Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)
Parenchymatous NEUROSYPHILIS marked by slowly progressive degeneration of the posterior columns, posterior roots, and ganglia of the spinal cord. The condition tends to present 15 to 20 years after the initial infection and is characterized by lightening-like pains in the lower extremities, URINARY INCONTINENCE; ATAXIA; severely impaired position and vibratory sense, abnormal gait (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), OPTIC ATROPHY; Argyll-Robertson pupils, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, and trophic joint degeneration (Charcot's Joint; see ARTHROPATHY, NEUROGENIC). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p726)
Agents used to treat infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA. This includes SYPHILIS & YAWS.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
Serologic tests for syphilis.
Latent syphilis is a stage of the sexually transmitted infection Syphilis, characterized by the absence of symptoms, but with positive serological tests, which can be further divided into early and late latency, depending on the duration and the potential for progression to tertiary syphilis.
Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining penicillin G with PROCAINE.
The primary sore of syphilis, a painless indurated, eroded papule, occurring at the site of entry of the infection.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
A paraneoplastic syndrome marked by degeneration of neurons in the LIMBIC SYSTEM. Clinical features include HALLUCINATIONS, loss of EPISODIC MEMORY; ANOSMIA; AGEUSIA; TEMPORAL LOBE EPILEPSY; DEMENTIA; and affective disturbance (depression). Circulating anti-neuronal antibodies (e.g., anti-Hu; anti-Yo; anti-Ri; and anti-Ma2) and small cell lung carcinomas or testicular carcinoma are frequently associated with this syndrome.
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.
Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
An acute (or rarely chronic) inflammatory process of the brain caused by SIMPLEXVIRUS infections which may be fatal. The majority of infections are caused by human herpesvirus 1 (HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN) and less often by human herpesvirus 2 (HERPESVIRUS 2, HUMAN). Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; HALLUCINATIONS; behavioral alterations; APHASIA; hemiparesis; and COMA. Pathologically, the condition is marked by a hemorrhagic necrosis involving the medial and inferior TEMPORAL LOBE and orbital regions of the FRONTAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp751-4)
Inflammation of a transverse portion of the spinal cord characterized by acute or subacute segmental demyelination or necrosis. The condition may occur sporadically, follow an infection or vaccination, or present as a paraneoplastic syndrome (see also ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED). Clinical manifestations include motor weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1242-6)

Cerebral gumma showing spontaneous regression on magnetic resonance imaging study--case report. (1/132)

A 75-year-old male presented with the complaint of headache. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated a low-signal intensity area on both T1- and T2-weighted images with ring-like enhancement and adhesion of the dura appearing as dural tail sign. Follow-up MR imaging demonstrated spontaneous regression, so the preoperative diagnosis was malignant lymphoma. Histological examination revealed typical granuloma. Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay tests of serum and cerebrospinal fluid were positive for active syphilis. The enhanced mass totally disappeared after 4 months of erythromycin therapy. The final diagnosis was cerebral gumma. The incidence of syphilis is increasing, so cerebral gumma should be included in the differential diagnosis of hypovascular tumors that involve both the parenchyma and dura even in the presence of spontaneous regression.  (+info)

A retrospective examination of sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum: development of parasitologic and clinical immunity during primary infection. (2/132)

A retrospective analysis was made of the parasitologic and fever records of 318 patients who had been infected with the El Limon, Santee Cooper, or McLendon strains of Plasmodium falciparum for treatment of neurosyphilis between 1940 and 1963 to determine the development of parasitologic and clinical immunity during primary infection. The presence of fever > or = 101 degrees F and > or = 104 degrees F, asexual parasite counts > or = 1,000 and > or = 10,000/microl, and gametocyte counts > or = 100/microl and > or = 1,000/microl are presented. The frequency of fever (number of patients with fever/number of patients remaining in study) for the first 100 days of patent parasitemia, the frequency of parasite counts > or = 1,000 and > or = 10,000/microl during the first 100 days of patent parasitemia, and the frequency of gametocyte counts > or = 100 and > or = 1,000/microl during the first 100 days of patent parasitemia are presented for 4 groups of patients: 1) sporozoite-induced and 2) trophozoite-induced infections requiring treatment during their primary attack, and 3) sporozoite-induced and 4) trophozoite-induced infections not requiring treatment during the primary attack. For each sporozoite-induced infection, the route of inoculation (bites or syringe), the species of mosquito used, the number of mosquito glands or bites, the intensity of salivary gland infection, and the length of the prepatent period are recorded. Prepatent periods for 109 sporozoite-induced infections ranged from 6 to 28 days. Patients with parasitologic or clinical findings that required suppressive, but non-curative treatment, during the primary attack had higher frequency of fever, parasitemia, and gametocytemia than patients not so treated. Fever was concentrated in the first 2 weeks of patent parasitemia although instances of fever were reported >100 days after infection. High-density parasitemia was also concentrated early in the infection; instances of parasite counts > or = 10,000/microl occurred > 75 days after infection. In conclusion, immunity to infection with P. falciparum was shown to develop rapidly. Following primary infection, clinical and parasitologic immunity was evident within 2-3 weeks following the detection of parasites in the peripheral circulation.  (+info)

A retrospective examination of secondary sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum: development of parasitologic and clinical immunity following secondary infection. (3/132)

A retrospective study was made of clinical records to determine parasitemia and episodes of fever of 59 patients reinfected with Plasmodium falciparum for treatment of neurosyphilis, which was considered standard medical care at the time. Records were collected at the National Institutes of Health laboratories in Columbia, South Carolina and Milledgeville, Georgia during the period 1940 to 1963. Nineteen patients were infected via the bites of Anopheles albimanus, An. quadrimaculatus, or An. freeborni mosquitoes; the median prepatent period was 11.5 days. It was evident that clinical immunity, as measured by the frequency of fever, particularly high intensity fever (> or = 104 degrees F), was increased following reinfection. The parasitologic immunity, as measured by the frequency of asexual parasite counts and gametocyte counts, was also evident. In general, in secondary infections with homologous and/or heterologous strains of P. falciparum, fever episodes > or = 101 degrees F and > or = 104 degrees F were reduced in number, parasitemia was reduced, and gametocyte production was reduced. However, despite long courses of parasitemia during their primary infections, most patients developed fever and, in some cases, high-density parasitemia and gametocytemia following reinfection. The intensity of the secondary response did not appear to be associated with the length of the previous course of parasitemia. In addition, current infection with heterologous strain parasites did not prevent the development of fever or higher density parasite counts following imposition of the new strain of parasite.  (+info)

A retrospective examination of sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum in patients previously infected with heterologous species of Plasmodium: effect on development of parasitologic and clinical immunity. (4/132)

