are usually packaged in small, membrane-bound bags called vesicles. Nitric oxide is an exception, not being contained within a vesicle, but released from the neuron shortly after it is manufactured (Chamberlin and Narins 2005).. When an action potential travels to the synapse, the rapid depolarization causes calcium ion channels to open. ...
Marijuana. 1. The two types of chemicals in the brain are neurotransmitters and hormones. Neurotransmitters are dopamine (found in the basal ganglia), acetylcholine (found in the parasympathetic branch in the cerebral cortex) and nor epinephrine. Endorphins are opiate like chemicals that occur naturally in the brain of humans and other animals. 2. Specialized structures that recognize neurotransmitter molecules and cause a change in the electrical activity in the neuron when activated are receptors.. 3. The nervous system can be roughly divided into the central nervous system, autonomic system, and somatic system.. 4. Psychoactive drugs work by altering the availability of a neurotransmitter at the synapse and directly interacting with a neurotransmitter receptor. 5. The branch of the autonomic system that stimulates digestion, slows the heart and has other effects associated with a relaxed physiological state is the parasympathetic system. 6. The central nervous system, brain, spinal cord and ...
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit signals between neurons or from neurons to other cells. They interact with specific receptors found in the brain of humans and animals, controlling a variety of biological processes, e.g. fear, anger, pleasure, memory, energy, appetite and sleep.
Click on a genes description to view its network relationships with genes known to be involved in regulation of neurotransmitter secretion ...
The Human Brain is the most complex organ. Despite the central position it has in nearly every aspect of our daily lives, it remains to many a mystery. How does it work? How can we care for it? How long will it function? This MAP course is designed to provide answers to these questions, and many more at an academic level accessible to the non-scientist student, and of interest to the scientist with little exposure to neuroscience. The aims of the course are to provide the student with a firm foundation in what the brain looks like and what each of the parts do. To accomplish this, we will learn about the functions of the cortex in higher learning and memory, as well as discuss the basic work of the brainstem in regulating the internal environment of the body. The importance of nutrition on neurotransmitter synthesis, the function of sleep on memory and why we need so much of it, and the effects of alcohol and drugs on brain harmony and the meaning of addiction will be some of the points covered ...
We learn about the functions of the cortex in higher learning and memory, as well as discuss the basic work of the brain stem in regulating the internal environment of the body. The importance of nutrition on neurotransmitter synthesis, the function of sleep on memory and why we need so much of it, and the effects of alcohol and drugs on the brain and the meaning of addiction are covered. We look at brain development and the special needs of children, as well as brain aging and illness. Laboratories provide handson experience in exploring the structure of the brain.. Life Science: Genomes and Diversity. CORE-UA 314 Offered every other year. Siegal. 4 points. ...
Neuropeptides are a structurally diverse class ofchemical messengers that play important roles in the coordination of many physiological and behavioural events
The brain contains billions and billions of neurons. These cells communicate with one another by releasing small endogenous chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters, into the synapse, where they are then taken up by specific receptors on neighboring cells. There are many types of neurotransmitters in the brain-what they have in common is that they are produced inside a neuron, released into the synapse, and then cause an excitatory or inhibitory effect on receptor cells, helping to propagate or downgrade action potentials.[i]. Neurotransmitters are often classified into two types: small-molecule transmitters and neuropeptides. Small-molecule transmitters can be further differentiated into monoamines like dopamine and amino acids like glutamate. The neuropeptide class includes endorphins, insulin, and oxytocin. Typically, small-molecule transmitters are direct actors on neighboring cells. Neuropeptides, on the other hand, are better suited for more subtle modulatory effects.[ii]. Originally, ...
MTHFR is an enzyme that allows folate (vitamin B9) to support the cellular process of methylation, which is important for the synthesis of creatine and phosphatidylcholine, the regulation of gene expression, neurotransmitter metabolism, and dozens of other processes. There are two common polymorphisms that decrease its activity, A1298C and C677T, with C677T having the stronger effect. Genetic decreases in MTHFR activity are associated with cardiovascular disease, neurologic and psychiatric disorders, pregnancy complications and birth defects, and cancer. While discussions of these polymorphism tend to focus on repleting methyl-folate, this should only be a small piece of the puzzle. The bigger pieces of the puzzle are restoring choline, creatine, and glycine.  In this episode, I describe how the methylation system works, how its regulated, and how its altered with MTHFR variations. I then use this to develop a detailed dietary strategy and an evaluative strategy to make sure the dietary
While neurotransmitters are believed to be implicit in bipolar disorder, it isnt entirely clear, so far as I am aware, just how they figure affect the development of the problem, only that they are involved. Your suggestion that the medications may have caused a false negative test result makes perfect sense, since some of the medications youre taking do help facilitate the normal functioning of neurotransmitters. This is unfortunate, because it throws the diagnosis somewhat into question. However, bipolar disorder is usually diagnosed on the basis of history and physical as well as symptoms and typical behavior patterns, so the test doesnt really seem very useful for someone whos already on effective medication ...
Neurotransmitters are chemical that transmit messages from one nerve cell (neuron) to another. The never impulse travels fro the first nerve cell through the axon-a single smooth body arising from the nerve cell-to the axon terminal and the synaptic knobs. Each synaptic know bommunicates with a dendrite or cell body of another neuron, and the synaptic knobs contain neurovesicles that store and release neurotransmitters. The synapse lies between the the synaptic knob and the next cell. For the impulse to continue traveling across the synapse to reach the next cell, the synaptic knobs release the neurotransmitter into that space, and the next nerve cell is stimulated to pick up the impulse and continue it. ...
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is an amino acid derivative and a key inhibitory neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that carry informati
This course considers the process of neurotransmission, especially chemicals used in the brain and elsewhere to carry signals from nerve terminals to the structures they innervate. We focus on monoamine transmitters (acetylcholine; serotonin; dopamine and norepinephrine); we also examine amino acid and peptide transmitters and neuromodulators like adenosine. Macromolecules that mediate neurotransmitter synthesis, release, inactivation and receptor-mediated actions are discussed, as well as factors that regulate their activity and the second-messenger systems and ion fluxes that they control. The involvement of particular neurotransmitters in human diseases is considered.. ...
Heart failure (HF) has been described as the inability of the myocardium to deliver oxygen and nutrients to a degree commensurate with the metabolic requirements of the body.1 Myocardial dysfunction induces compensatory neurohumoral mechanisms, including the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), as an attempt to preserve contractile performance. Mediators of the SNS consist predominantly of 2 catecholamines, namely epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE), released by cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals or secreted directly into the circulation by the adrenal medulla. Effects of these neurotransmitters are mediated through cell surface adrenergic receptors (ARs), members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Stimulation of the β-AR promotes a conformational change to activate the heterotrimeric G protein Gα and Gβγ subunits, promoting positive inotropic and chronotropic effects culminating in improved myocardial function.2. Article, see p 1116. This functionally beneficial pathway refers ...
