Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Desipramine: A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Dopamine beta-HydroxylaseSynaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Nerve Tissue ProteinsAxons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Adrenergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Receptors, Adrenergic: Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol: Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Tyramine: An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Adrenergic Agents: Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Biogenic Monoamines: Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Mice, Inbred C57BLDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Prazosin: A selective adrenergic alpha-1 antagonist used in the treatment of HEART FAILURE; HYPERTENSION; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; RAYNAUD DISEASE; PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY; and URINARY RETENTION.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Neurotransmitter Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit the transport of neurotransmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. For many transmitters, uptake determines the time course of transmitter action so inhibiting uptake prolongs the activity of the transmitter. Blocking uptake may also deplete available transmitter stores. Many clinically important drugs are uptake inhibitors although the indirect reactions of the brain rather than the acute block of uptake itself is often responsible for the therapeutic effects.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Normetanephrine: A methylated metabolite of norepinephrine that is excreted in the urine and found in certain tissues. It is a marker for tumors.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Adrenergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Reserpine: An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Sympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.PropylaminesSymporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Stellate Ganglion: A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Hydroxydopamines: Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Synaptosomes: Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Biogenic Amines: A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Droxidopa: A precursor of noradrenaline that is used in the treatment of parkinsonism. The racemic form (DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine) has also been used, and has been investigated in the treatment of orthostatic hypotension. There is a deficit of noradrenaline as well as of dopamine in Parkinson's disease and it has been proposed that this underlies the sudden transient freezing seen usually in advanced disease. Administration of DL-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine has been claimed to result in an improvement in this phenomenon but controlled studies have failed to demonstrate improvement. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Dopamine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Sympathectomy, Chemical: Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Idazoxan: A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Fluoxetine: The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
... has been shown to be neuroprotective against methamphetamine damage to dopamine neurons. It also increases the ... Amfonelic acid displays no activity in the norepinephrine system. Despite its different mechanism of action, amfonelic acid ...
... neurons in the brain stem. REM-on neurons are primarily cholinergic (i.e., involve acetylcholine); REM-off neurons activate ... 6 in Brain Norepinephrine: Neurobiology and Therapeutics. G.A. Ordway, M.A. Schwartz, & A. Frazer, eds. Cambridge UP. 157-195. ... McCarley and Hobson suggested that the REM-on neurons actually stimulate REM-off neurons, thereby serving as the mechanism for ... 2015). "Single neuron activity and eye movements during human REM sleep and awake vision". Nature Communications. 6 (1038): ...
The norepinephrine from the LC has an excitatory effect on most of the brain, mediating arousal and priming the brain's neurons ... Researchers have concluded that, "Because these neurons are a pivotal source of norepinephrine throughout the brainstem and ... The projections from the locus coeruleus consist of neurons that utilize norepinephrine as their primary neurotransmitter. ... It is composed of mostly medium-size neurons. Melanin granules inside the neurons of the LC contribute to its blue colour. Thus ...
Sympathetic postganglionic neurons typically secrete norepinephrine and are named sympathetic adrenergic neurons; however, the ... Sweat glands, piloerector muscles, and some blood vessels are innervated by sympathetic cholinergic neurons. Diaphoresis may be ... The vast majority of sweat glands in the body are innervated by sympathetic cholinergic neurons. ... postganglionic neurons that innervate sweat glands secrete acetylcholine and hence are termed sympathetic cholinergic neurons. ...
Uptake of guanadrel and storage in sympathetic neurons occurs via the norepinephrine pump; guanadrel slowly displaces ... norepinephrine from its storage in nerve endings and thereby blocks the release of norepinephrine normally produced by nerve ...
... the VLPO area neurons start inhibiting the orexin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Consequently, the norepinephrine and ... The VLPO neurons inhibit and are inhibited by the TMN histamine neurons and REM-off monoamine neurons. Orexin neurons are ... The remaining third of neurons in the VLPO are excited by norepinephrine. Their role is unclear. In the mid-20th century in ... All the triangular multipolar neurons are inhibited by norepinephrine and acetylcholine. However, in the past few years it has ...
