Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
A neuropeptide of 29-30 amino acids depending on the species. Galanin is widely distributed throughout the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and INTESTINES. There are various subtypes of GALANIN RECEPTORS implicating roles of galanin in regulating FOOD INTAKE; pain perception; memory; and other neuroendocrine functions.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.
Neuropeptide and gut hormone that helps regulate GASTRIC ACID secretion and motor function. Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
A 27-amino acid peptide with histidine at the N-terminal and isoleucine amide at the C-terminal. The exact amino acid composition of the peptide is species dependent. The peptide is secreted in the intestine, but is found in the nervous system, many organs, and in the majority of peripheral tissues. It has a wide range of biological actions, affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and central nervous systems.
A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.
Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND. It is found in several species including human, rat, mouse, and others. Secretogranin II is an acidic protein of 559 to 586 amino acid residues that can stimulate DOPAMINE release from neurons and release of pituitary GONADOTROPINS.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
G-protein-coupled NEUROPEPTIDE RECEPTORS that have specificity for OREXINS and play a role in appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles. Two principle receptor types exist, each having a specificity for OREXIN A and OREXIN B peptide subtypes.
A nonapeptide that contains the ring of OXYTOCIN and the side chain of ARG-VASOPRESSIN with the latter determining the specific recognition of hormone receptors. Vasotocin is the non-mammalian vasopressin-like hormone or antidiuretic hormone regulating water and salt metabolism.
A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.
Cell surface proteins that bind TACHYKININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Three classes of tachykinin receptors have been characterized, the NK-1; NK-2; and NK-3; which prefer, respectively, SUBSTANCE P; NEUROKININ A; and NEUROKININ B.
One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell surface proteins that bind neuropeptide Y with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
A serine endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, proluteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone, proenkephalins, prodynorphin, and PROINSULIN.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from MET-ENKEPHALIN in the LEUCINE at position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
A ZINC-containing exopeptidase primarily found in SECRETORY VESICLES of endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. It catalyzes the cleavage of C-terminal ARGININE or LYSINE residues from polypeptides and is active in processing precursors of PEPTIDE HORMONES and other bioactive peptides.
Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Specialized NEURONS that produce hormones, such as NEUROPEPTIDES or BIOGENIC AMINES. They generally are in the NERVOUS SYSTEM, such as HYPOTHALAMUS, but can be found in other organs or systems. These neurons contain dense neurosecretory granules and PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES allowing the rapidly release of NEUROHORMONES into the blood circulation upon stimulation.
These enzymes catalyze the elimination of ammonia from amidines with the formation of a double bond. EC 4.3.2.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor subtype that binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE. It is found predominately in the BRAIN.
Cell surface proteins that bind VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE; (VIP); with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Neuropeptides of about 40 amino acids which are structurally similar to CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR. Unlike CRF acting primarily through type 1 CRF RECEPTORS, urocortins signal preferentially through type 2 CRF receptors. Urocortins have wide tissue distribution from fish to mammals, and diverse functions. In mammals, urocortins can suppress food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases heat-induced edema.
A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
Cell surface proteins that bind catecholamines with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The catecholamine messengers epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine are synthesized from tyrosine by a common biosynthetic pathway.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
The endogenous peptides with opiate-like activity. The three major classes currently recognized are the ENKEPHALINS, the DYNORPHINS, and the ENDORPHINS. Each of these families derives from different precursors, proenkephalin, prodynorphin, and PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN, respectively. There are also at least three classes of OPIOID RECEPTORS, but the peptide families do not map to the receptors in a simple way.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor subtype found in LYMPHOCYTES. It binds both PACAP and VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE and regulates immune responses.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
The consumption of edible substances.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A CALCIUM-dependent endopeptidase that has specificity for cleavage at ARGININE that is near paired basic residues. It cleaves a variety of prohormones including PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN; PRORENIN; proenkephalins; prodynorphin; prosomatostatin; and PROINSULIN.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that share significant homology with GLUCAGON RECEPTORS. They bind PITUITARY ADENYLATE CYCLASE ACTIVATING POLYPEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes that influence the behavior of CELLS.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A group of acidic proteins that are major components of SECRETORY GRANULES in the endocrine and neuroendocrine cells. They play important roles in the aggregation, packaging, sorting, and processing of secretory protein prior to secretion. They are cleaved to release biologically active peptides. There are various types of granins, usually classified by their sources.
The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.
Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.
An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.
A tripeptide that stimulates the release of THYROTROPIN and PROLACTIN. It is synthesized by the neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, TRH (was called TRF) stimulates the release of TSH and PRL from the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A type of chromogranin which was initially characterized in a rat PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA CELL LINE. It is found in many species including human, rat, mouse, and others. It is an acidic protein with 626 to 657 amino acid residues. In some species, it inhibits secretion of PARATHYROID HORMONE or INSULIN and exerts bacteriolytic effects in others.
A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)
A peptide hormone of about 27 amino acids from the duodenal mucosa that activates pancreatic secretion and lowers the blood sugar level. (USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names, 1994, p597)
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin B (neurokinin beta, neuromedin K) over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. They have been found in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-
An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.
Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.
Proteolytic enzymes that are involved in the conversion of protein precursors such as peptide prohormones into PEPTIDE HORMONES. Some are ENDOPEPTIDASES, some are EXOPEPTIDASES.
Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
A series of sequential intracellular steps involved in the transport of proteins (such as hormones and enzymes) from the site of synthesis to outside the cell. The pathway involves membrane-bound compartments through which the newly synthesized proteins undergo POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS, packaging, storage, or transportation to the PLASMA MEMBRANE for secretion.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
The delivery of a drug into a fluid-filled cavity of the brain.

Mrj encodes a DnaJ-related co-chaperone that is essential for murine placental development. (1/5789)

We have identified a novel gene in a gene trap screen that encodes a protein related to the DnaJ co-chaperone in E. coli. The gene, named Mrj (mammalian relative of DnaJ) was expressed throughout development in both the embryo and placenta. Within the placenta, expression was particularly high in trophoblast giant cells but moderate levels were also observed in trophoblast cells of the chorion at embryonic day 8.5, and later in the labyrinth which arises from the attachment of the chorion to the allantois (a process called chorioallantoic fusion). Insertion of the ROSAbetageo gene trap vector into the Mrj gene created a null allele. Homozygous Mrj mutants died at mid-gestation due to a failure of chorioallantoic fusion at embryonic day 8.5, which precluded formation of the mature placenta. At embryonic day 8.5, the chorion in mutants was morphologically normal and expressed the cell adhesion molecule beta4 integrin that is known to be required for chorioallantoic fusion. However, expression of the chorionic trophoblast-specific transcription factor genes Err2 and Gcm1 was significantly reduced. The mutants showed no abnormal phenotypes in other trophoblast cell types or in the embryo proper. This study indicates a previously unsuspected role for chaperone proteins in placental development and represents the first genetic analysis of DnaJ-related protein function in higher eukaryotes. Based on a survey of EST databases representing different mouse tissues and embryonic stages, there are 40 or more DnaJ-related genes in mammals. In addition to Mrj, at least two of these genes are also expressed in the developing mouse placenta. The specificity of the developmental defect in Mrj mutants suggests that each of these genes may have unique tissue and cellular activities.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (2/5789)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Identification of APC2, a homologue of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor. (3/5789)

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour-suppressor protein controls the Wnt signalling pathway by forming a complex with glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta), axin/conductin and betacatenin. Complex formation induces the rapid degradation of betacatenin. In colon carcinoma cells, loss of APC leads to the accumulation of betacatenin in the nucleus, where it binds to and activates the Tcf-4 transcription factor (reviewed in [1] [2]). Here, we report the identification and genomic structure of APC homologues. Mammalian APC2, which closely resembles APC in overall domain structure, was functionally analyzed and shown to contain two SAMP domains, both of which are required for binding to conductin. Like APC, APC2 regulates the formation of active betacatenin-Tcf complexes, as demonstrated using transient transcriptional activation assays in APC -/- colon carcinoma cells. Human APC2 maps to chromosome 19p13.3. APC and APC2 may therefore have comparable functions in development and cancer.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (4/5789)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

Differential expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its downregulation by axotomy. (5/5789)

Sensitivity to the pungent vanilloid, capsaicin, defines a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are mainly polymodal nociceptors. The recently cloned vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) is activated by capsaicin and noxious heat. Using combined in situ hybridization and histochemical methods, we have characterized in sensory ganglia the expression of VR1 mRNA. We show that this receptor is almost exclusively expressed by neurofilament-negative small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion cells. Within this population, VR1 mRNA is detected at widely varying levels in both the NGF receptor (trkA)-positive, peptide-producing cells that elicit neurogenic inflammation and the functionally less characterized glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-responsive cells that bind lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4). Cells without detectable levels of VR1 mRNA are found in both classes. A subpopulation of the IB4-binding cells that produce somatostatin has relatively low levels of VR1 mRNA. A previously uncharacterized population of very small cells that express the receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) and that do not label for trkA or IB4-binding has the highest relative levels of VR1 mRNA. The majority of small visceral sensory neurons of the nodose ganglion also express VR1 mRNA, in conjunction with the BDNF receptor trkB but not trkA. Axotomy results in the downregulation of VR1 mRNA in dorsal root ganglion cells. Our data emphasize the heterogeneity of VR1 mRNA expression by subclasses of small sensory neurons, and this may result in their differential sensitivity to chemical and noxious heat stimuli. Our results also indicate that peripherally derived trophic factors may regulate levels of VR1 mRNA.  (+info)

Reproducibility studies with 11C-DTBZ, a monoamine vesicular transporter inhibitor in healthy human subjects. (6/5789)

The reproducibility of (+/-)-alpha-[11C] dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ) measures in PET was studied in 10 healthy human subjects, aged 22-76 y. METHODS: The scan-to-scan variation of several measures used in PET data analysis was determined, including the radioactivity ratio (target-to-reference), plasma-input Logan total distribution volume (DV), plasma-input Logan Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Logan Bmax/Kd values. RESULTS: The radioactivity ratios, plasma-input Bmax/Kd and tissue-input Bmax/Kd all have higher reliability than plasma-input total DV values. In addition, measures using the occipital cortex as the reference region have higher reliability than the same measures using the cerebellum as the reference region. CONCLUSION: Our results show that DTBZ is a reliable PET tracer that provides reproducible in vivo measurement of striatal vesicular monoamine transporter density. In the selection of reference regions for DTBZ PET data analysis, caution must be exercised in circumstances when DTBZ binding in the occipital cortex or the cerebellum may be altered.  (+info)

Interaction of NE-dlg/SAP102, a neuronal and endocrine tissue-specific membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein, with calmodulin and PSD-95/SAP90. A possible regulatory role in molecular clustering at synaptic sites. (7/5789)

