Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Neurosecretion: The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.Pituitary Gland, Posterior: Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Neurophysins: Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypothalamus, Anterior: The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.FMRFamide: A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Urotensins: Teleost hormones. A family of small peptides isolated from urophyses of bony fishes. They have many different physiological effects, including long-lasting hypotensive activity and have been proposed as antihypertensives. There are at least four different compounds: urotensin I, urotensin II, urotensin III, and urotensin IV.Median Eminence: Raised area at the infundibular region of the HYPOTHALAMUS at the floor of the BRAIN, ventral to the THIRD VENTRICLE and adjacent to the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS. It contains the terminals of hypothalamic neurons and the capillary network of hypophyseal portal system, thus serving as a neuroendocrine link between the brain and the PITUITARY GLAND.Milk Ejection: Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Class II Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: A subclass of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases that have specificity for 1-phosphatidylinositol and 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate. Members of this subclass consist of a single subunit structure and are regulated by RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES; CYTOKINE RECEPTORS; and INTEGRINS.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Flounder: Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Aminacrine: A highly fluorescent anti-infective dye used clinically as a topical antiseptic and experimentally as a mutagen, due to its interaction with DNA. It is also used as an intracellular pH indicator.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Chromogranins: A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.Synaptophysin: A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.Dynorphins: A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.Hypertonic Solutions: Solutions that have a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCatecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Adenosine-5'-(N-ethylcarboxamide): A stable adenosine A1 and A2 receptor agonist. Experimentally, it inhibits cAMP and cGMP phosphodiesterase activity.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsNorepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein PrecursorsRats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
These glands are part of the endocrine system: 1. Neurosecretory cells 2. Corpora cardiaca 3. Prothoracic glands 4. Corpora ...
... or neurosecretory bodies are structures found in the posterior pituitary. They represent the terminal end of the ... They are neurosecretory terminals. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin are both stored in Herring bodies, but are not ...
"PIKfyve negatively regulates exocytosis in neurosecretory cells". J. Biol. Chem. 283 (5): 2804-13. doi:10.1074/jbc.M704856200. ...
Growth Hormone Neurosecretory Disfunction in Major Depressive Illness. Fiasche R., Fideleff H., Moizeszowicz J., Frieder P., ...
The magnocellular neurosecretory cells that make oxytocin are adjacent to magnocellular neurosecretory cells that make ... Secretion of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve endings is regulated by the electrical activity of the oxytocin cells in ... Leng G, Brown CH, Russell JA (1999). "Physiological pathways regulating the activity of magnocellular neurosecretory cells". ... these bursts result in the secretion of pulses of oxytocin from the neurosecretory nerve terminals of the pituitary gland. ...
... (EC 3.4.24.62, bovine neurosecretory granule protease cleaving pro-oxytocin/neurophysin, pro-oxytocin/neurophysin ... This endopeptidase is present in bovine pituitary neurosecretory granules. Clamagirand, C.; Creminon, C.; Fahy, C.; Boussetta, ... H.; Cohen, P. (1987). "Partial purification and functional properties of an endoprotease from bovine neurosecretory granules ...
August 2, 2011). "Primordial neurosecretory apparatus identified in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis". Proceedings of ...
Here hypothalamic neurosecretory cells release factors to the blood. Some of these factors (releasing hormones), released at ... Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells or neurosecretory cells) ...
The olfactory apparatus and hypothalamo-neurosecretory system of the species has been extensively described in the Indian ... Pandey, A.K. (1997). "Hypothalamo - neurosecretory system of the marine teleost, Megalaspis cordyla Linnaeus". Journal of the ...
The cause is hypothesized to be abnormalities of neurosecretory control. It may be associated with alcoholism. Jeffers, L; ...
Metamorphosis: The two previous processes involve neurosecretory products, which now disappear. It is to be noted that neck- ...
His most significant contribution was the discovery that neurosecretory cells in the brain of the South American kissing bug, ... This was the first experimental confirmation of the function of neurosecretory cells. He went on to discover another hormone, ...
Konopka inferred from the results that neurosecretory cells may be part of the Drosophila circadian system and that per gene ... Also in 1980, Konopka and Steven Wells reported an abnormality in the morphology of a neurosecretory cell group associated with ... Konopka, RJ; Wells (1980). "Drosophila clock mutations affect the morphology of a brain neurosecretory cell group". Journal of ...