Neurotransmitters are rapidly removed from the extracellular space primarily through the actions of plasma membrane transporters. This uptake process is not only essential in the termination of neurotransmission but also serves to replenish intracellular levels of transmitter for further release. Ne …
Chapter 4: The Nervous System. The goal of this chapter is to introduce basic concepts and terminology that will help you understand the effects of psychoactive drugs on the brain and on behavior. Humans must maintain homeostasis, meaning their internal environment must be within certain limits for factors such as temperature, acidity, and water and sodium content. Hormones and neurotransmitters are types of chemical messengers in the body that help maintain homeostasis.. Glial cells and neurons are two components of the nervous system. Glia provide structure, eliminate waste, and create the blood-brain barrier. Neurons analyze and transmit information in a process involving an electrical signal. Neurotransmitters act over brief time periods and very small distances because they are released into the synapse between neurons and are then rapidly cleared from the synapse.. Three nervous systems in the body are the central nervous system, the somatic nervous system, and the autonomic nervous ...
Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that transmit information from one nerve cell to another. Many types of neurotransmitters exist, each kind transmitting a specific type of information that participates in how the body functions. Acetylcholine: associated with muscle function; also associated with memory: Alzheimers Disease is marked by a 90% drop in acetylcholine Dopamine: associated with attention & learning, & motivation by gratification/reinforcement;…
Neurotransmitters are made up in many ways, and perform the critical functions of the brain. They cause cells to open as information travels toward the cell, or to close in an inhibiting action. As we age, the substances that make up our neurotransmitters decline. We can counter this and trigger continued brain growth by adding acetylcholine, or lecithin, to our diet. Lecithin is easily obtained, inexpensive and digestible. Several other brain chemicals can be supplemented in the diet and include alpha-lipoic acid, GABA, and CoQ10 ...
In the synaptic transmission, signaling molecules (neurotransmitters) are released by a neuron (the presynaptic one) to bind the receptors of another neuron (the postsynapic one). This process is one of the key events underlying neuronal communication. It consists of a series of chemical reactions that are initiated by a stimulus (first messenger), acting on a receptor that is transduced to the cell interior through second messengers (which amplify the initial signal) and ultimately to effector molecules, resulting in a cell response to the initial stimulus. This downstream chemical activity leads to diverse biological responses, from gene expression to synaptogenesis. At each step of the signal cascade, a variety of proteins are involved, as well as various controlling factors. A large number of signaling cascades are governed by G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). These are key targets for therapeutic intervention as well as for neuroimaging in the diagnosis of the disease. Neuronal GPCRs are ...
Release of neurotransmitters:. - Usually follows arrival of an action potential at the synapse - whereby the voltage across the cell membrane (membrane potential) of a cell (in this case a presynaptic neuron) rapidly rises and falls. Myelin sheath - consists of Schwann cells that encircle axon like a jelly roll, act as insulators and are separated by gaps of unsheathed axon called Nodes of Ranvier. Instead of a continuous traveling down the axon, the action potential jumps from node to node (called saltatory conduction), thereby speeding up propagation of impulse.. ✐ Follows a graded electrical potential.. ✐ Occurs without electrical stimulation as a low level baselinerelease. Neurotransmitter synthesis - made via just a few biosynthetic steps, from simple precursors, such as amino acids readily available from diet. Have excitory or inhibitory effect (or both), depending only on the type of receptors they activate - an excitory effect increases the probability that the target cell will ...
It has been known that neurotransmitters are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. An excess of dopamine has been widely suspected. Dopamine was 14 percent higher in humans with chronic T. gondiiinfection. Toxoplasma gondii has the ability to make dopamine.
Folate is involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and critical enzymatic reactions throughout the body. By depleting excess homocysteine, folate benefits cardiovascular health and nervous system function
Vitamin B6 in its coenzyme form is involved in more than 100 enzyme reactions, many concerned with protein metabolism. Vitamin B6 is required for the majority of biological reactions in our body including neurotransmitter synthesis, red blood cell formation and metabolism and transport of iron.
CHOOSE THE AMINOS - STEP II. Updated, 4/29/20: Corrections have been made on types 2 & 4.. Below, find the aminos that your questionnaire scores indicate you need. Types 1, 3, 4, and 5 correct brain neurotransmitter deficiencies. The Type 2 amino supports the brains blood glucose levels.. Aminos For Type 1, Depressed Cravers. Tryptophan (500 mg) or 5-HTP (50 mg) can correct the underlying serotonin deficits in those who eat Techno Karbz for relief of worry, depression, obsessiveness, insomnia, and other low-serotonin symptoms.. Aminos For Type 2, Crashed Cravers. Glutamine (500 mg) can instantly stop hypoglycemic (low blood sugar) cravings for sugar, starch, or alcohol.. Aminos For Type 3, Comfort Cravers. DPA (500 mg) or DLPA (500 mg) can correct the endorphin deficits that drive comfort-food cravings.. Amino For Type 4, Stressed Cravers. GABA (125 mg) or Theanine (100 mg) can stop the cravings caused by stress and tension by increasing levels of naturally tranquilizing GABA.. Aminos For Type ...
Higher Nature Brain Nutrients provides key vitamins, phospholipids and amino acids to optimise the function of the brain neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, for healthy concentration, memory and learning.
View Notes - neurotransmitters from PSYC 100 at USC. Neurotransmitters (ch. 3) and Drugs (ch. 6) Neurotransmitters Key terms: Synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter Reuptake Vesicles Receptor
NeuroHormone Complete Panel is a neurotransmitter test plus Hormone,and Adrenal test. You collect at home, includes phone consultation with an MD or NP.
tl;dr version: About two years ago an Organix Comprehensive Profile urine test revealed that I had some suppressed neurotransmitter function. I had a theory that this was in part due to exposure to toxic metals like mercury and lead. Toxic metals burden has been linked to lower levels of neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. [1] The body is quite capable of providing ... [ Read more ...
Video created by Université de Pékin for the course Advanced Neurobiology I. Lets learn more about the neurotransmitter release.
Adults today are more frazzled and overwhelmed than ever before. For many of us, being stressed has become a way of life; managing a hectic schedule, meeting deadlines at work, striving to be the perfect parent and partner, or dealing with increased financial woes, all of these daily stressors can have a negative affect on our health.. Dr. Robert Leahy, the director of The American Institute for Cognitive Therapy, and author of The Worry Cure, reports that women today have the same anxiety level as a psychiatric patient did in the 1950s. Wow Ladies…what are we doing to ourselves?. This is extremely worrisome for women. Not only can in contribute to the onset of mental and physical disorders, but it can cause hormonal and immune system imbalances. They longer we run on low, the more of our neurotransmitters we burn through. Our excitatory neurotransmitters, those that allow us to meet deadlines, bake 3 dozen cookies for the bake sale, and read your child a bedtimes story (all in the same ...
"Effect of antidepressant agents on β-adrenergic receptor and neurotransmitter regulatory systems". Pharmacology Biochemistry ... Tetrabenazine, a similar agent to reserpine, which also depletes catecholamine stores, and to a lesser degree 5-HT, was shown ... The main neurotransmitter involved in the reward is dopamine, but other monoamines and acetylcholine may also participate. The ... In the case of SSRIs, the promiscuity among transporters means that there may be more than a single type of neurotransmitter to ...
"Effect of antidepressant agents on beta-adrenergic receptor and neurotransmitter regulatory systems". Pharmacology, ... as potential central nervous system agents. 2. Compounds containing a heteroatom attached to nitrogen". Journal of Medicinal ...
