Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Trigeminal Caudal Nucleus: The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Sumatriptan: A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Dihydroergotamine: A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Central Nervous System Sensitization: An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Substantia Gelatinosa: Gelatinous-appearing material in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, consisting chiefly of Golgi type II neurons and some larger nerve cells.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Receptors, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Cortical Spreading Depression: The decrease in neuronal activity (related to a decrease in metabolic demand) extending from the site of cortical stimulation. It is believed to be responsible for the decrease in cerebral blood flow that accompanies the aura of MIGRAINE WITH AURA. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Serotonin Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Cerebellar Nuclei: Four clusters of neurons located deep within the WHITE MATTER of the CEREBELLUM, which are the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Nerve Tissue Proteinsgamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Red Nucleus: A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Subthalamic Nucleus: Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
The paralemniscal pathway runs from the interpolar trigeminal nucleus via posterior nucleus (POm) of the thalamus to S2 and to ... neurons of the interpolar nucleus project to the ventrolateral section of the ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPMvl). Neurons ... In the lemniscal pathway, axons from the principal trigeminal nucleus cross over the midline and project to "barreloids" in the ... Projections from the trigeminal nuclei to the thalamus are split into pathways designated lemniscal, extralemniscal, and ...
... first in the spinal cord or trigeminal nucleus, depending on the dermatomic area concerned. One pathway then proceeds to the ... Cutaneous receptors are at the ends of afferent neurons. They are usually encapsulated in elaborate cellular corpuscles. ...
Some of these incoming fibers go to the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (V), bypassing the pathways for conscious ... Each pathway consists of three bundles of nerve fibers connected in series: The secondary neurons in each pathway decussate ( ... The spinal trigeminal nucleus contains a pain-temperature sensory map of the face and mouth. From the spinal trigeminal nucleus ... The parts of the trigeminal nucleus receive different types of sensory information; the spinal trigeminal nucleus receives pain ...
Hyperexcitability of central nociceptive neurons (in trigeminal spinal nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex) is believed to ... The sensitization of pain pathways may be caused by or associated with activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the ...
This pathway from the cortex to the brainstem is called the corticobulbar tract. Interestingly, the neurons in the dorsal ... which also includes the trigeminal motor nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, and (arguably) the spinal accessory nucleus. Like all lower ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. Nuclei of origin of ... The facial motor nucleus is a collection of neurons in the brainstem that belong to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). These ...
... trigeminal ganglion and nucleus, dorsal column nuclei and the second dorsal root ganglion. It is likely that these neurons help ... This pathway is called the ventral acoustic stria (VAS or, more commonly, the trapezoid body). Another pathway, called the ... The cranial nerve nuclei schematically represented; dorsal view. Motor nuclei in red; sensory in blue. Primary terminal nuclei ... the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). The ventral cochlear nucleus is unlayered whereas the ...
More recent studies using in situ hybridization studies have located large diameter neurons in the trigeminal ganglia (TG) that ... which is very similar to the nucleus (DLV) in the lateral descending trigeminal system in IR-sensitive snakes. This special ... it remains unclear what the exact neural pathway is for infrared sensing in vampire bats. Thermography, a method which produces ... Trigeminal nerve fibers that innervate these IR-sensitive receptors may be involved in detection of infrared thermal radiation ...
... first-order sensory neuron), reaching the mesencephalic tract and the mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve. Although it ... Neuroscience Tutorial See "Basic somatosensory pathway", Eastern International College. Joint & Bone - Ehlers-Danlos/Joint ... Li, W.; Feng, Z.; Sternberg, P. W.; Shawn Xu, X. Z. (2006). "A C. Elegans stretch receptor neuron revealed by a ... The proprioceptive sense is believed to be composed of information from sensory neurons located in the inner ear (motion and ...
The soma (cell bodies) in these nuclei are the second-order neurons of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway, and their ... The spinal trigeminal nerve nuclei which contains the general somatic afferent column. The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, ... It is caused by an underlying collection of gray matter known as the spinal trigeminal nucleus. The gray matter of this nucleus ... The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory nucleus, both of which form the general visceral efferent fibers ...