As with dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, neurons in the locus coeruleus tend to be melanin-pigmented. ... The major neurotransmitter systems are the noradrenaline (norepinephrine) system, the dopamine system, the serotonin system and ... primarily the melanin-pigmented neurons in the substantia nigra but secondarily the noradrenergic neurons of the locus ... The noradrenaline system consists of just 1500 neurons on each side of the brain, primarily in the locus coeruleus. This is ...
... in those neurons using norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline) or epinephrine (adrenaline) as transmitters, the enzyme ... In neurons that use DA as the transmitter, the decarboxylation of l-DOPA to DA is the final step in transmitter, However, ... Phenylethanolamines such as norepinephrine have a hydroxyl group on the ethyl chain. Catecholamines are produced mainly by the ... Two catecholamines, norepinephrine and dopamine, act as neuromodulators in the central nervous system and as hormones in the ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs) act by blocking both SERTs and NETs. Triple re-uptake inhibitors (TRIs) ... Peripherally, NET can be found in sympathetic peripheral neurons, the adrenal medulla, the lung, the placenta, and the vas ... The norepinephrine transporter, NET. The serotonin transporter, SERT. DAT is responsible for the Na +/Cl − -dependent reuptake ... Identification of norepinephrine transporter selective ligands and broad-spectrum transporter inhibitors". J. Med. Chem. 48 (25 ...
Pinealocytes are specialized neurons, which are rich in monoaminergic neurotransmitters, including, serotonin, norepinephrine, ... neuron-specific enolase) → ++ NFP (neurofilament protein) → - CD56/N-CAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) → ++ S100 → ++ ...
In vertebrates, octopamine replaces norepinephrine in sympathetic neurons with chronic use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors. It ... Octopamine binds weakly to receptors for norepinephrine and epinephrine, but it is not clear whether this has any functional ... Zhou, Chuan; Rao, Yong; Rao, Yi (2008). "A subset of octopaminergic neurons are important for Drosophila aggression". Nature ... Octopamine is an organic chemical closely related to norepinephrine, and synthesized biologically by a homologous pathway. Its ...
It is important to note that in in vitro, mGluR must be activated on these neurons to allow a small Ik leak, as seen in in vivo ... Several neurotransmitters are involved in sleep and waking patterns: acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine, and ... In the TC neurons this is generated by the "slow oscillation" and is dependent on membrane potential bistability, a property of ... Neocortical neurons fire spontaneously during slow-wave sleep, thus they seem to play a role during this period of sleep. Also ...
Norepinephrine can also be produced by neurons to function as a neurotransmitter within the brain. Estrogen can be released by ... GABA binding to a GABAA receptor on a neuron opens a chloride-selective ion channel that is part of the receptor. GABAA ... For example, epinephrine and norepinephrine can function as hormones when released from the adrenal gland and are transported ... Cartford MC, Samec A, Fister M, Bickford PC (2004). "Cerebellar norepinephrine modulates learning of delay classical eyeblink ...
6-OHDA is thought to enter the neurons via the dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) reuptake transporters. Oxidopamine ... In order to induce this condition in animals, around 70% of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain must ... Both these agents likely destroy neurons by generating reactive oxygen species such as superoxide radical. Oxidopamine toxicity ... to selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons. The main use for oxidopamine in scientific research is to induce Parkinsonism in ...
DBH, another copper-dependent enzyme, normally converts dopamine to norepinephrine, a crucial neurotransmitter in ... norepinephrinergic neurons. A natural mouse model of OHS, the so-called mottled blotchy model, recapitulates the connective ...
The sympathetic neurons fire at different rates which determines the release of norepinephrine onto cardiovascular targets. ... Even at resting levels of blood pressure, arterial baroreceptor discharge activates NTS neurons. Some of these NTS neurons are ... Baroreceptor information flows from these NTS neurons to both parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons within the brainstem. The ... These parasympathetic neurons send axons to the heart and parasympathetic activity slows cardiac pacemaking and thus heart rate ...
REM-on cells are inhibited by a subset of ARAS norepinephrine and serotonin neurons called REM-off cells. ... Orexin neurons ... CB1 is present in neurons of the enteric nervous system and in sensory terminals of vagal and spinal neurons in the ... They excite the REM-off monoaminergic neurons during wakefulness and the PT cholinergic neurons during REM sleep. They are ... The norepinephrine pathway originates from the locus ceruleus (LC) and related brainstem nuclei; the serotonergic neurons ...