Castelli MP (October 2008). "Multi-faceted aspects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: a neurotransmitter, therapeutic agent and drug ... that binds the neurotransmitter and psychoactive drug γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). As solute carrier family 52 member 2 ( ...
... can be transiently induced with chemical agents through the manipulation of neurotransmitters. These substances ... Luke DP, Terhune DB (October 2013). "The induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents: a systematic review". Frontiers in ... and hue are affected due to chemical agents. Drug-induced chromesthesia, as opposed to congenital chromesthesia, is not ... suggest that the induction of synesthesia with chemical agents is possible. Nevertheless, most studies "suffer from a large ...
... acts as a releasing agent of the catecholamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine ( ... while its effects on all three neurotransmitters are responsible for its stimulant properties. When ingested orally in ... Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents, Stimulants, Sympathomimetics, Cyclopentyl compounds). ...
In the past, alcohol was believed to be a non-specific pharmacological agent affecting many neurotransmitter systems in the ... Among the neurotransmitter systems with enhanced functions are: GABAA, 5-HT3 receptor agonism (responsible for GABAergic (GABAA ... The result of these direct effects is a wave of further indirect effects involving a variety of other neurotransmitter and ...
Selectivity of antidepressant agents are based on the neurotransmitters that are thought to influence symptoms of depression. ... Risk of overdose is increased in patients taking multiple serotonergic agents or interacting agents. Symptoms of SNRI overdose ... Repeated exposure of agents with this type of mechanism leads to inhibition of neurotransmitter release, but repeated ... These neurotransmitters are thought to play an important role in mood regulation. SNRIs can be contrasted with the more widely ...
Infectious agents include bacteria, viruses, and protozoans while non-infectious agents can be hormones, neurotransmitters, ... Secretory diarrhea can be caused by either infectious or non-infectious agents. ... infectious agents, and/or anatomical problems. Blood tests allow assessment of inflammatory markers and/or other criterion for ...
Smooth muscle may contract spontaneously or rhythmically and be induced by a number of physiochemical agents (hormones, drugs, ... neurotransmitters). Smooth muscle is found within the walls of various organs and tubes in the body such as the esophagus, ... This discovery has led to the development of novel anti-tropomyosin compounds as potential anti-cancer agents. Tropomyosins ...
In addition, 6-APB not only blocks the reuptake of these monoamine neurotransmitters but is also a releasing agent of them; ... 6-APB and its structural isomer 5-APB have been tested with a series of agents including: Marquis, Liebermann, Mecke, and ... that is, it is a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA). In addition to actions at the monoamine ... Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents, Serotonin receptor agonists, Entactogens and empathogens). ...
Like some other nerve agents that affect the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, sarin attacks the nervous system by interfering ... Along with nerve agents such as tabun and VX, sarin can have a short shelf life. Therefore, it is usually stored as two ... The nerve agents sarin and VX. Colourless and tasteless, they cause death by respiratory arrest in one to 15 minutes. Gussow, ... Chemical agent and munition disposal summary of the U.S. army's experience (PDF). United States Army. 1987. pp. B-30. Archived ...
... is a stimulant drug of the amphetamine class which acts as a releasing agent of the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine ... Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents, Stimulants, Substituted amphetamines). ...
First messengers are the signaling molecules (hormones, neurotransmitters, and paracrine/autocrine agents) that reach the cell ... Moreover, some molecules may fit into more than one class, e.g. epinephrine is a neurotransmitter when secreted by the central ... For example, odorants belong to a wide range of molecular classes, as do neurotransmitters, which range in size from small ... In addition to nitric oxide, other electronically activated species are also signal-transducing agents in a process called ...
Among them are serotonin, a neurotransmitter; indometacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent; L-761,066, a COX-2 ... including neurotransmitters and a new class of antitumor compounds. The mechanism of a Nenitzescu reaction consists of a ...
... neurotransmitter agents MeSH D27.505.519.625.050 - adrenergic agents MeSH D27.505.519.625.050.100 - adrenergic agonists MeSH ... neurotransmitter agents MeSH D27.505.696.577.050 - adrenergic agents MeSH D27.505.696.577.050.100 - adrenergic agonists MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ...
Chelating agents, Glutamate (neurotransmitter), E-number additives). ... The glutamate neurotransmitter plays the principal role in neural activation. This anion creates the savory umami flavor of ... It is also the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate nervous system. It serves as the precursor for the ... Glutamate is also a neurotransmitter (see below), which makes it one of the most abundant molecules in the brain. Malignant ...
... many monoamine releasing agents cause monoamine neurotransmitter efflux (i.e., the release of monoamine neurotransmitters from ... the reabsorption of neurotransmitters by the cell which released them). During neurotransmitter reuptake, neurotransmitter ... When these transporters operate in reverse, they produce neurotransmitter efflux (i.e., the movement of neurotransmitters from ... The primary function of most neurotransmitter transporters is to facilitate neurotransmitter reuptake (i.e., ...
Selective for one neurotransmitter Serotonin releasing agent (SRA) Norepinephrine releasing agent (NRA) Dopamine releasing ... releasing two or more neurotransmitters Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (NDRA) Serotonin-norepinephrine releasing agent ... Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA) MRAs cause the release of monoamine neurotransmitters by various ... A monoamine releasing agent (MRA), or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine ...
Much current research is devoted to the therapeutic potential of the agents that affect the release of the neurotransmitter ... Graat I, Figee M, Denys D. "Neurotransmitter Dysregulation in OCD". In Pittinger C (ed.). Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: ... which is a neurotransmitter that some nerve cells use to communicate with each other, and is thought to be involved in ...
By microelectrophoretic techniques, including microiontophoresis, neurotransmitters and other chemical agents can be ... A small electric current is applied to an iontophoretic chamber placed on the skin, containing a charged active agent and its ... It drives a charged substance, usually a medication or bioactive agent, transdermally by repulsive electromotive force, through ...
... a neurotransmitter. Nerve agents are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used as poison. Poisoning by a nerve agent leads to ... All of the V-agents are persistent agents, meaning that these agents do not degrade or wash away easily and can therefore ... Nerve agents can also be absorbed through the skin, requiring that those likely to be subjected to such agents wear a full body ... Agents Sarin and VX are odorless; Tabun has a slightly fruity odor and Soman has a slight camphor odor. Nerve agents attack the ...
Monoamine-depleting agents are a group of drugs which reversibly deplete one or more monoamine neurotransmitters. One mechanism ... Examples of monoamine-depleting agents include deutetrabenazine, oxypertine, reserpine, tetrabenazine, and valbenazine. ... by which these agents act is by inhibiting reuptake by the vesicular monoamine transporters, VMAT1 and VMAT2. ...
Older anorectic agents such as amphetamine and fenfluramine force the release of these neurotransmitters rather than affecting ... Fenfluramine, of the 1990s "Fen-Phen" combo, forced excess release of neurotransmitters-a different action. Phentermine was ...
... and measuring metal ions as they interact with neurotransmitters and other biological signaling agents. Cisplatin is one of the ... Working at the interface of inorganic chemistry and neuroscience, he has devised fluorescent imaging agents for studying mobile ... Agents, Nanoparticle Delivery, and Pt(IV) Prodrugs". Chemical Reviews. 116 (5): 3436-3486. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00597. PMC ...
Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents, Neurotransmitters, Phenols, Phenylethanolamines, TAAR1 agonists, Trace amines, All ... Norfenefrine (INN; also known as meta-octopamine, 3-octopamine, and 3,β-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an adrenergic agent used as ... Macdonald F (1997). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. CRC Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. Retrieved 24 April 2012. ... endogenous trace amine and plays a role as a minor neurotransmitter in the brain. Some brand names for it include Coritat, ...
Neuroprotective agents, Neurotransmitters, Phenols, Tryptamine alkaloids, Mexamines, All stub articles, Biochemistry stubs). ...
... weaker in inhibiting the reuptake of and inducing the release of the monoamine neurotransmitters compared to related agents ...
Inotropic agents, Motivation, Neurotransmitters, Norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agents, TAAR1 agonists, Biology of attention ... Other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and glutamate also show a decline in output with aging. Studies reported that ... Neurotransmitters are synthesized in specific regions of the brain, but affect many regions systemically. The brain includes ... Dopamine is used as a neurotransmitter in most multicellular animals. In sponges there is only a single report of the presence ...
Neurotransmitters, Norepinephrine releasing agents, Stress (biology), Sympathomimetic amines, Chemical substances for emergency ... The term "adrenergic" is often misinterpreted in that the main sympathetic neurotransmitter is noradrenaline, rather than ... ISBN 978-0-9626523-7-0. von Bohlen und Haibach O, Dermietzel R (2006). Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators: Handbook of ... mostly in scattered chromaffin cells and in a small number of neurons that use adrenaline as a neurotransmitter. Following ...
Also, contraction, as well as relaxation, can be induced by a number of physiochemical agents (e.g., hormones, drugs, ... neurotransmitters - particularly from the autonomic nervous system). Smooth muscle in various regions of the vascular tree, the ... A number of growth factors and neurohumoral agents influence smooth muscle growth and differentiation. The Notch receptor and ... various adrenergic receptors that explains the difference in why blood vessels from different areas respond to the same agent ...
E-type Ca channels share dual roles during neurotransmitter release". The European Journal of Neuroscience. 21 (6): 1617-25. ... "Inhibition of human alpha1E subunit-mediated ca2+ channels by the antipsychotic agent chlorpromazine". Acta Physiologica ...
GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated ... Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At ...
... ultimately releasing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine causes the excitation of the nerves ... In these cases, curative agents such as adrenergic agonists and antagonists are used to modify epinephrine and norepinephrine ...
Sympathomimetic agents may have their effects potentiated by TCAs like doxepin. Doxepin also may potentiate the adverse effects ... Richelson E, Nelson A (July 1984). "Antagonism by antidepressants of neurotransmitter receptors of normal human brain in vitro ... Antiarrhythmic agents may be an appropriate measure to treat cardiac arrhythmias resulting from doxepin overdose. Slow ... Antihypertensive agents may have their effects mitigated by doxepin. Cotreatment with CNS depressants such as the ...
January 2022). "Infectious Agents as Potential Drivers of α-Synucleinopathies" (PDF). Mov Disord (Review). 37 (3): 464-477. doi ... Partly because of loss of cells that release the neurotransmitter dopamine, people with DLB may have neuroleptic malignant ... Neuronal loss in DLB leads to profound dopamine dysfunction and marked cholinergic pathology; other neurotransmitters might be ... Anticholinergic and dopaminergic agents can have adverse effects or result in psychosis in individuals with DLB, and a ...
It affects the neurotransmitter glutamate, with trials showing the drug improves cognitive functioning and memory. In 2005 the ... of the Type II Ampakine CX717 Is An Artifact Related to Molecular Structure and Chemical Reaction With Tissue Fixative Agents ...
Marijuana smoke was listed as a cancer agent in California in 2009. A study by the British Lung Foundation published in 2012 ... This agonism of the cannabinoid receptors results in changes in the levels of various neurotransmitters, especially dopamine ... Mechoulam R (1984). Cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-5772-5.[page needed] Ad Hoc ... a pharmacologically active neurotransmitter) by upon metabolism of CBD. THC is converted rapidly to 11-hydroxy-THC, which is ...
Zhang L, He J, Bai L, Ruan S, Yang T, Luo Y (July 2021). "Ribosome-targeting antibacterial agents: Advances, challenges, and ... It is essential to nerve cell function through its mechanism of breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into its ... Dalhoff A (February 2021). "Selective toxicity of antibacterial agents-still a valid concept or do we miss chances and ignore ... In addition, naturally produced poisons are often enzyme inhibitors that have evolved for use as toxic agents against predators ...
GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Upon binding, it triggers the GABAA receptor to open ... Sedative actions of benzodiazepines limit their usefulness as analgesic agents and they are therefore generally not considered ... Neurosteroids can act as allosteric modulators of neurotransmitter receptors, such as the GABAA, NMDA, and sigma receptors. The ... neurotransmitter molecule: they affect the receptor by binding at a different site on the protein. This is called allosteric ...
... became a naturalised British citizen and worked for a British dental supplies manufacturer that sent him to Brazil as an agent ... "Evolution of neurotransmitter receptor systems". Progress in Neurobiology. 30 (2-3): 105-169. doi:10.1016/0301-0082(88)90004-4 ...
A ligand may be a peptide or another small molecule, such as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, a pharmaceutical drug, or a toxin. ... The further use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) led to the development of other agents such as ... occurring siderophore produced by the actinobacter Streptomyces pilosus and was used initially as a chelation therapy agent. ...
After receiving post-retrieval an intra-amygdalar infusion of a known amnesic agent, anisomycin, rats failed to recall a ... receptors by the surplus signaling of excitatory neurotransmitters. The depolarization and calcium overload experienced by ... phase is a short-lived destabilization of a memory object and a susceptibility for said object to react to amnesic agents- ...
Tsai JC, Song BJ, Wu L, Forbes M (September 2007). "Erythropoietin: a candidate neuroprotective agent in the treatment of ... excitatory neurotransmitter, trophic factor, retinal ganglion cell/axon degeneration, glial support cell, immune system, aging ... involves the use of a novel group of medications known as anti-VEGF agents. These injectable medications can lead to a dramatic ... Miotic agents (parasympathomimetics), such as pilocarpine, work by contraction of the ciliary muscle, opening the trabecular ...
Snowman AM, Snyder SH (December 1990). "Cetirizine: actions on neurotransmitter receptors". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical ... 532-. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. Morton IK, Hall JM (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties ... have been described as being an additional effect from overall central nervous system suppression by other CNS agents, such as ...
Glycine is a major post-synaptic inhibitory neurotransmitter with a specific receptor site. Strychnine binds to an alternate ... Therefore, because of sulfa drugs' competitive inhibition, they are excellent antibacterial agents. An example of competitive ...
At first, the N-methyl was necessary for the agent to be considered a ring cyclized analog of pargyline with ca. twenty-times ... An enzyme called monoamine oxidase (MAO) breaks down neurotransmitters. MAO has two forms, MAO-A and MAO-B. MAO-B is generally ... While these metabolites may contribute to selegiline's ability to inhibit reuptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine and ... Parkinson's disease is characterized by the death of cells that produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter. ...
