The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
Neurons that fire when an animal acts or observes the same action of another thus coding the motor response. They were originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey and studies have shown that neurons that have a similar mechanism are present in humans. Mirror neurons are theorized to be related to social cognition.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.

Regulation of neurotrophin-3 expression by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: the role of Wnt factors. (1/5514)

Neurotrophins regulate survival, axonal growth, and target innervation of sensory and other neurons. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed specifically in cells adjacent to extending axons of dorsal root ganglia neurons, and its absence results in loss of most of these neurons before their axons reach their targets. However, axons are not required for NT-3 expression in limbs; instead, local signals from ectoderm induce NT-3 expression in adjacent mesenchyme. Wnt factors expressed in limb ectoderm induce NT-3 in the underlying mesenchyme. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediated by Wnt factors control NT-3 expression and may regulate axonal growth and guidance.  (+info)

Plasticity of first-order sensory synapses: interactions between homosynaptic long-term potentiation and heterosynaptically evoked dopaminergic potentiation. (2/5514)

Persistent potentiations of the chemical and electrotonic components of the eighth nerve (NVIII) EPSP recorded in vivo in the goldfish reticulospinal neuron, the Mauthner cell, can be evoked by afferent tetanization or local dendritic application of an endogenous transmitter, dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine). These modifications are attributable to the activation of distinct intracellular kinase cascades. Although dopamine-evoked potentiation (DEP) is mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), tetanization most likely activates a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase via an increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We present evidence that the eighth nerve tetanus that induces LTP does not act by triggering dopamine release, because it is evoked in the presence of a broad spectrum of dopamine antagonists. To test for interactions between these pathways, we applied the potentiating paradigms sequentially. When dopamine was applied first, tetanization produced additional potentiation of the mixed synaptic response, but when the sequence was reversed, DEP was occluded, indicating that the synapses potentiated by the two procedures belong to the same or overlapping populations. Experiments were conducted to determine interactions between the underlying regulatory mechanisms and the level of their convergence. Inhibiting PKA does not impede tetanus-induced LTP, and chelating postsynaptic Ca2+ with BAPTA does not block DEP, indicating that the initial steps of the induction processes are independent. Pharmacological and voltage-clamp analyses indicate that the two pathways converge on functional AMPA/kainate receptors for the chemically mediated EPSP and gap junctions for the electrotonic component or at intermediaries common to both pathways. A cellular model incorporating these interactions is proposed on the basis of differential modulation of synaptic responses via receptor-protein phosphorylation.  (+info)

Neural mapping of direction and frequency in the cricket cercal sensory system. (3/5514)

Primary mechanosensory receptors and interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system are sensitive to the direction and frequency of air current stimuli. Receptors innervating long mechanoreceptor hairs (>1000 microm) are most sensitive to low-frequency air currents (<150 Hz); receptors innervating medium-length hairs (900-500 microm) are most sensitive to higher frequency ranges (150-400 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that the projection pattern of the synaptic arborizations of long hair receptor afferents form a continuous map of air current direction within the terminal abdominal ganglion (). We demonstrate here that the projection pattern of the medium-length hair afferents also forms a continuous map of stimulus direction. However, the afferents from the long and medium-length hair afferents show very little spatial segregation with respect to their frequency sensitivity. The possible functional significance of this small degree of spatial segregation was investigated, by calculating the relative overlap between the long and medium-length hair afferents with the dendrites of two interneurons that are known to have different frequency sensitivities. Both interneurons were shown to have nearly equal anatomical overlap with long and medium hair afferents. Thus, the differential overlap of these interneurons with the two different classes of afferents was not adequate to explain the observed frequency selectivity of the interneurons. Other mechanisms such as selective connectivity between subsets of afferents and interneurons and/or differences in interneuron biophysical properties must play a role in establishing the frequency selectivities of these interneurons.  (+info)

Differential expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its downregulation by axotomy. (4/5514)

Sensitivity to the pungent vanilloid, capsaicin, defines a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are mainly polymodal nociceptors. The recently cloned vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) is activated by capsaicin and noxious heat. Using combined in situ hybridization and histochemical methods, we have characterized in sensory ganglia the expression of VR1 mRNA. We show that this receptor is almost exclusively expressed by neurofilament-negative small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion cells. Within this population, VR1 mRNA is detected at widely varying levels in both the NGF receptor (trkA)-positive, peptide-producing cells that elicit neurogenic inflammation and the functionally less characterized glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-responsive cells that bind lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4). Cells without detectable levels of VR1 mRNA are found in both classes. A subpopulation of the IB4-binding cells that produce somatostatin has relatively low levels of VR1 mRNA. A previously uncharacterized population of very small cells that express the receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) and that do not label for trkA or IB4-binding has the highest relative levels of VR1 mRNA. The majority of small visceral sensory neurons of the nodose ganglion also express VR1 mRNA, in conjunction with the BDNF receptor trkB but not trkA. Axotomy results in the downregulation of VR1 mRNA in dorsal root ganglion cells. Our data emphasize the heterogeneity of VR1 mRNA expression by subclasses of small sensory neurons, and this may result in their differential sensitivity to chemical and noxious heat stimuli. Our results also indicate that peripherally derived trophic factors may regulate levels of VR1 mRNA.  (+info)

Localization of sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons innervating the heart of the Beijing duck by means of the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. (5/5514)

Sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons were labeled by injections of horseradish peroxidase into various regions of the heart in 33 Beijing ducks. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the heart were located in the paravertebral ganglia C15 (C16 is the last cervical segment in the duck) to T3, especially in the ganglion T1. The coronary sulcus and ventricle were more abundantly innervated by sympathetic neurons than the atrium. The left side of the heart was preferentially innervated by sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the left side of paravertebral ganglia but the right side of the heart were equally supplied from the right and left ganglia. Within the medulla oblongata, the number of labeled vagal preganglionic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus was much greater than that in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. Labeled neurons of the nucleus ambiguus were found in many ducks injected into the coronary sulcus. Cardiac sensory neurons were observed in the dorsal root ganglia C15 to T2 (highest in the ganglion T1) and in the nodose and jugular ganglia of the vagus nerve. These labeled neurons probably form the afferent and efferent limbs of cardiac reflexes and control circulation in the Beijing duck.  (+info)

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (6/5514)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia. (7/5514)

The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase.  (+info)

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (8/5514)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

Spinal afferent neurons are responsible for the transduction and transmission of noxious (painful) stimuli and innocuous stimuli that do not reach conscious sensations from visceral organs to the central nervous system. Although the location of the nerve cell bodies of spinal afferents is well known to reside in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), the morphology and location of peripheral nerve endings of spinal afferents that transduce sensory stimuli into action potentials is poorly understood. The individual nerve endings of spinal afferents that innervate the urinary bladder have never been unequivocally identified in any species. We used an anterograde tracing technique developed in our laboratory to selectively label only spinal afferents. Mice were anesthetized and unilateral injections of dextran-amine made into lumbosacral DRGs (L5-S2). Seven to nine days postsurgery, mice were euthanized, the urinary bladder removed, then fresh-fixed and stained for immunoreactivity to ...
We (30) have recently reported that the majority of mouse LS colon sensory neurons respond to heat, protons, and capsaicin, consistent with the expression of TRPV1 channels. In the present report, we examined, in greater detail, the acid-sensitive currents in this population of colon sensory neurons as well as in a second TL sensory pathway innervating the distal colon. We found that visceral sensory neurons labeled from the colon are functionally distinct from unlabeled neurons, which likely project to nonvisceral targets, such as the skin or muscle. Whereas most unlabeled DRG neurons generated transient amiloride-sensitive currents in response to acid, most LS and TL colon sensory neurons responded with slowly activating, sustained currents that were reversibly inhibited by the TRPV1 blocker capsazepine. Consistent with the role of TRPV1 as the principal mediator of acid-sensitive currents in colon sensory neurons, the peak current and fraction of neurons responding to acid were significantly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral GABA(A) receptors. T2 - Evidence for peripheral primary afferent depolarization. AU - Carlton, S. M.. AU - Zhou, S.. AU - Coggeshall, R. E.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to thank Brenda Kenworthy for her excellent secretarial assistance in the preparation of this manuscript, and Dr A. L. DeBlas for kindly providing a monoclonal antibody directed against the β 2 /β 3 subunits. This study was supported by NIH grants NS11255 (SMC and REC), NS27910 (SMC) and NS10161 (REC). PY - 1999/7. Y1 - 1999/7. N2 - We propose that the primary afferent depolarization that follows GABA(A) receptor activation in the spinal cord also occurs in the periphery. As evidence, the present study localizes β2/β3 and α1 subunits of the GABA(A) receptor on 10-14% of the unmyelinated primary afferents axons in the glabrous skin of the cat paw. Behavioral studies demonstrate that local peripheral injection of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol at a low concentration (2.0μM) ...