NE-dlg/SAP102, a neuronal and endocrine tissue-specific membrane-associated guanylate kinase family protein, is known to bind to C-terminal ends of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) through its PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains. NE-dlg/SAP102 and NR2B colocalize at synaptic sites in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, and their expressions increase in parallel with the onset of synaptogenesis. We have identified that NE-dlg/SAP102 interacts with calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The binding site for calmodulin has been determined to lie at the putative basic alpha-helix region located around the src homology 3 (SH3) domain of NE-dlg/SAP102. Using a surface plasmon resonance measurement system, we detected specific binding of recombinant NE-dlg/SAP102 to the immobilized calmodulin with a Kd value of 44 nM. However, the binding of Ca2+/calmodulin to NE-dlg/SAP102 did not modulate the interaction between PDZ domains of NE-dlg/SAP102 and the C-terminal end of rat NR2B. We have also identified that the region near the calmodulin binding site of NE-dlg/SAP102 interacts with the GUK-like domain of PSD-95/SAP90 by two-hybrid screening. Pull down assay revealed that NE-dlg/SAP102 can interact with PSD-95/SAP90 in the presence of both Ca2+ and calmodulin. These findings suggest that the Ca2+/calmodulin modulates interaction of neuronal membrane-associated guanylate kinase proteins and regulates clustering of neurotransmitter receptors at central synapses.  (+info)

Actions of a pair of identified cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBI-8/9) in Aplysia that contain the peptide myomodulin. (8/5789)

A combination of biocytin back-fills of the cerebral-buccal connectives and immunocytochemistry of the cerebral ganglion demonstrated that of the 13 bilateral pairs of cerebral-buccal interneurons in the cerebral ganglion, a subpopulation of 3 are immunopositive for the peptide myomodulin. The present paper describes the properties of two of these cells, which we have termed CBI-8 and CBI-9. CBI-8 and CBI-9 were found to be dye coupled and electrically coupled. The cells have virtually identical properties, and consequently we consider them to be "twin" pairs and refer to them as CBI-8/9. CBI-8/9 were identified by electrophysiological criteria and then labeled with dye. Labeled cells were found to be immunopositive for myomodulin, and, using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cells were shown to contain authentic myomodulin. CBI-8/9 were found to receive synaptic input after mechanical stimulation of the tentacles. They also received excitatory input from C-PR, a neuron involved in neck lengthening, and received a slow inhibitory input from CC5, a cell involved in neck shortening, suggesting that CBI-8/9 may be active during forward movements of the head or buccal mass. Firing of CBI-8 or CBI-9 resulted in the activation of a relatively small number of buccal neurons as evidenced by extracellular recordings from buccal nerves. Firing also produced local movements of the buccal mass, in particular a strong contraction of the I7 muscle, which mediates radula opening. CBI-8/9 were found to produce a slow depolarization and rhythmic activity of B48, the motor neuron for the I7 muscle. The data provide continuing evidence that the small population of cerebral buccal interneurons is composed of neurons that are highly diverse in their functional roles. CBI-8/9 may function as a type of premotor neuron, or perhaps as a peptidergic modulatory neuron, the functions of which are dependent on the coactivity of other neurons.  (+info)

Four forms of short neuropeptide F (sNPF1-4), derived from the gene snpf, have been identified in Drosophila and are known to act on a single G-protein-coupled receptor (sNPFR). Several functions have been suggested for sNPFs in Drosophila, including the regulation of feeding and growth in larvae, the control of insulin signalling and the modulation of neuronal circuits in adult flies. Furthermore, sNPF has been shown to act as a nutritional state-dependent neuromodulator in the olfactory system. The role of sNPF in the larval nervous system is less well known. To analyse sites of action of sNPF in the larva, we mapped the distribution of sNPF- and sNPFR-expressing neurons. In particular, we studied circuits associated with chemosensory inputs and systems involved in the regulation of feeding, including neurosecretory cell systems and the hypocerebral ganglion. We employed a combination of immunocytochemistry and enhancer trap and promoter Gal4 lines to drive green fluorescent protein. We found ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of neuropeptide gene expression. AU - Goodman, Richard H.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025363509&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025363509&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1146/annurev.ne.13.030190.000551. DO - 10.1146/annurev.ne.13.030190.000551. M3 - Article. C2 - 2158264. AN - SCOPUS:0025363509. VL - 13. SP - 111. EP - 127. JO - Annual Review of Neuroscience. JF - Annual Review of Neuroscience. SN - 0147-006X. IS - 1. ER - ...
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The researchers designed a series of experiments in rats to study the role of orexins in the anesthesia-arousal cycle. They focused on the effects of propofol-a drug widely used not only for anesthesia but also as a sedative.. The orexins are a relatively recently discovered group of peptides expressed by neurons (nerve cells) in specific areas of the brain. Accumulated evidence suggests that orexinergic [orexin-producing] neurons play a critical role in the promotion and the maintenance of wakefulness, the researchers write.. In the experiments, when rats were placed under propofol anesthesia, the activity of orexinergic neurons dropped sharply. When the rats emerged from anesthesia, orexinergic neuron activity returned to normal. Levels of orexin-A in the blood also decreased during propofol anesthesia. As in previous studies, the orexin-producing neurons were localized to a region called the basal forebrain.. In further experiments, anesthetized rats underwent injection of micro-level ...
The researchers designed a series of experiments in rats to study the role of orexins in the anesthesia-arousal cycle. They focused on the effects of propofol-a drug widely used not only for anesthesia but also as a sedative.. The orexins are a relatively recently discovered group of peptides expressed by neurons (nerve cells) in specific areas of the brain. Accumulated evidence suggests that orexinergic [orexin-producing] neurons play a critical role in the promotion and the maintenance of wakefulness, the researchers write.. In the experiments, when rats were placed under propofol anesthesia, the activity of orexinergic neurons dropped sharply. When the rats emerged from anesthesia, orexinergic neuron activity returned to normal. Levels of orexin-A in the blood also decreased during propofol anesthesia. As in previous studies, the orexin-producing neurons were localized to a region called the basal forebrain.. In further experiments, anesthetized rats underwent injection of micro-level ...
RFamide-related peptides (RFRP-1 and RFRP-3) belong to a group of RFamide peptides, which have an arginine-phenylalanine-amide structure at the C-term end. RFRPs share a similar C-term sequence with neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and have a relatively high affinity to GPR147 (also called NPFF1 receptor, RFRP receptor or OT7T022). RFRP-1 facilitates prolactin release from the pituitary and attenuates morphine-induced analgesia. RFRP-3 inhibits the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neuron-luteinising hormone system in mammals and increases food intake. RFRP-1 and RFRP-3 are derived from the same preprotein (Pro-FMRFamide-related neuropeptide VF) and are co-expressed in single neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, which plays a pivotal role in the control of stress responses in neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral systems. RFRP-3 inhibits forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in CHO cells expressing OT7T022 (ED50=0.7 nM).. ...
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www.MOLUNA.de Co-Existence and Co-Release of Classical Neurotransmitters [4173934] - The contributors provide a timely overview of a mechanism of neural communication that is likely to attract increasing attention from the neuroscientific community, as it becomes clear that one neuron, one neurotransmitter is the exception, not the rule.Dales Principle postulated that a neuron functions as a metabolic unit, whereby a
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Bridging neuropeptidomics and genomics with bioinformatics: Prediction of mammalian neuropeptide prohormone processing. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Compare hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptide precursor ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and more.
Neuropeptides are peptides used by neurons to communicate with each other. Neuropeptides are expressed and released by neurons, and mediate neuronal communication by acting on cell surface receptors which belong almost exclusively to the GPCR family. Neuropeptides possess a spectrum of actions, as neurohormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors, and also as key inflammatory mediators
The Drosophila tachykinin gene (dtk) produces five different neuropeptides (DTK1-5). These are expressed in about 100 interneurons branching in several neuropils in the Drosophila brain, e. g. the fan-shaped body (FB) of the central complex, a neuropil believed to be a higher center for locomotor control. Previously, DTKs have been shown to modulate locomotor behavior: flies virtually devoid of DTKs (accomplished by RNAi) displayed altered activity in Buridans arena, monitoring a 15 min period of walking activity between two opposing landmarks (Winther et al, 2006, Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 31: 399). In the present study we wanted to further explore the impact of DTKs on locomotor behavior. We studied the spontaneous walking activity of the fly, over a period of 7 hours, extracting several parameters from video-tracks using Ethovision software. We found that flies with DTK depletion in all DTK-neurons of the central nervous system (driving expression of the RNAi construct with the pan-neural ...
Stable recombinant cell line expressing the Neuropeptide S NPS receptor. Human recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. We provide: Two vials of the recombinant cell line as frozen cells; Detailed product information including sequence, cell line properties, culture conditions, pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor in binding and functional assays (cAMP ...
Energy homeostasis is controlled by a complex neuroendocrine system consisting of peripheral signals like leptin and central signals, in particular, neuropeptides. Several neuropeptides with anorexigenic (POMC, CART, and CRH) as well as orexigenic (NPY, AgRP, and MCH) actions are involved in this co …
|p|Neuropeptides are the largest and most diverse group of endocrine signaling molecules in the nervous system. These signaling peptides are critical for initiation and regulation of numerous physiological processes such as feeding, reproduction and development. Neuropeptides become active when the nervous system is challenged, e.g., by stress, injury, drug abuse, or neuropsychiatric disorders with genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental components. The unsuspected number of true neuropeptides and their cognate receptors provides opportunities to identify novel targets for the treatment of both central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Peptide hormones are hormones made up of amino acid chains that primarily have an effect on the endocrine system. The presence of amino acids in peptide hormones allows them to act on the surface of target cells via secondary messengers. The endocrine system is composed of many different glands, and it can be divided into two categories: classical and non
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common and disabling chronic joint disorders affecting horses, dogs and humans. Synovial inflammation or synovitis is a frequently observed phenomenon in osteoarthritic joints and contributes to the pathogenesis of OA through formation of various catabolic and pro-inflammatory mediators altering the balance of cartilage matrix degradation and repair. Catabolic mediators produced by the inflamed synovium include pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E(2) and several neuropeptides, which further contribute to the pathogenesis of OA by increasing cartilage degradation. Recent studies suggest that substance P, corticotropin-releasing factor, urocortin and vasoactive intestinal peptide may also be involved in OA development, but the precise role of these neuropeptides in the pathogenesis of OA is not known. Since increased production of matrix metalloproteinases by the synovium is stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines, future ...
Environmental threat, physical exertion or injury and psychological strain all lead to the initiation of the sympatho-adrenal fight or flight st...
Our laboratory is focused on the dissection of the mechanisms of neuropeptide action in the brain, from molecular via anatomical to the whole organism level. We employ genetic, molecular, anatomical, viral, optogenetic and behavioral approaches to study the effects of addressed axonal release of various neuropeptides within the distinct brain regions controlling stress and fear responses, maternal and social behavior. Furthermore, our group uses animal models of psychiatric diseases, including anxiety disorders and autism, to study the possible contribution of neuropeptides to the pathogenesis of the respective human diseases ...
The proteolytic processing of neuropeptides has an important regulatory function and the peptide fragments resulting from the enzymatic degradation often exert essential physiological roles. The proteolytic processing generates, not only biologically inactive fragments, but also bioactive fragments that modulate or even counteract the response of their parent peptides. Frequently, these peptide fragments interact with receptors that are not recognized by the parent peptides. This review discusses tachykinins, opioid peptides, angiotensins, bradykinins, and neuropeptide Y that are present in the central nervous system and their processing to bioactive degradation products. These well-known neuropeptide systems have been selected since they provide illustrative examples that proteolytic degradation of parent peptides can lead to bioactive metabolites with different biological activities as compared to their parent peptides. For example, substance P, dynorphin A, angiotensin I and II, bradykinin, ...
The 617 aa sequence of VGF contains nearly a dozen potential cleavage sites. Functional effects have been reported for several potential proteolytic products contained within the C-terminal 62 aa portion of VGF (Alder et al., 2003; Succu et al., 2005). Recently, TLPQ-21, a VGF-derived peptide located immediately upstream from AQEE-30 within the VGF sequence, was shown to modulate inflammatory pain (Rizzi et al., 2008), and TLPQ-62, a peptide that includes both TLPQ-21 and AQEE-30, produced mechanical allodynia when administered intrathecally in rat (Moss et al., 2008). Our observations of dose-dependent thermal hyperalgesia evoked by intrathecal injection of AQEE-30 and LQEQ-19 provide additional evidence for a role of VGF peptides in nociceptive processing. Notably, the hyperalgesia evoked by VGF peptides exceeded in magnitude and duration the effect of NMDA in the same experimental paradigm (Kitto et al., 1992; Roberts et al., 2005). Although the tail-withdrawal paradigm used in our studies is ...