... and neurotransmitter systems. For example, brain cytokine levels increase following stress exposure, while treatments designed ... use of epigenetic therapeutic agents may help reverse complex pathogenic processes. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one type of ... Neural fate decisions include the utilization of multiple neurotransmitter signal pathways along with the use of epigenetic ... that have a broad set of biochemical modifications and can affect DNA demethylation and synergy with other therapeutic agents. ...
Chelating agents, Enediols, IARC Group 2B carcinogens, Photographic chemicals, Reducing agents). ... hormones/neurotransmitters Dopamine, derived from the amino acid tyrosine, an adhesive used by mussels. Quercetin, which is ... urushiols, the active agent in poison ivy (R = (CH2)14CH3, (CH2)7CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH2, and others) catecholamines, drugs ...
Today, NO is not only used in breath tests but also as a therapeutic agent for conditions such as pulmonary arterial ... After scientists realised that NO played a biological role, its role as a cell signalling molecule and neurotransmitter became ... agents that relax the blood vessels). eNO has also been associated with wheeze, rhinitis and nasal allergy in primary school ...
Neurotransmitters play essential roles in stimulating and inhibiting the processes that lead to libido production in both men ... Vallejos, Ximena; Wu, Christine (2017-04-01). "Flibanserin: A Novel, Nonhormonal Agent for the Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual ... Due to the fact that serotonin can interfere with other neurotransmitters and hormones, for instance, sex hormones, SSRIs can ... Drugs acting on the above neurotransmitters can be used to upregulate or downregulate sexual desire due to diseased conditions ...
... and also implicated in neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter receptors known to be involved in anxiety disorders. More ... Like other serotonergic agents, SNRIs have the potential to cause serotonin syndrome, a potentially fatal systemic response to ... Overdose of an SSRI or concomitant use with another agent that causes increased levels of serotonin can result in serotonin ... It acts on the voltage-dependent calcium channel to decrease the release of neurotransmitters such as glutamate, norepinephrine ...
This enzyme breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) into choline and an acetate group. The inhibition of AChE ... "Atropine availability as an antidote for nerve agent casualties: Validated rapid reformulation of high-concentration atropine ... As mentioned above, diazinon inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter ...
To a lesser extent, it also acts as a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system. In mammals, phenethylamine is ... antiparkinson agents (e.g., selegiline), and vasopressors (e.g., ephedrine), among others. Many of these psychoactive compounds ... Godfrey, Peter D.; Hatherley, Lynette D.; Brown, Ronald D. (1 August 1995). "The Shapes of Neurotransmitters by Millimeter-Wave ... Brain levels of endogenous trace amines are several hundred-fold below those for the classical neurotransmitters noradrenaline ...
Biogenic neurotransmitters. An abiogenic substance or process does not result from the present or past activity of living ... Environmentally safe alternatives are needed to TBT (tin-based antifouling agent) which releases toxic compounds into water and ... making them a potential nanomaterials agent. Another procedure is through the use of a different biogenic substance: the ...
Chemotherapeutic agents such as daunorubicin and etoposide enhance the de novo synthesis of ceramide in studies done on ... In this regard intact PIP2 signals as a bona fide neurotransmitter-like ligand. PIP2's interaction with many ion channels ... studies in cells have shown that ceramide-inducing agents such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha α (TNFα) and palmitate induce the ... GluCer is implicated in post-Golgi trafficking and drug resistance particularly to chemotherapeutic agents. For instance, a ...
These secondary injury pathways include the ischemic cascade, inflammation, swelling, cell suicide, and neurotransmitter ... Several potentially neuroprotective agents that target pathways like these are under investigation in human clinical trials. ...
Nelson LH, Flomenbaum N, Goldfrank LR, Hoffman RL, Howland MD, Neal AL (2006). "Sedative-hypnotic agents". Goldfrank's ... Benzodiazepines bind to a specific benzodiazepine receptor, thereby enhancing the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma- ...
Poole P, Sathananthan K, Fortescue R (May 2019). "Mucolytic agents versus placebo for chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive ... rhinosinusitis or in bronchial asthma are caused by various inflammatory cells and neurotransmitters (inflammation mediators). ...
Blockade of pre-synaptic α2 receptors facilitates the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral ... Norepinephrine releasing agents, Stimulants, Sympathomimetics, Vasoconstrictors, Vasodilators). ...
These estimates are measured by examining how a ligand binds to a receptor while simultaneously reacting to a substitute agent ... Hormones and neurotransmitters are essential endogenous regulatory ligands that affect physiological receptors within an ... Specifically, despite the human body's endogenous receptors, hormones, and other neurotransmitters, pharmacologists utilize ...
Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism * Pain / metabolism * Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate / metabolism* * Receptors, ...
Dopamine Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ...
Neurotransmitter Agents. *Pyridines. *Serotonin 3 Receptor Antagonists. *Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists ...
Serotonin Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors. ...
Amino Acid Neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitter Agents. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Antirheumatic Agents, and Inflammation ... Neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitter Agents. Neurotransmitters and Neurotransmitter Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Virus ... Anti-Bacterial Agents. Antineoplastic and Immunosuppressive Agents. Antineoplastic Agents. Antirheumatic Agents, Gold. ...
Characterizing the effects of neuropharmacological agents on regional brain activity using fMRI is challenging because drugs ... and neurotransmitter reuptake blocker events. Here we review current knowledge on neurotransmitter-mediated blood-oxygen-level ... and neurotransmitter reuptake blocker events. Here we review current knowledge on neurotransmitter-mediated blood-oxygen-level ... and neurotransmitter reuptake blocker events. Here we review current knowledge on neurotransmitter-mediated blood-oxygen-level ...
32] It is a neuromuscular agent that acts presynaptically to block neurotransmitter release and results in muscle weakening. ... Use of this agent as primary therapy for fourth nerve palsy has been discouraging. However, it best may be used to correct ...
239000002858 neurotransmitter agent Substances 0.000 description 1 * 229930015196 nicotine Natural products 0.000 description 1 ... When the active agent has insufficient solubility in water, the agent typically must be converted into a form which has the ... The formulation may also contain one or more suspending agents, preservative, flavouring or colouring agent. ... 239000003176 neuroleptic agent Substances 0.000 claims description 6 * 238000000634 powder X-ray diffraction Methods 0.000 ...
It also includes agents that relieve acute and chronic pain, and others that curb insomnia and facilitate sleep. ... Such agents induce changes in mood, sensation, thinking, or behavior, and may be derived from plants or other natural sources ... Such agents typically act on one or another neurotransmitter, but since each neurotransmitter system influences many functions ... Antipsychotic agents generally target dopamine receptors to reduce activity of the neurotransmitter. Because dopamine levels ...
Neurotransmitter Agents Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Software Medicine & Life Sciences 86% * Psychological Handling Medicine ... Software for near-real-time voltammetric tracking of tonic neurotransmitter levels in vivo. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2022 Sep ... Software for near-real-time voltammetric tracking of tonic neurotransmitter levels in vivo. In: Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2022 ... Dive into the research topics of Software for near-real-time voltammetric tracking of tonic neurotransmitter levels in vivo. ...
Neurotransmitter Agents [D27.505.519.625]. *Cholinergic Agents [D27.505.519.625.120]. *Cholinergic Agonists [D27.505.519.625. ...