Garcia-Morales, Carla, Liu, Chiung-Hui, Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad, Hajihosseini, Mohammad K. and Wheeler, Grant N. (2009) Frizzled-10 promotes sensory neuron development in Xenopus embryos. Developmental Biology, 335 (1). pp. 143-155. ISSN 1095-564X Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Distension of the main pulmonary artery and its bifurcation are known to result in a reflex vasoconstriction and increased respiratory drive; however, these responses are observed at abnormally high distending pressures. In this study we recorded afferent activity from pulmonary arterial baroreceptors to investigate their stimulus-response characteristics and to determine whether they are influenced by physiological changes in intrathoracic pressure. In chloralose-anaesthetized dogs, a cardiopulmonary bypass was established, the pulmonary trunk and its main branches were vascularly isolated and perfused with venous blood at pulstatile pressures designed to simulate the normal pulmonary arterial pressure waveform. Afferent slips of a cervical vagus were dissected and nerve fibres identified that displayed discharge patterns with characteristics expected from pulmonary arterial baroreceptors. Recordings were obtained with (a) chest open (b) chest closed and resealed, and (c) with phasic negative ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Discharge properties of group III and IV muscle afferents: their responses to mechanical and metabolic stimuli.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
In buy The Primary Afferent Neuron: A past time cause of Borrelia burgdorferi: a space Barsic future and disease deals. J Clin Microbiol 1992; classic Johnson RC. role areas for groups and their store to times in adhesion and in not.
Muscle sensory neurons are involved in proprioceptor signaling and also report on metabolic state and injury related events. We...
Specific subpopulations of lung-related primary afferent neurons in dorsal root and vagal sensory ganglia have been reported to express P2X2 and P2X3 receptors both in the neuronal cell bodies and in their peripheral terminals. The afferent innervation of airways and lungs is organised as sensory receptor structures, of which at least seven types with a vagal origin and two with a spinal origin have been reported. In view of the recently suggested therapeutic promise of ATP antagonism - specifically at P2X3 receptor expressing nociceptive fibres - in respiratory disorders, the present work focusses on four distinct populations of pulmonary sensory receptors that have so far been reported to express P2X2/3 receptors ...
View Notes - Test #4 picture questions from BIO 2113 at Chatt Tech. Figure 12.1 Using Figure 12.1, match the following: 1) Afferent impulses from all senses and all parts of the body converge here
In this video, youll learn about sensory neurons and how they give rise to your five senses. Also, youll explore the brains role in processing...
There is both morphological and functional evidence that capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons innervate the digestive tract. The possible function of these neurons in gastric ulceration and gastrointestinal motility was investigated in rats which had been systemically pretreated with capsaicin (50-125 mg/kg). It was found that capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons do not participate in the physiologic control of gastrointestinal propulsion. However, the inhibition of gastrointestinal transit due to surgical trauma or peritoneal irritation with iodine was reduced in capsaicin-treated rats. It was concluded that capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons may be involved in sympathetic reflex inhibition of gastrointestinal propulsion. Gastric ulceration induced by the intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin or intragastric administration of ethanol was greatly aggravated in capsaicin-treated rats. Since an involvement of the autonomic nervous system as well as of histamine and prostaglandins in this effect of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell and molecular analysis of long-term sensitization in Aplysia. AU - Castellucci, V. F.. AU - Frost, W. N.. AU - Goelet, P.. AU - Montarolo, P. G.. AU - Schacher, S.. AU - Morgan, J. A.. AU - Blumenfeld, H.. AU - Kandel, E. R.. PY - 1986/12/1. Y1 - 1986/12/1. N2 - We have found that one cellular locus for the storage of the memory underlying short-term sensitization of the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex in Aplysia is the set of monosynaptic connections between the siphon sensory cells and the gill and siphon motor neurons. These connections also participate in the storage of memory underlying long-term sensitization. In animals that have undergone long-term sensitization, the amplitudes of the monosynaptic connections are significantly larger (2.2x) than the ones in control animals. To study the mechanisms of onset and retention of long-term synaptic facilitation that underly long-term sensitization and the role of protein synthesis in long-term memory, we have developed ...
Sensory neurons possess the central and peripheral branches and they form unique spinal neural circuits with motoneurons during development. Peripheral branches of sensory axons fasciculate with the motor axons that extend toward the peripheral muscles from the central nervous system (CNS), whereas the central branches of proprioceptive sensory neurons directly innervate motoneurons. Although anatomically well documented, the molecular mechanism underlying sensory-motor interaction during neural circuit formation is not fully understood. To investigate the role of motoneuron on sensory neuron development, we analyzed sensory neuron phenotypes in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of Olig2 knockout (KO) mouse embryos, which lack motoneurons. We found an increased number of apoptotic cells in the DRG of Olig2 KO embryos at embryonic day (E) 10.5. Furthermore, abnormal axonal projections of sensory neurons were observed in both the peripheral branches at E10.5 and central branches at E15.5. To ...
The interneuronally mediated reflex actions evoked by electrical stimulation of group II muscle afferents in low spinal cats have been reinvestigated with intracellular recording from motoneurones to
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Contribution of nerve growth factor to augmented TRPV1 responses of muscle sensory neurons by femoral artery occlusion. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Vol 9: Peripheral Glia Have a Pivotal Role in the Initial Response to Axon Degeneration of Peripheral Sensory Neurons in Zebrafish.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The use of genetically encoded calcium indicators in vivo reveals polymodality is a rare phenomenon in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, most of these neurons respond specifically to a single type of sensation, such as mechanical stimulation, cold, or heat, reports a team of researchers led by Edward Emery and John Wood, University College London, UK.
The use of genetically encoded calcium indicators in vivo reveals polymodality is a rare phenomenon in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, most of these neurons respond specifically to a single type of sensation, such as mechanical stimulation, cold, or heat, reports a team of researchers led by Edward Emery and John Wood, University College London, UK.
To : All First of all I would like to thank you all who answered my first question about examples of sensory neurones who have cell body located close to the stimulus ? The answers were as follows : PHOTORECEPTORS, COCHLEAR HAIR CELL, STRECH RECEPTORS, OLFACTORY RECEPTORS, GUASTATORY RECEPTORS. I looked up the sensors and found that all of them responds in a linear fashion to a increase in stimulus. However, in the enteric nervous system several authors say that the AH neurones are the sensory neurones. The AH neurone is characterized by having a prolonged after- hyperpolarization (,4 seconds) following an action potential, which is caused by opening of calcium activated potassium channels. I have always wondered why a sensory neurone would behave with such a strange pattern. The neurone is complete inactive during the after- hyperpolarization, so it is not really a matter of adaptation, but more a question of making the neurone completely inactive. The AH neurones are possibly coupled to a ...
Sensory Neuron Diagram Labeled - See more about Sensory Neuron Diagram Labeled, sensory neuron diagram labeled, sensory neuron diagram labeled gcse
Both cell types generic kamagra super 160mg without a prescription, in conjunction with enteric microbiota produce a variety of signalling molecules that can activate a number of receptors on extrinsic primary afferent neurons buy kamagra super 160 mg with visa. Therefore, endocrine, neuronal and immune signals are all integrated and are sent to specific brain regions and may alter cognition, mood and emotions. The stomach is predominantly governed by vago-vagal reflexes, thus signals arising from extrinsic and intrinsic neurons are relatively weak. In the intestines, intrinsic primary afferent neurons and enteric motorneurons are important for intestinal function afferents are much stronger in the intestine, which are reliant on these signals [17]. Inter- estingly, some of these intrinsic afferents are normally unresponsive to mechanical stimuli, and only become responsive during periods of inflammation [33]. These terminals contain chemosensitive receptors, which are responsive to the ...
Whole cell patch recordings were obtained from medium diameter (35-45 microm) dorsal root ganglion neurons. Using electrophysiological parameters, we were able to subclassify acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglion cells into three uniform (types 5, 6 and 9) and one mixed class (type 8) of neurons. …
Neurons send signals to other cells as electrochemical waves travelling along thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals called neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses. A cell that receives a synaptic signal may be excited, inhibited, or otherwise modulated. Sensory neurons are activated by physical stimuli impinging on them, and send signals that inform the central nervous system of the state of the body and the external environment. Motor neurons, situated either in the central nervous system or in peripheral ganglia, connect the nervous system to muscles or other effector organs. Central neurons, which in vertebrates greatly outnumber the other types, make all of their input and output connections with other neurons. The interactions of all these types of neurons form neural circuits that generate an organisms perception of the world and determine its behavior. Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glial cells (or simply ...
Types The simplest way to classify neurons is based on their function (see Figure 3).Which of the following types of neurons carry impulses away.. Which of the following statements about sensory. downward utilizes cell bodies of first order sensory neurons.The following image. function of the nervous system, neurons have.Interneurons are types of nerve. the analogous neurons have been named. some of the more compelling ideas about the possible functions of interneurons.Functions of the Nervous System 1. interpret the message from the sensory neurons ...
The flexible neurons also greatly expand the brains capacity to perform tasks. In the computer model, neural networks without mixed selectivity neurons could learn about 100 tasks before running out of capacity. That capacity greatly expanded to tens of millions of tasks as mixed selectivity neurons were added to the model. When mixed selectivity neurons reached about 30 percent of the total, the networks capacity became virtually unlimited, Miller says - just like a human brain. […]. Miller is now trying to figure out how the brain sorts through all of this activity to create coherent messages. There is some evidence suggesting that these neurons communicate with the correct targets by synchronizing their activity with oscillations of a particular brainwave frequency.. The idea is that neurons can send different messages to different targets by virtue of which other neurons they are synchronized with, Miller says. It provides a way of essentially opening up these special channels of ...