Other functions include the regulation of neurosecretory neurons and the release of hormones. The major types of ...
CRH and vasopressin are released from neurosecretory nerve terminals at the median eminence. CRH is transported to the anterior ...
"The neurosecretory vesicle protein phogrin functions as a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase to regulate insulin secretion". J. ...
Neurosecretory Cells, and Body Plan of the Early-Diverging Metazoan Trichoplax adhaerens". Current Biology. 24 (14): 1565-1572 ...
U-II was initially isolated from the neurosecretory system of the Goby fish (Gillichthys mirabilis). For many years it was ... "A reference preparation for the study of active substances in the caudal neurosecretory system of teleosts". (primary). The ...
... is an intrinsic membrane protein of neurosecretory granules". EMBO J. 15 (9): 2102-14. PMC 450132 . PMID 8641276. van den ...
Hormones that influence the behaviour of insects are excreted by neurosecretory cells (NCS) in the corpora cardiaca. Sponges, ...
... in the pituitary is regulated by the neurosecretory nuclei of the hypothalamus. These cells release the peptides Growth hormone ...
Oxytocin Magnocellular neurosecretory cells. *Vasopressin (AVP; also ADH, antidiuretic hormone) Magnocellular neurosecretory ... Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. *Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Neuroendocine ... Vasopressin Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. *Somatostatin (SS; also GHIH, growth hormone-inhibiting hormone) ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons. * ...
Normann, Tom; Hall, Theodore (1978). "Calcium and sulphur in neurosecretory granules and calcium in mitochondria as determined ...
It is produced by median neurosecretory cells in the brain, circulates in blood and stored in corpora cardiaca. The structure ...
A neurohormone is any hormone produced and released by neuroendocrine cells (also called neurosecretory cells) into the blood. ... Adrenomedullary hormones are catecholamines secreted from the adrenal medulla by chromaffin cells, neurosecretory cells ...
"Coexpression of corticotropin-releasing hormone and urotensin I precursor genes in the caudal neurosecretory system of the ...
Pericardial organs (POs) are one of the major neurosecretory structures in crustaceans, releasing numerous hormones that ... one of the major neurosecretory structures in the crustaceans [2-3]. Here, we have developed two immunoaffinity-based methods, ... presented here could also be used to screen for other neuropeptide families present in the same or different neurosecretory ...
Regions in which neurosecretory cells are found have been numbered so that these maps may guide cytological and physiological ... Respiratory Rate Nerve Fiber Physiological Study Respiratory Quotient Neurosecretory Cell These keywords were added by machine ... There is a marked resemblance in arrangement of neurosecretory cells and in pathways followed by the fibers, the endings of ... it is clear that morphologically the neurosecretory system of this crayfish is similar to that of the land crab. ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
The axons of the parvocellular neurosecretory cells of the PVN project to the median eminence, at the base of the brain, where ... The parvocellular neurosecretory cells include those that make: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which acts as the primary ... Parvocellular neurosecretory cells are small neurons within paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. ... which acts as a regulator of luteinizing hormone and prolactin Magnocellular neurosecretory cell Sawchenko, PE (Dec 29, 1987 ...
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in rats (where these neurons have been most extensively studied) in general have a single ... Magnocellular neurosecretory cells are large neuroendocrine cells within the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of ... Each axon gives rise to about 10,000 neurosecretory terminals and many axon swellings that store very large numbers of hormone- ... Parvocellular neurosecretory cell Leng, G; Brown, CH; Russell, JA (April 1999). "Physiological pathways regulating the activity ...
Primordial neurosecretory apparatus identified in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. Pawel Burkhardt, Christian M. ... Primordial neurosecretory apparatus identified in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. Pawel Burkhardt, Christian M. ... Primordial neurosecretory apparatus identified in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Primordial neurosecretory apparatus identified in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis. Pawel Burkhardt, Christian M. ...
Peptide Regulation of Bursting Pacemaker Activity in a Molluscan Neurosecretory Cell Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded ... pacemaker potential activity and altered the current-voltage relations of the membrane in a specific molluscan neurosecretory ...