A retrospective examination was made to determine parasitemia and episodes of fever in 97 patients, previously infected with Plasmodium malariae, P. ovale, and/or P. vivax, who were reinfected with P. falciparum for treatment of neurosyphilis, the standard treatment at the time. Data were collected at the National Institutes of Health laboratories in Columbia, South Carolina and Milledgeville, Georgia during the period 1940 to 1963. Results were compared with observations recorded for patients following primary infection with P. falciparum. The mean daily percentage of patients with fever > or = 101 degrees F during the first 20 days of primary infection with P. falciparum was 42.4; the percentage with fever > or = 104 degrees F was 19.9%. Those previously infected with P. ovale, P. vivax, and P. malariae had mean daily percentages of fever > or = 101 degrees F and > or = 104 degrees F of 39.1% and 14.8%, 39.1% and 19.4%, and 28.4%, and 11.3%, respectively. Previous infection with P. ovale or P. vivax had little, if any, effect on subsequent clinical malaria due to P. falciparum, whereas infection with P. malariae resulted in reduced frequencies of fever. A similar comparison was made for parasite counts > or = 1,000/microl and > 10,000/microl. The percentages for 268 patients during the first 20 days of primary infection with P. falciparum parasite counts > or = 1,000/microl and > or = 10,000/microl were 58.2% and 29.9%, respectively. Those previously infected with P. ovale, P. vivax, and P. malariae had mean daily percentages of parasitemia > or = 1,000/microl and > or = 10,000/microl of 58.0% and 24.3%, 57.3% and 31.1%, and 45.9% and 19.0%, respectively. Previous infection with P. malariae resulted in a reduction in the frequency of high-density parasitemia (> or = 10,000/microl) as well as an asexual parasite count > or = 1,000/microl. These results suggest that P. falciparum and P. malariae share common antigens that are able to induce parasitologic and clinical protection when infection with P. falciparum follows that with P. malariae. The results did not suggest that protection to P. falciparum is provided by previous infection with P. ovale or P. vivax.  (+info)

A retrospective examination of the patterns of recrudescence in patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum. (5/132)

A retrospective examination was made to determine median intervals between recrudescences of Plasmodium falciparum in 343 neurosyphilitic patients who were given malariatherapy, which was routine care at that time. Data were collected at the National Institutes of Health laboratories in Columbia, South Carolina and Milledgeville, Georgia during the period 1940 to 1963. The geometric mean days of peak parasite count for the patients were 8, 26.5, 43.5, 62, 78.5, and 95.5 days, respectively. The intervals between these peaks of 18.5, 17, 18.5, 16.5, and 17 days suggest a fixed time frame for the appearance of different dominant parasite populations during the first 100 days of patent infection. When the data from these same patients were examined for mean peak parasite counts, the patterns indicated a consistent decrease in parasite count suggestive of increasing immunity, which was sufficient to reduce but not eliminate subsequent parasite populations. The geometric mean peak parasite counts for the 343 patients during the primary attack and the first 5 recrudescences were 40,350, 6,975, 5,090, 3,820, 3,455, and 2,375/microl, respectively.  (+info)

Venereal syphilis in tropical Africa. (6/132)

A steady decline in the incidence of positive results to the Kahn test is reported in Malawian patients during the period 1968-75. Other studies have shown that the incidence of early and late syphilis in sub-Saharan Africa has dropped considerably over the past few decades. The number of reported cases of early syphilis in certain urban areas, however, appears to be high. It is suggested that the downward trend in the incidence of syphilis in Africa is related to the increased and often indiscriminate use of penicillin.  (+info)

Non-compressive myelopathy: clinical and radiological study. (7/132)

Fifty seven patients (42 males and 15 females) with non-compressive myelopathy were studied from 1997 to 1999. Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) was the commonest (31) followed by Vit B12 deficiency myelopathy (8), primary progressive multiple sclerosis (5), hereditary spastic paraplegia (3), tropical spastic paraplegia (2), subacute necrotising myelitis (1), radiation myelitis (1), syphilitic myelitis (1) and herpes zoster myelitis (1). 4 cases remained unclassified. In the ATM group, mean age was 30.35 years, antecedent event was observed in 41.9% case, 25 cases had symmetrical involvement and most of the cases had severe deficit at onset. CSF study carried out in 23 patients of ATM revealed rise in proteins (mean 147.95mg%, range 20-1200 mg/dL) and pleocytosis (mean 20.78/cumm, range 0-200 mm3). Oligoclonal band (OCB) was present in 28% of cases of ATM. The most common abnormality detected was a multisegment hyperintense lesion on T2W images, that occupied the central area on cross section. In 6 patients hyperintense signal was eccentric in location. MRI was normal in 4 cases of ATM. Thus ATM is the leading cause of non-compressive myelopathy. Clinical features combined with MRI findings are helpful in defining the cause of ATM.  (+info)

A pilot study evaluating ceftriaxone and penicillin G as treatment agents for neurosyphilis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. (8/132)

To compare intravenous (iv) ceftriaxone and penicillin G as therapy for neurosyphilis, blood and CSF were collected before and 14-26 weeks after therapy from 30 subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 who had (1) rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test titers >/=1&rcolon;16, (2) reactive serum treponemal tests, and (3) either reactive CSF-Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) tests or CSF abnormalities: (a) CSF WBC values >/=20/microL or (b) CSF protein values >/=50 mg/dL. At baseline, more ceftriaxone recipients had skin symptoms and signs (6 [43%] of 14 vs. 1 [6%] of 16; P=.03), and more penicillin recipients had a history of neurosyphilis (7 [44%] of 16 vs. 1 [7%] of 14; P=.04). There was no difference in the proportion of subjects in each group whose CSF measures improved. Significantly more ceftriaxone recipients had a decline in serum RPR titers (8 [80%] of 10 vs. 2 [13%] of 15; P=. 003), even after controlling for baseline RPR titer, skin symptoms and signs, or prior neurosyphilis were controlled for. Differences in the 2 groups limit comparisons between them. However, iv ceftriaxone may be an alternative to penicillin for treatment of HIV-infected patients with neurosyphilis and concomitant early syphilis.  (+info)

Neurosyphilis is a term used to describe the invasion and infection of the nervous system by the spirochetal bacterium Treponema pallidum, which is the causative agent of syphilis. This serious complication can occur at any stage of syphilis, although it's more common in secondary or tertiary stages if left untreated. Neurosyphilis can cause a variety of neurological and psychiatric symptoms, such as:

1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the meninges (the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) leading to headaches, stiff neck, and fever.
2. Meningovascular syphilis: Affects the blood vessels in the brain causing strokes, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), or small-vessel disease, which can lead to cognitive decline.
3. General paresis (also known as tertiary general paresis): Progressive dementia characterized by memory loss, personality changes, disorientation, and psychiatric symptoms like delusions or hallucinations.
4. Tabes dorsalis: A degenerative disorder affecting the spinal cord, leading to ataxia (loss of coordination), muscle weakness, pain, sensory loss, and bladder and bowel dysfunction.
5. Argyll Robertson pupils: Small, irregularly shaped pupils that react poorly or not at all to light but constrict when focusing on near objects. This is a rare finding in neurosyphilis.