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What and When: The 2018 NEURON Summer Course is a six day hands-on course about computational modeling with NEURON. It will start at 9 AM on Monday, August 6, and end at 5 PM on Saturday, August 11, 2018. This course will present what you need to know to use NEURON to model individual neurons and networks of neurons, and is suitable for participants at all levels of expertise ...
On Thursday 11 March 2010 15:09:33 J.A.Legris wrote: , , See for a , computational romp around this question. Result: 10^11 to 10^13 , neurons. I went over this and could not find anything that is more than a rough estimation. Judging fronm the number of neurons in the retina to the number of neurons in the brain seems to be al little bit oversimplified. Neurons are not distributed homogeneously throughout the brain (white / grey matter). Moreover the density (number of neurones per volume) may vary also. To get a real idea on the numbers iiI would like to see a paper dealing with sections, reconstructions and comparisons of different parts of the brain. Kind regards Michael ...
Chemotherapy‐Induced Neuropathy and Drug Discovery Platform Using Human Sensory Neurons Converted Directly from Adult Peripheral Blood Academic Article ...
The laboratory is still open, we have organised it in such a way that we minimize social interaction. Researchers and technicians have received specifics instructions in order to maintain a safe and healthy workplace to minimize any impact on the work we are doing for our clients and partners. Staff not essential to the technical functioning of the laboratory is teleworking and remaining at your disposal.. Be sure that Neuron Experts does anything it can to protect his staff and to complete his work.. Be sure that we are doing our best to respect the time limits for all studies. We will try our best to give you the best service we can. If we notice delays you will be informed as soon as possible. Many thanks for your support and your cooperation in business.. Neuron Experts ...
When our neurons -- the principle cells of the brain -- die, so do we. Most neurons are created during embryonic development and have no backup after birth. Researchers have generally believed that their survival is determined nearly extrinsically, or by outside forces, such as the tissues and cells that neurons supply with nerve cells.…
Yes I tried it and yes I saw the error message once, but Im having the hardest time getting it to recur. The first and only time I saw it was after I was just fooling around running a series of simulations, then clicked on the Excitatory Myelinated panels Re-Create button a couple of times, and there was the error. I quit NEURON and tried to deliberately cause the error, but so far without success. Is it necessary to run one or more simulations, or is it enough to click on one of these Re-Create buttons several times? Just clicking 4 or even many times on one or the other button, or always on one, doesnt seem to do it on this PC under 32 bit CentOS 6.4 with NEURON 7.3 (840:c597ab253106) 2013-03-31. What version of NEURON are you using, and under what OS ...
Depressing reading in this piece by George Monbiot on Canada: So here I am, watching the astonishing spectacle of a beautiful, cultured nation turning itself into a corrupt petro-state. Canada is slipping down the development ladder, retreating from a complex, diverse economy towards dependence on a single primary resource, which happens to be the dirtiest […]
Zheng et al demonstated in Neuron, that mapped basal Ca2+ in neurons and astrocytes with submicron resolution helps to unveil heterogeneous concentration landscapes that depend on age and preceding activity of the bain. Monitoring nanomolar-scale molecular interaction between OGB1 nanomolar sensitivity dye and Ca2+ was performed by Femto2D-Galvo equipped with FLIM module. Zheng et al, Neuron, 2015
Get the total number of neurons in the entire network. This number does also include the bias neurons, so a 2-4-2 network has 2+4+2 +2(bias) = 10 neurons. ...
This module on the biological basis of behavior provides an overview of the basic structure of neurons and their means of communication. Neurons, cells in the central nervous system, receive information from our sensory systems (vision, audition, olfac...
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Are neurons likely to be a site for cancer formation? Why or why not?The answer is no. Neurons are among a special class of terminally-differentia...
Suggested essay topics and study questions for s Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain. Perfect for students who have to write Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain essays.
The neurosimulator NEURON, Hines, M. L. , Methods in Neuronal Modeling, edited by C. Koch and I. Segev. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p.129-136, (1998) ...
The neurosimulator NEURON, Hines, M. L. , Methods in Neuronal Modeling, edited by C. Koch and I. Segev. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p.129-136, (1998) ...
We explain Neurons with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|Identify the components, types, and functions of neurons.|/p|
Scientists have known about D1 neurons that can turn one drink into two-or more. Now, theyve discovered D2 neurons, which tell us to stop.
FrSky Neuron 40S ESC Features: Diminished size with the equivalent performance as Neuron 40 and 60, Protective jumper cap for enabling BEC function.
This is the fourth piece in my neuron series. The other three pieces are 8 x 8 and this one is 18 x 24. The medium is scratchboard and ink and it is called Swimming Underwater with the Neurons. Several of my friends make a
Casing of the axon made of a fatty substance (myelin) providing electrical insulation for the neuron and increasing the conduction speed of the nerve impulse. ...
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
The computational properties of a neuron are intimately related to its morphology. However, unlike electrophysiological properties, it is not straightforward to collapse the complexity of the three-di
A neuron, also known as a nerve cell, detects stimuli in its environment, integrates the information and then decides whether or not to transmit a signal to the next cell. There are three varieties...
The movement of molecules in the neuron extensions known as axons is a process that is vital for the survival of cells and the smooth operation of the nervous system. It is performed by vesicles that travel fast thanks to the energy-hungry molecular engines. At the
Neurons are the basic computational building blocks that compose our brain. They transmit and receive electrical signals in the body.
Neuron Toolbook 2 - posted in Windows XP, 2000, 2003, NT: I have installed this program, but I get a SHELL.DLL error (as in a cannot find ) and a TB80NET.EXE error. I have looked and found that my shell.dll fille is in the correct place, so I cant figure out what is going on. I have uninstalled and reinstalled the application, but still get the same error.
Interaction Between Neurons and Glia in Aging and Disease und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
Tens of billions of cells in your body die everyday. Its a natural process, important for keeping the body healthy. Now, in a world first, researchers have directly imaged the death of neurons in mice, and as how the body clears them out afterwards.
Designed with modern, comfort-focused geometry and excellent suspension, the Neuron CF 9.0 just got even more versatile. Read more and view tech specs online.
C tactile (CT) neurons are a class of low-threshold C neurons that innervate the human skin. In animals, these neurons are ... There is also indirect evidence for the presence of this population of primary afferent neurons in the mouse and other species ... In humans, using microneurography, CT neurons have been found in the hairy skin. In animals, these neurons have been ... CT neurons project to the insular cortex in the brain, and the firing frequency of CT neurons correlate with perceived ...
AC with 0 elements, Afferent neurons). ... Bipolar neuron Multipolar neuron Unipolar neuron Gold, M. S.; ... A pseudounipolar neuron is a type of neuron which has one extension from its cell body. This type of neuron contains an axon ... All pseudounipolar neurons are sensory neurons. The ones found in the dorsal root ganglia, and majority of those in cranial ... Pseudounipolar neurons are sensory neurons that have no dendrites, the branched axon serving both functions. The peripheral ...
Liu C, Glowatzki E, Fuchs PA (November 2015). "Unmyelinated type II afferent neurons report cochlear damage". Proceedings of ... It is theorized that type II afferent fibers become excited after damage to hair cells and synapses, triggering a release of ...
Rizzolatti, G; Scandolara, C; Matelli, M; Gentilucci, M. (1981). "Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque monkeys ... Each multisensory neuron responded to a touch within a specific "tactile receptive field" on the body surface. Each neuron also ... Some neurons responded to sound sources near the tactile receptive field. Some neurons also responded mnemonically, becoming ... Neuron. 43 (4): 585-593. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.07.029. PMID 15312656. Cooke, DF; Graziano, MSA (2004). "Sensorimotor ...
Rizzolatti, G., Scandolara, C., Matelli, M. and Gentilucci, J (1981). "Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque ... Yet the same neurons become active when the monkey watches an experimenter grasp an object in the same way. The neurons are ... The motor neuron sends an electrical impulse to a muscle. When the neuron in the cortex becomes active, it causes a muscle ... Mirror neurons were first discovered in area F5 in the monkey brain by Rizzolatti and colleagues. These neurons are active when ...
... s are at the ends of afferent neurons. works within the capsule. Ion channels are situated near these ... In sensory transduction, the afferent nerves transmit through a series of synapses in the central nervous system, first in the ...
Rizzolatti, G., Scandolara, C., Matelli, M. and Gentilucci, J (1981). "Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque ... Yet the same neurons become active when the monkey watches an experimenter grasp an object in the same way. The neurons are ... Mirror neurons were first discovered in area F5 in the monkey brain by Rizzolatti and colleagues. These neurons are active when ... Neurons here are responsive to tactile stimuli, visual stimuli, and auditory stimuli. These neurons are especially sensitive to ...
It activates the afferent sensory neuron. A large number of important drugs exert their effects by interacting with ... Noradrenergic neurons (i.e., neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is norepinephrine) are comparatively few in number, and ... The noradrenergic neurons in the brain form a neurotransmitter system, that, when activated, exerts effects on large areas of ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.011. PMID 23040811. Berridge CW, Schmeichel BE, España RA (2012). "Noradrenergic modulation of ...