What is neurosecretory cell? Meaning of neurosecretory cell medical term. What does neurosecretory cell mean? ... Looking for online definition of neurosecretory cell in the Medical Dictionary? neurosecretory cell explanation free. ... They have been also called neurosecretory cells because of their resemblance to vertebrate neurosecretory cells, although their ... redirected from neurosecretory cell). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia. cell. (sel), 1. The ...
What is neurosecretory cells? Meaning of neurosecretory cells medical term. What does neurosecretory cells mean? ... Looking for online definition of neurosecretory cells in the Medical Dictionary? neurosecretory cells explanation free. ... neurosecretory cells. neu·ro·se·cre·to·ry cells. nerve cells, such as those of the hypothalamus, which elaborate a chemical ... The neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus produce both neuropeptides and releasing hormones.. Introduction to the endocrine ...
Voltage-gated calcium currents in the magnocellular neurosecretory cells of the rat supraoptic nucleus.. Fisher TE1, Bourque CW ... techniques were used to analyse voltage-dependent calcium currents in acutely isolated somata of magnocellular neurosecretory ...
This thesis examines mechanisms of regulation of neuropeptide gene expression in vivo in some neurosecretory hypothalamic ...
Although several proteins have been implicated in secretory vesicle tethering, the identity and mechanical properties of the components forming the physical vesicle-plasma membrane link remain unknown. Here we present the first experimental measurements of nanomechanical properties of secretory vesicle-plasma membrane tethers using combined AFM force clamp and TIRF microscopy on membrane sheets from PC12 cells expressing the vesicle marker ANF-eGFP. Application of pulling forces generated tether extensions composed of multiple steps with variable length. The frequency of short (|10 nm) tether extension events was markedly higher when a fluorescent vesicle was present at the cantilever tip and increased in the presence of GTPγS, indicating that these events reflect specifically the properties of vesicle-plasma membrane tethers. The magnitude of the short tether extension events is consistent with extension lengths expected from progressive unfolding of individual helices of the exocyst complex,
The neurosecretory protein VGF was identified by a single peptide, and iTRAQ relative quantification showed a 45-fold increase ... Proteomic Analysis Uncovers Novel Actions of the Neurosecretory Protein VGF in Nociceptive Processing. Maureen S. Riedl, ... Proteomic Analysis Uncovers Novel Actions of the Neurosecretory Protein VGF in Nociceptive Processing ... Proteomic Analysis Uncovers Novel Actions of the Neurosecretory Protein VGF in Nociceptive Processing ...
Dysregulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Expression and Neurosecretory Function in Mecp2 Null Mice. Hong Wang, Shyue- ... To investigate whether loss of MeCP2 results in similar alterations in other neurosecretory systems, we examined secretory ... Our data reveal qualitatively similar neurosecretory phenotypes in both systems characterized by enhanced availability and/or ... Our findings demonstrate an early, abnormal neurosecretory phenotype in MeCP2-deficient neurons characterized by significant ...
Evaluation of Prepubertal Patients with Suspected Neurosecretory Dysfunction of Growth Hormone Secretion: Diagnostic Steps and ... "Evaluation of Prepubertal Patients with Suspected Neurosecretory Dysfunction of Growth Hormone Secretion: Diagnostic Steps and ...
... found in neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus. [ISBN:01950657191, NIF_Subcellular:sao2031592629] ... Neurosecretory vesicles can be hybrids of synaptic vesicles and secretory granules.. *R Bauerfeind, Raz Jelinek, Andrea Hellwig ... Two peptide transmitters co-packaged in a single neurosecretory vesicle. *Elvin A. Woodruff, Kendal Broadie, H. Willi Honegger ... neurosecretory vesicle. A large cytoplasmic membrane-bounded vesicle with an electron dense granular core, up to 150-200 nm in ...
Find out information about neurosecretory neuron. specialized cell in animals that, as a unit of the nervous system nervous ... system, network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the... Explanation of neurosecretory neuron ... redirected from neurosecretory neuron). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical. neuron,. specialized cell in animals ... Neurosecretory neuron , Article about neurosecretory neuron by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Reduced GH secretion and low IGF-I in thalassaemic patients are related to a neurosecretory dysfunction due to iron overload ... Short stature and failure of pubertal development in thalassaemia major: evidence for hypothalamic neurosecretory dysfunction ...