Diagnosis of neurosyphilis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and serological tests for syphilis. Treatment usually consists of intravenous penicillin G, which can halt the progression of the disease if initiated early enough. However, any neurological damage that has already occurred may be irreversible. Regular follow-up evaluations are essential to monitor treatment response and potential complications.

Tabes dorsalis is a late-stage complication of untreated neurosyphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It is characterized by degeneration of the posterior columns and dorsal roots of the spinal cord, leading to various neurological symptoms.

The medical definition of Tabes Dorsalis is:

A chronic progressive degenerative disease of the spinal cord, specifically affecting the dorsal root ganglia and posterior columns, caused by the tertiary stage of syphilis. The condition is characterized by a combination of motor, sensory, and autonomic disturbances, including ataxia, Romberg's sign, lightning pains, hypo- or areflexia, impaired proprioception, dissociated sensations, and Argyll Robertson pupils. If left untreated, Tabes Dorsalis can lead to significant disability and even death.

Antitreponemal agents are a type of antibiotic specifically used to treat infections caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum, which is responsible for diseases such as syphilis and yaws. The most common antitreponemal agent is penicillin, which is highly effective against Treponema pallidum. Other antitreponemal agents include ceftriaxone, doxycycline, and tetracycline. These antibiotics work by inhibiting the growth and multiplication of the bacteria, ultimately leading to their elimination from the body. It's important to note that resistance to these antibiotics is rare, but treatment failures can occur due to factors such as poor drug penetration into infected tissues or inadequate dosing.

"Treponema pallidum" is a species of spiral-shaped bacteria (a spirochete) that is the causative agent of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection. The bacterium is very thin and difficult to culture in the laboratory, which has made it challenging for researchers to study its biology and develop new treatments for syphilis.

The bacterium can infect various tissues and organs in the body, leading to a wide range of symptoms that can affect multiple systems, including the skin, bones, joints, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. The infection can be transmitted through sexual contact, from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles.

Syphilis is a serious disease that can have long-term health consequences if left untreated. However, it is also curable with appropriate antibiotic therapy, such as penicillin. It is important to diagnose and treat syphilis early to prevent the spread of the infection and avoid potential complications.

Syphilis serodiagnosis is a laboratory testing method used to diagnose syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It involves detecting specific antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the infection, rather than directly detecting the bacteria itself.

There are two main types of serological tests used for syphilis serodiagnosis: treponemal and nontreponemal tests.

1. Treponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies that specifically target Treponema pallidum. Examples include the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, T. pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay, and enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) or chemiluminescence immunoassays (CIAs) for Treponema pallidum antibodies. These tests are highly specific but may remain reactive even after successful treatment, indicating past exposure or infection rather than a current active infection.

2. Nontreponemal tests: These tests detect antibodies produced against cardiolipin, a lipid found in the membranes of Treponema pallidum and other bacteria. Examples include the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test. These tests are less specific than treponemal tests but can be used to monitor disease progression and treatment response, as their results often correlate with disease activity. Nontreponemal test titers usually decrease or become nonreactive after successful treatment.

Syphilis serodiagnosis typically involves a two-step process, starting with a nontreponemal test followed by a treponemal test for confirmation. This approach helps distinguish between current and past infections while minimizing false positives. It is essential to interpret serological test results in conjunction with the patient's clinical history, physical examination findings, and any additional diagnostic tests.

Latent syphilis is a stage of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) syphilis, which is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. In this stage, individuals who have been infected with syphilis do not show any symptoms of the disease. However, the bacteria remain in their body and can be passed on to others through sexual contact.

Latent syphilis is typically divided into two stages: early latent syphilis and late latent syphilis. Early latent syphilis is defined as occurring within the first year of infection, while late latent syphilis occurs more than a year after the initial infection. During the early latent stage, individuals may still have a positive blood test for syphilis and can still transmit the disease to others through sexual contact. In contrast, during the late latent stage, the risk of transmitting the disease is much lower, but it is still possible.

It's important to note that if left untreated, latent syphilis can progress to more serious stages of the disease, including tertiary syphilis, which can cause severe damage to the heart, brain, and other organs. Therefore, it's essential for individuals who have been diagnosed with latent syphilis to receive appropriate treatment and follow-up care from a healthcare provider.

"Reagin" is an outdated term that was used to describe a type of antibody found in the blood serum of some individuals, particularly those who have had certain infectious diseases or who have allergies. These antibodies were known as "reaginic antibodies" and were characterized by their ability to cause a positive reaction in a test called the "Reagin test" or "Wassermann test."

The Reagin test was developed in the early 20th century and was used as a diagnostic tool for syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. The test involved mixing a patient's serum with a suspension of cardiolipin, lecithin, and cholesterol - components derived from heart tissue. If reaginic antibodies were present in the patient's serum, they would bind to the cardiolipin component and form a complex that could be detected through a series of chemical reactions.

However, it was later discovered that reaginic antibodies were not specific to syphilis and could be found in individuals with other infectious diseases or allergies. As a result, the term "reagin" fell out of favor, and the test is no longer used as a diagnostic tool for syphilis. Instead, more specific and accurate tests, such as the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test and the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay, are now used to diagnose syphilis.

Penicillin G Benzathine is a type of antibiotic that is used to treat various bacterial infections. According to the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Penicillin G Benzathine is a "water-soluble salt of penicillin G, which has a very high degree of stability and provides prolonged low-level serum concentrations after intramuscular injection."

It is often used to treat infections caused by streptococci and treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis. Penicillin G Benzathine works by interfering with the ability of these bacteria to form a cell wall, which is essential for their survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are unable to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Penicillin G Benzathine is typically administered via intramuscular injection, and its prolonged release allows for less frequent dosing compared to other forms of penicillin. However, it may not be suitable for all patients, particularly those with a history of allergic reactions to penicillin or other antibiotics. As with any medication, Penicillin G Benzathine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

A spinal puncture, also known as a lumbar puncture or a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is inserted between two vertebrae in the lower back to extract cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the subarachnoid space. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as meningitis, encephalitis, or subarachnoid hemorrhage, by analyzing the CSF for cells, chemicals, bacteria, or viruses. Additionally, spinal punctures can be used to administer medications or anesthetics directly into the CSF space, such as in the case of epidural anesthesia during childbirth.