... markedly greater TAAR1-induced effects in norepinephrine neurons as compared to serotonin neurons. TAAR1 forms GPCR oligomers ... TAAR1 plays a significant role in regulating neurotransmission in dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin neurons in the CNS; ... Because TAAR1 is an intracellular receptor in monoamine neurons, exogenous TAAR1 ligands must enter the presynaptic neuron ... norepinephrine, and serotonin neurons, the primary membrane transporters are DAT, NET, and SERT respectively. TAAR1-D2sh is a ...
Binding causes the depolarization of neurons, and induces the release of release of both dopamine and norepinephrine. ...
... neurons in mammalian CNS would be identifiable as neurons expressing VMAT2 for storage, and the biosynthetic enzyme aromatic ... Based upon neuronal TAAR1 mRNA expression, amphetamine is thought to affect norepinephrine analogously to dopamine. In other ... Neuron. 83 (2): 404-416. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.05.043. PMC 4159050 . PMID 25033183. AMPH also increases intracellular ... As a result of its stability, the ΔFosB protein persists in neurons for at least several weeks after cessation of drug exposure ...
... neurons are mostly adrenergic (that is, epinephrine and norepinephrine function as the primary neurotransmitters). Notable ... postganglionic neurons express nicotinic acetylcholine receptors to receive signals from preganglionic neurons. Preganglionic ... Instead of releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine into a synaptic cleft, cells of the adrenal medulla release these ... The neurotransmitters of postganglionic fibers differ: In the parasympathetic division, neurons are cholinergic (that is, ...
Research with a variety of animals suggest the role of norepinephrine in olfactory learning, in which norepinephrine neurons in ... These neurons have become a large part of the olfactory system throughout evolution to allow higher mammals such as primates to ... Receptor neurons and mitral cells located in the olfactory system adapt in response to odors. This includes the involvement of ... Norepinephrine is considered to have an effect on the functioning of the mitral cells by increasing their responsiveness. ...
It was thought that TCAs work by inhibiting the reuptake of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin by neurons. ... Its affinity for the human norepinephrine transporter (NET) is 1.41 nM, 19.6 nM for the serotonin transporter and 2,100 nM for ... Protriptyline acts by decreasing the reuptake of norepinephrine and to a lesser extent serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. ... Protriptyline increases the concentration of norepinephrine and serotonin (both chemicals that stimulate nerve cells) and, to a ...
... such as epinephrine and norepinephrine work in neuronal gap-junctions causing propagation of action potentials down neurons. ... These types of gap-junctions with this type of modulation are often found in neurons in cardiac tissue and vertebrate retina. ... The direct connection allows for quick and synchronized firing of neurons in the heart which explains the ability for the heart ... Subsequently, this process leads to a better understanding of how electric synapses are facilitated between neurons. Connexon ...
Often seen in the dopaminergic neurons in the brains of patients who have Parkinson's disease, are Lewy bodies, which are ... it is a precursor to neurotransmitters and increases plasma neurotransmitter levels of dopamine and norepinephrine. This ... In the study, GAD turned some of the excitatory glutamate-producing neurons in the sub-thalamic nucleus into inhibitory, GABA- ... However, eventually the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in the brain drop to a low enough count where the symptoms of ...
There are two types of neurons in the pre-BötC: nonpacemaker and pacemaker neurons. Nonpacemaker neurons enter either a tonic ... These include norepinephrine, serotonin, acetylcholine, substance P, ATP, TRH, somatostatin, dopamine, endorphins, and ... intrinsically-bursting pacemaker neurons, and follower neurons within the pre-Bötzinger complex. Together these neurons make up ... Pacemaker neurons can further be subdivided into cadmium sensitive (CS) and cadmium insensitive (CI) pacemaker neurons. ...
Alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons. / Berretta, N.; Bernardi, G.; Mercuri, N. ... The effect of noradrenaline was studied in principal neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata in rat brain slices using ... N2 - The effect of noradrenaline was studied in principal neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata in rat brain slices ... AB - The effect of noradrenaline was studied in principal neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata in rat brain slices ...