Pathways Arise from Subpopulations of Primary Afferent Nociceptor". Neuron. 47 (6): 787-793. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.08.015. ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.07.016. ISSN 0896-6273. PMID 17678850. S2CID 13576368. Archived from the original on 2021-12-31. ... Once this threshold is reached a signal is passed along the axon of the neuron into the spinal cord. Nociceptive threshold ... Pastor, J.; Soria, B.; Belmonte, C. (1996). "Properties of the nociceptive neurons of the leech segmental ganglion". Journal of ...
... the pseudounipolar neuron, secondary afferentme neurons, and tertiary afferent neurons. There are also slowly adapting ... Those that receive the neuron synapses are classified as secondary afferents. These neurons go to the thalamus and then ... An indentation, as stated before, becomes an electrical signal in the peripheral process of a primary afferent neuron. This ... This makes sense as afferent is defined conducting toward something. These neurons are sending signals towards the brain. ...
DiCaprio, Ralph (2004). "Information Transfer Rate of Nonspiking Afferent Neurons in the Crab". Journal of Neurophysiology. 92 ... Spiking neurons are noted as traditional action potential generating neurons. "Interneurons" is a name used to indicate neurons ... Studies show that these neurons may offer a contribution to learning and modulation of motor neuron networks. Spiking neurons ... These neurons use a graded potential to transmit data as they lack the membrane potential that spiking neurons possess. This ...
These impulses are transmitted to the brain through afferent neurons. Most sensory systems have a quiescent state, that is, the ... This action potential then travels along afferent neurons to specific brain regions where it is processed and interpreted. ... which is carried along one or more afferent neurons towards a specific area of the brain. While the term sensory cortex is ... Neuron. 67 (1): 49-60. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.05.023. PMC 2904318. PMID 20624591.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors ...
1a spindle afferents activate 1a inhibitory neuron. Ib inhibitory interneuron: Found in lamina V, VI, VII. Afferent or Golgi ... relay neurons, association neurons, connector neurons, intermediate neurons or local circuit neurons) are neurons that connect ... conducting flow of signals or information between a sensory neuron and or motor neuron[citation needed]. Relay (disambiguation ... not direct motor neurons or sensory neurons. Interneurons are the central nodes of neural circuits, enabling communication ...
Type Aβ fibres, and type Aγ, are the type II afferent fibers from stretch receptors. Type Aβ fibres from the skin are mostly ... This pathway describes the first-order neuron. Aδ fibers serve to receive and transmit information primarily relating to acute ... Type Aδ fibers are the afferent fibers of nociceptors. Aδ fibers carry information from peripheral mechanoreceptors and ...
Sur is a pioneer in technology development for analyzing the function and structure of neurons and synapses in the live brain, ... Disruption of retinogeniculate afferent segregation by antagonists to NMDA receptors. Nature 351: 568-570, 1991. Nelson, S., L ... By imaging calcium responses of single neurons and a closely related glial cell type, astrocytes, in vivo using high resolution ... His laboratory has discovered fundamental principles by which neurons of the cerebral cortex are wired during development and ...
Afferent signals enter the spinal cord at the superficial layer of the dorsal horn Second order neurons cross the midline of ... Jänig, W. (1996-01-05). "Neurobiology of visceral afferent neurons: neuroanatomy, functions, organ regulations and sensations ... Afferent signals from the vagus nerve enter the brainstem making synaptic connections with the nucleus of the solitary tract ... Afferent signals from the mechanoreceptors or proprioceptors enter the spinal cord at the dorsal root ganglia Second order ...
The main function of the IHCs is to transmit sound information via afferent neurons. They do this by transducing mechanical ... This electric current creates action potentials within the connected afferent neurons. OHCs are different in that they actually ... Whereby, neurons which would normally be stimulated by the dead region, have been reassigned to respond to functioning areas ... Thus, an increase in firing rate of the auditory neurons connected to the hair cell occurs. On the other hand, the bending of ...
The dendrites receive most of the synaptic inputs from afferent neurons that regulate the magnocellular neurons; typically a ... These cells are neuroendocrine neurons, are electrically excitable, and generate action potentials in response to afferent ... magnocellular neuron receives about 10,000 synapses from afferent neurons. Parvocellular neurosecretory cell "BrainInfo". ... Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in rats (where these neurons have been most extensively studied) in general have a single ...
... and third-order neurons. The first-order neuron is the afferent neuron. It enters the spinal cord through the dorsal root ... The peripheral nervous system is composed of afferent and efferent neurons; disorder of these neurons is called peripheral ... sensory neurons) found in various layers of the skin and body. The afferent neuron travels to the spinal column and then to the ... In most cases, the nerve damage occurs in afferent neurons in the foot and lower limbs. Nerve damage can be assessed with ...
Like other neurons, lower motor neurons have both afferent (incoming) and efferent (outgoing) connections. Alpha motor neurons ... This afferent and efferent connectivity is required to achieve coordinated muscle activity. Upper motor neurons (UMNs) send ... An alpha motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates is a motor unit. A motor neuron pool contains the cell bodies of all ... Like other motor neurons, α-MNs are named after the properties of their axons. Alpha motor neurons have Aα axons, which are ...
The ENS contains sensory receptors, primary afferent neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. The events that are controlled, ... According to preclinical studies, 30% of myenteric plexus' neurons are enteric sensory neurons, thus Auerbach's plexus has also ... The myenteric plexus originates in the medulla oblongata as a collection of neurons from the ventral part of the brain stem. ... Since many of the same neurotransmitters are found in the ENS as the brain, it follows that myenteric neurons can express ...
Yoshida, K., McCormack, S., Espana, R.A., Crocker, A., & Scammell, T.E. (2006). Afferents to the orexin neurons of the rat ... Neurons located in different structures of the medial temporal lobe are what cause the transformation from an egocentric to an ... Neuron, 22,221-232. Speakman, J., Hambly, C., Mitchell, S., Krol, E. (2007). Animal models of obesity. Obes Rev 8(Suppl 1),55- ... Neuron. 33, 815. Kelley, A.E., Baldo, B.A., & Pratt, W.E. (2005). A proposed hypothal- amicethalamicestriatal axis for the ...
Regarding the afferent (input) connections to HSD2 neurons, available information is less complete. Experiments with ... To date, HSD2 neurons have been identified and studied only in rats and mice. The term "HSD2 neurons" is used in the scientific ... HSD2 neurons do not produce a wide array of other proteins that typify most other subtypes of NTS neurons, including tyrosine ... HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone ...
"Primary afferent activation of thermosensitive TRPV1 triggers asynchronous glutamate release at central neurons". Neuron. 65 (5 ... In addition, TRPV1 provides a sensation of scalding heat and pain (nociception). In primary afferent sensory neurons, it ... Neuron. 57 (5): 746-759. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.12.027. PMC 2698707. PMID 18341994. Peters JH, McDougall SJ, Fawley JA, ... The interplay between neurons and immune cells is a well-known phenomenon, therefore it is no surprise that TRPV1 plays its ...
"Deletion of leptin signaling in vagal afferent neurons results in hyperphagia and obesity". Molecular Metabolism. 3 (6): 595- ...
... where the GRP neurons activate GRPR neurons to promote itch Neuropathic itch can originate at any point along the afferent ... The primary afferent neurons responsible for histamine-induced itch are unmyelinated C-fibres. Two major classes of human C- ... There is little detailed data on central activation for contagious itching, but it is hypothesized that a human mirror neuron ... After the pruriceptive primary afferent has been activated, the signal is transmitted from the skin into the spinal dorsal horn ...
de Lartigue G, Ronveaux CC, Raybould HE (September 2014). "Deletion of leptin signaling in vagal afferent neurons results in ... The sensory fibers originate from neurons of the nodose ganglion, whereas the motor fibers come from neurons of the dorsal ... which receives afferent taste information and primary afferents from visceral organs The spinal trigeminal nucleus - which ... A non-invasive VNS device that stimulates an afferent branch of the vagus nerve is also being developed and will soon[when?] ...
These electrical impulses are then transmitted along afferent lateral neurons to the brain. While both varieties of neuromasts ... The mechanoreceptive hair cells of the lateral line structure are integrated into more complex circuits through their afferent ... The synapses that directly participate in the transduction of mechanical information are excitatory afferent connections that ... However, a variety of different neuromast and afferent connections are possible, resulting in variation in mechanoreceptive ...
The first to be stimulated are the terminal arborisations of afferent axons, which modify the activity of subthalamic neurons. ... These afferents are GABAergic, inhibiting neurons in the subthalamic nucleus. Excitatory, glutamatergic inputs come from the ... The principal neurons are glutamatergic, which give them a particular functional position in the basal ganglia system. In ... Sato F, Lavallée P, Lévesque M, Parent A (January 2000). "Single-axon tracing study of neurons of the external segment of the ...
The first-order afferent neuron carries sensory information to the second order neuron in the dorsal horn. The axon of the ... large alpha motor neurons, medium gamma motor neurons, and small neurons thought to be interneurons. These neurons differ in ... The anterior grey column is made up of alpha motor neurons, gamma motor neurons, and small neurons thought to be interneurons. ... A large loss of large alpha motor neurons, medium gamma motor neurons, and small neurons was recorded in cases of muscular ...