Chromesthesia can be transiently induced with chemical agents through the manipulation of neurotransmitters. These substances ... and hue are affected due to chemical agents. Drug-induced chromesthesia, as opposed to congenital chromesthesia, is not ... suggest that the induction of synesthesia with chemical agents is possible. Nevertheless, most studies "suffer from a large ... One theory that explains how this occurs is neurotransmitter-mediated inhibition. Local inhibitory networks are supposed to ...
It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent. ...
Neurotransmitter Agents [D27.505.519.625]. *Purinergic Agents [D27.505.519.625.725]. *Purinergic Agonists [D27.505.519.625. ...
A neurotransmitter is a chemical agent that nerve cells use to transmit information to other nerve cells or muscle or gland ... They believe that the neurotransmitter dopamine plays a key role.. Neuroscience eBook. Compilation of the top interviews, ... Other neurotransmitters. Recent research has suggested that dopamine perturbations alone may not fully account for the clinical ...
Antipsychotic Agents Medicine & Life Sciences 23% * Neuroimaging Medicine & Life Sciences 23% * Neurotransmitter Agents ... but the definitive pathophysiological mechanism or neurotransmitter abnormality is unknown. Recent evidence, however, suggests ... but the definitive pathophysiological mechanism or neurotransmitter abnormality is unknown. Recent evidence, however, suggests ... but the definitive pathophysiological mechanism or neurotransmitter abnormality is unknown. Recent evidence, however, suggests ...
Animals, Electric Conductivity, Glutamates, Ion Channels, Kinetics, Mathematics, Models, Biological, Neurotransmitter Agents, ... For ion channels that are opened by neurotransmitters, analysis of current noise has given valuable information on the kinetics ... we have recently characterized a synaptic current for which the neurotransmitter glutamate closes channels, and for which the ...
In summary infectious agents might influence the cerebral neurotransmitter balance via activating on the tryptophan catabolism ... if an infectious agent is what causes the cascade of events that lead to the immune system disturbance and/or neurotransmitter ... Moreover, antibodies against tryptophan, the decreased concentration of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain following ... Most of the above supposes that the infectious agent literally hijacks the host cells and takes full control including ...
Dive into the research topics of Altered motor, anxiety-related and attentional task performance at baseline associate with multiple gene copies of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and related protein overexpression in ChAT::Cre+ rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Neurotransmitter Agents Medicine & Life Sciences 78% * phosphotransferases (kinases) Agriculture & Biology 76% * ... LRRK2 Affects Vesicle Trafficking, Neurotransmitter Extracellular Level and Membrane Receptor Localization. PLoS One. 2013 Oct ... LRRK2 Affects Vesicle Trafficking, Neurotransmitter Extracellular Level and Membrane Receptor Localization. In: PLoS One. 2013 ... LRRK2 Affects Vesicle Trafficking, Neurotransmitter Extracellular Level and Membrane Receptor Localization. Rossana Migheli, ...
Although they are associated with the use of neuroleptics, TDs apparently existed before the development of these agents. ... When TD is diagnosed, reduce or discontinue the causative agent if possible. [33, 34, 42, 43, 41, 49, 35, 36, 37, 38] The risk ... These findings provide evidence that adenosine, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, plays a role in TD. ... Other therapeutic agents for which there is some anecdotal support include vitamin E, levodopa (see carbidopa/levodopa), ...
They have investigated the effects of an inhalational anaesthetic agent on neurotransmitter-related ion channels on individual ... The mechanism of inhalational anaesthetic agents remains controversial. It is known to be associated with neurotransmitters and ... The inhalational anaesthetic agent is distributed in the blood to the brain. The inhalational anaesthetic agent is thought to ... The exact mechanism of inhalational anaesthetic agents is not completely known. The inspired inhalational anaesthetic agent is ...
The pathways and neurotransmitters reviewed include serotonergic agents, glutamate modulators, GABAergic medications, ... The pathways and neurotransmitters reviewed include serotonergic agents, glutamate modulators, GABAergic medications, ... Although there are some recent randomized controlled trials for novel agents including neuropeptides, glutamatergic agents ( ... neuropeptides, neurosteroids, alpha- and beta-adrenergic agents, cannabinoids, and natural remedies. The outcome of the review ...
Hyoscyamine is an anticholinergic agent which means it blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the ... The active anti-asthmatic agent is atropine, which causes paralysis of the pulmonary branches of the lungs, eliminating the ... Anticholinergics inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter ...
But when a nerve agent interacts with this protein, the normal transmissions of these neurotransmitters are disrupted. ... Both agents have significant side effects and serious limitations in treating large number of victims as they must be either ... Degrading the toxicity of nerve gas agents Nerve gas is another chemical weapon that was used by Sadam Hussien on Kurdish ... Chemical threats are defined by the NIH as toxic chemical agents that could be used in a terrorist attack against civilians, or ...
Neurotransmitter Agents Medicine & Life Sciences 45% * Microdialysis Medicine & Life Sciences 11% * Aspartic Acid Medicine & ... Modulation of extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the nucleus accumbens by a taurine uptake inhibitor. / Olive, M. Foster ... Modulation of extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the nucleus accumbens by a taurine uptake inhibitor. European Journal of ... Olive, M. F., Mehmert, K. K., & Hodge, C. W. (2000). Modulation of extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the nucleus ...