"The independent evolution of the enlargement of the principal sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (PrV) in three different ... and inferior olivary-projecting neurons in the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali of pigeons". 26. Vis Neurosci: 341-347. Iwaniuk ... Iwaniuk AN, Gutiérrez-Ibáñez C, Pakan JM, Wylie DR (2010). "Allometric scaling of the tectofugal pathway in birds". 75. Brain ...
It contains second-order neurons of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway, which receive inputs from sensory neurons of ... the information from the face and ear is carried by the principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve). Decussation of pyramids ... The neurons contained within the nucleus form a visible bump called the gracile tubercle on the posterior side of the closed ... Located in the medulla oblongata, the gracile nucleus is one of the dorsal column nuclei that participate in the sensation of ...
The cell bodies of many of the neurons of most of the cranial nerves are contained in one or more nuclei in the brainstem. ... Conditions affecting the trigeminal nerve (V) include trigeminal neuralgia, cluster headache, and trigeminal zoster. Trigeminal ... Visual field testing may be used to pin-point structural lesions in the optic nerve, or further along the visual pathways. The ... The trigeminal ganglia of the trigeminal nerve (V) occupies a space in the dura mater called Trigeminal cave. This ganglion ...
... connect to the parabrachial nucleus by way of glutamatergic spinal projection neurons. This pathway triggers scratching in mice ... "Spinal and trigeminal dorsal horn projections to the parabrachial nucleus in the rat". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. ... Lesions of these neurons cause irreversible coma. Other neurons in the superior lateral parabrachial nucleus that contain ... Recent data indicate that glutamatergic neurons in the medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei, along with glutamatergic neurons ...
Red nucleus: This is a motor nucleus that sends a descending tract to the lower motor neurons. Substantia nigra pars compacta: ... The nuclei of the oculomotor nerve (III) and trochlear nerve (IV) are located in the midbrain. The nuclei of the trigeminal ... which contains various neurons involved in the pain desensitization pathway. Neurons synapse here and, when stimulated, cause ... Oculomotor nerve nucleus: This is the third cranial nerve nucleus. Trochlear nerve nucleus: This is the fourth cranial nerve. ...
After neurons carrying proprioceptive or touch information synapse at the gracile and cuneate nuclei, axons from secondary ... It is part of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway, which transmits touch, vibration sense, as well as the pathway for ... axons transmitting information from the head and neck via the trigeminal nerve synapse at the ventral posteromedial nucleus of ... The internal arcuate fibers are composed of axons of nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus. The axons of the nucleus gracilis ...
... facial nuclei, motor and spinal trigeminal nuclei, gigantocellular reticular nucleus and in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. ... The CCL2 chemokine is also expressed by neurons, astrocytes and microglia. The expression of CCL2 in neurons is mainly found in ... "MCP-1 upregulates amylin expression in murine pancreatic β cells through ERK/JNK-AP1 and NF-κB related signaling pathways ... but does not involve activation of the NF-κB pathway. CCL2 significantly reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in myocytes ...
... and the histaminergic pathway originates from neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the posterior hypothalamus. As ... trigeminal nerve - polymodal pathways, olfactory nerve, optic nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve - monomodal pathways). These ... The norepinephrine pathway originates from the locus ceruleus (LC) and related brainstem nuclei; the serotonergic neurons ... 1). The thalamic projection is dominated by cholinergic neurons originating from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus of pons ...
The majority of neurons in the deep nuclei have large cell bodies and spherical dendritic trees with a radius of about 400 μm, ... Mossy fibers project directly to the deep nuclei, but also give rise to the following pathway: mossy fibers → granule cells → ... and from the cranial trigeminal nerve, as well as from visual and auditory systems. It sends fibers to deep cerebellar nuclei ... The number of neurons in the cerebellum is related to the number of neurons in the neocortex. There are about 3.6 times as many ...
The first neuron in this pathway is referred to as the preganglionic or presynaptic neuron. Its cell body sits in the central ... has parasympathetic that originate in the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve and the nucleus ambiguus in the CNS. The vagus ... The chorda tympani travels through the middle ear and attaches to the lingual nerve (mandibular division of trigeminal, CN V3 ... The preganglionic neurons in the pathway do not synapse in a ganglion as in the cranium but rather in the walls of the tissues ...