The medical definition of a spinal puncture is: "A diagnostic and therapeutic procedure that involves introducing a thin needle into the subarachnoid space, typically at the lumbar level, to collect cerebrospinal fluid or administer medications."

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It progresses in several stages if left untreated, with symptoms varying in each stage. The primary stage involves the appearance of a single, painless sore or multiple sores at the site where the bacteria entered the body, often on the genitals or around the mouth. During the secondary stage, individuals may experience rashes, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and other flu-like symptoms. In later stages, syphilis can lead to severe complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs, known as tertiary syphilis. Neurosyphilis is a form of tertiary syphilis that affects the nervous system, causing various neurological problems. Congenital syphilis occurs when a pregnant woman with syphilis transmits the infection to her unborn child, which can result in serious birth defects and health issues for the infant. Early detection and appropriate antibiotic treatment can cure syphilis and prevent further complications.

Penicillin G Procaine is a formulation of penicillin G, an antibiotic derived from the Penicillium fungus, combined with procaine, a local anesthetic. This combination is often used for its extended-release properties and is administered intramuscularly. It is primarily used to treat moderate infections caused by susceptible strains of streptococci and staphylococci.

The procaine component helps to reduce the pain at the injection site, while penicillin G provides the antibacterial action. The extended-release formulation allows for less frequent dosing compared to immediate-release penicillin G. However, its use has become less common due to the development of other antibiotics and routes of administration.

A chancre is a medical term that refers to a hard, painless skin ulcer that is typically the first stage of certain bacterial infections, most commonly syphilis. It is usually round or oval in shape and can appear as a sore or lesion on the skin or mucous membranes, such as the genitals, anus, or mouth. The chancre is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum and is typically accompanied by swollen lymph nodes in the nearby area.

The chancre usually develops about 3 weeks after exposure to the bacteria and can last for several weeks. While it may heal on its own, it's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have a chancre, as syphilis is a serious infection that can cause long-term health problems if left untreated. Treatment with antibiotics, such as penicillin, can cure syphilis and prevent further complications.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a shock absorber for the central nervous system and provides nutrients to the brain while removing waste products. CSF is produced by specialized cells called ependymal cells in the choroid plexus of the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain. From there, it circulates through the ventricular system and around the outside of the brain and spinal cord before being absorbed back into the bloodstream. CSF analysis is an important diagnostic tool for various neurological conditions, including infections, inflammation, and cancer.

Penicillin G is a type of antibiotic that belongs to the class of medications called penicillins. It is a natural antibiotic derived from the Penicillium fungus and is commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Penicillin G is active against many gram-positive bacteria, as well as some gram-negative bacteria.

Penicillin G is available in various forms, including an injectable solution and a powder for reconstitution into a solution. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. Penicillin G is often used to treat serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics, such as endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), pneumonia, and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).

It's important to note that Penicillin G is not commonly used for topical or oral treatment due to its poor absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and instability in acidic environments. Additionally, as with all antibiotics, Penicillin G should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional to ensure appropriate use and to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

The vestibulocochlear nerve, also known as the 8th cranial nerve, is responsible for transmitting sound and balance information from the inner ear to the brain. Vestibulocochlear nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in hearing loss, vertigo, and balance problems.

These diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infection, trauma, tumors, or degeneration. Some examples of vestibulocochlear nerve diseases include:

1. Vestibular neuritis: an inner ear infection that causes severe vertigo, nausea, and balance problems.
2. Labyrinthitis: an inner ear infection that affects both the vestibular and cochlear nerves, causing vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
3. Acoustic neuroma: a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve, causing hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance problems.
4. Meniere's disease: a inner ear disorder that causes vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, and a feeling of fullness in the ear.
5. Ototoxicity: damage to the inner ear caused by certain medications or chemicals that can result in hearing loss and balance problems.
6. Vestibular migraine: a type of migraine that is associated with vertigo, dizziness, and balance problems.

Treatment for vestibulocochlear nerve diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Limbic encephalitis is a rare type of inflammatory autoimmune disorder that affects the limbic system, which is a part of the brain involved in emotions, behavior, memory, and sense of smell. It is characterized by inflammation of the limbic system, leading to symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, seizures, changes in behavior and mood, and problems with autonomic functions.

Limbic encephalitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, cancer, or autoimmune disorders. In some cases, the cause may remain unknown. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI), and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment usually involves immunosuppressive therapy to reduce inflammation, as well as addressing any underlying causes if they can be identified.

It is important to note that limbic encephalitis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention and treatment. If you or someone else experiences symptoms such as sudden confusion, memory loss, or seizures, it is essential to seek medical care immediately.

Cardiolipins are a type of phospholipid that are primarily found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of cells. They play a crucial role in several important cellular processes, including energy production, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and maintenance of the structural integrity of the mitochondria.

Cardiolipins are unique because they contain four fatty acid chains, whereas most other phospholipids contain only two. This gives cardiolipins a distinctive conical shape that is important for their function in maintaining the curvature and stability of the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Cardiolipins have also been implicated in various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and bacterial infections. For example, changes in cardiolipin composition or distribution have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and other neurological conditions. Additionally, certain bacteria, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, can manipulate host cell cardiolipins to facilitate their own survival and replication.

In summary, cardiolipins are essential phospholipids found in the inner mitochondrial membrane that play a critical role in several cellular processes, and have been implicated in various diseases.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins refer to the proteins present in the cerebrospinal fluid, which is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. The protein concentration in the CSF is much lower than that in the blood, and it contains a specific set of proteins that are produced by the brain, spinal cord, and associated tissues.

The normal range for CSF protein levels is typically between 15-45 mg/dL, although this can vary slightly depending on the laboratory's reference range. An elevation in CSF protein levels may indicate the presence of neurological disorders such as meningitis, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, or Guillain-Barre syndrome. Additionally, certain conditions such as spinal cord injury, brain tumors, or neurodegenerative diseases can also cause an increase in CSF protein levels.

Therefore, measuring CSF protein levels is an important diagnostic tool for neurologists to evaluate various neurological disorders and monitor disease progression. However, it's essential to interpret the results of CSF protein tests in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results to make an accurate diagnosis.

Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a severe and potentially life-thingening inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), most commonly HSV-1. It is a rare but serious condition that can cause significant neurological damage if left untreated.

The infection typically begins in the temporal or frontal lobes of the brain and can spread to other areas, causing symptoms such as headache, fever, seizures, confusion, memory loss, and personality changes. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or death.

Diagnosis of HSE is often made through a combination of clinical presentation, imaging studies (such as MRI), and laboratory tests, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to detect the presence of the virus.