  • Furthermore, dance/movement therapy boosts the synthesis of serotonin, a mood-regulating neurotransmitter generated by cells. (
  • Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that regulates social behavior and mood. (
  • Most notably, inhalation of essential oils can communicate signals to the olfactory system and stimulate the brain to exert neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin and dopamine), thereby further regulating mood. (
  • The inflammatory response system works by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which affects the regulation of certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin and catecholamines, directly linked to depressive states. (
  • One such study found that oral consumption of G. Lucidum triterpene acids promoted sleep in mice by increasing levels of a sleep-promoting neurotransmitter (serotonin) and optimising gut bacteria composition 8 . (
  • AChE accelerates or catalyzes the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, allowing normal neural transmissions across synapses in nerve and muscle tissue to occur. (
  • Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter (a chemical messenger) released by the nerves for the contraction of muscles. (
  • They block the action of a neurotransmitter called "acetylcholine" in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (
  • Botox is a nerve blocking agent that prevents the release of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that causes your muscles to contract. (
  • It works by blocking the effects of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which is responsible for causing contraction of muscles, increase in body secretions, and decrease in heart rate. (
  • It effectively restores cardiac activity and body function by blocking the effects of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine in the body which is responsible for various physiological functions (such as contraction of skeletal or smooth muscles, increase in body secretions or bowel movements, and decrease in heart rate). (
  • It releases acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that helps to preserve mental balance and enhance the memory muscles. (
  • One of the neurologic processes affected by inflammation is with the neurotransmitters Acetylcholine and butyrycholine. (
  • They believe that the neurotransmitter dopamine plays a key role. (
  • Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter used to treat Cardiogenic shock, Chronic refractory congestive cardiac failure, low doses in renal failure, dilated Cardiomyopathy, hemodynamic imbalances, poor perfusion of vital organs, low cardiac. (
  • Because high dopamine levels can be an explanation for the depressive phase of patients in the predominant psychomotor depletion, this finding was a possible indication that dopaminergic agents such as bupropion, MAO-Hemmer, or amphetamines could be helpful to our patient. (
  • In particular, there is some evidence of a stimulating role of citicoline for the release of dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain. (
  • In depolarizing bipolar cells of the vertebrate retina, we have recently characterized a synaptic current for which the neurotransmitter glutamate closes channels, and for which the channel open probability is low even in the absence of glutamate. (
  • With epileptic seizures being mediated by the neurotransmitter glutamate, the agent is a highly selective, noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist that reduces neuronal hyperexcitation associated with seizures by targeting glutamate activity at AMPA receptors on postsynaptic membranes. (
  • Several of the recently identified genetic risk factors for schizophrenia also influence neurotransmitter and synaptic function, with some convergence on glutamate. (
  • Most drugs that relieve anxiety in one way or another exert an effect on the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (
  • A compound that inhibits the re-uptake of the neurotransmitter GABA from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron, so increasing the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter and hence increasing neurotransmission. (
  • The original work found that an anti-malaria drug or the neurotransmitter GABA could increase the number of insulin-producing pancreatic cells in mice. (
  • In one, the scientists injected animals with the neurotransmitter GABA, which they reported could convert cells in the pancreas to insulin-producing β cells, and in the other they identified an anti-malaria compound that could convert pancreatic α cells to β-like cells and induce insulin production. (
  • Some experts believe that they work by reducing the level of the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which is primarily responsible for regulating mood. (
  • Why synapses release a certain amount of neurotransmitter is poorly understood. (
  • It is considered an inhibitory neurotransmitter, which means it regulates brain and nerve cell activity by inhibiting the number of neurons firing in the brain. (
  • Tonic extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations are important modulators of central network homeostasis. (
  • Olive, MF , Mehmert, KK & Hodge, CW 2000, ' Modulation of extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the nucleus accumbens by a taurine uptake inhibitor ', European Journal of Pharmacology , vol. 409, no. 3, pp. 291-294. (
  • Hodge, Clyde W. / Modulation of extracellular neurotransmitter levels in the nucleus accumbens by a taurine uptake inhibitor . (
  • It produces neurotransmitters (endocannabinoids) which binds to the cannabinoid receptors in the nervous system. (
  • People with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders are especially vulnerable to the development of TDs after exposure to conventional neuroleptics, anticholinergics, toxins, substances of abuse, and other agents. (
  • Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. (
  • When the worms were incubated in DEC, substances known to have neurotransmitter effect were found increased except glycine. (
  • Some studies have shown that laboratory inoculation of inflammatory substances or agents, it causes a number of symptoms typical of clinical pictures of depression and anxiety . (
  • A probable mechanism of how infections can influence the cerebral immune balance could be the activation of the tryptophan catabolism via infectious agents and elevated proinflammatory cytokines. (
  • This theory starts from the idea that when our body falls victim to some kind of infection, our own body emits an inflammatory response whereby a series of hemodynamic alterations, lymphatic levels and the release of a series of agents such as cytokines, histamine neuropeptides, etc., are carried out in order to restore the health of our body. (
  • CNS damage typically results from disruption of neurotransmitter metabolism and inhibition of synaptic transmission. (
  • Use of this agent as primary therapy for fourth nerve palsy has been discouraging. (
  • A neurotransmitter is a chemical agent that nerve cells use to transmit information to other nerve cells or muscle or gland cells. (
  • Taylor's project focuses on creating a modified, synthetic version of AChE, an enzyme in nerve tissue that is the target protein of nerve gas agents. (
  • But when a nerve agent interacts with this protein, the normal transmissions of these neurotransmitters are disrupted. (
  • Soldier wounded from nerve agents. (
  • Nerve agents like VX and Sarin gases break down the neurotransmitters that make organs function. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Effect of diethyl carbamazine on neurotransmitter amino acids, biogenic amines and certain related enzymes in Setaria digitata. (
  • Effect of diethyl carbamazine (DEC) on the levels of neurotransmitter amino acids and on the activities of related enzymes of S. digitata have been studied. (
  • Our findings thus suggest that exposure to GWI-related agents may converge on similar targets with roles in inflammation, neurotransmitter and lipid metabolism, and detoxification which may have impacts on neurodegenerative-like disease and oxidative stress in Veterans with GWI. (
  • Despite numerous studies performed to reveal relation between infectious agents and schizophrenia, it is still controversial whether infectious agents play a causal role in inducing psychotic symptoms. (
  • Recent epidemiologic studies indicate that infectious agents may contribute to some cases of schizophrenia. (
  • The development of these agents was achieved by systematic molecular design that integrated several structural elements, including the aminoethyl group (VMAT recognition), halogenated hydroxy-coumarin core (ratiometric optical pH sensing in the desired pH range), and N- or C-alkylation (modulation of lipophilicity). (
  • Second, we will review novel pharmacotherapeutic agents under investigation for the treatment of anxiety disorders in adults. (
  • The outcome of the review reveals a lack of randomized double-blind placebo- controlled trials for anxiety disorders and few studies comparing novel treatments to existing anxiolytic agents. (
  • Overall, the progression of current and future psychopharmacology research in anxiety disorders suggests that there needs to be further expansion in research of these novel pathways and larger-scale studies of promising agents with positive results from smaller trials. (
  • Coping with anxiety does not necessitate the use of alcohol as a numbing agent. (
  • Alcohol can disrupt the neurotransmitters that regulate anxiety, making it difficult to have a decent night's sleep. (
  • Associated topics: mood-swings,stress-/-tension-/-burnout,anxiety-/-worry - "A number of essential oils are currently in use as aromatherapy agents to relieve anxiety, stress, and depression. (
  • These neurotransmitters also improve focus, stamina, learning, and more and help in avoiding brain disorders like depression, anxiety, stress, and other conditions related to memory and learning. (
  • Often, they're made with herbs that affect specific neurotransmitters to potentially improve sleep quality, decrease stress and anxiety, and help you fall asleep faster. (
  • There's no medical study that proves CBD works, but CBD has a reputation as a powerful anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic agent. (
  • Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of various neurotransmitters, reducing their effects in the brain and peripheral organs. (