The caudal neurosecretory system in fishes designated by Enami (1955) consists of the caudal neurosecretory cells (Dahlgren ... Neurohormones from fish tails: the caudal neurosecretory system. I. "Urophysiology" and the caudal neurosecretory system of ... The caudal neurosecretory neurons secrete at least two major peptide hormones, urotensins I (UI) and II (UII). UI has an amino ... The caudal neurosecretory system in fishes. In "Vertebrate Endocrinology". Ed by P. K. T. Pang and M. P. Schreibman , editors. ...
Localization of Aplysia neurosecretory peptides to multiple populations of dense core vesicles.. T Kreiner, W Sossin, R H ... Localization of Aplysia neurosecretory peptides to multiple populations of dense core vesicles. ...
The caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) is unique to fish and is proved to maintain homeostasis during seasonal alterations. ... The caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) is unique to fish and is proved to maintain homeostasis during seasonal alterations. ... The caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) is unique to fish and is proved to maintain homeostasis during seasonal alterations. ... Citation: Yuan M, Li X, Long T, Chen Y and Lu W (2020) Dynamic Responses of the Caudal Neurosecretory System (CNSS) Under ...
Protein Kinase A Maintains Cellular Tolerance toMu Opioid Receptor Agonists in Hypothalamic Neurosecretory Cells with Chronic ... Protein Kinase A Maintains Cellular Tolerance toMu Opioid Receptor Agonists in Hypothalamic Neurosecretory Cells with Chronic ... Protein Kinase A Maintains Cellular Tolerance toMu Opioid Receptor Agonists in Hypothalamic Neurosecretory Cells with Chronic ... Therefore, increased PKA activity maintains cellular tolerance to mu opioid receptor agonists in ARC neurosecretory cells ...
... play a critical role in stimulus-secretion coupling in neurosecretory cells (NSCs). The crustacean cerebral ganglion plays a ... Voltage-dependent calcium channels in the neurosecretory cells of cerebral ganglia of the mud crab, Scylla paramamosain ... Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) play a critical role in stimulus-secretion coupling in neurosecretory cells (NSCs). ...
Neurosecretory cells and neurosecretion, Neurosecretory Cells and Neurosecretion We have before said that the neurosecretory ... Neurosecretory Cells and Neurosecretion. We have before said that the neurosecretory cells are an important component of the ... Related Discussions:- Neurosecretory cells and neurosecretion, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Neurosecretory cells and ... The neurosecretory material containing the hormone is produced mostly in the cell body, and is transported through the axons to ...
  • Vasopressin and related peptides (10 -9 to 10 -6 molar) induced bursting pacemaker potential activity and altered the current-voltage relations of the membrane in a specific molluscan neurosecretory cell. (sciencemag.org)
  • Similarly, ovariectomy in another catfish, Clarias batrachus , increases neurosecretory material in the nucleus preopticus (NPO) which decreases after estrogen treatment (Dixit, 1970). (fao.org)
  • Our data reveal qualitatively similar neurosecretory phenotypes in both systems characterized by enhanced availability and/or transmitter release. (jneurosci.org)
  • In Amphiphorus the presence of these neurosecretory systems has not been previously shown. (pdx.edu)
  • From recent studies on the eyestalks and brain of the crayfish, Cambarus virilis , it is clear that morphologically the neurosecretory system of this crayfish is similar to that of the land crab. (springer.com)
  • Brain Neurosecretory Cytokines is a superb booklet, a veritable goldmine of knowledge, on the innovative of neuroscience. (qualityshouldermounts.com)
  • The sex steroids act on their target sites in the brain and through the neurosecretory principles regulate the release of gonadotropin (GtH) from the pituitary. (fao.org)
  • When an action potential invades a neurosecretory terminal, the terminal is depolarised, and calcium enters the terminal through voltage-gated channels. (citizendium.org)
  • Ca(2+)-regulated, neurosecretory granule channel involved in release f" by Yong Yin, Govindan Dayanithi et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • Close association of NPY-positive fibers with the caudal neurosecretory structures was recognizable in 1-month-old larvae. (bioone.org)