Integral membrane proteins (ECEs) that are zinc-binding metallopeptidases of the same family as neprilysin with a role in processing various neuropeptides. ECE-1 (EC 3.4.24.71, 770 aa) converts big endothelin-1 (ET-1) to active ET-1 and is important in regulating blood pressure. Isoforms of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1a-d) are present in early endosomes, where they degrade various neuropeptides and regulate postendocytic sorting of receptors. Defects in the ECE-1 gene are associated with Hirschsprungs disease. ECE-2 (883 aa) has been implicated in Alzheimers disease and knockout mice show deficiencies in learning and memory. ...
Extract:Neuropeptides are a class of regulatory peptides with effects in nearly all physiological systems and processes. They are important in facilitating neuroendocrine immune interactions. Bi-directional communication between these two systems in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the periphery are arbitrated by the presence of these peptidergic innervations. These innervations interacting through unique ligand receptor binding complexes have immunomodulatory effects that preserve neuroendocrine and neuroimmune health.
Cebria is composed of 15 different amino acids, all of which help with the production of neurotransmitters (brain chemicals that maintain mental function, regular emotion, etc). The scientists who came up with Cebrias formula believe that these amino acids can prevent the natural deterioration in cell-to-cell communication as we age. Thing is, our nerve cells are able to communicate to each other because they are connected via tiny proteins called neuropeptides. These neuropeptides are involved in the formation and recall of memory. Overtime, we lose these neuropeptides, which is why memory loss is common in the elderly. So the creators of Cebria make it simple to understand their products mechanism of action - it contains vital amino acids that help the production of neuropeptides, which help maintain memory formation and recall.. Rating: 16/20. Effects and Benefits. Lets take a second and recall Cebrias claims - the manufacturers said that Cebria could help reduce the chances of ...
Drebrin (developmentally regulated brain protein) is one of several proteins encoded by the DBN1 gene in humans. It is a cytoplasmic actin-binding protein that plays a role in neuronal growth and cell migration. The drebrin family of proteins are developmentally regulated in the brain. Downregulation of the DBN1 gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. Two major isoforms are known: drebrin A and drebrin E. Drebrin A was found to cluster at neuronal synapses in adult brain, and drebrin A upregulation was shown to play an important role in spine morphogenesis and activity-dependent synaptic targeting of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. These receptors are involved in the cellular mechanism for learning and memory. A decrease in drebrin A expression is associated with memory loss and decline of cognitive function in patients with Alzheimers disease.. ...
The myomodulin family of neuropeptides is an important group of neural cotransmitters in molluscs and is known to be present in… Expand ...
neurexophilin: a neuropeptide-like glycoprotein from mammalian brain; neurexophilin 1-4 represent products of similar genes; may function as ligand for alpha-neurexins; RefSeq NM_008751 (Nxph1, mouse); NM_012994 (Nxph1, rat); NM_152745 (NXPH1, human); NM_007226 (NXPH2, human); NM_007225 (NXPH3, human); NM_008752 (Nxph2, mouse); NM_007224 (NXPH4, human); NM_130858 (Nxph3, mouse)
Neuropeptides are a diverse assemblage of signalling molecules that have key roles in the regulation of behaviour. Understanding the evolutionary relationships and functions of the plethora of neuropeptides has presented a considerable challenge to biologists. Based on presentations and discussions at a Royal Society meeting in 2017, three companion Review articles by Elphick et al., Jékely et al. and DeLaney et al. discuss advances in our knowledge of neuropeptide evolution and function and the techniques that have facilitated progress in this field of research.. ...
Neuropeptides are a diverse assemblage of signalling molecules that have key roles in the regulation of behaviour. Understanding the evolutionary relationships and functions of the plethora of neuropeptides has presented a considerable challenge to biologists. Based on presentations and discussions at a Royal Society meeting in 2017, three companion Review articles by Elphick et al., Jékely et al. and DeLaney et al. discuss advances in our knowledge of neuropeptide evolution and function and the techniques that have facilitated progress in this field of research.. ...
Using in situ hybridization, Yelin-Bekerman et al. then tested the degree to which the hcrt-eGFP and the 20 gene transcripts co-localize: they were able to confirm that several of the candidates are highly expressed within Hcrt neurons, and that others were actually expressed in nearby non-Hcrt neurons instead. Further analysis revealed that many of the genes contained conserved motifs for the binding of transcription factors, such as pax4, which is predicted to regulate as many as 44 genes in Hcrt neurons.. Of the transcripts that were verified as being enriched in Hcrt neurons, Yelin-Bekerman et al. focused on one called kcnh4a, which was the only one that was expressed in all hcrt-eGFP neurons in both zebrafish larvae and adults (Figure 1B). It encodes a potassium channel and further genetic analyses revealed that kcnh4a is located directly upstream of the hcrt gene in the zebrafish genome. In fact, these two genes are directly adjacent to each other throughout the animal kingdom, including ...
Complete information for PCLO gene (Protein Coding), Piccolo Presynaptic Cytomatrix Protein, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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In the present study, we characterized the interaction of two peptidergic radioligands with the receptor for a novel neuropeptide, OFQ. The results of this study revealed that both the tritiated, native OFQ ([3H]OFQ) and the radioiodinated, Tyr14-substituted analog (125I-Tyr14-OFQ) interacted with the OFQ-R in a virtually identical manner. These radioligands met the criteria of saturability, reversibility, and low nonspecific binding that are necessary for useful radioligands. In addition, the binding of these radioligands was found to be modulated by environmental factors known to modulate agonist binding in other receptor systems.. In our first studies of [3H]OFQ and125I-Tyr14-OFQ binding, we examined the kinetics of association and dissociation from the OFQ-R expressed in CHO or HEK 293 cells. Both radioligands associated rapidly, in a monophasic manner, with the OFQ-R, with t 1/2 values of 201 and 158 sec for 0.2 nm [3H]OFQ and 0.1 nm 125I-Tyr14-OFQ, respectively. The binding of both ligands ...
Neuropeptides play a variety of roles in many physiological processes and serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of some nervous-system disorders. In recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of identified neuropeptides.
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Agents acting at G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been the most successful targets for drug development. Every new GPCR identified is immediately examined for their potential clinical applications. Likewise ...
Our long-term goal is the development of tools for characterizing the functions of neuropeptides in neural circuits and non-neuronal tissues in vivo in intact b...
This gene encodes a G-protein coupled receptor that binds neuropeptides of the corticotropin releasing hormone family that are major regulators of the hypothalamic-pituit
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of rfamide-related peptide in the dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus during the estrous cycle of rats. AU - Shirazi, Mohammad Reza Jafarzadeh. AU - Pazhoohi, Farid. AU - Zamiri, Mohammad Javad. AU - Salehi, Mohammad Saied. AU - Namavar, Mohammad Reza. AU - Tamadon, Amin. AU - Tanideh, Nader. AU - Zarei, Afsoon. AU - Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Introduction: RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) is believed to act as an inhibitor of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. The aim of the present study was to compare the expression pattern of RFRP neurons in the dorsomedial nucleus of hypothalamus (DMH) at different phases of the rat estrous cycle. Methods: The phases of the estrous cycle were determined in 16 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats using vaginal smears. The rats were divided into five groups: proestrus phase (n=4), early estrus phase (n=3), estrus phase (n=3), metestrus phase (n=3) and diestrus phase (n=3). After transcardial perfusion, ...
Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) also known as frequenin homolog (Drosophila) (freq) is a protein that is encoded by the FREQ gene in humans. NCS-1 is a member of the neuronal calcium sensor family, a class of EF hand containing calcium-myristoyl-switch proteins. NCS-1 regulates synaptic transmission, helps control the dynamics of nerve terminal growth, is critical for some forms of learning and memory in C. elegans and mammals, regulates corticohippocampal plasticity; and enhancing levels of NCS-1 in the mouse dentate gyrus increases spontaneous exploration of safe environments, potentially linking NCS-1 to curiosity. NCS-1 is a calcium sensor, not a calcium buffer (chelator); thus it is a high-affinity, low-capacity, calcium-binding protein. Frq can substitute for calmodulin in some situations. It is thought to be associated with neuronal secretory vesicles and regulate neurosecretion. It is the Ca2+-sensing subunit of the yeast phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns)-4-OH kinase, PIK1 It binds to many ...
Dr. Paul L. Durham is currently Professor, Cell Biology, at Missouri State University, Springfield, and director of the Center for Biomedical and Life Sciences, a multidisciplinary laboratory that utilizes cellular/molecular, microbiological, biochemical, and chemical techniques. A primary goal of his research is to determine the signaling pathways by which inflammatory and anti-inflammatory agents control neuropeptide gene expression in disorders involving the trigeminal nerve. He received his PhD from the University of Iowa.. His long-term interest lies in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neuron-glia interactions that promote and sustain chronic peripheral and central sensitization. A primary goal of his research is to determine the signaling pathways by which inflammatory and anti-inflammatory agents control neuropeptide gene expression in disorders involving the trigeminal nerve. Currently, he is studying the regulation of the neuropeptide calcitonin ...
The PRXamide family of neuropeptides is based on the core amino acids at the C-terminal end that are required for activity and on sequence homology of their cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors. The PRXamide family of neuropeptides includes the pyrokinins, pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptides, diapause hormone, CAPA/periviscerokinins (aka cardioacceleratory peptide 2b), and ecdysis-triggering hormone found throughout the Insecta. The vertebrate homologues include neuromedin U because it has a PRNamide C-terminal sequence. The vertebrate G protein-coupled receptors that are homologous to the insect receptors also include receptors for ghrelin, motilin, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in addition to the neuromedin U receptor. This review will not only summarize the recent literature on this neuropeptide family but also include recent information about the prevalence of the neuropeptides across the Insecta based primarily on genomic and transcriptomic sequence information. Information is
Hypothalamic Expression of KiSS1 and RFamide-related Peptide-3 mRNAs during The Estrous Cycle of Rats. Salehi, Mohammad Saied; Jafarzadeh Shirazi, Mohammad Reza; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Pazhoohi, Farid; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Niazi, Ali; Ramezani, Amin; Tanideh, Nader; Tamadon, Amin; Zarei, Afsoon // International Journal of Fertility & Sterility;Winter2013, Vol. 6 Issue 4, p304 Kisspeptin and RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3) are known to affect GnRH/luteinizing hormone (LH) in several species, including the rat. It has been hypothesized that GnRH/LH changes during the rat estrous cycle may result from changes in the expression of KiSS1 and RFRP-3 genes. Therefore,... ...
Hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and accumulating clinical evidence indicates a potential link between orexin and depression. However, the exact role of orexin in depression, particularly the underlying neural substrates and mechanisms, remains unknown. In this study, we reveal a direct projection from the hypothalamic orexinergic neurons to the ventral pallidum (VP), a structure that receives an increasing attention for its critical position in rewarding processing, stress responses, and depression. We find that orexin directly excites GABAergic VP neurons and prevents depressive-like behaviors in rats. Two orexin receptors, OX1R and OX2R, and their downstream Na+-Ca2+ exchanger and L-type Ca2+ channel co-mediate the effect of orexin. Furthermore, pharmacological blockade or genetic knockdown of orexin receptors in VP increases depressive-like behaviors in forced swim test and sucrose preference test. Intriguingly, blockage of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stress increases putative gonadotropin inhibitory hormone and decreases luteinizing hormone in male rats. AU - Kirby, Elizabeth D.. AU - Geraghty, Anna C.. AU - Ubuka, Takayoshi. AU - Bentley, George E.. AU - Kaufer, Daniela. PY - 2009/7/7. Y1 - 2009/7/7. N2 - The subjective experience of stress leads to reproductive dysfunction in many species, including rodents and humans. Stress effects on reproduction result from multilevel interactions between the hormonal stress response system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and the hormonal reproductive system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. A novel negative regulator of the HPG axis known as gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was recently discovered in quail, and orthologous neuropeptides known as RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs) have also been identified in rodents and primates. It is currently unknown, however, whether GnIH/RFRPs influence HPG axis activity in response to stress. We show ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interleukin-6 regulates the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in body weight in a gender-dependent way. AU - Señarís, R. M.. AU - Trujillo, M. L.. AU - Navia, B.. AU - Comes, G.. AU - Ferrer, B.. AU - Giralt, M.. AU - Hidalgo, J.. PY - 2011/8/1. Y1 - 2011/8/1. N2 - Interleukin (IL)-6 has been involved in the control of body weight and body fat. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not completely understood because central and peripheral actions of IL-6 are plausible. To gain further insight into the central effects of IL-6, we used transgenic mice expressing the IL-6 gene under the control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP-IL-6 mice), therefore with central nervous system-restricted over-expression of IL-6, and we studied the expression of the main neuropeptides responsible for energy homeostasis in specific hypothalamic nuclei. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), melanin-concentrating hormone ...
We recently demonstrated, in rat brain slices, that the usual excitation by noradrenaline (NA) of hypocretin/orexin (hcrt/orx) neurons was changed to an inhibition following sleep deprivation (SD). Here we describe that in control condition (CC), i.e
This gene encodes a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. The protein is primarily secreted by axons in the brain, and preferentially reacts with and inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator. It is thought to play a role in the regulation of axonal growth and the development of synaptic plasticity. Mutations in this gene result in familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB), which is a dominantly inherited form of familial encephalopathy and epilepsy characterized by the accumulation of mutant neuroserpin polymers. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Gene Information This gene encodes a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. The protein is primarily secreted by axons in the brain and preferentially reacts with and inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator. It is thought to play a role in the regulation of axonal growth and the development of synaptic plasticity. Mutations in this gene result in familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB) which is a dominantly inherited form of familial encephalopathy and epilepsy characterized by the accumulation of mutant neuroserpin polymers. Multiple alternatively spliced variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Recent meta-analyses have provided a comprehensive overview of studies investigating Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in schizophrenic patients, thus attempting to clarify the potential role these infections might play in causing schizophrenia. Issues for further research have been suggested. Associations and theories that may enrich the current level of knowledge with regard to this significant subject deserve attention. Anti-parasitic agents as well as antipsychotics are effective in treating parasitosis. Both classes of drugs have been shown to exert dopaminergic activity. Parasites and human organisms have a long history of mutual contact. The effect of parasitosis on the host and the hosts response to infection are undoubtedly the product of a long evolutionary process. The neurochemical background of delusions of parasitosis is potentially similar to ancient evolutionary traces of altered neurotransmission and neuropeptide gene expression caused by parasites; these include fungal and viral ...
We have proposed that cortical nNOS/NK1R interneurons have a role in sleep homeostasis. The hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons project to the cortex. Hcrt peptides affect deep layer cortical neurons, and Hcrt receptor 1 (Hcrtr1; Ox1r) mRNA is expressed in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Hcrt neuron stimulation affects cingulate cortex nNOS/NK1R neurons. Bath application of HCRT1/orexin-A evoked an inward current and membrane depolarization in most nNOS/NK1R cells which persisted in tetrodotoxin; optogenetic stimulation of Hcrt terminals expressing channelrhodopsin-2 confirmed these results, and pharmacological studies determined that HCRTR1 mediated these responses ...
This chapter summarizes knowledge about various neuropeptides, with the greatest emphasis on the opioid neuropeptides. Pharmacological antagonism of endogenous
Understanding how neuropeptides regulate changes in normal and aging animals. For more information please visit the lab website at garrisonlab.com.. Dr. Jennifer Garrison is interested in understanding how neuropeptides control behavior at both the cell biological and neural circuit level. Neuropeptides comprise a large class of signaling molecules which are secreted from neurons and transmit messages within the brain and across the nervous system. The focus of her current research program includes:. Mechanisms of Neuropeptide Signaling. A major focus of the lab is to elucidate the mechanisms by which neuromodulation by neuropeptides encodes long-term changes in the brain that influence behavior and aging. Neuropeptides are the most diverse class of neuromodulators that that neurons use to communicate with each other and regulate behavior. Despite strong evidence showing essential functional roles for neuropeptides, at the cellular level a number of questions remain. To what extent does ...
Protein expression of VGF (nonacronymic) is induced by nerve/brain-derived growth factor, neurotrophin 3, and insulin. VGF is synthesized by neurons in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei of the hypothalamus. After enzymatic processing, smaller VGF-derived peptides are secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood. These peptides play important roles by improving synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis, and energy homeostasis, which are impaired in schizophrenia. Based on previous observations of neuroendocrine and hypothalamic deficits in schizophrenia and to determine whether increased levels of the VGF fragment 23-62 in CSF, which have been described in a recent study, were related to changes in hypothalamic VGF expression, an immunohistochemical study was performed in 20 patients with schizophrenia and 19 matched control subjects. N- (D-20) and C-terminal (R-15) VGF antibodies yielded similar results and immunolabeled a vast majority of PVN and SON neurons. Additionally, ...
TFF-2, human recombinant protein, Trefoil Factor 2, Spasmolytic polypeptide (SP), Spasmolysin validated in (PBV10395r-100), Abgent
http://www.buckinstitute.org/garrisonlab. I started my independent research group at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in September 2013. My lab is focused on elucidating the mechanisms by which neuromodulation by neuopeptides encodes longterm changes in the brain that influence behavior and aging. Despite strong evidence showing essential functional roles for neuropeptides in both behavior and basic physiology, at the cellular level a number of questions remain. We are exploring the role of extrasynaptic neuropeptide release in behavior, and developing strategies to interrogate the spatial and temporal specificity of neuropeptide signaling using C. elegans as a whole animal model. We are particularly interested in understanding how age related changes in neuropeptide levels in specific neurons can influence whole organism longevity. Our goal is to identify general principles by which neuropeptides modify neural circuits in a simple organism, and thus illuminate neuromodulation in more ...
To synchronize a network of pacemakers in the Drosophila brain, a neuropeptide receptor specifically associates with adenylate cyclase 3 to create a
diapause hormone: from embryonic stage of Bombyx mori; contains 24-amino acid residues; amino acid sequence given in first source
A blood or urine toxicology panel is serviceable in the diagnosis of drug maltreat or overdose, or instances of odd behavior. However, the strict electrophysiological mechanism(s) by means of which cytokines and other neuropeptides may alter criterion initiation is undisturbed mostly unknown. Thither are galore websites to select from [url=http://andrewstark.com/intellectual/lesson8/document5/]trusted caverta 100mg[/url] erectile dysfunction medication covered by insurance. In search children with congenital defects with increased pulmonary blood swirl, oxygen supplementation is not helpful. These patients may comprise of a heterogeneous set of 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 Cumulativenumberoftrials 200 0 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 Year 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 randomized occasion II trials randomized appearance III trials Fig. 8 gazillion Americans with the disease [url=http://andrewstark.com/intellectual/lesson8/document3/]order 100 mg kamagra polo overnight delivery[/url] erectile dysfunction ...
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The partners of this project contribute to the recent sequencing of the genomes and transcriptomes of the chosen models: Anguilla sp draft genomes and transcriptomes, oyster genome and transcriptomes, cuttlefish transcriptomes and coral transcriptomes. We have also been able recently to establish the neuropeptidome (the whole set of neuropeptides produced) in C. gigas using a combined approach involving genomic data mining and mass spectrometry analyses of nervous tissue extracts. A similar approach is underway for S. officinalis. This successful approach is applied to characterize the neuropeptidomes of the eel Anguilla and the coral E. ancora. This give a good picture of the variety of neuropeptides expressed in our studied species. In parallel, BLAST screening of the assembled genomic resources available is carried out to generate the GPCR repertoire for each species of interest.. ...
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BACKGROUND/AIMS: Orexins (OXs) are a newly described family of hypothalamic neuropeptides. Based on the distribution of OX neurons and their receptors in the brain, it has been postulated that they could play a role in the regulation of neuroendocrine function. GH secretion is markedly influenced by nutritional status and body weight. To investigate the role OX-A plays in the neuroregulation of GH secretion we have studied its effect on spontaneous GH secretion as well as GH responses to GHRH and ghrelin in freely moving rats. Finally, we also assessed the effect of OX-A on in vitro GH secretion. METHODS: We administered OX-A (10 microg, i.c.v.) or vehicle (10 microl, i.c.v.) to freely moving rats. Spontaneous GH secretion was assessed over 6 h with blood samples taken every 15 min. RESULTS: Administration of OX-A led to a decrease in spontaneous GH secretion in comparison with vehicle-treated rats, as assessed by mean GH levels (means+/-s.e.m. 4.2+/-1.7 ng/ml vs 9.4+/-2.2 ng/ml; P,0.05), mean ...
This course considers the process of neurotransmission, especially chemicals used in the brain and elsewhere to carry signals from nerve terminals to the structures they innervate. We focus on monoamine transmitters (acetylcholine; serotonin; dopamine and norepinephrine); we also examine amino acid and peptide transmitters and neuromodulators like adenosine. Macromolecules that mediate neurotransmitter synthesis, release, inactivation and receptor-mediated actions are discussed, as well as factors that regulate their activity and the second-messenger systems and ion fluxes that they control. The involvement of particular neurotransmitters in human diseases is considered.. ...
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Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1, also known as NPBW1 and GPR7, is a human protein encoded by the NPBWR1 gene.[1] As implied by its name, it and related gene NPBW2 (with which it shares 70% nucleotide identity) are transmembranes protein that bind Neuropeptide B (NPB) and Neuropeptide W (NPW), both proteins expressed strongly in parts of the brain that regulate stress and fear including the extended amygdala and stria terminalis. When originally discovered in 1995, these receptors had no known ligands (orphan receptors) and were called GPR7 and GPR8,[2] but at least three groups in the early 2000s independently identified their endogenous ligands, triggering the name change in 2005.[3] ...
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Emerging research indicates that central-nervous stress perception is translated to peripheral tissues such as the skin not only via classical stress hormones but also via neurotrophins and neuropeptides. This can result in neurogenic inflammation, which is likely to contribute to the triggering and …
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April 1985). "The analgesic and respiratory depressant actions of metorphamide in mice and rabbits". Neuropeptides. 6 (2): 121- ... Neuropeptides. 5 (4-6): 517-20. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(85)90068-X. PMID 2860609. S2CID 11442343. Xu SF; Lu WX; Zhou KR; et al. ( ...
Rodgers RJ, Ishii Y, Halford JC, Blundell JE (October 2002). "Orexins and appetite regulation". Neuropeptides. 36 (5): 303-25. ...
Neuropeptides. 47 (6): 477-88. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2013.10.009. PMID 24215799. S2CID 6402764. Winrow CJ, Gotter AL, Cox CD, et ...
Neuropeptides. 41 (4): 239-47. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2007.03.001. PMID 17512052. S2CID 19443938. Mabuchi T, Matsumura S, Okuda- ...