  • A metanalysis performed on the entire database available from the clinical studies performed with this compound confirms the experimental evidence from the animal studies which have repeatedly described the multiple biological actions of citicoline in restoring both the cell lipid structures and some neurotransmitter functions. (
  • Characterizing the effects of neuropharmacological agents on regional brain activity using fMRI is challenging because drugs modulate neuronal function in a wide variety of ways, including through receptor agonist, antagonist, and neurotransmitter reuptake blocker events. (
  • Brain imaging, neurophysiological, and post-mortem studies support involvement of cortical-striatal-thalamocortical pathways, but the definitive pathophysiological mechanism or neurotransmitter abnormality is unknown. (
  • The inhalational anaesthetic agent is distributed in the blood to the brain. (
  • The inhalational anaesthetic agent is thought to affect communication between the alveoli, the blood, and the brain [ 1 ]. (
  • For example, people with fetal alcohol syndrome, other developmental disabilities, and other brain disorders are vulnerable to the development of TDs, even after receiving only 1 dose of the causative agent. (
  • Simultaneous acquisition SPECT brain imaging using a 99m Tc labeled perfusion agent and an 123 I labeled neurotransmitter agent has potential applications in diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • abstract = "Simultaneous acquisition SPECT brain imaging using a 99mTc labeled perfusion agent and an 123I labeled neurotransmitter agent has potential applications in diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • People with depression and other mental health conditions may benefit from the vitamins and antioxidants in moringa, which work together to stabilize neurotransmitters in the brain and may work in a similar way to SSRIs. (
  • These neurotransmitters carry signals from cell to cell in the brain - they allow thinking, talking, remembering, and functioning to take place. (
  • It enhances the content of various neurotransmitters in the body that keep the brain healthy and stress-free. (
  • While some psychoactive agents play an important role in reducing the suffering of those with illness, others, such as "smart drugs," are of increasing interest for enhancing mental capabilities in healthy people. (
  • Compare and contrast other analgesic agents that can be used in a multimodal approach to pain management, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antidepressants, and local anesthetics. (
  • Previously published voltammetric software packages have implemented FSCV, which is not capable of measuring tonic concentrations of neurotransmitters in vivo. (
  • In this paper, custom software was developed for near-real-time tracking (scans every 10 s) of neurotransmitters' tonic concentrations with high sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution both in vitro and in vivo using cyclic voltammetry combined with dynamic background subtraction (M-CSWV and FSCAV). (
  • That study (cited 66 times) demonstrated that by regularly injecting mice with the neurotransmitter a large proportion of α cells would convert to β cells in wildtype animals or those chemically induced to have diabetes. (
  • Such agents induce changes in mood, sensation, thinking, or behavior, and may be derived from plants or other natural sources or chemically synthesized in a laboratory. (
  • In animals, infection with Toxoplasma gondii can alter behavior and neurotransmitter function. (
  • CBD helps to relieve chronic pain by influencing the endocannabinoid receptor activity, anti-inflammation and interacting with the neurotransmitters. (
  • Using in vivo microdialysis, we examined the effect of local perfusion of the taurine uptake inhibitor guanidinoethyl sulfonate on extracellular levels of various neurotransmitters in the rat nucleus accumbens. (
  • NOREPINEPHRINE is one of the body's primary fat burning agents ), but when estrogen binds to the A2A (taking NOREPINEPHRINE's "seat"), it creates a negative feedback loop inhibiting the release of fat-burning NOREPINEPHRINE. (
  • The Khamisiyah ammunition storage that housed chemical warfare agents such as sarin, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, was demolished during the GW, releasing toxicants into the atmosphere affecting deployed troops. (
  • It seems likely that this neurochemical correlate of positive symptoms might be secondary to disturbances in other neurotransmitter systems. (
  • Nuclear-Factor-Kappa Beta, Cox enzymes, Interleukin-1β, MMP-13, and MMP-2, are all biological agents involved in the inflammatory process that can lead to arthritis, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Anticholinergic agents decrease the acid production in the stomach that slows down the natural gut movements, thus relaxing the muscles in several organs such as the stomach, intestines, kidney, and bladder. (
  • Gerry R. Boss, M.D., professor of medicine, has been awarded $3.3 million for pre-clinical and clinical studies of a detoxifying agent for cyanide, a highly toxic compound that could be used as a weapon of mass destruction. (
  • In an effort to decrease the use of opioids, it is vital for clinicians to first consider other agents to control pain. (
  • Agents that induce pathological changes in the PNS included lead (7439921), chlordecone (143500), and carbon -monoxide (630080). (
  • Quetiapine is a novel antipsychotic agent with many atypical features, including low D(2) and higher 5HT(2A) affinity in vitro, low propensity to induce extra-pyramidal side effects and minimal effects on prolactin levels. (
  • Inhalation of agents in the workplace can induce asthma in a mechanisms involved in asthma. (
  • It also includes agents that relieve acute and chronic pain , and others that curb insomnia and facilitate sleep. (
  • Eric Liebler, senior vice president of neurology, electroCore, noted in a statement that this marks gammaCore as the only option acute and preventive for both adult and adolescent patients with migraine, which he noted is "represents a unique treatment" for those seeking to avoid the use of prescription pharmaceutical agents. (
  • The exact mechanism of inhalational anaesthetic agents is not completely known. (
  • Still, evidence to underpin relation between infectious agents and disorientation is insufficient. (
  • CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED peripheral neuropathy is a major side effect of many chemotherapeutic agents, including taxanes, platinum-based agents, and vinca alkaloids. (
  • It can act as a drying agent and antibacterial, killing surface bacteria and absorbing oil and dirt. (
  • It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent. (
  • Chemical threats are defined by the NIH as toxic chemical agents that could be used in a terrorist attack against civilians, or those that could be released at toxic levels by accident or natural disaster. (
  • There are five types of chemical agent banned for use in warfare. (
  • Next are blister agents that cause severe chemical burns on the skin and eyes. (
  • Research indicates that chemical warfare agents play a key role in the onset and progression of GWI. (
  • Exposure to other chemical agents such as pyridostigmine bromide, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide, permethrin and chlorpyrifos, were also prevalent during the war. (
  • These additional chemical agents have also been shown to inhibit AChE. (
  • By blocking the enzyme, these agents enhance and prolong the mood-elevating effects of these chemical messengers. (
  • Here we review current knowledge on neurotransmitter-mediated blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI mechanisms as well as recently updated methodologies aimed at more fully describing the effects of neuropharmacologic agents on the BOLD signal. (
  • Agents with sedating effects are widely used to combat insomnia and help people fall asleep or maintain sleep, a major contributor to overall physical and mental health. (
  • Both agents have significant side effects and serious limitations in treating large number of victims as they must be either administered intravenously (sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrate) or inhaled for several minutes (amyl nitrite. (
  • Effects of calcium and calcium-chelating agents on the inward and outward current in the membrane of mollusc neurones. (
  • It is a natural stimulant without the threatening side effects (palpitations, hyper-activity or rise in blood pressure) of most other stimulating agents. (
  • [ 32 ] It is a neuromuscular agent that acts presynaptically to block neurotransmitter release and results in muscle weakening. (
  • Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act directly to regulate ion channels, but also those that act through second messenger systems, and those that act at a distance from their site of release. (
  • 1. To identify the structure-activity relationship for causal agents of Date of Original Release: March 2009. (
  • It also helps to remove potentially damaging oxidising agents in a living organism. (
  • The Genecept™ Assay is an integrated approach that analyzes neurotransmitter variations to help the clinician arrive at informed therapeutic decisions. (
  • However, this agent has not yet been tested in patients with severe depression alone. (
  • Environmental factors that can detect specific IgE antibodies against most low-molecular- affect the initiation of occupational asthma include the intrinsic weight agents has resulted in a search for alternative or characteristics of causative agents as well as the influence of the complementary physiopathologic mechanisms leading to airway level and route of exposure at the workplace. (
  • The authors hypothesize that increased exposure to infectious agents through household crowding might account for this association. (
  • In summary infectious agents might influence the cerebral neurotransmitter balance via activating on the tryptophan catabolism. (
  • So you can see how Kratom acts as a sedative agent to protect our mental health and create an overall mood of happiness and peace. (
  • The plant extract also helps normalize neurotransmitters that perform integral roles in mood, memory, and mental health. (
  • Herein, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of diapocynin, an oxidative metabolite of the naturally occurring agent apocynin, in a pre-clinical 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. (