A cranial nerve nucleus is a collection of neurons (gray matter) in the brain stem that is associated with one or more of the ... Back at the dorsal surface of the brainstem, and more lateral are the special somatic afferents, this handles sensation such as ... In general, motor nuclei are closer to the front (ventral), and sensory nuclei and neurons are closer to the back (dorsal). ... Near the sulcus limitans are the visceral afferent nuclei, namely the solitary tract nucleus. More lateral, but also less ...
The reflex pathway (reflex arc) is a sequence of neurons connecting the sensory input (afferent neuron) to the motor output ( ... efferent neuron), resulting in a behavioral response. The general pathway of a spinal reflex is one which involves neurons ... between the electrical stimulation of the sensory neuron and the corresponding motor response, as measured by EMG ( ...
... and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex. It is also a center for coordinating many reflexes ... Descending tracts involve two neurons: the upper motor neuron (UMN) and lower motor neuron (LMN). A nerve signal travels down ... The DL neurons are involved in distal limb control. Therefore, these DL neurons are found specifically only in the cervical and ... The VM lower motor neurons control the large, postural muscles of the axial skeleton. These lower motor neurons, unlike those ...
... receptor-mediated effects of the endovanilloid/endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl-dopamine on primary afferent fibre and spinal ... "Modulation of trigeminal sensory neuron activity by the dual cannabinoid-vanilloid agonists anandamide, N-arachidonoyl-dopamine ... "N-arachidonoyl-dopamine tunes synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid ...
... via the vagus nerve Chemically and mechanically sensitive neurons of the general visceral afferent pathway (GVA) with endings ... Neurons which transmit signals about the gut wall, the stretch of the lungs, and the dryness of mucous membranes also innervate ... Neurons that innervate the SN mediate the gag reflex, the carotid sinus reflex, the aortic reflex, the cough reflex, the ... The first central neurons within the SN can participate in simple autonomic reflexes. Information goes from the solitary ...
The interaction between the olfactory receptor neurons, local neurons and projection neurons reformats the information input ... López-Riquelme, G.O. (June 2014). "Odotopic afferent representation of the glomerular antennal lobe organization in the ... the postsynaptic principle neurons (termed projection neurons) and local interneurons. Each olfactory sensory neuron expresses ... The local neurons, which are primarily inhibitory, have their neurites restricted to the antennal lobe. Projection neurons, ...
Shenkman, BS; Litvinova, KS; Nemirovskaya, TL; Podlubnaya, ZA; Vikhlyantsev, IM; Kozlovskaya, IB (July 2004). "Afferent and ... raises the possibility that neuron-derived factors that play a role in the growth or maintenance of skeletal muscle may be ...
... "re-afferent" input generated from the moving limb, that is, the afferent return from the moving limb associated with the self- ... Neuron. 69 (3): 548-562. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.11.045. PMC 3052770. PMID 21315264. Denny-Brown, Derek (1958). "The nature ... The afferent return from the limb is effectively correlated with the efference copy signal so that the re-afference can be ... When the efference copy is no longer normally generated, then the afferent return from the limb associated with the self- ...
Studies of Vestibular Primary Afferents In Normal, Hyper- and Hypogravity: The objective of this experiment was to study the ... Metabolic and Morphologic Properties of Muscle Fibers and Motor Neurons: The objective of this experiment was to study ... microgravity related muscular atrophy effects in various types of muscle and in spinal motor neurons, with emphasis on the ...
The Ia afferent signals are transmitted monosynaptically to many alpha motor neurons of the receptor-bearing muscle. The ... The motor part of the spindle is provided by motor neurons: up to a dozen gamma motor neurons also known as fusimotor neurons. ... Hypertonia may be the result of over-sensitivity of alpha motor neurons and interneurons to the Ia and II afferent signals. ... Gamma motor neurons supply only muscle fibres within the spindle, whereas beta motor neurons supply muscle fibres both within ...
... neuron-by-neuron. The challenge of doing this becomes obvious: the number of neurons comprising the brain easily ranges into ... "Extension of corticocortical afferents into the anterior bank of the intraparietal sulcus by tool-use training in adult monkeys ... A connectome is constructed by tracing the neuron in a nervous system and mapping where neurons are connected through synapses ... Neuron. 67 (1): 156-70. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.05.025. PMC 2913443. PMID 20624599. Scannell JW, Burns GA, Hilgetag CC, ...
15-30 neurons versus 50-200 neurons). John Donoghue's lab at the Carney Institute reported training rhesus monkeys to use a BCI ... the topographic organization of the primary visual cortex is such that a broader area obtains afferents from the central or ... Neuron. 60 (5): 915-929. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.11.004. PMID 19081384. S2CID 17327816. Nishimoto S, Vu AT, Naselaris T, ... neurons near the electrode. The interface between a recording electrode and the electrolytic solution surrounding neurons has ...
This discovery was made while studying animals with silenced afferent neurons from the scratching limb, meaning no movement- ... ENG recordings are used to record electrical activity from motor neurons and spinal cord neurons. These techniques have enabled ... Some sensory neurons can be activated by stimulation with an external object such as a parasite on the body surface. ... When afferent feedback is provided, the scratch response is more accurate in terms of accessing the stimulus site. Recordings ...
... the afferent neurons transmit messages through synapses in the dorsal column nuclei, where second-order neurons send the signal ... and hook neurons. Club neurons are thought to encode vibrational signals while claw and hook neurons can be subdivided into ... Stretching an intrafusal fiber initiates a volley of impulses in the sensory neuron (a I-a neuron) attached to it. The impulses ... Bristle neurons are mechanoreceptors that innervate hairs all along the body. Each neuron extends a dendritic process to ...
Afferent signals are sensory neuronal signals that ascend to the brain. Afferent neurons significant in dyspnea arise from a ... As the brain receives its plentiful supply of afferent information relating to ventilation, it is able to compare it to the ... It is believed the central processing in the brain compares the afferent and efferent signals; and dyspnea results when a " ... It is thought that three main components contribute to dyspnea: afferent signals, efferent signals, and central information ...
In certain sensory neurons (pseudounipolar neurons), such as those for touch and warmth, the axons are called afferent nerve ... The motor neurons of the different motor fibers, were the lower motor neurons - alpha motor neuron, beta motor neuron, and ... Sometimes the axon of a neuron may synapse onto dendrites of the same neuron, when it is known as an autapse. Most axons carry ... In some circumstances, the axon of one neuron may form a synapse with the dendrites of the same neuron, resulting in an autapse ...
... general somatic afferent and general visceral afferent). The axons of the neurons which innervate the taste buds of the ... The neurons in the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve innervate the taste buds on the epiglottis, the chemoreceptors of the ... The neurons in the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve are embryonically derived from epibranchial neurogenic placodes. Rubin ... The neurons in the inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve are pseudounipolar and provide sensory innervation ( ...
TFSn is represented most prominently in neurons tuned to low frequencies, while ENVn is represented most prominently in neurons ... The loss of auditory nerve fibers or synapses has been simulated by assuming (i) that each afferent fiber operates as a ... Neuron. 71 (5): 926-40. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.06.032. PMC 4143345. PMID 21903084. McWalter R, Dau T (2017-09-11). "Cascaded ... Neuron. 82 (2): 486-99. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.02.029. PMC 4048815. PMID 24742467. Schreiner CE, Urbas JV (1986). " ...
... to afferent neurons. Furthermore, both studies showed that most MOC neurons responded to sound presented in the ipsilateral ear ... LOCS neurons. Shell neurons are typically large, and morphologically are very similar to MOCS neurons. The LOCS (originating ... While the intrinsic LOCS neurons tend to be small (~10 to 15 µm in diameter), and the shell OC neurons are larger (~25 µm in ... and are thus tonotopically organised in the same fashion as the primary afferent neurons. The fibres of the LOCS also appear to ...
Yu AJ, Dayan P (May 2005). "Uncertainty, neuromodulation, and attention". Neuron. 46 (4): 681-92. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.04. ... "Input-selective potentiation and rebalancing of primary sensory cortex afferents by endogenous acetylcholine". Neuroscience. ... Occasional neurons belonging to the nucleus basalis can be found in nearby locations such as the internal laminae of the globus ... Most neurons of the nucleus basalis are rich in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and they have widespread projections to the ...
Malenka RC, Bear MF (Sep 2004). "LTP and LTD: an embarrassment of riches". Neuron. 44 (1): 5-21. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.09. ... de Olmos J, Hardy H, Heimer L (Sep 1978). "The afferent connections of the main and the accessory olfactory bulb formations in ... Squire LR (Jan 2009). "The legacy of patient H.M. for neuroscience". Neuron. 61 (1): 6-9. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.12.023. PMC ... The spiking activity of neurons within the hippocampus is highly correlated with sharp wave activity. Most neurons decrease ...
Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are neurons in the nervous system, that convert a specific type of stimulus, ... The sensory neurons involved in smell are called olfactory sensory neurons. These neurons contain receptors, called olfactory ... These sensory neurons produce action potentials. Their axons form the olfactory nerve, and they synapse directly onto neurons ... Specialized sensory receptor cells called mechanoreceptors often encapsulate afferent fibers to help tune the afferent fibers ...
Werman, R; Davidoff, R A; Aprison, M H (January 1968). "Inhibitory of glycine on spinal neurons in the cat". Journal of ... June 2014). "Gephyrin clusters are absent from small diameter primary afferent terminals despite the presence of GABA(A) ... GlyR is known to colocalize with the GABAA receptor on some hippocampal neurons. Nevertheless, some exceptions can occur in the ... Two years later, experiments showed that glycine had a hyperpolarizing effect on spinal motor neurons due to increased chloride ...