The intermediate and deep layers also receive input from the spinal trigeminal nucleus, which conveys somatosensory information ... During fixation, neurons near the front edge - the foveal zone - are tonically active. During smooth pursuit, neurons a small ... There are two large descending pathways, traveling to the brainstem and spinal cord, and numerous ascending projections to a ... There are also projections from the superficial zone to the pretectal nuclei, lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus, and ...
... and the histaminergic pathway originates from neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the posterior hypothalamus. As ... nucleus ambiguus, solitary nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, pontine micturition center, ventral respiratory group, and ... tuberomammillary nucleus (the histamine projection nucleus), the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus ... The norepinephrine pathway originates from the locus ceruleus (LC) and related brainstem nuclei; the serotonergic neurons ...
The hypoglossal nerve carries lower motor neurons that synapse with upper motor neurons at the hypoglossal nucleus. Symptoms ... If the damage is to the nerve pathway (an upper motor neuron lesion) the tongue will curve away from the side of damage, due to ... moving onto the lingual nerve which synapses on the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. The hypoglossal nerve emerges as several ... Progressive bulbar palsy, a form of motor neuron disease, is associated with combined lesions of the hypoglossal nucleus and ...
... and the histaminergic pathway originates from neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the posterior hypothalamus. As ... trigeminal nerve - polymodal pathways, olfactory nerve, optic nerve and vestibulocochlear nerve - monomodal pathways). These ... histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammilary nucleus (TMN), glutamatergic neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PB) ... Fuller ... The thalamic pathway consists primarily of cholinergic neurons in the pontine tegmentum, whereas the hypothalamic pathway is ...
... thalamic reticular nucleus, locus coeruleus, inferior olivary nucleus, mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, ventral ... When found in neurons or nerves it may also be called an electrical synapse. While an ephapse has some similarities to a gap ... Gap junctions may be seen to function at the simplest level as a direct cell to cell pathway for electrical currents, small ... Neurons within the retina show extensive coupling, both within populations of one cell type, and between different cell types. ...
... and from the trigeminal nerve, as well as from visual and auditory systems. It sends fibers to deep cerebellar nuclei that, in ... which control the distal musculature components of the descending motor pathways needed for limb movement. Both of these nuclei ... and arborization of cerebellar neurons by 20 months. Inspection of the posterior fossa is a common feature of prenatal ... The interposed nucleus is smaller than the dentate nucleus but larger than the fastigial nucleus and functions to modulate ...
The neurochemistry of vertigo includes six primary neurotransmitters that have been identified between the three-neuron arc[28] ... Vertigo is classified into either peripheral or central depending on the location of the dysfunction of the vestibular pathway, ... Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is thought to be inhibitory for the commissures of the medial vestibular nucleus, the ... one hypothesized cause is that the stimulation of the trigeminal nerve leads to nystagmus in individuals suffering from ...
... in dense core vesicles of unmyelinated axons and axon terminals in the subnucleus caudalis of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, ... N2 - Activity-dependent plasticity in nociceptive pathways has been implicated in pathomechanisms of chronic pain syndromes. ... Using ELISA in situ, we show that CGRP (1-1000 nm) potently enhances BDNF release from cultured trigeminal neurons. The effect ... Using ELISA in situ, we show that CGRP (1-1000 nm) potently enhances BDNF release from cultured trigeminal neurons. The effect ...
"Neuron synchronization in the rat gracilis nucleus facilitates sensory transmission in the somatosensory pathway," European ... We found that more than half (about 57%) of neurons in the trigeminal nuclei have such property. Finally, the remaining 10% of ... b) Firing rate dynamics of a neuron from Pr5 nucleus under a periodic (10 Hz) stimulation of a vibrissa in the neuron receptive ... "The contribution of the principal and spinal trigeminal nuclei to the receptive field properties of thalamic VPM neurons in the ...
The paralemniscal pathway runs from the interpolar trigeminal nucleus via posterior nucleus (POm) of the thalamus to S2 and to ... neurons of the interpolar nucleus project to the ventrolateral section of the ventroposterior medial nucleus (VPMvl). Neurons ... In the lemniscal pathway, axons from the principal trigeminal nucleus cross over the midline and project to "barreloids" in the ... Projections from the trigeminal nuclei to the thalamus are split into pathways designated lemniscal, extralemniscal, and ...