Tachykinins are a family of neuropeptides that share the same hydrophobic C-terminal region with the amino acid sequence Phe-X- ... Part I: ligands and mechanisms of cellular activation". Neuropeptides. 31 (6): 537-63. doi:10.1016/S0143-4179(97)90001-9. PMID ...
Rotzinger S, Lovejoy DA, Tan LA (April 2010). "Behavioral effects of neuropeptides in rodent models of depression and anxiety ... Neuropeptides. 12 (4): 213-7. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(88)90057-1. PMID 2907121. Caballero C, Celis ME (May 1993). "The effect of ... as well as inhibiting release of other neuropeptides such as alpha-MSH, and potentiating melatonin activity. This complex mix ...
Runesson J, Saar I, Lundström L, Järv J, Langel U (2009). "A novel GalR2-specific peptide agonist". Neuropeptides. 43 (3): 187- ... Neuropeptides. 39 (3): 239-43. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2004.12.026. PMID 15944016. S2CID 32791271. Lu X, Ross B, Sanchez-Alavez M, ... Neuropeptides. 41 (5): 307-20. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2007.05.001. PMID 17637475. S2CID 25988178. Bulaj G, Green BR, Lee HK, ... Neuropeptides. 42 (4): 387-97. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2008.04.009. PMC 3399724. PMID 18554714. Mazarati A, Lundström L, Sollenberg ...
Rehfeld, J.F. (1991). "Progastrin and its products in the cerebellum". Neuropeptides. 20 (4): 239-45. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(91) ... a neuropeptide which belongs to the bombesin/neuromedin B family and whose expression is important in the intestine and brain. ...
Fleur L. Strand (1999). Neuropeptides: regulators of physiological processes. MIT Press. p. 348. ISBN 978-0-262-19407-5. ... Neuropeptides. 43 (5): 355-62. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2009.07.003. PMID 19716174. Thanawala V, Kadam VJ, Ghosh R (October 2008). " ...
Neuropeptides. 5 (4-6): 411-4. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(85)90041-1. PMID 2860599. S2CID 45054719. Horton JR, Sawada K, Nishibori M ...
... (Oxt) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide. It is normally produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior ... The endocrine effects of hormonal oxytocin and the cognitive or behavioral effects of oxytocin neuropeptides are thought to be ... Endogenous oxytocin is a hormone and neuropeptide, which plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction and is required ... Research on the oxytocin-related neuropeptide asterotocin in starfish also showed that in echinoderms, the chemical induces ...
"Neuropeptide database". "Neuropeptides. IUPHAR/BPS Guide to pharmacology". Elias, L. J, & Saucier, D. M. (2005). ... Immunocytochemical techniques have also revealed that many transmitters, particularly the neuropeptides, are co-localized, that ... Neuropeptides. 45 (5): 351-358. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2011.07.006. PMC 3170513. PMID 21855138. Shier, David; Butler, Jackie; Lewis ...
Neuropeptides. 32 (3): 215-23. doi:10.1016/S0143-4179(98)90040-3. PMID 10189055. S2CID 40222022. Page NM, Woods RJ, Gardiner SM ... Neuropeptides. 11 (2): 83-7. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(88)90015-7. PMID 2452993. S2CID 13728584. Krause JE, Staveteig PT, Mentzer ...
... s of appetite require antiphasic release of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), ... Neuropeptides. 38 (4): 201-211. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2004.06.003. PMID 15337372. Blum, I.D.; Zhu, L.; Moquin, L.; Kokoeva, M.V.; ...
Neuropeptides. 22 (3): 155-65. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(92)90158-S. PMID 1331845. S2CID 24411443. Zochodne DW, Ho LT, Gross PM ( ...
Neuropeptides. 39 (3): 249-51. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2004.12.010. PMID 15944018. S2CID 2142254. Rajarao SJ, Platt B, Sukoff SJ, ... Neuropeptides. 41 (5): 307-20. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2007.05.001. PMID 17637475. S2CID 25988178. Kozlovsky N, Matar MA, Kaplan Z, ... Neuropeptides. 39 (3): 161-3. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2004.12.019. PMID 15944006. S2CID 40987364. Abramov U, Florén A, Echevarria DJ ... Neuropeptides. 38 (1): 55-61. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2004.01.001. PMID 15003717. S2CID 38073212. Badie-Mahdavi H, Behrens MM, Rebek ...
Lolait SJ, Roper JA, Hazell GG, Li Y, Thomson FJ, O'Carroll AM (2016). "10: Neuropeptide receptors". In Murphy E, Gainer H (eds ... Neuropeptides. 35 (3-4): 181-8. doi:10.1054/npep.2001.0864. PMID 11884209. S2CID 9507417. Receptors,+Vasopressin at the US ...
... , also known as GRP, is a neuropeptide, a regulatory molecule that has been implicated in a number of ... Merali Z, McIntosh J, Anisman H (2000). "Role of bombesin-related peptides in the control of food intake". Neuropeptides. 33 (5 ... 2001). "Kinetic study of the processing by dipeptidyl-peptidase IV/CD26 of neuropeptides involved in pancreatic insulin ... Neuropeptides. 21 (2): 81-4. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(92)90518-2. PMID 1557184. S2CID 40083693. Spindel ER, Zilberberg MD, Habener ...
... is a neuropeptide encoded by the GAL gene, that is widely expressed in the brain, spinal cord, and gut of humans as ... Wynick D, Thompson SW, McMahon SB (February 2001). "The role of galanin as a multi-functional neuropeptide in the nervous ... Hökfelt T, Tatemoto K (June 2008). "Galanin--25 years with a multitalented neuropeptide". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 65 (12): 1793-5 ... Bartfai T (2000). "Galanin - A neuropeptide with important central nervous system actions". Archived from the original on ...
Neuropeptides. 41 (2): 93-101. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2006.12.004. PMID 17300837. S2CID 32879809. Kubis, A; Marcinkowska, E; Janusz ...
Neuropeptides. 32 (3): 215-23. doi:10.1016/S0143-4179(98)90040-3. PMID 10189055. S2CID 40222022. May FE, Semple JI, Newton JL, ...
... is known to strongly induce cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) gene expression, a neuropeptide ... Neuropeptides. 45 (5): 351-358. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2011.07.006. PMC 3170513. PMID 21855138. "Monoamine oxidase (Homo sapiens ...
Neuropeptides. 34 (2): 98-107. doi:10.1054/npep.2000.0802. PMID 10985926. S2CID 27683573. Wilson EM, Oh Y, Hwa V, Rosenfeld RG ...
Lambert PD, Wilding JP, al-Dokhayel AA, Bohuon C, Comoy E, Gilbey SG, Bloom SR (July 1993). "A role for neuropeptide-Y, ... Nyberg F, Hallberg M (2007). "Neuropeptides in hyperthermia". Neurobiology of Hyperthermia. Prog. Brain Res. Progress in Brain ... "Neuropeptide regulation of feeding in dogs". Am. J. Physiol. 261 (3 Pt 2): R588-94. doi:10.1152/ajpregu.1991.261.3.R588. PMID ... Neuropeptides. 39 (5): 485-94. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2005.08.002. PMID 16176831. S2CID 27248843. Svensson CI, Hua XY, Protter AA, ...
Neuropeptides. 76: 101929. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2019.04.004. PMID 31076097. Ruthenburg AJ, Li H, Patel DJ, Allis CD (December ...
McCarthy PS, Howlett GJ (December 1984). "Physical dependence induced by opiate partial agonists in the rat". Neuropeptides. 5 ...
Neuropeptides. 52: 31-37. doi:10.1016/j.npep.2015.06.006. PMID 26164378. S2CID 804877.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( ...
Neuropeptides. 5 (4-6): 387-90. doi:10.1016/0143-4179(85)90035-6. PMID 2860596. S2CID 46078832. Erchegyi J, Kastin AJ, Zadina ...
This gene encodes the receptor for the tachykinin neuropeptide substance K, also referred to as neurokinin A. Several selective ... Neuropeptides. 32 (3): 215-23. doi:10.1016/S0143-4179(98)90040-3. PMID 10189055. S2CID 40222022. Patacchini R, Giuliani S, ...
CART is a neuropeptide that produces similar behavior in animals as cocaine and amphetamine, but conversely blocks the effects ... Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, also known as CART, is a neuropeptide protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Kuhar MJ, Adams S, Dominguez G, Jaworski J, Balkan B (February 2002). "CART peptides". Neuropeptides. 36 (1): 1-8. doi:10.1054/ ... CART peptides are inhibitors of food intake (anorectic) and closely associated with leptin and neuropeptide Y, two important ...
Neuropeptides Journal Neuropeptides reference website (a comprehensive neuropeptide database) Neuropeptides eBook series ... Most neuropeptides act on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Neuropeptide-GPCRs fall into two families: rhodopsin-like and ... For example, neuropeptide F/neuropeptide Y signaling is structurally and functionally conserved between insects and mammals. ... The neuropeptide Y neurons also make the classical inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Invertebrates also have many neuropeptides ...
NPFF Neuropeptide FF (FLFQPQRFa) is a mammalian amidated neuropeptide originally isolated from bovine brain and characterized ... Panula P, Aarnisalo AA, Wasowicz K (1996). "Neuropeptide FF, a mammalian neuropeptide with multiple functions". Progress in ... "Entrez Gene: NPFF neuropeptide FF-amide peptide precursor". Waqas SF, Hoang AC, Lin YT, Ampem G, Azegrouz H, Balogh L, Thuróczy ... In humans, Neuropeptide FF peptides are encoded by the NPFF gene. Two genes encoding two different receptors (NPFF1 and NPFF2) ...
Volume 9 in the series Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy continues the coverage of neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors ... Neuropeptides in the CNS. Volume 9 of Handbook of chemical neuroanatomy. Neuropeptides in the CNS, Anders Bj rklund, ISBN ... Volume 9 in the series Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy continues the coverage of neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors ... books.google.com/books/about/Neuropeptides_in_the_CNS.html?id=QLbwAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareNeuropeptides in the CNS. ...
neuropeptide (plural neuropeptides). *(biochemistry) Any of several peptides, such as endorphins, that function as ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=neuropeptide&oldid=45768152" ...
CHS Research Group Neuropeptides. Dr. Val ry Grinevich. The Image depicts virus-mediated cell-type specific fluorescent ... Neuropeptides (V078) CHS Research Group at CellNetworks Heidelberg University and DKFZ Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum. Im ... Our laboratory is focused on the dissection of the mechanisms of neuropeptide action in the brain, from molecular via ... to study the possible contribution of neuropeptides to the pathogenesis of the respective human diseases. FUTURE OUTLOOK. In ...
Degradation of Neuropeptide Signal Molecules in Immunocytes of Vertebrates and Invertebrates A. J. Turner, M. K. Leung, G. B. ... Role of Neuropeptides in the Bidirectional Communication Between the Immune and Neuroendocrine Systems ...
With a selected description of techniques in neuropeptide research, Neuropeptide Methods covers aspects of design, synthesis ... Techniques in Neuropeptide Processing, Trafficking, and Secretion Niamh X. Cawley, Tulin Yanik, Irina Arnaoutova, Hong Lou, ... Neuropeptide Methods provides the reader with broad perspectives and breadth of knowledge on current topics related to ... Cancer Cell Receptor Internalization and Proliferation: Effects of Neuropeptide Analogs Terry W. Moody, Michael Schumann, ...
Probably the first neuropeptide to be identified was vasopressin, a nine-amino-acid peptide secreted by the nerve endings in ... The neuropeptides exhibit a few key differences from the classical neurotransmitters. *Neuropeptides are often found in neurons ... Many neuropeptides were originally identified as pituitary or gastrointestinal hormones. Probably the first neuropeptide to be ... The neuropeptides exhibit a few key differences from the classical neurotransmitters. First, neuropeptides are present in ...