Treatment typically involves antiviral medications, such as acyclovir, which can help reduce the severity of the infection and prevent further neurological damage. In some cases, corticosteroids may also be used to reduce inflammation in the brain. Prompt treatment is critical for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term neurological complications.

Transverse Myelitis is a neurological disorder that involves inflammation of the spinal cord, leading to damage in both sides of the cord. This results in varying degrees of motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction, typically defined by the level of the spine that's affected. Symptoms may include a sudden onset of lower back pain, muscle weakness, paraesthesia or loss of sensation, and bowel/bladder dysfunction. The exact cause is often unknown but can be associated with infections, autoimmune disorders, or other underlying conditions.

A positive test confirms neurosyphilis but a negative result does not rule out neurosyphilis. Due to the low sensitivity of the ... Tertiary syphilis symptoms are exclusively neurosyphilis, though neurosyphilis may occur at any stage of infection. To diagnose ... Neurosyphilis is the infection of the central nervous system in a patient with syphilis. In the era of modern antibiotics, the ... "Neurosyphilis". A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia on PubMed Health. Reviewed by David C. Dugdale, Jatin M. Vyas, David Zieve. 6 ...
ISBN 978-0-465-02881-8. Ropper, Allan H. (3 October 2019). Longo, Dan L. (ed.). "Neurosyphilis". New England Journal of ... Theo suffered from dementia paralytica, now understood as late-stage neurosyphilis, and his health declined rapidly after ... Gonzalez, Hemil; Koralnik, Igor J.; Marra, Christina M. (August 2019). "Neurosyphilis". Seminars in Neurology. 39 (4): 448-455 ...
Neurosyphilis frequently occurrence then, and in 1917, Solomon and Southard co-authored a book on its diagnosis and treatment. ... Neurosyphilis, Modern Systematic Diagnosis and Treatment Presented in One Hundred and Thirty-seven Case Histories. Boston, W.M ... Neurosyphilis. New York: Oxford University Press, [1946]. Greenblatt, Milton, and Harry C. Solomon, eds. Frontal Lobes and ...
The method was developed by Austrian physician Julius Wagner-Jauregg in 1917 for the treatment of neurosyphilis for which he ... Austin, S. C.; Stolley, P. D.; Lasky, T. (1992). "The history of malariotherapy for neurosyphilis. Modern parallels". JAMA. 268 ... Scheck, D. N.; Hook, E. W. (1994). "Neurosyphilis". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 8 (4): 769-795. doi:10.1016/ ... Neurosyphilis was prevalent in Europe during the 19th century, leading to an increased asylum population during this period. ...
Neurosyphilis refers to an infection involving the central nervous system. Involvement of the central nervous system in ... Late symptomatic neurosyphilis can develop decades after the original infection and includes 2 types; general paresis and tabes ... Neurosyphilis is diagnosed by finding high numbers of leukocytes (predominately lymphocytes) and high protein levels in the ... In those with neurosyphilis, intravenous benzylpenicillin or ceftriaxone is recommended. During treatment people may develop ...
Tonic pupils can occur in neurosyphilis. It is not known whether neurosyphilis itself (infection by Treponema pallidum) can ... However, because this sign is associated with neurosyphilis, it should be treated with crystalline penicillin 24 mU intravenous ... Fletcher WA, Sharpe JA (1986). "Tonic pupils in neurosyphilis". Neurology. 36 (2): 188-92. doi:10.1212/wnl.36.2.188. PMID ... Adie syndrome Anisocoria Cycloplegia Marcus Gunn pupil Miosis Neurosyphilis Parinaud's syndrome Syphilis Digre, Kathleen A. ( ...
"This case emphasises that neurosyphilis still has to be considered in the differential diagnosis within the context of ... Friedrich F, Geusau A, Greisenegger S, Ossege M, Aigner M (2009). "Manifest psychosis in neurosyphilis". General Hospital ... which if left untreated can progress to neurosyphilis and affect the brain, can present with solely neuropsychiatric symptoms ...
The neurosyphilis disease is known to cause extreme depression, mania, psychosis, and even hallucinations in late stages of the ... Toptan, Tugce; Ozdilek, Betul; Kenangil, Gulay; Ulker, Mustafa; Domac, Fusun Mayda (2015-04-24). "Neurosyphilis: a case report ...
Martin, J. P. (31 July 1948). "Penicillin in the Treatment of Neurosyphilis". Br Med J. 2 (4569): 268. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4569. ... Martin, J. P. (15 May 1948). "Treatment of Neurosyphilis with Penicillin". Br Med J. 1 (4558): 922-926. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4558. ...
Humphreys, Margaret (2003). "Whose Body? Which Disease? Studying Malaria while Treating Neurosyphilis". In Goodman, Jordan; ...
Neurosyphilis: It is estimated that there may be up to one million cases of untreated syphilis in the US alone. "The disease ... Up to 1.3% of short term psychiatric admissions may be attributable to neurosyphilis, with a much higher rate in the general ... Neurosyphilis: Considerations for a Psychiatrist. Louisiana State University School of Medicine Department of Psychiatry ... Neurosyphilis Archived 2010-01-05 at the Wayback Machine Lipsitz JD, Fyer AJ, Paterniti A, Klein DF (2001). "Emetophobia: ...
This sign is associated with neurosyphilis. It is named in honour of the English physician Jonathan Hutchinson (1828-1913). ...
Neurosyphilis is also a known cause. Other causes include: Treatment is supportive and aims to relieve symptoms. The prognosis ...
Every form of neurosyphilis has meningitis as a component; however, every case differs in severity. The individual is infected ... Neurosyphilis at this point can cause several damages to the body, including tabes dorsalis. When the nervous system is ... Early symptomatic neurosyphilis (or acute syphilitic meningitis or neurorecurrence) is the onset of meningeal syphilis. The ... If syphilis is prolonged, it can affect the nervous system, which is known as neurosyphilis. Meningeal syphilis is a component ...
Hama K, Ishiguchi H, Tuji T, Miwa H, Kondo T (2008-01-01). "Neurosyphilis with mesiotemporal magnetic resonance imaging ...
A negative FTA in serum excludes neurosyphilis". The antigen for the FTA-ABS test is whole bacteria. The bacteria cannot be ... FTA is nearly 100% sensitive in CSF, meaning negative CSF FTA excludes neurosyphilis. Singh, Ameeta E.; Barbara Romanowski (1 ... Since the test has high negative predictive value it is very useful in both serum or CSF to exclude/rule out neurosyphilis if ... testing such as VDRL but have been shown repeatedly to be sensitive but not specific for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis in ...
Frankenburg FR, Baldessarini RJ (2008). "Neurosyphilis, malaria, and the discovery of antipsychotic agents". Harv Rev ...
The new diagnosis provided by Cameron is neurosyphilis. To treat this, they inject penicillin through a lumbar puncture, but ... Sexual abuse Concussion Degenerative disease Hydrocephalus Multiple sclerosis Neurosyphilis Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis ...
Other conditions include neurosyphilis, toxoplasmosis and Refsum's disease. Acquired conditions resulting in ophthalmoscopic ...
Burke, Aggrey W., "Syphilis in a Jamaican psychiatric hospital; A review of 52 cases including 17 of neurosyphilis", August ... A review of 52 cases including 17 of neurosyphilis". British Journal of Venereal Diseases. 48 (4): 249-253. doi:10.1136/sti. ...