Neuron. 63 (5): 643-56. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.08.014. PMID 19755107. S2CID 5321020. Colby, C. L.; Goldberg, M. E. (1999). " ... The CA3 is innervated by two afferent paths known as the perforant path (PPCA3) and the dentate gyrus (DG)-mediated mossy ... The identification of neurons that anticipate expected rewards in a spatial task support this hypothesis. The medial prefrontal ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.10.007. hdl:2268/21205. PMID 15504332. S2CID 1424898. (Articles with short description ...
... neurons following a scenario in which a neuron directly contributes to production of an action potential in another neuron. ... and afferent input from the electrosensory receptors, the animal is able to eliminate predictable inputs produced by its own ... Since the neurons of the ELL receive both a corollary discharge (another term for an efference copy) of the motor output ... As a result, if changes in external environment are consistent, the connections between the neurons previously described will ...
This idea using bilateral innervation to the upper facial motor neurons is rarely tested by humans because of the afferent ... This condition is often the result of damage of the upper motor neurons of the facial nerve. The facial motor nucleus contains ... It usually results from damage to upper motor neurons of the facial nerve. The facial motor nucleus has dorsal and ventral ... The dorsal division receives bilateral upper motor neuron input (i.e. from both sides of the brain) while the ventral division ...
Robinson D.; Petersen S. (1985). "Responses of pulvinar neurons to real and self-induced stimulus movement". Brain Research. ... Inferior pulvinar nucleus, together with its lateral and medial nuclei, receives afferent input from superior colliculus. ...
English , 1 sense of the expression afferent neuron:. NOUN. body. afferent neuron, sensory neuron. a neuron conducting impulses ... sensory neuron. Part of. sensory nerve, afferent nerve, afferent. A nerve that passes impulses from receptors toward or to the ... English , afferent neuron: 1 sense , noun 1, body. Meaning. A neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord. ... nerve cell, neuron. A cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses. ...
i,Objective,/i,. To reveal the neurobiological mechanism that P2X,sub,3,/sub, receptor of colonic primary sensory neurons in ... and action potential of colon-associated DRG neurons in the IBS rats. ,i,Conclusion,/i,. EA can regulate the P2X,sub,3,/sub, ... receptors in the peripheral and central neurons participate in the acupuncture-mediated relief of the visceral pain in IBS. , ... levels in the colon and related DRG of IBS rats with visceral pain and then regulate the excitatory properties of DRG neurons. ...
When the Efferent Becomes Afferent - the Cellular Response of Sympathetic Neurons to Sensory Stimuli ... When the Efferent Becomes Afferent - the Cellular Response of Sympathetic Neurons to Sensory Stimuli ...
Cranial primary afferents enter the brainstem to release glutamate (Glu) onto second-order neurons within the caudal nucleus ... Cranial primary afferents enter the brainstem to release glutamate (Glu) onto second-order neurons within the caudal nucleus ... Cranial primary afferents enter the brainstem to release glutamate (Glu) onto second-order neurons within the caudal nucleus ... Cranial primary afferents enter the brainstem to release glutamate (Glu) onto second-order neurons within the caudal nucleus ...
46 afferents). For isovolumetric trials in two experiments (n = 33 afferents) Hmax was 0.72 ± 0.14 and ... Sixty-six bladder afferents recorded from sacral dorsal root ganglia in five alpha-chloralose anesthetized felines were ... However, the relationship between afferent firing rates and intravesical pressure is not a simple linear one. Firing rate ... Mechanosensitive afferents innervating the bladder increase their firing rate as the bladder fills and pressure rises. ...
An effect unrelated to actions on sensory afferent neurons. Eur J Pharmacol 1991;202:129-31. View abstract. ... Increased expression of vanilloid receptor 1 on myelinated primary afferent neurons contributes to the antihyperalgesic effect ... "Capsaicin-sensitive" sensory neurons in cluster headache: pathophysiological aspects and therapeutic indication. Headache 1994; ... Canning, B. J. Functional implications of the multiple afferent pathways regulating cough. Pulm.Pharmacol.Ther 2011;24:295-299 ...
T1 - Corrigendum to "Voltage-dependent potassium currents of urethral afferent neurons in diabetes mellitus" [Brain Res. 1217 ( ... Corrigendum to "Voltage-dependent potassium currents of urethral afferent neurons in diabetes mellitus" [Brain Res. 1217 (2008 ... Corrigendum to "Voltage-dependent potassium currents of urethral afferent neurons in diabetes mellitus" [Brain Res. 1217 (2008 ... Corrigendum to "Voltage-dependent potassium currents of urethral afferent neurons in diabetes mellitus" [Brain Res. 1217 (2008 ...
... afferent visual pathway symptoms) and/or how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). ... 52, 55] Stable visual fixation is maintained by pause-cell neurons in the brainstem; these are located in the pontine raphe ... Afferent Visual Pathway Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. Optic neuritis is an inflammatory injury of ... Costello F. The afferent visual pathway: designing a structural-functional paradigm of multiple sclerosis. ISRN Neurol. 2013. ...
Dive into the research topics of Cerebellar injury induces nos in purkinje cells and cerebellar afferent neurons. Together ...
Categories: Neurons, Afferent Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
15] Local histamine sensitization of the afferent neurons causing earlier depolarization may occur. ... Sensitization of the intestinal afferent nociceptive pathways that synapse in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord provides a ...
Neurons, Afferent / physiology* * Odorants * Olfactory Bulb / physiology* * Olfactory Pathways / physiology * Periodicity * ... Moreover, gradually decreasing GABAergic synaptic transmission decreased the degree of relay neuron synchronization in response ...
Type II spiral ganglion afferent neurons drive medial olivocochlear reflex suppression of the cochlear amplifier.. Publication ... mice lacked type II spiral ganglion neuron innervation of the outer hair cells, whereas innervation of the inner hair cells by ... demonstrating that outer hair cells and their type II afferents constitute the sensory drive for the olivocochlear efferent ... type I spiral ganglion neurons was normal. Compared with Prph((+/+)) controls, both contralateral and ipsilateral olivocochlear ...
It is concluded that intrinsic primary afferent neurons have overlapping receptive fields with 230 to 350 neurons innervating ... Maps of the mucosal projections of 30 neurons were generated. The maximum distances from which individual neurons responded ... Neurons that responded had round or oval cell bodies with several long processes (Dogiel type II) and APs that had an ... Some neurons also responded to a chemical or a mechanical stimulus applied to the mucosa within the electrically mapped area. ...
Transcription factors and afferent connections in shaping molecular diversity of thalamic neurons. Project Leader: Prof. Marta ...
Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons ... These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin- ... These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin- ... In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ...
In addition, there was a striking loss of afferent neurons in the spiral ganglia, with a similar basal-to-apical pattern of ... and afferent neurons (Sugawara et al., 2005). This defect may be exacerbated by compromised normal cochlear blood flow via loss ... Also note the absence of afferent neurons in the spiral ganglia (arrows) that is coincident with loss of the organ of Corti. ... 4A,B). We noted a marked decrease of afferent calyces, complete loss of stereocilia, and general disorganization of the ...
We propose that afferent neuron innervation with multiple and heterogenous hair-cells synapses, each influenced by changes in ... Mathematical Modeling and Analyses of Interspike-Intervals of Spontaneous Activity in Afferent Neurons of the Zebrafish Lateral ... in innervating afferent neurons. We analyzed spontaneous spike patterns recorded from the lateral line of zebrafish and found ... Mathematical Modeling and Analyses of Interspike-Intervals of Spontaneous Activity in Afferent Neurons of the Zebrafish Lateral ...
An effect unrelated to actions on sensory afferent neurons. Eur J Pharmacol 1991;202:129-31. View abstract. ... Increased expression of vanilloid receptor 1 on myelinated primary afferent neurons contributes to the antihyperalgesic effect ... "Capsaicin-sensitive" sensory neurons in cluster headache: pathophysiological aspects and therapeutic indication. Headache 1994; ... Canning, B. J. Functional implications of the multiple afferent pathways regulating cough. Pulm.Pharmacol.Ther 2011;24(3):295- ...
Diet-induced obesity leads to the development of leptin resistance in vagal afferent neurons. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. ... contained in the cell wall of gram-negative microbes can interact locally with receptors on enteric neurons or vagal afferents ... While serotonergic neurons located in the brainstem show widespread projections to the brain and are well-known to play an ... form close synaptic connections with certain vagal afferent fibers through cell extensions called neuropods [25, 26]. While ...
Neurons [A08.663]. *Neurons, Afferent [A08.663.650]. *Sensory Receptor Cells [A08.663.650.915]. *Mechanoreceptors [A08.663. ... Cardiac vanilloid receptor-1 afferent depletion enhances stellate ganglion neuronal activity and efferent sympathetic response ...
TRPV1 drugs alter core body temperature via central projections of primary afferent sensory neurons. Yue WWS, et al. Elife, ... TRPV1 drugs alter core body temperature via central projections of primary afferent sensory neurons. Title: TRPV1 drugs alter ... elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to ...