... Bill Skaggs skaggs at bns.pitt.edu Mon Nov 1 15:27:42 EST 1999 *Previous message: neuropeptides ... I am in Master of biochemistry and I have a statement on the neuropeptides , involved in pain to do. May you help me?? , Where ...
Crustacean neuropeptides: structures, functions and comparative aspects.. Keller R1.. Author information. 1. Institut für ... In this article, an attempt is made to review the presently known, completely identified crustacean neuropeptides with regard ... The scope of crustacean neuropeptide research has thus been broadened considerably during the last years. ... which has provided evidence for a multiple role of several neuropeptides as neurohormones on the one hand and as local ...
Two types of SALMFamides have been identified: L-type (e.g. the starfish neuropeptides S1 and S2) with the C-terminal motif ... The gene sequences also reveal a remarkable diversity of SALMFamide neuropeptides. Originally just two peptides (S1 and S2) ... there are sixteen putative SALMFamide neuropeptides. Thus, the SALMFamides would be a good model system for experimental ... The SALMFamides are a family of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in echinoderms. ...
At least some neuropeptides act by. modifying the way in which one nerve cell responds to the messages it receives. from other ... is the neuropeptide known a calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), which. is know to be present in the olfactory nerve. When ... The factor is a neuropeptide. These are small molecules which are made. up of several amino acids. There are at least 36 in the ... Denis-Donini has now shown that one neuropeptide which acts in this. way in the adult nervous system is also a differentiation ...
Many different peptides belonging to a number of distinct neuropeptide families have al … ... Neuropeptides form the most diverse class of chemical messenger molecules in metazoan nervous systems. They are usually ... Neuropeptides and their precursors in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster Peptides. 2001 Feb;22(2):241-54. doi: 10.1016/s0196 ... Neuropeptides form the most diverse class of chemical messenger molecules in metazoan nervous systems. They are usually ...
Shop Perricone MDs Neuropeptide Night Cream at Sephora. An evening moisturizer that visibly and dramatically softens deep ... Neuropeptides: Offer the ultimate visible antidote for wrinkles, sagging, dullness, and discoloration. -DMAE: Helps visibly ... Perricone MDNeuropeptide Night Cream. SIZE 2.5 oz/ 75 mL•ITEM 2125789 ...
DFG-Schwerpunktskolloquium: Neuropeptide https://www.dpg-physik.de/veranstaltungen/1986/dfg-schwerpunktskolloquium-neuropeptide ...
Role of neuropeptides in antidepressant and memory improving effects of venlafaxine by. Nowakowska E, Kus K, Bobkiewicz- ... The regulatory role of neuropeptides and new antidepressant drugs, e.g. venlafaxine in mood status and memory functions may ...
Interganglionic axonal transport of neuropeptides in Aplysia. PE Lloyd. Journal of Neuroscience 1 September 1989, 9 (9) 3243- ... The transport of neuropeptides between central ganglia was studied in Aplysia. Peptide transport was determined by incubating ... Interganglionic axonal transport of neuropeptides in Aplysia Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... In addition to these previously characterized neuropeptides, a number of other as yet uncharacterized labeled peptides were ...
Neuropeptides are by far the most diverse signaling substances in the nervous system of invertebrates. Invertebrate ... neuropeptides are known to regulate many aspects of animal development, growth, r... ... Neuropeptides are by far the most diverse signaling substances in the nervous system of invertebrates. Invertebrate ... This article provides a brief and topical overview of neuropeptides and their possible functions in some key groups of ...
Jacob, S., Demosthenous, M., & Carter Porges, C. (2011). Neuropeptide and steroid hormones. In D. Fein (Ed.), The ...
Purchase Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Neuropeptides Synthesis, Processing, and Gene Structure - 1st Edition. Print Book ... Part II: Novel Neuropeptides. Structure and Function of a New Neuropeptide, the Head Activator, Controlling Head Formation in ... Part III: Neuropeptide Deficiencies. Multiple Forms of Neuropeptides in Human CSF and their Significance. Genetic Linkage ... Degradation of Neuropeptides. Metabolites of Arginine-Vasopressin and Oxytocin Are Highly Potent Neuropeptides in the Brain. ...
W. F. Colmers and B. El Bahn, "Neuropeptide Y and Epilepsy," Epilepsy Currents/American Epilepsy Society, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 53 ... W. Yao, S. P. Sheikh, B. Ottesen, and J. C. Jorgensen, "The effect of neuropeptides on vessel tone and cAMP production," Annals ... Modulation of Vasomotive Activity in Rabbit External Ophthalmic Artery by Neuropeptides. Esmeralda Sofia Costa Delgado,1 Carlos ...
Many lessons in autoimmunity - particularly relating to the role of immune privilege and the interplay between genetics and neuroimmunology - can be learned from the study of alopecia areata, the most common cause of inflammation-induced hair loss. Alopecia areata is now understood to represent an organ-restricted, T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of hair follicles. Disease induction is associated with collapse of hair follicle immune privilege in both humans and in animal models. Here, the role of HLA associations, other immunogenetic factors, and neuroendocrine parameters in alopecia areata pathogenesis are reviewed. This instructive and clinically significant model disease deserves more widespread interest in the immunology community.. ...
Neuropeptides and their use for pest control. USRE34402. 2 Jun 1992. 12 Oct 1993. Williams Clarence O. Flea trap utilizing ... Neuropeptides and their use as insecticides. US5792750. 20 Feb 1997. 11 Ago 1998. Univ. Of Florida Research Foundation, Inc.. ... Insect neuropeptides. WO1998021348A1. 12 Nov 1997. 22 May 1998. Battelle Memorial Institute. Method of producing human growth ... Neuropeptides Y (NPY) are an abundant family of peptides that are widely distributed in the central nervous system of ...
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide that is highly homologous to peptide YY (PYY). NPY exerts its various ... BR/>References:
McCullough, L.A., et al., Neuropeptide Y receptors involved in calcium channel regulation in PC12 ... Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide that is highly homologous to peptide YY (PYY). NPY exerts its various ... McCullough, L.A., et al., Neuropeptide Y receptors involved in calcium channel regulation in PC12 cells. Regul. Pept. 75-76, ...
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Agents acting at G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been the most successful targets for drug development. Every new GPCR identified is immediately examined for their potential clinical applications. Likewise ...
... A neuropeptide is any of the variety of peptides found in neural tissue; e.g. endorphins, enkephalins. Now, about ... A neuropeptide is any of the variety of peptides found in neural tissue; e.g. endorphins, enkephalins. Now, about 100 different ... The neuropeptide Y neurons also make the classical inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Peptide signals play a role in information ... It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Neuropeptide". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia. ...
Acute Stress May Block a Key Anxiety-Relieving Neuropeptide. Stress-induced anxiety may impair neuropeptide Ys ability to calm ... Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a self-produced molecule in the brain that has robust anxiety-relieving effects. New research on mice ... Future Research on Neuropeptide Y Could Lead to New Treatments for PTSD. The good news is that the groundbreaking research on ... As a neuropeptide, NPY directly influences the hippocampus, which is a brain area considered to be the hub of learning and ...
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactivity has been shown to be present in sympathetic nerve fibres in the rat pineal gland and a ... Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactivity has been shown to be present in sympathetic nerve fibres in the rat pineal gland and a ... Neuropeptide Y innervation of the rodent pineal gland and cerebral blood vessels. *Schon F ... Schon, F., Allen, J. M., Yeats, J. C., Allen, Y. S., Ballesta, J., Polak, J. M., … Bloom, S. R. (1985). Neuropeptide Y ...
... neuropeptides. Several neuropeptides with anorexigenic (POMC, CART, and CRH) as well as orexigenic (NPY, AgRP, and MCH) actions ... neuropeptides. Several neuropeptides with anorexigenic (POMC, CART, and CRH) as well as orexigenic (NPY, AgRP, and MCH) actions ... Neuropeptides, food intake and body weight regulation: a hypothalamic focus Peptides. 2002 Dec;23(12):2283-306. doi: 10.1016/ ... Starvation as well as overfeeding lead to changes in expression levels of these neuropeptides, which act downstream of leptin, ...
  • Neuropeptides are synthesized from large, inactive precursor proteins called prepropeptides, which are cleaved into several active peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuropeptides are often co-released with other peptides and traditional neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although peptides mostly target metabotropic receptors, there is some evidence that neuropeptides bind to other receptor targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in one subpopulation of about 3000 neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, three anorectic peptides are co-expressed: α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), galanin-like peptide, and cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and in another subpopulation two orexigenic peptides are co-expressed, neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide (AGRP). (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, Neuropeptide FF peptides are encoded by the NPFF gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) and RFamide related peptides issued from two precursors interact with good affinity with two subtypes of G protein-coupled receptors, namely NPFF1 and NPFF2 subtypes and are involved in several physiological functions such as cardiovascular regulation, hormonal control, macrophage activation, body temperature homeostasis and pain modulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a selected description of techniques in neuropeptide research, Neuropeptide Methods covers aspects of design, synthesis and biological evaluation of peptides and peptide analogues. (springer.com)
  • Since there are so many peptides, this chapter focuses on the principles of how neuropeptides are synthesized, stored and released and how they act on the cells they regulate. (nih.gov)
  • Many different peptides belonging to a number of distinct neuropeptide families have already been characterized from various insect species. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to these previously characterized neuropeptides, a number of other as yet uncharacterized labeled peptides were also transported. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results support the proposition that the labeled peptides have transmitterlike actions and suggest that there are a number of neuropeptides that are likely to have central actions that have not yet been characterized in Aplysia. (jneurosci.org)
  • α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), galanin-like peptide, and cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), and in another subpopulation two orexigenic peptides are co-expressed, neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide (AGRP). (bionity.com)
  • Vertebrate gonads are the sites of synthesis and binding of many peptides that were initially classified as neuropeptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuropeptides appear to be appropriately named: they are peptides synthesized by neurons in the central nervous system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid peptide and one of the most abundant peptides found in the mammalian brain, shares high sequence homology with peptide YY (PYY) and the pancreatic polypeptides (PPs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • SALMFamide neuropeptides are a family of peptides that are present in the nervous systems of species belonging to the phylum Echinodermata. (biologists.org)
  • Neuropeptides and Other Bioactive Peptides Edition by Lloyd D. Fricker and Publisher Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences. (vitalsource.com)
  • The potential of our blended technology approach to facilitate discovery of these peptides is not only significant for advancing honey bee research," the researchers wrote, "it demonstrates promise for neuropeptide discovery in the large number of other new genomes currently being sequenced. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Nowadays, it is generally accepted that different neuropeptides are involved in a wide range of functions, and in many cases peptides secreted from cells other than neurons, function in the periphery as neuropeptides. (uclahealth.org)
  • To date, the human genome is found to contain 90 genes encoding neuropeptide precursors and about 100 different peptides have been identified to be released by different populations of neurons and/or peripheral cells. (uclahealth.org)
  • The youth activating serum contains 52% GFx (Growth Factor) NeuroComplex: a breakthrough blend of growth factor, neuropeptides, peptides & other highly effective actives. (essentialdayspa.com)
  • Most of the evidence for the action of neuropeptides as neurotransmitters centers on physiological and pharmacological-like activity of peptides administered exogenously, as well as identification of peptide receptors and to a limited extent the use of peptide antagonists. (springer.com)
  • On the one hand, ghrelin could represent a regulatory circuit controlling appetite and energy homeostasis by stimulating the release of other orexigenic peptides and neurotransmitters as well as neuropeptide Y (NPY) [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Neuropeptides are a class of regulatory peptides with effects in nearly all physiological systems and processes. (edu.au)
  • After a little more than 20 years since the original discovery of neuropeptide Y (NPY) by Tatemoto and colleagues, the field of NPY research has made remarkable progress and is coming of age.The present volume addresses all major topics in connection with NPY and related peptides by established leaders in their respective areas. (booktopia.com.au)
  • This review discusses tachykinins, opioid peptides, angiotensins, bradykinins, and neuropeptide Y that are present in the central nervous system and their processing to bioactive degradation products. (diva-portal.org)