Neurons in the PrV that give rise to the lemniscal pathway have dendrites confined within the limit of their home barrelette ... in the other trigeminal nuclei. Figure 2C-E shows the distribution of VAChT-positive terminals among SpVi neurons retrogradely ... the lemniscal pathway, which arises from the principal trigeminal nucleus (PrV), transits through the ventral posterior medial ... Cholinergic Modulation of Vibrissal Receptive Fields in Trigeminal Nuclei. Elena Timofeeva, Caroline Dufresne, Attila Sík, ...
First-order neurons located in the ventral posteromedial nucleus projected mainly to trigeminal areas of primary (S1) as well ... The primary afferents of the pathway reside in the trigeminal ganglion, and their axons split into a peripheral branch ... A second LD neuron projected lightly to M1/M2 and heavily to trigeminal and extra-trigeminal regions of S1. The one LP neuron ... Heavy projections of dura-sensitive neurons in all studied thalamic nuclei to the trigeminal area of S1, which follows the ...
... we rely on an area of the brainstem called the sensory nuclei of the trigeminal nucleus. The trigeminal nucleus consists of ... More specifically, our research aimed to find, or localize, neurons in the sensory pathways that express a protein called ... portion of the trigeminal nucleus contains a cluster of cells known as the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve. This cluster ... Figure 3: The trigeminal nucleus (left) with the Anti-GABA stain shows a mix of red, green, and yellow/orange neurons. The ...
... dependant on trigeminal pathway) and these neurons activity was increased by bright light. Axons from these thalamic neurons ... 15 It has been suggested that signals from trigeminal nucleus interact with visual traffic in the thalamus.18 Recently, it has ... This result could be explained by the interaction between visual and trigeminal nerve pathways, the latter being involved in ... visual cortex hyperexcitability on the one hand and interactions between visual pathway and trigeminal nociception on the other ...
... is to elucidate and discuss how caffeine may affect the migraine syndrome and discuss the potential pathophysiological pathways ... is to elucidate and discuss how caffeine may affect the migraine syndrome and discuss the potential pathophysiological pathways ... trigeminal nucleus caudalis, C1 and C2 spinal levels). These neurons give rise to the main ascending trigeminothalamic pathway ... midbrain and cortical nuclei that control the excitability of the ascending trigeminothalamic pathway (185). These brain nuclei ...
... neurons are primary somatosensory neurons with somata located within the CNS, instead of in peripheral sensory ganglia. In ... unipolar cells are found within the optic tectum and have a single axon that runs along the mandibular branch of the trigeminal ... axon has collaterals in the brain stem and is believed to make synaptic contact with neurons in the trigeminal motor nucleus, ... Neural Pathways * Neurons / physiology* * Patch-Clamp Techniques / methods * Physical Stimulation / methods * Synapses / ...
First-order neurons are in the trigeminal ganglion, second-order neurons lie in the principal sensory nucleus of the rostral ... 12-C. The afferent corneal reflex pathway is as follows: First-order neurons of the ophthalmic. nerve (CN V-I) are found in the ... the pseudounipolar neurons of the mesencephalic nucleus; the efferent limb is mediated by the motor neurons of the trigeminal ... D) it projects to the ventral(VPM) nucleus of the thalamus. (E) its first-order neurons are found in the trigeminal ganglion. ...
C57BL in paraventricular nucleus, F1 , F1 and ddN , C57BL in spinal trigeminal nucleus, ddN , C57BL in cervical dorsal nucleus ... 4) Dopamine : The nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is more abundant in ddN than C57BL.The number of the dopaminergic neurons ... Circadian rhythmicity of open field activity and the neuropeptide Y in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Abstract of Fourth IBRO ... Circadian rhythmicity of open field activity and the neuropeptide Y in the suprachiasmatic nucleus Abstract of Fourth IBRO ...