The glomus cells are innervated by afferent chemosensory petrosal neurons. In response to natural stimuli, glomus cells are ... of petrosal chemosensory neurons. These neurons, which likely innervate the CB, are selectively activated by the putative ... GRIMES PA, LAHIRI S, STONE R, MOKASHI A, CHUGH A (1994) Nitric oxide synthase occurs in neurons and nerve fibers of the carotid ... The petrosal ganglion contains the somas of the sensory neurons that innervate glomus cells in the CB. Alcayaga et al (1999) ...
Afferent neuron. Definition noun, plural: afferent neurons A type of neuron that detects stimulus from the periphery and relays ... Relay neuron. Definition noun A local circuit neuron of the central nervous system that relays impulses between afferent neuron ... Motor neuron. Definition noun, plural: motor neurons A type of neuron connected to a muscle fiber and originates from the ... Efferent neuron. Definition noun, plural: efferent neurons A neuron with an axon that carries nerve impulses peripherally, and ...
Afferent neurons convey information to confirm therapy adequacy. Dev med child neurol . Oelkers w adrenal insufficiency. Almost ...
The terms afferent and efferent can also refer to neurons which convey information from one region of the brain to another. ... Classification by action on other neurons *Excitatory neurons evoke excitation of their target neurons. Excitatory neurons in ... Spinal motor neurons use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter.. *Inhibitory neurons evoke inhibition of their target neurons ... Information outflow from dendrites to other neurons can also occur. Neurons can have great longevity (human neurons can ...
Neurobiology of Intrinsic Primary Afferent Neurons. 000. 2. NIH. 11/24/2022. $0. ...
design afferent stimulus events with phasic bursts Last post by ted « Tue Jan 14, 2020 9:17 pm. ... Combining NEURON with a mesoscale equation Last post by catharina « Fri Jun 23, 2017 10:58 am. ... Synaptic input model for dopaminergic neuron to examine pacemaking mechanism Last post by ted « Sat Aug 22, 2020 12:03 pm. ... Old tutorial of NEURON Last post by ted « Wed Jun 01, 2016 11:14 pm. ...
... because both nociceptive and non-nociceptive afferents converge to synapse on a single WDR neuron, and WDR neurons respond with ... neurons in the spinal cord. WDR neurons contribute more to sensitivity than nociceptor-specific neurons, ... Jänig W, Levine JD, Michaelis M. Interactions of sympathetic and primary afferent neurons following nerve injury and tissue ... Chronic CNS sensitization is engendered through afferent processing by second-order nociceptor-specific neurons and wide- ...
  • It is concluded that intrinsic primary afferent neurons have overlapping receptive fields with 230 to 350 neurons innervating the same region of mucosa. (
  • 2020 ) Identification of intrinsic primary afferent neurons in mouse jejunum. (
  • 5-HT receptors on intrinsic primary afferent neurons (IPANs) as well as extrinsic spinal or vagal afferent neurons are activated. (
  • Affected individuals may experience problems with how they see the world (afferent visual pathway symptoms) and/or how smoothly and synchronously their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). (
  • Compared with Prph((+/+)) controls, both contralateral and ipsilateral olivocochlear efferent-mediated suppression of the cochlear amplifier were absent in Prph((-/-)) mice, demonstrating that outer hair cells and their type II afferents constitute the sensory drive for the olivocochlear efferent reflex. (
  • Cardiac vanilloid receptor-1 afferent depletion enhances stellate ganglion neuronal activity and efferent sympathetic response to cardiac stress. (
  • Definition noun, plural: efferent neurons A neuron with an axon that carries nerve impulses peripherally, and innervates. (
  • The goal of research in this laboratory is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for dysfunction of afferent and efferent ganglionic neurons in experimental diabetes and chronic heart failure (CHF). (
  • Baroreceptors and postganglionic neurons (including postganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons) serve as primary afferent and efferent limbs of the arterial baroreflex, respectively. (
  • Dysfunction of primary afferent and efferent limbs of the arterial baroreflex is likely to be involved in the blunted baroreflex sensitivity, and resultant impairment of cardiac contractility and rhythm stability observed in the diabetes and CHF states. (
  • The femoral nerve is a mixed nerve, meaning that it combines both afferent and efferent fibers in the same nerve. (
  • Efferent neurons perform the essential function of carrying signals to the muscles of the thigh and leg to control their tension and movement. (
  • Moreover, gradually decreasing GABAergic synaptic transmission decreased the degree of relay neuron synchronization in response to sensory inputs, both theoretically and experimentally. (
  • ISI data were fitted to renewal-process models that accounted for the neuron refractory periods and hair-cell synaptic release. (
  • Dynamics of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Correlates with Cellular and Synaptic Properties in Primary Auditory Neurons following Afferent Deprivation. (
  • We show that mPFC neurons that project to the basolateral amygdala display unique spatial patterns of local-circuit synaptic connectivity within the mPFC, which distinguish them from the general mPFC cell population. (
  • Electrophysiological recordings from pairs or groups of neurons have revealed many of the factors which determine the probabilities and properties of cortical synaptic connections. (
  • These studies have established that the pattern of synaptic connectivity among pairs of cortical pyramidal neurons is not homogeneous 4 but rather depends, among other factors, on the pre- and postsynaptic cell types 5 , 6 , their intracortical laminar source of input 5 , 7 - 9 , and the long-range projection target of each of the neurons 10 - 17 . (
  • CA1 pyramidal neuron synaptic integration (Bloss et al. (
  • In the spinal cord, glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes receive signals from the injured peripheral neurons and become activated, which cause the generation of synaptic facilitation and enhanced responsiveness ofnociceptive dorsal horn neurons (central sensitization) [3]. (
  • By contrast, nociceptive, tactile, and proprioceptive information is encoded by the sensory neurons of the TG and dorsal root ganglia in the peripheral nervous system. (
  • Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers, elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. (
  • Definition noun A local circuit neuron of the central nervous system that relays impulses between afferent neuron to. (
  • Drawing of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal , the Spanish anatomist who first recognized the neuron's role as the primary functional unit of the nervous system. (
  • Neurons (also known as neurones and nerve cells ) are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information from both internal and external environments. (
  • Although the neuron is considered a discrete unit, the output of the nervous system is produced by the connectivity of neurons (that is, the strength and configuration of the connections between neurons). (
  • Neurons represent one component of a nervous system, which can be remarkably complex in higher organisms. (
  • A sensory neuron transmits impulses from a receptor, such as those in the eye or ear, to a more central location in the nervous system, such as the spinal cord or brain. (
  • Motor neurons transmit impulses from a central area of the nervous system to an effector, such as a muscle . (
  • There is great heterogeneity across the nervous system and across species in the size, shape, and function of neurons. (
  • By contrast, in the nervous system of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, males have 383 neurons, while hermaphrodites have a mere 302 neurons (Hobert 2005). (
  • Afferent nerves carry important sensory information from the tissues of the thigh and leg (especially the skin) to the central nervous system for processing. (
  • Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM . (
  • These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. (
  • The sensory neurons of the TG and dorsal root ganglia detect both nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli. (
  • In response to natural stimuli, glomus cells are expected to release one (or more) excitatory Ca 2+ -dependent transmitter(s), which in turn increases the frequency of discharge in the nerve terminals of chemosensory petrosal neurons. (
  • Without stimuli, hair cells spontaneously release neurotransmitter leading to spontaneous generation of action potentials (spikes) in innervating afferent neurons. (
  • Sensory neurons have specialized receptors to convert diverse stimuli from the environment (such as light, touch, and pressure) into electric signals. (
  • In the primary visual cortex, pyramidal neurons which respond to similar visual stimuli are more likely to be synaptically connected 18 , 21 . (
  • In mobile unanaesthetised adult rabbits, spontaneous single unit activities of CA3 neurons of Hippocampus showed a specific change in firing pattern in response to conditioned stimuli (CS+). (
  • Sensory information from the LUT is transmitted to the spinal cord and brain via afferent neurons in the pelvic, hypogastric, and pudendal nerves [ 2 ]. (
  • In vertebrate animals, neurons are the core components of the brain , spinal cord , and peripheral nerves . (
  • GABAergic terminals are presynaptic to primary afferent terminals in the substantia gelatinosa of the rat spinal cord. (
  • Here we show that single presynaptic axons form multiple, spatially clustered inputs onto the distal, but not proximal, dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. (
  • Using synaptically discriminated second-order NTS neurons in brainstem slices and mechanically dissociated NTS neurons with intact boutons, we show that Glu differentially controls GABA release via distinct presynaptic mGluRs. (
  • In all cases, mGluR actions were exclusively presynaptic, and mGluRs did not alter postsynaptic properties in second-order neurons in either slices or isolated neurons. (
  • Cranial primary afferents enter the brainstem to release glutamate (Glu) onto second-order neurons within the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) to initiate autonomic reflexes. (
  • This process may critically shape the dynamic character and use dependence for cranial afferent transmission at the first stage of autonomic reflexes. (
  • Both the autonomic and the somatic systems have important afferent (sensory) inputs that provide information regarding the internal and external environments and modify motor output through reflex arcs of varying complexity. (
  • Although PN can affect motor and (rarely) autonomic nerves, large and small afferent sensory neurons are most often affected by PN. (
  • Electroacupuncture (EA) has been confirmed effectiveness in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and P2X 3 receptors in the peripheral and central neurons participate in the acupuncture-mediated relief of the visceral pain in IBS. (