... Trevor W. Robbins and Barry J. Everitt. I. Introduction. The neurobiological data ... LC neurons responded selectively to the target cues on this task, and rapidly reversed this salience if the non-target stimuli ... This state of arousal can be self-regulated to a point, and there is evidence to implicate LC neurons in some of the phenomena ... In primates, LC neurons are active during the performance of a vigilance or oddball visual discrimination task that is ...
... wherein glia can provide the ergogenic metabolite lactate to the neuron in a process called the astrocyte-to-neuron shuttle ( ... Neurons are not capable of meeting their own energy requirements, instead energy supply in the brain is managed by an ... The ATP and NADH produced support metabolism in the astrocyte while the lactate is exported to feed the neuron. Thus, rapid ... In this computational model we show that neuromodulatory stimulation by norepinephrine induces astrocytes to recover glucosyl ...
... evidence for local control of norepinephrine release.. M F Nelson, R Zaczek and J T Coyle ... Effects of sustained seizures produced by intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid on noradrenergic neurons: evidence for ... Effects of sustained seizures produced by intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid on noradrenergic neurons: evidence for ... Effects of sustained seizures produced by intrahippocampal injection of kainic acid on noradrenergic neurons: evidence for ...
Nerve growth factor and norepinephrine regulate galanin expression in primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons. Tagged ... Nerve growth factor and norepinephrine regulate galanin expression in primary cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons.pdf. ... NGF deprivation can induce galanin expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Galanin is recogn... ...
... an inhibitor of uptake into dopamine and norepinephrine neurons". Neuropharmacology. 18 (5): 497-501. doi:10.1016/0028-3908(79) ... norepinephrine, and dopamine. It does this by concomitantly inhibiting the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine ... A serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI), also known as a triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI), is a type of ... The anatomical core of the reward system are dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmentum that project to the nucleus ...
... gene Genetics Hippocampus Infographic Interview Knowing Neurons Learning Memory MRI Nature Nature Neuroscience Neuron Neurons ... Copyright © 2017 Knowing Neurons. All rights reserved.. Theme: ColorMag by ThemeGrill. Powered by WordPress. ... This work by Knowing Neurons is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International ... Norepinephrine, placebo, Provigil, Psychostimulant, Ritalin, Smart Drugs, Stacks, stimulant, Study, supplements ...
Note the presence of a large number of βIII tubulin-positive neurons in the norepinephrine-derived sphere. E, MBP-expressing ... Notably, all the norepinephrine-stimulated large neurospheres examined (n = 9) contained ,50 neurons. Together, these findings ... β3-Adrenergic receptors mediate the effects of norepinephrine. Given that norepinephrine directly activated hippocampal ... norepinephrine; 100 nm, 1 μm, 10 μm) or KCl (15 mm). The concentrations of norepinephrine and serotonin used were based on ...
Here we identify sympathetic neuron-associated macrophages (SAMs) as a population of cells that mediate clearance of NE via ... linking macrophages to norepinephrine (NE)-mediated regulation of thermogenesis have been a topic of debate. ... Neurons, Norepinephrine, Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins, Obesity, Sympathetic Nervous System ... Sympathetic neuron-associated macrophages contribute to obesity by importing and metabolizing norepinephrine. ...
Know Your Neurons: What Is the Ratio of Glia to Neurons in the Brain?. Understanding exactly which brain cells die and which ... Cells within each of these stripes then produce a single type of mature neuron, providing a diversity of function that ... ... Actin filaments in a mouse Cortical Neuron in culture. By Howard Vindin (Own work ... Its manifestations are diversified by ... Some biologists and neuroscientists are also very interested in whether the glia to neuron r... read more ...
Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors[edit]. Noradrenergic neurons are located in two major regions in the brain. These ... Overall, inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake induced by TCAs, leads to decreased rates of neuron firing (mediated through α2 ... Dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors[edit]. Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition ... Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Serotonin-norepinephrine ...
Transgenic Neurons Norepinephrine Norepinephrine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins Obesity Sympathetic Nervous System ... Sympathetic neuron-associated macrophages contribute to obesity by importing and metabolizing norepinephrine.. Pirzgalska RM, ... Here we identify sympathetic neuron-associated macrophages (SAMs) as a population of cells that mediate clearance of NE via ... The cellular mechanism(s) linking macrophages to norepinephrine (NE)-mediated regulation of thermogenesis have been a topic of ...