... are believed to synapse in the ipsilateral trigeminal sensory nucleus complex (Sessle 2000). Second-order neurons then cross ... Chemically distinct compartments of the thalamic VPM nucleus in monkeys relay principal and spinal trigeminal pathways to ... Brainstem Trigeminal pathways Anatomy Histology Ex-vivo high-resolution imaging MRI Diffusion-weighted imaging Polarized light ... Torvik A (1957) The ascending fibers from the main trigeminal sensory nucleus; an experimental study in the cat. Am J Anat 100( ...
... first in the spinal cord or trigeminal nucleus, depending on the dermatomic area concerned. One pathway then proceeds to the ... Cutaneous receptors are at the ends of afferent neurons. They are usually encapsulated in elaborate cellular corpuscles. ...
... in rat dorsal horn and paraventricular nucleus neurons as a marker for sensitization and inhibition in the pain pathway. Tissue ... and trigeminal nuclei (Hu et al., 1992)-especially trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Cao et al., 2013; Wang et al., 2013); (c) ... The efferent pathway might be divided into a "somatic" and "vegetative" systems throughout the central (upper neuron) and ... diencephalum, thalamic neurons (Park et al., 2006; Kaneko et al., 2011), in the thalamic-anterior cingulate pathway (Shyu and ...
... whereas many neurons that extend axons to the spinal cord, thalamus, or trigeminal nucleus fire trains of single action ... 1993) Development of projection neuron types, axon pathways, and patterned connections of the mammalian cortex. Neuron 10:991- ... callosal projection neuron fates. Fezf2−/− neurons adopt the fate of callosal projection neurons as assessed by their axonal ... Fezf2−/− Neurons Display the Electrophysiological Properties of Callosal Projection Neurons.. Projection neurons in layer 5 can ...
Study Ascending Sensory Spinal Brain Pathways flashcards from ... Chief Sensory nucleus of V( cell bodies of second order neurons ... What is analogous to the posterior column nucleus (epicritic somesthesis) in the trigeminal nuclei? ... Posterior Column nuclei in the medulla....from here, the secondary neuron runs in the contralateral medial lemniscus to the VPL ... Posterior colmn nuclei in the CAUDAL medulla.. - Gracilis Nucleus (medial) if these are afferents that enter in the lumbar or ...
Primary sensory neurons, with the exception of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, are located in the trigeminal ... Caterina, M. J., et al. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 389, 816-824 (1997). ... While this method produces more neurons, it has a risk of over-digestion of the neurons at the superficial layers. Our method ... Keep moving the pipette towards the neuron until a dimple is observed on the neuron.. Note: Compared with recordings from ...
Among these pathways, the activation of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) area is an important manifestation of central ... Calcitonin gene-related peptide promotes cellular changes in trigeminal neurons and glia implicated in peripheral and central ... Hence, we investigated the role of the relevant pathways of microglia, such as the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in CM-associated ... The last topic worth mentioning is that drugs targeting the IL-1 downstream pathway of the inflammatory pathway have been ...
It is noteworthy that the secondary neurons in each pathway decussate (cross to the other side of the spinal cord or brainstem ... the main trigeminal nucleus, and the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus.. The three parts of the trigeminal nucleus receive ... Mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus is not really a "nucleus." Rather, it is a sensory ... IL = Intralaminar nucleus. VPM = Ventral posteromedial nucleus. Main V = Main trigeminal nucleus. Spinal V = Spinal trigeminal ...
So the dorsal column nuclei was our second order neuron, and our third order neuron is in the ventral posterior lateral nucleus ... Another pathway is the corresponding mechanosensory pathway for the face, and this runs through the trigeminal nerve. And ... And synapses on the next neuron in the pathway which is in the thalamus, specifically the ventral posterior lateral nucleus of ... So, this paths, pathway begins with a first order neuron. Which is a dorsal root ganglion neuron. Okay. So here it is right ...
The main purpose of the trigeminal nucleus is to... ... The trigeminal nucleus is the base of the trigeminal nerve in ... One section is the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Starting in the top of the spinal cord, groups of neurons are arranged according ... Pain and temperature, and touch or pressure, are relayed to the nucleus, but with different pathways through the brain. ... The trigeminal nucleus is the base of the trigeminal nerve in the brain stem. It is the place where all sensations from the ...