The trio of physicians at Wisconsin went on to publish more than 100 papers on neurosyphilis; in particular, they developed and ... Until the advent of penicillin in the 1940s, it was probably the most effective treatment for neurosyphilis available. Reese ... 2 Reese H: Nonspecific and malarial therapy in neurosyphilis. Am J Syphilol 1929; 13: 348-359. Op cit., Ref. 2 Lorenz WF, ... Reese developed a particular interest in neurosyphilis, which, in the 1920s and 1930s, accounted for >10% of all psychiatric ...
... followed by the induction of fever in neurosyphilis. The treatment of neurosyphilis became highly effective when antibiotics ...
In 1916, Joplin descended into dementia as a result of neurosyphilis. In mid-January 1917, he was admitted to a mental asylum ... but more specifically it likely was neurosyphilis. On February 2, 1917, he was admitted to Manhattan State Hospital, a mental ...
Merritt was also known in his day as an expert on neurosyphilis; his 1946 monograph on the topic provided an overview of this ...
CSF pleocytosis, raised CSF protein level and positive CSF serology suggest neurosyphilis. If a pregnant mother is identified ...
Guiteau may have had neurosyphilis, a disease that causes physiological mental impairment. He was executed on June 30, 1882. ...
1954 Jul; 13(3):492-6. Works published in German: Epilepsie und Gliom, 1910 (dissertation thesis) Klinik der Neurosyphilis. In ...
Reportedly, he complained of dorsopathy, leaving Maiorescu worried that he had developed neurosyphilis. Pogor declared himself ...
"An evaluation of oligoclonal banding and CSF IgG index in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis". Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 17 (2 ...
Capone showed signs of neurosyphilis early in his sentence and became increasingly debilitated before being released after ... At Alcatraz, Capone's decline became increasingly evident, as neurosyphilis progressively eroded his mental faculties; his ...
A positive test confirms neurosyphilis but a negative result does not rule out neurosyphilis. Due to the low sensitivity of the ... Tertiary syphilis symptoms are exclusively neurosyphilis, though neurosyphilis may occur at any stage of infection. To diagnose ... Neurosyphilis is the infection of the central nervous system in a patient with syphilis. In the era of modern antibiotics, the ... "Neurosyphilis". A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia on PubMed Health. Reviewed by David C. Dugdale, Jatin M. Vyas, David Zieve. 6 ...
Neurosyphilis. Neurosyphilis is a result of invasion of the central nervous system by Treponema pallidum, which can occur at ... Treatment for neurosyphilis should be managed according to the STI Treatment Guidelines, 2021 - Neurosyphilis, Ocular Syphilis ... Be aware of neurosyphilis, ocular syphilis, and otosyphilis.. *Screen for neurologic, visual, and auditory signs and symptoms ... In 2018, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists revised the syphilis case definition to include neurosyphilis ...
Neurosyphilis is a bacterial infection of the brain or spinal cord. It usually occurs in people who have had untreated syphilis ... Neurosyphilis is a life-threatening complication of syphilis. How well you do depends on how severe the neurosyphilis is before ... Neurosyphilis is caused by Treponema pallidum bacteria. Neurosyphilis usually occurs about 10 to 20 years after a person is ... Neurosyphilis. www.ninds.nih.gov/health-information/disorders/neurosyphilis. Updated January 20, 2023. Accessed March 17, 2023. ...
What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis?. What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis? ... Differential Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis. Given the protean manifestations of the various forms and stages of neurosyphilis, the ... Treatment of symptomatic neurosyphilis or asymptomatic neurosyphilis (HIV positive). This population has a greater risk of ... Necrotizing neurosyphilis is a more fulminant form of CNS involvement than typical neurosyphilis; this is found more frequently ...
What is the role of MRI in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis?. What is the role of CT scanning in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis? ... Differential Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis. Given the protean manifestations of the various forms and stages of neurosyphilis, the ... Treatment of symptomatic neurosyphilis or asymptomatic neurosyphilis (HIV positive). This population has a greater risk of ... Necrotizing neurosyphilis is a more fulminant form of CNS involvement than typical neurosyphilis; this is found more frequently ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Cerebrospinal fluid treponemal antibody titres: a breakthrough in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis ... Cerebrospinal fluid treponemal antibody titres: a breakthrough in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis ... Cerebrospinal fluid treponemal antibody titres: a breakthrough in the diagnosis of neurosyphilis ...
As such failure to demonstrate reagin in CSF does not rule out the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. In an antibiotic era patients ... Anand L C. Atypical Presentation of Neurosyphilis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1980;46:38-41. ...
Access Neurosyphilis case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
Title : Neurosyphilis: Knowledge Gaps and Controversies Personal Author(s) : Tuddenham, Susan;Ghanem, Khalil G; Published Date ... Modern estimates of the prevalence of neurosyphilis are hindered by the lack of consistent reporting data and are based on ... Although several novel biomarkers for neurosyphilis have been evaluated, none to date have found a place in clinical practice. ... Tuddenham, Susan and Ghanem, Khalil G "Neurosyphilis: Knowledge Gaps and Controversies" 45, no. 3 (2018). Tuddenham, Susan and ...
The neurosyphilis is the stage of syphilis that affects the central nervous system, having a variety of psichyatric and ...
A52.2: Asymptomatic neurosyphilis You have syphilis.. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease. There are diseases that are ...
Neurosyphilis‐related hospital admissions, Australia, 2007-20. Ei T Aung, Marcus Y Chen, Christopher K Fairley, Jason J Ong and ...
Tags Other late congenital neurosyphilis ICD-10-CM Code- Late congenital syphilitic optic nerve atrophy ICD-10-CM Code- A5044 ... Other late congenital neurosyphilis ICD-10-CM Code- A5049. October 24, 2023. by Andrew ...
Neurosyphilis. Neurosyphilis -- drug therapy. Iodides -- therapeutic use 2. Syphilis of the nervous system, and its treatment ... Neurosyphilis. Neurosyphilis -- drug therapy. Iodides -- therapeutic use 3. Cerebral syphilis: inunction treatment : sixth ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Neurosyphilis -- drug therapy ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Neurosyphilis -- drug therapy ...
Treatment of Neurosyphilis. Shorter-acting forms of penicillin must be used to treat neurosyphilis to produce reliably ... Patients who are allergic to penicillin and do not have neurosyphilis and are not pregnant may be treated with either ... Infants who are treated for congenital neurosyphilis should undergo repeat clinical evaluation and CSF examination at 6-month ... These authorities treat for neurosyphilis when no CSF examination is performed or when examination reveals CSF abnormalities. ...