These compounds are synthesized in sympathetic neurons and in the adrenal glands. ... Norepinephrine Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) belongs to a family of biological compounds called catecholamines. ... transmitting a signal from one neuron to another neuron or muscle cell. After release from a neuron, norepinephrine diffuses ... Norepinephrine Chemistry: Foundations and Applications COPYRIGHT 2004 The Gale Group, Inc.. Norepinephrine. Norepinephrine ( ...
11 A). In the remaining two neurons, norepinephrine had no effect on resting pHj. The effect of norepinephrine on steady state ... 10A). In the remaining neuron, norepinephrine had no effect on steady state pHj. Norepinephrine also increased the rate of pHj ... 9 minutes before the neuron was exposed to 10 u M norepinephrine. Under these conditions, 10 uM norepinephrine (NE) failed to ... The neurons, with an initial mean steady state pHj of ~ 7.38, were exposed to 10 p M norepinephrine (NE) for ~ 11 minutes and ...
Norepinephrine, or noradrenaline, is a catecholamine that functions as a neurotransmitter and a stress hormone. High levels of ... Neuroinflammation can damage neurons and disrupt neuron connections. This can increase blood concentrations of the stress ... by stimulating norepinephrine receptors in the prefrontal cortex. A stimulation of the norepinephrine receptors leads to a ... High levels of norepinephrine can refer to high levels of the chemical either in the blood or in the central nervous system. ...
... Academic Article ... Norepinephrine-containing neurons of the locus coeruleus of the cat were recorded with microelectrodes during unrestrained ... The recorded neurons were subsequently defined by combined fluorescence histochemistry of catecholamines and production of ... These data provide a direct correlation between the activity of defined catecholamine-containing neurons and the spontaneous ...
Target Stimulus Locus Coeruleus Tonic Activity Vigilance Task Locus Coeruleus Neuron These keywords were added by machine and ... Our recent work on the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system has led us to hypothesize that it plays a central role in ... Aston-Jones, G., Rajkowski, J., Kubiak, P. and Alexinsky, T., 1994, Locus coeruleus neurons in the monkey are selectively ... Aston-Jones G., Rajkowski J., Cohen J. (2002) Role of the Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrine System in Attention and Behavioral ...
Alleviating transcriptional inhibition of the norepinephrine Slc6a2 transporter gene in depolarized neurons. In: Journal of ... Alleviating transcriptional inhibition of the norepinephrine Slc6a2 transporter gene in depolarized neurons. Journal of ... Alleviating transcriptional inhibition of the norepinephrine Slc6a2 transporter gene in depolarized neurons. / Harikrishnan, ... title = "Alleviating transcriptional inhibition of the norepinephrine Slc6a2 transporter gene in depolarized neurons", ...
This rewiring of the norepinephrine signaling takes place at a cell membrane receptor on the surface of neurons called the ... Wang and colleagues have found that amyloid-beta oligomers hijack norepinephrine signaling at brain neurons, which falsely ... The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor normally works this way -- it has a binding site for the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, and ... Co-first authors with corresponding author Wang in the study, "Amyloid-beta redirects norepinephrine signaling to activate the ...
Application of norepinephrine (NE) at low iontophoretic currents (1-15 nA) produced a delayed activation of most LGN neurons. ... Application of norepinephrine (NE) at low iontophoretic currents (1-15 nA) produced a delayed activation of most LGN neurons. ... Application of norepinephrine (NE) at low iontophoretic currents (1-15 nA) produced a delayed activation of most LGN neurons. ... Application of norepinephrine (NE) at low iontophoretic currents (1-15 nA) produced a delayed activation of most LGN neurons. ...
Molinoff PB: The regulation of the noradrenergic neuron. J Psychiatr Res. 1974;11:339-45. [PubMed:4156788 ] ... Norepinephrine. Description. Norepinephrine is the precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a ... Norepinephrine is elevated in the urine of people who consume bananas. Norepinephrine is also a microbial metabolite; urinary ... Showing metabocard for Norepinephrine (HMDB0000216). Jump To Section: IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectra ...