  • These well-known neuropeptide systems have been selected since they provide illustrative examples that proteolytic degradation of parent peptides can lead to bioactive metabolites with different biological activities as compared to their parent peptides. (diva-portal.org)
  • For example, substance P, dynorphin A, angiotensin I and II, bradykinin, and neuropeptide Y are all degraded to bioactive fragments with pharmacological profiles that differ considerably from those of the parent peptides. (diva-portal.org)
  • NES-ZIONA, Israel , May 23, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- PROLOR Biotech, Inc. (NYSE Amex: PBTH), a clinical stage company developing next generation biobetter therapeutic proteins, today announced that its proprietary CTP and Reversible PEGylation platforms for extending the longevity of most proteins, peptides and small molecules will be highlighted today in a presentation at the joint meeting of the Summer Neuropeptide Conference and The European Neuropeptide Club (ENC). (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Neuropeptides are small proteins produced by neurons that act on G protein-coupled receptors and are responsible for slow-onset, long-lasting modulation of synaptic transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most neuropeptides act on G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • books.google.com - Volume 9 in the series Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy continues the coverage of neuropeptides and neuropeptide receptors which was initiated in Volume 4. (google.com)
  • Neuropeptide Y receptors involved in calcium channel regulation in PC12 cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This review discusses the existence of a variety of neuropeptides and their receptors which have been discovered in vertebrate gonads, and the possible way in which such systems could have evolved. (frontiersin.org)
  • books.google.com - This volume is complementary to two earlier volumes in the series, Volumes 4 and 9.An excellent group of authors, each expert in their respective areas, address the diversity of neuropeptides and their receptors and have produced an excellent and well-illustrated state-of-the-art report.The number of. (google.com)
  • An excellent group of authors, each expert in their respective areas, address the diversity of neuropeptides and their receptors and have produced an excellent and well-illustrated state-of-the-art report. (google.com)
  • Handbook of Chemical Neuroanatomy: Neuropeptide receptors in the CNS. (google.com)
  • Neuropeptides induce signal transduction across the plasma membrane by acting through cell-surface receptors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Neuropeptides modulate intercellular communication through binding on cell surface receptors. (uclahealth.org)
  • A large number of studies focus on the relative expression of neuropeptides and/or their specific receptors during health and papthologic conditions. (uclahealth.org)
  • kisspeptin can act partly through neuropeptide FF receptors to modulate neuronal activity independent of GPR54 (zeige KISS1R Antikörper ) in the mouse brain. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • We have identified the affected protein as cholecystokinin (CCK)-like receptor (CCKLR), a putative neuropeptide receptor that belongs to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) sharing a uniform topology with seven transmembrane domains. (rupress.org)
  • Through activation of their cognate receptors, secreted neuropeptides mediate communication among various sets of neurons as well as other cell types to regulate several physiological activities, including feeding and growth, molting, cuticle tanning, circadian rhythm, sleep, and learning and memory ( Nässel and Winther, 2010 ). (rupress.org)
  • The review discusses a selection of the large number of drug-like molecules that act as agonists or antagonists at receptors of neuropeptides. (diva-portal.org)
  • Although the discovery of the first neuropeptide occurred almost forty years ago, our knowledge about their full mode of activities, primary structures, synthesis, interactions with receptors or places of action increases gradually and there is still much to unravel. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In addition to GPR10, which is its putative endogenous receptor, PrRP demonstrates a high binding affinity for Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptors, specifically the NPFF2 receptor. (wiley.com)
  • The neuropeptide Y neurons also make the classical inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Important contributions have been made by immunocytochemical mapping of peptidergic neurons in the nervous system, which has provided evidence for a multiple role of several neuropeptides as neurohormones on the one hand and as local transmitters or modulators on the other. (nih.gov)
  • Neurons very often make both a conventional neurotransmitter (such as glutamate , GABA or dopamine ) and one or more neuropeptides. (bionity.com)
  • Here we show that, in zebrafish embryos, cilia-driven CSF flow transports adrenergic signals that induce urotensin neuropeptides in CSF-contacting neurons along the spinal cord. (nature.com)
  • Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. (jci.org)
  • Neuropeptides are small, protein-like molecules that help neurons communicate with each other. (wisegeek.org)
  • In Huntington's disease, basal ganglia neurons in which neuropeptides somatostatin and neuropeptide Y are co-localized are selectively preserved. (uclahealth.org)
  • Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) neurons in the ARC play an important role in the stimulation of food intake. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The neuropeptide-Y (NPY)-containing neurons localized in the ARC have been implicated in the stimulation of food intake-injection of NPY into the hypothalamus of rats potently stimulates food intake ( 10 ), and NPY secretion in the hypothalamus is increased during fasting ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In rat brain slices, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of parvocellular paraventricular nucleus neurons show PrRP caused a decrease in evoked and miniature GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), effects that were antagonized by RF9, but not neuropeptide Y, a putative GPR10 receptor antagonist. (wiley.com)
  • Neuropeptides often coexist with each other or with other neurotransmitters in a single neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to their chemical nature, coexisting messengers are localized to different cell compartments: neuropeptides are packaged in large dense core vesicles, whereas low-molecular weight neurotransmitters are stored in small synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large dense core vesicles release low volumes of neuropeptide compared to synaptic vesicles and neurotransmitters. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is significant to note that the number of known neuropeptides far exceeds the number of classical neurotransmitters. (nih.gov)
  • Secretion of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides is mediated by exocytosis of distinct secretory organelles, synaptic vesicles (SVs) and dense core vesicles (DCVs) respectively. (harvard.edu)
  • As putative neurotransmitters of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) nerves, neuropeptides have various actions on airway smooth muscle. (cdc.gov)
  • The neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters, co-transmitters as well as neuromodulators. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In this review the role of several anorexigenic and orexigenic (hypothalamic) neuropeptides on food intake and body weight regulation is summarized. (nih.gov)
  • We attempt to highlight what is known about these two key gonadal neuropeptides, how their actions differ from their hypothalamic counterparts, and how we might learn from comparative studies of them and other gonadal neuropeptides in terms of pharmacology, reproductive physiology and evolutionary biology. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present study was undertaken to elucidate the causes of hyperphagia in the TG rats by focusing on temporal changes in plasma ghrelin levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) contents. (go.jp)
  • The regulatory role of neuropeptides and new antidepressant drugs, e.g. venlafaxine in mood status and memory functions may depend on the interactions between monoaminergic and neuropeptidergic systems. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • OBJECTIVE--To assess the role of neuropeptides in the control of vascular tone in the human saphenous vein the actions of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, calcitonin gene related peptide, neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin on this blood vessel were examined. (bmj.com)
  • Characterisation of this gene is important because it is the first echinoderm neuropeptide precursor sequence to be identified and, more specifically, it provides our first insight into the structure and organisation of a SALMFamide gene in an echinoderm. (biologists.org)
  • Your search returned 165 hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptide precursor ELISA ELISA Kit across 10 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • There is also tissue-specific processing of neuropeptide precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if you find a gene, it is hard to say what particular peptide it will create, because neuropeptide precursors undergo extensive post-translational pr ocessing. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Major contributors in the control of food intake include behavioral response to the environment, hedonic behavior, and metabolism: nutrient sensors, neuropeptide hormones, and peripheral hormones. (springer.com)
  • These neuronal circuits include many neuropeptide hormones and peptide hormones coming from the periphery, all acting in concert in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • Receptor for neuropeptides B and W, which may be involved in neuroendocrine system regulation, food intake and the organization of other signals. (uniprot.org)
  • Neuropeptide Y (13-36) (NPY 13-36) stimulates both Y2 and Y5 NPY receptor subtypes, but causes no increase in food intake even when injected at high doses, while the full-length NPY is one of the most potent physiological stimulants of feeding yet described. (genscript.com)
  • By contrast, neuropeptide Y and somatostatin exerted concentration dependent constriction on resting vessels. (bmj.com)
  • Innovative Neuropeptide technology activates surface renewal of the dermis to reveal a youthful-looking, radiant complexion and improves the skin's suppleness. (skincarerx.com)
  • Neuropeptide Facial Conformer activates surface renewal of the dermis to reveal visibly younger looking skin. (luxuryparlor.com)
  • In particular, it has revealed a hitherto unknown complexity in the diversity of SALMFamide neuropeptides that may occur in an echinoderm species because all previous studies, which relied on peptide purification and sequencing, revealed only two SALMFamide neuropeptides in each species examined. (biologists.org)
  • Analysis of whole-genome shotgun sequence data using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) identified a contig (347664) that contains a coding region for seven putative SALMFamide neuropeptides (PPVTTRSKFTFamide, DAYSAFSFamide, GMSAFSFamide, AQPSFAFamide, GLMPSFAFamide, PHGGSAFVFamide and GDLAFAFamide), which we have named SpurS1-SpurS7, respectively. (biologists.org)
  • In laboratory mice, exposure to a scent associated with a predator triggers stress-induced anxiety which impairs the endogenous production of neuropeptide Y. Lower levels of NPY make the long-term memory hub of the hippocampus in a mouse more susceptible to imprinting fear-based memories associated with the scent of a dangerous predator. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Derived from the term "endogenous morphine ," endorphins are one type of neuropeptide. (wisegeek.org)
  • She demonstrated that the factor responsible for differentiation is the neuropeptide known a calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), which is know to be present in the olfactory nerve. (newscientist.com)
  • 11. Analysis of neuropeptides by high performance liquid chromatography (K. Kojima, Y. Suzuki, H. Parvez, S. Parvez, T. Nagatsu). (elsevier.com)
  • Perricone MD Neuropeptide Firming & Illuminating Under-Eye Cream, 0.5 oz. (neimanmarcus.com)
  • Written by leaders in the field, this book explains primary cell cultures and cell lines, as well as techniques in neuropeptide processing, trafficking and secretion. (springer.com)
  • Here we identify a novel protein RIC-7 that is required for neuropeptide secretion in Caenorhabditis elegans. (harvard.edu)
  • Both the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the central nervous system (CNS) can amplify or modulate aspects of intestinal inflammation through secretion of neuropeptides that serve as a link between the ENS and CNS. (uclahealth.org)
  • Major advances in molecular biology, alternative RNA splicing, protein processing, identification of gene control elements, transgenic animals and bioinformatics open up multiple research avenues and allow for better understanding of neuropeptide production and function. (springer.com)
  • Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Neuropeptides: Synthesis, Processing, and Gene Structure covers the proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Macromolecular Synthesis: Biochemical and Clinical Aspects of Neuropeptides, held in Blankenese, Hamburg, Germany. (elsevier.com)
  • The remaining parts explore the posttranslational processing, regulation, metabolism, biosynthesis, and gene expression of these neuropeptides, with a particular emphasis on their triggering mechanism and the control of release. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuropeptide Y receptor type 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NPY1R gene . (wikidoc.org)
  • Transform sagging, ageing skin with the Neuropeptide Facial Conformer from Perricone MD, an advanced treatment to dramatically increase elasticity and resilience. (skincarerx.com)
  • Neuropeptide Facial Conformer is also formulated with a combination of Dr. Perricone's most powerful anti-aging patented ingredients: DMAE, Phospholipids and Tocotrienols that nourish, repair and lift the appearance of skin, while delivering superior antioxidant protection. (luxuryparlor.com)
  • Effects of vasoactive neuropeptides on human saphenous vein. (bmj.com)