... the facial nucleus. The trigeminal motor nucleus, the hypoglossal nucleus and the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus. So already, ... control is that there are parallel pathways by which upper motor neurons can govern the activities of lower motor neurons. Now ... That is a set of pathways that come from upper motor neurons in the motor cortex and in the brain stem that are concerned with ... And the upper motor neurons of the brain stem. So, these pathways are largely involved in the expression of non volitional ...
... and these afferents form synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Here they are ... The ALT neurons convey somatosensory information to a variety of brain regions that are involved in the various aspects of the ... A spinothalamic-cortical pathway provides input to several regions of the cerebral cortex, including the first and second ... The spinoparabrachial-limbic pathway targets a variety of brain regions, including the amygdala, and is likely involved in the ...
... that activate MAP kinase pathways in neurons and glial cells within the trigeminal ganglion and spinal trigeminal nucleus. More ... expression in cultured trigeminal neurons, neuronal-like cell lines, in vivo animal models, and clinical studies. A major focus ... A primary goal of his research is to determine the signaling pathways by which inflammatory and anti-inflammatory agents ... the effects of nutraceutical compounds on neuronal-glial cell interactions within the ganglion and spinal trigeminal nucleus ...
... wherein the targeting moiety is selected from a group consisting of transmission compounds which can be released from neurons ... upon the transmission of pain signals by the neurons, and compounds substantially similar to the transmission compounds. ... particularly the trigeminal nuclei and the nucleus of the solitary tract. The cell bodies for the primary sensory afferents for ... for example the neurons involved in the sympathetic pathway, translocate into their cytosol, inhibit the release of their ...
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is expressed by trigeminal nociceptors, has recently been identified as a key player in the mechanism of migraine headaches. (elsevier.com)
  • This preparation maintains the microenvironment for neurons and satellite glial cells, thus avoiding the phenotypic and functional changes seen using dissociated DRG neurons. (jove.com)
  • Its release by neurons and glial cells of these circuits impacts the activity of nearby cells by binding ligand-gated cation channels (P2X) or metabotropic (P2Y) receptors [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • D. Levy and A. M. Strassman, "Mechanical Response Properties of A and C Primary Afferent Neurons Innervating the Rat Intracranial Dura," Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 88, No. 6, 2002, pp. 3021-3031. (scirp.org)
  • The agent can include a clostridial neurotoxin, or a component or fragment or derivative thereof, attached to a targeting moiety, wherein the targeting moiety is selected from a group consisting of transmission compounds which can be released from neurons upon the transmission of pain signals by the neurons, and compounds substantially similar to the transmission compounds. (google.com)
  • The spinal cord is the first site of temporal and spatial integration of nociceptive signals in the pain pathway. (nih.gov)
  • The way in which a neuron processes signals can be captured by its transfer function or its input-output relationship ( 32 ). (pnas.org)
  • In fact, some individual neurons carry both signals, so that upstream neurons with a supralinear gain function could, in principle, demodulate these signals to recover the known decoding of touch as a function of vibrissa position in the whisk cycle. (ulaval.ca)
  • Any of the nuclei of the twelve pairs of nerves that carry signals directly to or from the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This may explain the distortion of sensory signals observed in trigeminal neuropathic states, and may lead to the development of novel pharmacological interventions. (scirp.org)
  • We will manipulate specific populations of brainstem neurons using a battery of genetic tools to delineate or facial motor actions and motor synergies. (grantome.com)
  • The results from the above efforts will be a quantitative map of the functional organization of neurons in the brainstem that enable studies on computations that underlie or facial behavior. (grantome.com)
  • Because the evoked tears are produced and blocked, respectively, by glutamate and muscimol injections into the vicinity of these neurons, which previously were shown to project to superior salivatory and facial nuclei, 14 it was hypothesized that these neurons form a central component of the lacrimation reflex circuit. (arvojournals.org)
  • Similar data were obtained in the facial motor nucleus . (fishmanvision.com)
  • Here we find that neurons along the lemniscal pathway robustly encode rhythmic whisking on a cycle-by-cycle basis, while encoding along the paralemniscal pathway is relatively poor. (ulaval.ca)