1)(2) Early neurosyphilis typically affects cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and meninges presenting like meningitis, while late ... Here we present a case of a patient with symptomatic neurosyphilis presenting with CSF findings of bacterial meningitis. ... 1)(2) Early neurosyphilis typically affects cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and meninges presenting like meningitis, while late ... Here we present a case of a patient with symptomatic neurosyphilis presenting with CSF findings of bacterial meningitis. ...
The most common urodynamic finding associated with neurosyphilis is detrusor areflexia with normal sphincteric function. ...
It can take up to 20 years to develop neuro-syphilis. Neuro-syphilis is difficult to treat, especially for those with HIV ... Neuro-syphilis. The bacteria often invade the central nervous system during the early stages of infection. Approximately 3-7% ... Persons with neuro-syphilis may need to be retested for up to 2 years after treatment. People with an allergic reaction to ... When this happens, neuro-syphilis may develop, because of an impaired immune response in the HIV infected person (Seronegative ...
Seizure in HIV/AIDS answers are found in the Diagnosaurus powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Syphilis (neurosyphilis). 12 to 24 million units/day, as 2-4 MU every 4 hours for 10-14 days; many experts recommend additional ... Syphillis (congenital and neurosyphilis). Treponema pallidum. Meningococcal meningitis and/or septicemia. Neisseria ... Syphilis (congenital and neurosyphilis) after the newborn period. 200,000-300,000 units/kg/day (administered as 50,000 units/kg ...
Although neurosyphilis morbidity was similar, significant differences were noted by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and region ... Neurosyphilis Surveillance: Exploring the Use of Multiple Data Sources to Better Understand Morbidity in California.. Burghardt ... ABSTRACT Accurate reporting of neurosyphilis diagnoses is important to quantify and monitor severe outcomes associated with ... This analysis compared the demographic distribution of neurosyphilis diagnoses in sexually transmitted disease surveillance ...
High incidence of neurosyphilis in the top end of australia: a systematic approach to its diagnosis ... High incidence of neurosyphilis in the top end of australia: a systematic approach to its diagnosis ...
Symptomatic neurosyphilis, Asymptomatic neurosyphilis, Neurosyphilis, unspecified, Other symptomatic late syphilis, Late ...
Neurosyphilis. Clinical description Evidence of central nervous system infection with T. pallidum Laboratory criteria for ... Analysis of CSF for evidence of neurosyphilis is necessary in the evaluation of late syphilis with clinical manifestations. ... Clinical symptoms or signs consistent with neurosyphilis without other known causes for these clinical abnormalities Confirmed ... Clinical manifestations of late syphilis other than neurosyphilis may include inflammatory lesions of the cardiovascular system ...
syphilis serology to rule out neurosyphilis. *connective tissue disease screening tests to rule out systemic lupus ...
Clinical Images: Neurosyphilis presenting as hypomania Caroline Jeon and Kevin Gough. CMAJ August 03, 2021 193 (30) E1177; DOI ... Clinical Images: Neurosyphilis presenting as hypomania Caroline Jeon and Kevin Gough. CMAJ August 03, 2021 193 (30) E1177; DOI ...
  • Neurosyphilis is the infection of the central nervous system in a patient with syphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tertiary syphilis symptoms are exclusively neurosyphilis, though neurosyphilis may occur at any stage of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signs and symptoms of neurosyphilis vary with the disease stage of syphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurosyphilis is a result of invasion of the central nervous system by Treponema pallidum, which can occur at any stage of syphilis. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients who receive a diagnosis of syphilis and have neurologic, ocular, and/or otologic symptoms should be evaluated for neurosyphilis, ocular syphilis, or otosyphilis according to their clinical presentation. (cdc.gov)
  • Neurosyphilis usually occurs about 10 to 20 years after a person is first infected with syphilis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Asymptomatic neurosyphilis occurs before symptomatic syphilis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With neurosyphilis, it is important to test the spinal fluid for signs of syphilis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Neurosyphilis is a life-threatening complication of syphilis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Prompt diagnosis and treatment of the original syphilis infection can prevent neurosyphilis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus, all infants suspected of having congenital syphilis should be treated for neurosyphilis. (medscape.com)
  • For example, with syphilis, you may get more complications like neurosyphilis. (positivelife.org.au)
  • If left untreated, late latent syphilis can progress to tertiary (rare) or neurosyphilis. (tbdhu.com)
  • Tertiary syphilis may manifest as mucotanous/osseous lesions where cardiovascular involvement and neurosyphilis is present and typically is not infectious. (tbdhu.com)
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a special conformation of cellular membranes that has at times served to confound effective drug therapy for intra-CNS conditions, most notably tertiary neurosyphilis. (weeksmd.com)
  • To diagnose neurosyphilis, patients undergo a lumbar puncture to obtain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shorter-acting forms of penicillin must be used to treat neurosyphilis to produce reliably therapeutic levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (medscape.com)
  • 1)(2) Early neurosyphilis typically affects cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and meninges presenting like meningitis, while late affects the brain and spinal cord parenchyma, presenting as tabes dorsalis and paresis. (gbmc.org)
  • Congenital neurosyphilis presenting as neonatal sepsis. (jidc.org)
  • The antibiotic penicillin is used to treat neurosyphilis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Here we present a case of a patient with symptomatic neurosyphilis presenting with CSF findings of bacterial meningitis. (gbmc.org)
  • Neurosyphilis, quite directly, is defined as a CSF WBC count of 20 cells/µL or greater or a reactive CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test result. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, a negative CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test result cannot exclude neurosyphilis. (medscape.com)
  • It is important to note that neurosyphilis may occur at any stage of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurosyphilis is a bacterial infection of the brain or spinal cord. (medlineplus.gov)
  • ABSTRACT Accurate reporting of neurosyphilis diagnoses is important to quantify and monitor severe outcomes associated with infection of Treponemal pallidum . (bvsalud.org)
  • This study determined the prevalence and distribution of neurodegenerative proteinopathies in patients with infection-induced acute or chronic inflammation associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (n = 13) and neurosyphilis (n = 23). (sens.org)
  • neurosyphilis, infection of the central nervous system can occur at any stage. (castanet.net)
  • This analysis compared the demographic distribution of neurosyphilis diagnoses in sexually transmitted disease surveillance data with administrative hospital data in the California Project Area from 2016 to 2018. (bvsalud.org)