Electrophysiological Recording of Locus Coeruleus Norepinephrine Neurons.. Norepinephrine (NE) neurons were reliably recorded ... The termination of a burst was defined as an ISI ,0.16 second for NE and DA neurons, and ISI ,0.01 second for 5-HT neurons ( ... This decrease in 5-HT neuron firing may stem from an action of lamotrigine on the facilitatory effect of glutamatergic neurons ... Electrophysiological Recording of Dorsal Raphe Nucleus 5-HT Neurons.. 5-HT neurons were recorded reliably at the following ...
NET inhibition reduces the firing rate of locus coeruleus neurons in animals.28 Noradrenergic neurons in the human locus ... The neuronal norepinephrine transporter (NET) takes up synaptic norepinephrine in the brain and in peripheral tissues.1 Changes ... However, upright norepinephrine was increased, and DHPG:norepinephrine ratio was reduced in the luteal phase compared with the ... The DHPG:norepinephrine ratio did not change during the menstrual cycle and decreased similarly with selective NET inhibition. ...
... eGFP+ neurons that exhibit sympathetic marker expression and electrophysiological properties and norepinephrine secretion. Upon ... Neurons, hESC-derived PHOX2B::eGFP+ sympathetic neurons. NMVM, neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes. (B-C) We used the neurons ... In (F), 3 of 4 neurons responded to 50 mM KCl. In (G), 4 of 9 neurons fired a single of action potential (Type 1) and 5 of 9 ... neurons with cardiomyocytes, n = 60). Red lines indicate each mean value. (G) The percent of total responder neurons (ΔF/F0 , ...
... which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both ... which has a high affinity for the norepinephrine monoamine transporter, or amitriptyline, an agent with high affinity for both ... the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on ... the norepinephrine and serotonin monoamine transporters. Maternal behavior and postpartum aggression were assessed on ...
  • The selectivity of this response of LC neurons was emphasized by the observation that the same CS previously paired with a rewarding stimulus did not evoke increases in NE neuronal firing. (acnp.org)
  • In sporadic postural tachycardia syndrome, biochemical data might be consistent with impaired neuronal norepinephrine uptake. (ahajournals.org)
  • eGFP+ neurons controlled beating rates of cardiomyocytes, and the physical interactions between these cells increased neuronal maturation. (nih.gov)
  • This study provides a foundation for human sympathetic neuron specification and for hPSC-based neuronal control of organs in a dish. (nih.gov)
  • Discharges reverted to regulate after medication washout Debate These experiments present that, when within a neuron, 1-adrenoceptors are well with the capacity of highly inhibiting the M-current and significantly raising neuronal excitability, exactly like an endogenous Gq-coupled GPCR like the muscarinic M1-receptor. (conferencecallsworld.com)
  • 16 Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to examine the effect of nAChR activation on norepinephrine release, using both microdialysis perfusion in vivo , in which neuronal circuits are in place, and synaptosome release in vitro , where direct synaptic connections are lacking. (asahq.org)
  • One emerging concept is that different types of neuron use a similar core programme to control shared modes of neurotransmission, but recruit different factors that are specific for each neuronal type. (nih.gov)
  • It let them track the activity of nearly every neuron in the zebrafish brain and then identify the cell type of every neuron of interest -- the crucial step in determining which neuronal circuits are participating in the induction of a brain state such as alertness. (eurekalert.org)
  • Uptake2: Norepinephrine is sucked into nearby non-neuronal cells. (healthboards.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the neuronal circuitry linking CCK to the population of NTS-PPG neurons. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • FERNANDEZ, Belisario E y GIRONACCI, Mariela M . Role of Angiotensin (1-7) in Neuronal Norepinephrine Reuptake in Hypertension. (scielo.org.ar)
  • The researchers found that social interactions during song tutoring increase the percent of norepinephrine-producing neurons that express EGR-1, suggesting that this neuronal population is more active during social tutoring. (mcgill.ca)
  • Norepinephrine activity is efficiently terminated through inactivation by the enzymes catechol- O -methyltransferase (COMT) or monoamine oxidase (MAO), by reuptake into nerve endings, or by diffusion from binding sites. (britannica.com)
  • Brain Anatomy Weight: 1.3-kg (3-lb) mass Color: Pinkish-gray jellylike tissue made up of approximately 100 billion nerve cells, or neurons Neuroglia (supporting tissue) cells Vascular (blood-carrying) and other tissues Between the brain and the cranium-the part of the skull that directly covers the brain-is three protective membranes, or meninges. (scribd.com)