  • Pyramidal neurons in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex can be classified into two major classes: callosal projection neurons and long-range subcortical neurons. (pnas.org)
  • When ectopically expressed, either Fezf2 or Ctip2 can alter the axonal targeting of corticocortical projection neurons and cause them to project to subcortical targets, although Fezf2 can promote a subcortical projection neuron fate in the absence of Ctip2 expression. (pnas.org)
  • The mammalian cerebral cortex is organized into six layers, in which projection neurons within a layer tend to share similar morphologies, functional properties, and connectivity ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Callosal and subcortical projection neurons also exhibit distinctive electrophysiological properties. (pnas.org)
  • Finally, these classes of neurons differ in dendritic morphology: subcortical projection neurons extend apical dendrites into layer 1, whereas those of callosal neurons are shorter ( 2 , 10 , 13 , 14 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • For example, the chromatin remodeling protein Satb2 is required for the development of callosal projection neurons ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • Other cranial nerves that mediate feeling in any part of the face also send fibers to these nuclei. (wisegeek.com)
  • We first showed that the dorsolateral part of the SNr sent projection fibers to the ventrolateral part of the parafascicular thalamic nucleus (PE). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Secondly, we indicated the overlapping distributions of the nigral fibers and the PF neurons projecting to the rostroventral part of the AGl or to the ventrolateral part of the striatum in the ventrolateral part of the PF.This part of the PF contained not only some neurons projecting to the rostroventral part of the AGl, but also many neurons projecting to the ventrolateral part of the striatum. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It has four nuclei that send fibers to form its tracts and is associated with three separate branches. (kenhub.com)
  • The nucleus gracilis is the target of fibers in the fasciculus gracilis, whereas the nucleus cuneatus is the target of fibers in the fasciculus cuneatus. (edu.vn)
  • the nucleus of origin of motor fibers of the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves that supply the striated muscle of the pharynx and larynx. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The plasma parasites: Immunity and pathology225mclaren, 1985) and the frontal lobes probably make the loss of control from the mesenchymal stem cells the mossy fibers first synapse on neurons 2 4 5 nachrs desensitize more quickly and use feed-forward mechanisms that are the potential for adverse effects (corral et al 1997). (haverford.edu)
  • I. Darian-Smith and T. Yokota, "Cortically Evoked Depolarisation of Trigeminal Cutaneous Afferent Fibres in the Cat," Journal of Neurophysiology, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1966, pp. 170-184. (scirp.org)
  • The involvement of transcallosal pathways in the bilateral activation pattern of the aforementioned brain regions in the registration of orofacial pain seems to be of limited importance according to the split-brain study of Stein et al. (springer.com)
  • Pain and temperature, and touch or pressure, are relayed to the nucleus, but with different pathways through the brain. (wisegeek.com)
  • The trigeminal nucleus is very close to the parts of the brain stem that regulate breathing, heart rate, and pupillary response. (wisegeek.com)
  • Further, since all of the cranial nerves arise from the brain stem, tumors or injuries in this region will often impinge on the functions of more than one nucleus. (wisegeek.com)
  • The team discovered a direct route from the neurons that sense pain in the face or head to neurons in the brain that connect to key emotional centers, areas that evoke the suffering associated with pain and the fear, anxiety and depression that so often go along with it. (tmj.org)
  • There are two parabrachial nuclei that hug either side of a portion of the midbrain, a part of the brain under the cortex and over the spinal cord. (tmj.org)
  • Recent neurobiology studies have demonstrated that the mouse USV brain system includes motor cortex and striatal regions, and that the vocal motor cortex sends a direct sparse projection to the brainstem vocal motor nucleus ambiguous, a projection thought be unique to humans among mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • in his view, each of these sensations had a different end organ in the skin and each stimulus-specific end organ was connected by its own private pathway to the brain. (ijbms.com)
  • The signal is then transmitted to the second order of neurons in the brain stem and these neurons then use glutamate as signalling molecule. (indmedica.com)
  • large brain nuclei, the caudate and lentiform nuclei, which combine with the white matter to form the corpus striatum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The paleospinothalamic pathway also activates brain stem nuclei which are the origin of descending pain suppression pathway regulating noxious input at the spinal cord level (see next chapter). (tmc.edu)