  • Our previous clinical and animal studies have also confirmed the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of IBS [ 11 - 13 ] and initially revealed that the P2X 2 , P2X 3 , and P2Y 1 receptors in the peripheral neurons of the colon and in central neurons participate in the acupuncture-mediated relief of the visceral pain in IBS. (
  • Especially, P2X 3 receptors play an important role in mediating the occurrence and maintenance of pain in neurons of the intestinal myenteric plexus, dorsal root ganglia (DRG), spinal dorsal horn, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex in a rat model of IBS with visceral hypersensitivity [ 14 ], and acupuncture can achieve visceral pain relief through purinergic receptors at different levels of the brain-gut axis. (
  • However, there is still no electrophysiological evidence supporting the participation of P2X 3 receptors in the primary afferent sensory nerve of the colon in the EA-mediated inhibition of peripheral sensitization. (
  • Jin, YH, Bailey, TW & Andresen, MC 2004, ' Cranial afferent glutamate heterosynaptically modulates GABA release onto second-order neurons via distinctly segregated metabotropic glutamate receptors ', Journal of Neuroscience , vol. 24, no. 42, pp. 9332-9340. (
  • that augment the drive to obtain foods) mediate "liking" by Metabolic sensing neurons of the hypothalamus and action at opioid receptors and "wanting" by action at dopa- other brain areas respond to signals of energy intake, minergic receptors. (
  • The neural elements of somatosensory receptors in the hands and feet represent the distal extreme of long afferent fibers, and thus, are par- ticularly vulnerable in the distal axonopathies. (
  • Prph((-/-)) mice lacked type II spiral ganglion neuron innervation of the outer hair cells, whereas innervation of the inner hair cells by type I spiral ganglion neurons was normal. (
  • The patterns of innervation of the mucosa by axons of individual primary afferent neurons with cell bodies in the myenteric plexus were studied by mapping sites from which electrical stimulation of the mucosa elicited action potentials (APs) in their cell bodies. (
  • We propose that afferent neuron innervation with multiple and heterogenous hair-cells synapses, each influenced by changes in calcium domains, can serve as a mechanism for the random switching behavior. (
  • To reveal the neurobiological mechanism that P2X 3 receptor of colonic primary sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia of the lumbosacral segment is involved in the alleviation of visceral hypersensitivity by EA in an IBS rat model. (
  • Sixty-six bladder afferents recorded from sacral dorsal root ganglia in five alpha-chloralose anesthetized felines were identified based on their characteristic responses to pressure (correlation coefficient ≥ 0.2) during saline infusion (2 ml/min). (
  • Afferent information from the bladder is primarily transmitted by pelvic nerves that originate in the caudal lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. (
  • Indeed, the finding that some patients with CTN have abnormal LEPs indicates a dysfunction of nociceptive fibers or of CNS pathways evoked by nociceptive afferent stimulation. (
  • Pronociceptive inflammatory mediators released from the activated immune cells can induce the sensitization of nociceptors and increase the excitability of nociceptive primary afferent neurons (peripheral sensitization). (
  • Some neurons also responded to a chemical or a mechanical stimulus applied to the mucosa within the electrically mapped area. (
  • Definition noun, plural: afferent neurons A type of neuron that detects stimulus from the periphery and relays nerve. (
  • Remarkably, connections between neurons sharing similar stimulus tuning are also the strongest 22 , emphasizing the preferential connectivity between cells that share a common role in the circuit. (
  • Correlating stimulus-specific adaptation of cortical neurons and local field potentials in the awake rat. (
  • It is believed that NO modulates carotid chemoreception by several mechanisms, which include the control of carotid body vascular tone and oxygen delivery and reduction of the excitability of chemoreceptor cells and petrosal sensory neurons. (
  • The glomus cells are innervated by afferent chemosensory petrosal neurons. (
  • Nerve cells called neurons generate electric signals that pass from one end of the cell to another and release chemical. (
  • The basic function of a neuron is to communicate information, which it does via chemical or electric impulses across a synapse (the junction between cells). (
  • The complex coordination exhibited by neurons in its interaction with other bodily cells and systems reveals the remarkable harmony in living organisms. (
  • other neurons stimulate other types of cells, such as glands . (
  • Many neurons have only one axon, but this axon may-and usually will-undergo extensive branching, enabling communication with many target cells. (
  • Moreover, the intrinsic properties of the postsynaptic mPFC cell and anatomical position of both cells jointly account for ~7.5% of the variation in probability of connection between mPFC neurons, with anatomical distance and laminar position explaining most of this fraction in variation. (
  • Most of the serotonin is localized in the GI tract and is found in enterochromaffin (EC) cells and enteric neurons. (
  • Several lines of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation mediated by the interaction between immune cells and neurons plays an important role in neuropathic pain [1,2]. (
  • The longest axon of a human motor neuron can be over a meter long, reaching from the base of the spine to the toes. (
  • The new team results from the fusion of 2 teams and our objective is to capitalize on the complementary expertise to investigate key pathophysiological processes that lead to motor neuron (MN) degeneration and neuromuscular disorders such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Congenital Myasthenia Syndromes. (
  • The simplest pathways for these reflexes contain as few as two central neurons, but display robust frequency-dependent behavior. (
  • These findings suggest that cortical regions consist of interdigitated functional subnetworks of preferentially interconnected neurons 2 . (
  • Here I review the circuitry and functional roles of cortical subplate neurons, focusing on their purpose in the development of primary sensory cortices. (
  • Processing of low-probability sounds by cortical neurons. (
  • Peripheral neuropathy has an insidious onset, starting in the distal ends of the longest neurons and progressing slowly over months to years. (
  • EA can regulate the P2X 3 receptor protein and mRNA expression levels in the colon and related DRG of IBS rats with visceral pain and then regulate the excitatory properties of DRG neurons. (
  • Our findings demonstrate a functional segregation of mPFC excitatory neuron subnetworks, and reveal the factors determining connectivity in the mPFC. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the analgesic effect of KDS under a new approach, in which KDS acts on dorsal horn sensory neurons to reduce excitatory transmission. (
  • Maps of the mucosal projections of 30 neurons were generated. (
  • TRPV1 drugs alter core body temperature via central projections of primary afferent sensory neurons. (
  • Definition noun, plural: axons A long slender fibre of a neuron and is responsible for conducting nerve impulses away from. (
  • The fundamental process that triggers these impulses is the action potential, an electrical signal that is generated by utilizing the electrically excitable membrane of the neuron. (
  • Also known as relay neurons, interneurons provide connections between sensory and motor neurons, as well as between each other. (
  • Early interactions with the world are mediated by a key set of neurons, subplate neurons, which remain part of the developing cerebral cortex until most of them disappear at later stages of development. (
  • The ENS regulates secretion and peristalsis, whereas vagal and spinal afferents modulate nonpainful and painful sensations, respectively. (
  • A molecule called orexin is made in the brain and regulates the activity of a group of neurons that control sleep. (
  • These compound connections exhibit ultrastructural features indicative of strong synapses and occur much more commonly in entorhinal than in thalamic afferents. (
  • Welcome to medical neuroscience and welcome to our first tutorial on the Functional Micronanatomy of Neurons. (
  • Minimally, a recep- tor includes a peripheral axon terminal of one pri- mary afferent neuron, whose cell body is sited proximally in the dorsal root ganglion. (
  • By immunohistofluorescence, pejvakin is detected in the cell bodies of neurons of the afferent auditory pathway. (
  • Multiple time scales of adaptation in auditory cortex neurons. (
  • Furthermore, KDS2010 reversed the attenuation of GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) frequency in spinal dorsal horn neurons, although it failed to restore the reduced tonic GABAA inhibition nor the increased GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) expression in PTX-treated mice. (
  • Chronic stress enhances the reward fatty acids, ketones, lactate, vagal nerve afferents, and value of foods (15). (
  • For example, vagal afferents activated by endotoxin and cytokines in sepsis stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and exert anti-inflammatory effects through the release of glucocorticoids ( Tracey, 2002 ). (
  • Sensory neurons have axons that run from the toes to the dorsal column, over 1.5 meters in adults. (
  • Definition noun, plural: motor neurons A type of neuron connected to a muscle fiber and originates from the central nervous. (
  • Afferent neurons convey information to confirm therapy adequacy. (
  • This study tests the hypothesis that the bronchial hyperreactivity induced by chronic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure involves the increased expression and release of tachykinins and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from afferent nerve fibers innervating the airways. (
  • Tests with capsaicin and αβ-methylene ATP suggest that myelinated and unmyelinated afferent pathways engageboth mGluR-GABA mechanisms. (
  • Moreover, we discovered that although treatment with KDS increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, KDS inhibited Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor activation, suppressing increased p-NR2B-induced hyperexcitability in spinal dorsal horn sensory neurons after nerve injury. (
  • Afferent Glu spillover provides heterosynaptic cross talk with GABAergic inhibition in NTS. (
  • These afferents are mainly divided into myelinated Aδ-fibers and unmyelinated C-fibers. (
  • Our team assembles a unique spectrum of expertise allowing us to investigate all the components of the motor units (inputs to MNs arising from spinal and supraspinal circuits, properties of motor neurons, neuromuscular junctions, and muscle fibers). (