  • In this report, we present evidence that two known immunosuppressive neuropeptides, the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), contribute to the development of bone marrow-derived tolerogenic DCs in vitro and in vivo. (jimmunol.org)
  • The neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are potent immunosuppressive agents, affecting both innate and adaptive immunity ( 14 , 15 , 16 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Neuropeptides that are thought to play a potentially key role in IBD include substance P, corticotropin-releasing hormone, neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, mu-opioid receptor agonists, and galanin. (uclahealth.org)
  • Quantitative morphometric analysis of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and neuropeptide Y in guinea pig airway. (cdc.gov)
  • This study quantifies the distribution of substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY), in smooth muscle of different airway levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Vasoactive neuropeptides in autoimmune diseases" by Ekua W. Brenu, Lotti Tajouri et al. (edu.au)
  • Further, our knowledge of the control of these gonadal neuropeptides by peripheral hormones that bind to the gonads, and which themselves are under regulation by true neuropeptide systems from the hypothalamus, is relatively meager. (frontiersin.org)
  • This chapter describes the role of neuropeptide and some essential peripheral hormones interacting in the hypothalamus toward controlling feeding behavior. (springer.com)
  • Functional interactions between melanin-concentrating hormone, neuropeptide Y, and anorectic neuropeptides in the rat hypothalamus. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Starvation as well as overfeeding lead to changes in expression levels of these neuropeptides, which act downstream of leptin, resulting in a physiological response. (nih.gov)
  • The distribution described is consistent with physiological studies on the actions of neuropeptides on airway smooth muscle at different levels. (cdc.gov)
  • The proteolytic processing of neuropeptides has an important regulatory function and the peptide fragments resulting from the enzymatic degradation often exert essential physiological roles. (diva-portal.org)
  • In phylogenetic terms, neuropeptides were established very early as molecules effecting intercellular communication. (nih.gov)
  • Neuropeptides form the most diverse class of chemical messenger molecules in metazoan nervous systems. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Candace Pert, a psychopharmacologist and professor at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., discovered that receptor molecules and the neuropeptides that bind to them exist in every part of the body, not just in the brain. (wisegeek.org)
  • Fortified with Neuropeptides (scientifically formulated messenger molecules that work to enhance suppleness and elasticity), the quick-absorbing cream delivers firming and tightening properties to target slackening, sagging skin. (skinstore.com)
  • Using a combination of the newly available honey bee genome sequence, as well as bioinformatics and mass spectrometry, Sweedler and collaborators from the United States and Belgium inferred the sequences of more than 200 possible neuropeptides and confirmed the sequences of 100 neuropeptides from the brain of the honey bee. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, what matters is what they do, not what they are called, and we shall see in this review that neither the synthesis nor actions of neuropeptides are limited to the brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Lines: Neuropeptide Y, Y2 subtype. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Neuropeptides conjugated to proteins or other carriers, such as liposomes, may be used for targeting radioisotopes or drugs to cells, specialized endothelia, and normal or neoplastic tissues expressing the corresponding binding sites for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, neuropeptides act by modulating neuronal activity through both short-term and long-term effects. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast with the well-known effects of neuropeptide signaling on neuronal activity and the strength of synaptic transmission, regulation of synaptic growth and development by neuropeptides has not previously been clearly established. (rupress.org)
  • Several neuropeptides with anorexigenic (POMC, CART, and CRH) as well as orexigenic (NPY, AgRP, and MCH) actions are involved in this complex (partly redundant) controlling system. (nih.gov)
  • We then focus on two key neuropeptides for regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). (frontiersin.org)
  • The conservation of localized gonadal regulation by gonadal neuropeptides across vertebrates has important implications for understanding the evolution, reproductive physiology and ecology of animals, along with the study and practice of reproductive health and medicine, both clinical and veterinary. (frontiersin.org)
  • These data indicate that the vasopressin and oxytocin neuropeptide systems, which are critical in the establishment of social bonds and the regulation of emotional behaviors, are affected by early social experience. (pnas.org)
  • Neuropeptides and peptide hormones from non-neuronal tissues play important roles in the regulation of insect life. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Neuropeptide S (NPS) has been associated with a number of complex brain functions, including anxiety-like behaviors, arousal, sleep-wakefulness regulation, drug-seeking behaviors, and learning and memory. (diva-portal.org)
  • Solution synthesis of human neuropeptide Y (hNPY). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Human neuropeptide Y (hNPY) was synthesized in a conventional manner by assembling seven peptide fragments followed by reduction of the Met(O) residue with phenylthiotrimethylsilane and subsequent deprotection with 1 M trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf)-thioanisole in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). (biomedsearch.com)
  • We employ genetic, molecular, anatomical, viral, optogenetic and behavioral approaches to study the effects of addressed axonal release of various neuropeptides within the distinct brain regions controlling stress and fear responses, maternal and social behavior. (dkfz.de)
  • We employ viral, opto- and chemogenetical, electrophysiological and behavioral approaches to study the effects of various neuropeptides (primarily oxytocin, OT) within the distinct brain regions controlling stress and fear responses, maternal and social behavior. (zi-mannheim.de)
  • When activated by their ligands, neuropeptide GPCRs affect levels of second messengers such as cAMP, diacylglycerol, inositol trisphosphate, and intracellular calcium ( Nässel, 2002 ). (rupress.org)
  • research encompasses everything from pain and analgesia, appetite control, inflammation, mood and affective behavior, to the entire neuropeptide mechanism possibly being the connective tissues of the body-uniting and coordinating cells, tissues, glands, organs and systems of the body. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Here we tested two hypotheses: a) whether intra-pair association (i.e. association index), measured with joint interspecific cleaning and intraspecific behavior, is correlated with neuroendocrine mechanisms involving forebrain neuropeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) and b) whether these neuropeptide level shifts relate to an individual's interspecific service quality. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Awake to smoother skin with Perricone MD Neuropeptide Night Cream , an anti-wrinkle treatment that works alongside the body's natural repair cycle. (skinstore.com)
  • Formulated with Dr. Perricone's proprietary Neuropeptides, this nourishing and comforting cream cleanser removes surface impurities and makeup leaving skin looking and feeling conditioned and ultra-soft. (perriconemd.com)
  • Formulated with Dr. Perricone's proprietary Neuropeptides, this non-stripping, nourishing and comforting cream cleanser removes surface impurities and makeup leaving skin looking and feeling conditioned and ultra-soft. (perriconemd.com)
  • Developed to help firm the appearance of your complexion, the Neuropeptide Facial Cream from Perricone helps to promote a smoother and more lifted skin look. (qvcuk.com)
  • As per the manufacturer, Perricone Neuropeptide Necolletage, US $240 for 118 ml, is an anti-aging cream that has been specially formulated to treat rings, wrinkles, and other signs of skin aging that appear on your neck and chest. (thebeautyinsiders.com)
  • Perricone Neuropeptide Necolletage reviews posted by satisfied users have specifically described this cream as having a rich consistency with a natural scent. (thebeautyinsiders.com)
  • This advanced eye treatment works as the best under-eye cream in our Neuropeptide Collection to visibly transform severe crow's feet, lines and wrinkles. (perriconemd.com)
  • Energy homeostasis is controlled by a complex neuroendocrine system consisting of peripheral signals like leptin and central signals, in particular, neuropeptides. (nih.gov)
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a neuropeptide highly conserved throughout evolution, is present at high levels in the central nervous system (CNS), as well as in peripheral tissues such as the gut and cardiovascular system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Substance P is another neuropeptide that transmits pain-related information from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system. (wisegeek.org)
  • NPFF Neuropeptide FF (FLFQPQRFa) is a mammalian amidated neuropeptide originally isolated from bovine brain and characterized as a pain-modulating peptide, with anti-opioid activity on morphine-induced analgesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our laboratory is focused on the dissection of the mechanisms of neuropeptide action in the brain, from molecular via anatomical to the whole organism level. (dkfz.de)
  • Denis-Donini has now shown that one neuropeptide which acts in this way in the adult nervous system is also a differentiation signal for a particular class of nerve cells in a part of the brain that deals with smell in rats, the olfactory bulb. (newscientist.com)
  • Neuropeptides reportedly regulate most all of life's processes and although they are produced naturally in the brain, almost every tissue in the body has receptor sites for them. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Stress-induced anxiety may impair neuropeptide Y's ability to calm the brain. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a self-produced molecule in the brain that has robust anxiety -relieving effects. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Previous studies have found that Neuropeptide Y triggers several reactions in the body and brain that include anxiety and stress reduction, lowering blood pressure, increasing pain tolerance, and making people less inclined to consume too much alcohol . (psychologytoday.com)
  • As a neuropeptide, NPY directly influences the hippocampus, which is a brain area considered to be the hub of learning and memory. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36 amino acid neuropeptide, was originally isolated from porcine brain using a method detecting the C-terminal amide. (frontiersin.org)
  • Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic cotransmitter, is the most abundant peptide in the heart and the brain. (ahajournals.org)
  • From humans to honey bees neuropeptides control brain activity and h. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Findings indicate that variation in pairs' relationships influences male and female cleaner fish differently and contributes to the variation of brain neuropeptide levels, which is linked to distinct cooperative outcomes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Neuropeptide signaling is integral to many aspects of neural communication, particularly modulation of membrane excitability and synaptic transmission. (rupress.org)
  • However, the functional interactions between pathways involving these neuropeptides remain incompletely understood. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, activity of other neuropeptides and peptide hormones is highly diverse, depending on species or even stages of development. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Probably the first neuropeptide to be identified was vasopressin, a nine-amino-acid peptide secreted by the nerve endings in the neural lobe of the pituitary. (nih.gov)
  • Formulated with Neuropeptides, vitamin B3 and argan oil, our under-eye treatment visibly de-puffs bags, reduces dark circles and helps minimize sagging for a dramatically smoother, brighter, lifted appearance. (perriconemd.com)
  • The new research on the link between stress, neuropeptide Y, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus fills an important gap in previous knowledge about the molecular and behavioral effects of NPY. (psychologytoday.com)
  • This study lays the groundwork for future molecular studies of honey bee neuropeptides with the identification of 36 genes, 33 of which were previously unreported," the researchers write in the Oct. 27 issue of the journal Science. (bio-medicine.org)
  • FirmX Growth Factor Neuropeptide Serum is a youth activating treatment that improves the appearance of the facial contour definition, texture, firmness and fine lines and wrinkles. (hqhair.com)
  • Parts II and III focus on the isolation, structure, function, and genetic linkage of neuropeptides. (elsevier.com)
  • These gonadal neuropeptide systems are neither well understood in isolation, nor in their interactions with other neuropeptide systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • In summary, the book is a unique contribution to the methodological problems associated with the measurement of neuropeptides in a biological matrix and should be unquestionably useful to scientists interested in this topic, as well as in a good reference framework for planning advanced research in neuropeptide isolation and identification. (ebooks.com)
  • Neuropeptide-GPCRs fall into two families: rhodopsin-like and the secretin class. (wikipedia.org)
  • As exemplified in this review, many common neuropeptides are degraded to a variety of smaller fragments but many of the fragments generated have not yet been examined in detail with regard to their potential biological activities. (diva-portal.org)
  • Neuropeptide Y is produced by adipose tissue macrophages and regulates obesity-induced inflammation. (rndsystems.com)
  • For example, neuropeptide F/neuropeptide Y signaling is structurally and functionally conserved between insects and mammals. (wikipedia.org)