  • In a study to be published online Nov. 2 in Cell , Karl Deisseroth, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator and professor of bioengineering and of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford, and his colleagues describe how they managed to observe activity in nearly every nerve cell, or neuron, in the brains of larval zebrafish while tracking the creatures' reaction times in response to a stimulus. (eurekalert.org)
  • University of Virginia psychologists have moved the science of memory forward, reporting that stimulating the vagus nerve, which carries sensory messages to and from the brain, releases the neurotransmitter norepinephrine into the amygdala, strengthening memory storage in limbic regions of the brain that regulate arousal, memory and feeling responses to emotionally laden stimuli. (sott.net)
  • Armed with these new insights, scientists can now more carefully calibrate how they stimulate the vagus nerve to influence the release of norepinephrine, flood the amygdala and strengthen memory. (sott.net)
  • The blocker--which affects the descending (efferent) fibers of the vagus nerve--didn't change the release of norepinephrine any more than did a control solution of saline. (sott.net)
  • Robust functional coupling of hPSC-derived neurons with target tissues in vitro is essential for modeling intercellular physiology in a dish and to further translational studies, but it has proven difficult to achieve. (nih.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) under the control of the PPG promoter were used to identify PPG neurons in vitro and to record their electrical and pharmacological profile. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The recent development of transgenic mice expressing eYFP (Venus) under the control of the PPG promoter ( 18 ) has enabled identification of this cell population in brain slice preparations and allowed the first characterization of PPG neuron activity in vitro ( 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Measuring LC activity concomitantly with behavior provides useful information on the functions of the LC norepinephrine (NE) neurons, although it must be borne in mind that any correlative study of this sort does not establish the overall significance of the LC in particular behavioral processes. (acnp.org)
  • These socially driven modifications of behavior suggest a potential role for neuromodulators, such as norepinephrine or dopamine, in the learning and production of song. (physiology.org)
  • Accordingly, it was concluded that stress-induced decline of IL-4 concentration from LC neurons may be related to anxiety-like behavior and an inverse relationship exists between IL-4 secretion and HPA/SAM-axes activation. (hindawi.com)
  • The short-term and long-term consequences of norepinephrine release in the brain thus depend on the situation and behavior. (innovations-report.com)
  • This lesson is for a standard level high school biology course and is meant to review and strengthen the concepts of neuron physiology and neurotransmission, and connect these concepts to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (cdc.gov)
  • Although SNRIs can produce anxiogenic (anxiety-inducing) reactions, the norepinephrine system is arguably better described as a modulator that has both anxiogenic and anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing) effects of varying severity. (news-medical.net)
  • Here, we show that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde, which is produced exclusively in noradrenergic neurons by monoamine oxidase A metabolism of norepinephrine, activated asparagine endopeptidase that cleaved Tau at residue N368 into aggregation- and propagation-prone forms, thus leading to LC degeneration and the spread of Tau pathology. (jci.org)
  • Changes in pupil diameter that reflect effort and other cognitive factors are often interpreted in terms of the activity of norepinephrine-containing neurons in the brainstem nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), but there is little direct evidence for such a relationship. (nih.gov)
  • Neurons Nucleus! (prezi.com)
  • Another satiety hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), has also been linked to activation of brain stem neurons, suggesting that it might act partially via centrally projecting neurons from the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone produced by specialized endocrine cells in the intestinal epithelium ( 1 ) and a population of preproglucagon (PPG) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) ( 2 - 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The newest class of anti-depressants, which selectively inhibits the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine, may be even more successful in treating depression and anxiety and lowering blood concentrations of stress chemicals, according to a study in the October 2009 issue of "Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. (livestrong.com)
  • However, why LC neurons are selectively vulnerable to developing early Tau pathology and degenerating later in disease and whether the LC might seed the stereotypical spread of Tau pathology to the rest of the brain remain unclear. (jci.org)
  • How much stimulatory input they receive from glutamatergic neurons in another brain region, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) (see Figure 1). (drugabuse.gov)