  • The researchers failed to notify and withheld treatment for patients despite knowing penicillin was found as an effective cure for neurosyphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who are allergic to penicillin and do not have neurosyphilis and are not pregnant may be treated with either doxycycline (100 mg oral [PO] bid for 2 wk) or tetracycline (500 mg PO qid for 2 wk). (medscape.com)
  • Patients who present with otosyphilis may also have manifestations of ocular and neurosyphilis (especially involving cranial nerve VIII) and should be evaluated accordingly. (cdc.gov)
  • Both sexually transmitted disease surveillance and administrative hospital data may be imperfect systems to understand the true morbidity of neurosyphilis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Although neurosyphilis is a neurological disease, neuropsychiatric symptoms might appear due to overall damage to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • How well you do depends on how severe the neurosyphilis is before treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Neurosyphilis is the term used to refer to the involvement of the central nervous system and alterations in neurologic function. (medicinenet.com)
  • citation needed] Movement disorders can be found in a small percentage of individuals with neurosyphilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the era of modern antibiotics, the majority of neurosyphilis cases have been reported in HIV-infected patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • After four years of follow up, neurosyphilis was identified in 26.1% of patients vs. 2.5% of controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients were undergoing malariatherapy for the treatment of neurosyphilis. (ajtmh.org)
  • The mean age at death and survival in neurosyphilis patients was 60 ± 15 years (range 36-86 years) and 1-5 years, respectively. (sens.org)
  • Neuronal tau-immunoreactivity and neurites were observed in 8 HSV patients and 19 neurosyphilis patients, and in approximately half of these, this was found in regions associated with inflammation and expanding beyond regions expected from the Braak stage of neurofibrillary degeneration. (sens.org)
  • Five neurosyphilis patients had cortical ageing-related tau astrogliopathy. (sens.org)
  • Aβ-plaques were found in 4 HSV patients and 11 neurosyphilis patients. (sens.org)
  • Lewy bodies were observed in one HSV patient and two neurosyphilis patients. (sens.org)
  • Persons not treated for persistent CSF abnormalities are at risk of developing clinically apparent disease and are hereafter referred to as having contracted neurosyphilis. (medscape.com)
  • The pathogenesis of neurosyphilis is similar to that in the rest of the body. (medscape.com)
  • Asymptomatic neurosyphilis means that neurosyphilis is present, but the individual reports no symptoms and does not feel sick. (nih.gov)
  • Individuals with asymptomatic neurosyphilis or meningeal neurosyphilis usually return to normal health. (nih.gov)
  • The adequate indication of CSF examination is essential for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. (bmj.com)
  • A Dual-Platform Point-of-Care Test for Neurosyphilis Diagnosis. (rush.edu)
  • Neurosyphilis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neurologic disease in HIV-infected persons. (cdc.gov)
  • 12. Neurosyphilis: Concordance between cerebrospinal fluid analysis and subsequent antibiotic strategy for patients undergoing evaluation of a diagnosis of neurosyphilis. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Cerebrospinal Fluid Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Assay for Neurosyphilis Diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • On seeing the admission diagnosis of neurosyphilis, the pharmacist verifying the patient's admission orders performed a thorough chart review. (ahrq.gov)
  • To diagnose neurosyphilis, patients undergo a lumbar puncture to obtain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 51-year-old man, homosexual, recently diagnosed with ocular neurosyphilis, presented to the emergency room with a 1-day history of fevers and chills. (nih.gov)
  • The patient had experienced blurred vision in his left eye and was diagnosed with ocular neurosyphilis 10 days prior to the current presentation. (nih.gov)
  • Consider participating in a clinical trial so clinicians and scientists can learn more about neurosyphilis and related disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Methods clinical, serological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis: RPR/VDRL, TPPA/TPHA, TP ELISA, TP IgM/IgG Western blot, albumin, mononuclear cell count of 8 patients with neurosyphilis. (bmj.com)
  • 6. [Clinical characteristics and therapy of neurosyphilis in patients who are negative for human immunodeficiency virus]. (nih.gov)
  • 8. [Clinical features of neurosyphilis with optic neuritis as an initial finding]. (nih.gov)
  • General paresis and tabes dorsalis are now less common than the other forms of neurosyphilis because of advances made in prevention, screening, and treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Some medical professionals recommend another antibiotic called ceftriaxone for neurosyphilis treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Prognosis can change based on the type of neurosyphilis and how early the disease is diagnosed and treated. (nih.gov)
  • 19. Progressive visual and hearing loss secondary to neurosyphilis. (nih.gov)
  • neurosyphilis was ruled out by a negative cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test. (ahrq.gov)
  • Otosyphilis should be managed in collaboration with an otolaryngologist and treated by using the same regimen as for neurosyphilis. (cdc.gov)
  • How well you do depends on how severe the neurosyphilis is before treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The lack of concordance between T. pallidum in the CSF and the usual diagnostic tests for neurosyphilis throws another complication into the works: how is the finding of T. pallidum in CSF likely to affect a patient's long-term response to treatment for either nonneurologic or neurologic disease? (medscape.com)
  • Limited data indicate that ceftriaxone 1-2 g daily either IM or IV for 10-14 days can be used as an alternative treatment for persons with neurosyphilis ( 603 , 616 , 617 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment and diagnostic accuracy of neurosyphilis at Boston City Hospital's Neurological Unit, 1930-1979. (nih.gov)
  • The pharmacist realized that neurosyphilis had been ruled out and contacted the allergist to clarify the treatment plan. (ahrq.gov)
  • This discovery was championed by Julius Wagner-Jauregg, who won the 1927 Nobel Prize for Medicine for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of neurosyphilis. (k12academics.com)
  • Ceph[???? ] are not appro-priate treatment options in behalf of neurosyphilis. (omcrew.ru)
  • The pathogenesis of neurosyphilis is similar to that in the rest of the body. (medscape.com)
  • Persons not treated for persistent CSF abnormalities are at risk of developing clinically apparent disease and are hereafter referred to as having contracted neurosyphilis. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: When Should You Look for Neurosyphilis? (medscape.com)
  • Neurosyphilis, quite directly, is defined as a CSF WBC count of 20 cells/µL or greater or a reactive CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test result. (medscape.com)
  • a patient with both of these risk factors was calculated to have an 18.6-fold higher risk for neurosyphilis than a patient with neither of them. (medscape.com)
  • 15. The big imitator strikes again: a case report of neurosyphilis in a patient with newly diagnosed HIV. (nih.gov)