The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
A metabolite of BROMHEXINE that stimulates mucociliary action and clears the air passages in the respiratory tract. It is usually administered as the hydrochloride.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
Neurons that fire when an animal acts or observes the same action of another thus coding the motor response. They were originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey and studies have shown that neurons that have a similar mechanism are present in humans. Mirror neurons are theorized to be related to social cognition.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.

Regulation of neurotrophin-3 expression by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: the role of Wnt factors. (1/5514)

Neurotrophins regulate survival, axonal growth, and target innervation of sensory and other neurons. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed specifically in cells adjacent to extending axons of dorsal root ganglia neurons, and its absence results in loss of most of these neurons before their axons reach their targets. However, axons are not required for NT-3 expression in limbs; instead, local signals from ectoderm induce NT-3 expression in adjacent mesenchyme. Wnt factors expressed in limb ectoderm induce NT-3 in the underlying mesenchyme. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediated by Wnt factors control NT-3 expression and may regulate axonal growth and guidance.  (+info)

Plasticity of first-order sensory synapses: interactions between homosynaptic long-term potentiation and heterosynaptically evoked dopaminergic potentiation. (2/5514)

Persistent potentiations of the chemical and electrotonic components of the eighth nerve (NVIII) EPSP recorded in vivo in the goldfish reticulospinal neuron, the Mauthner cell, can be evoked by afferent tetanization or local dendritic application of an endogenous transmitter, dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine). These modifications are attributable to the activation of distinct intracellular kinase cascades. Although dopamine-evoked potentiation (DEP) is mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), tetanization most likely activates a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase via an increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We present evidence that the eighth nerve tetanus that induces LTP does not act by triggering dopamine release, because it is evoked in the presence of a broad spectrum of dopamine antagonists. To test for interactions between these pathways, we applied the potentiating paradigms sequentially. When dopamine was applied first, tetanization produced additional potentiation of the mixed synaptic response, but when the sequence was reversed, DEP was occluded, indicating that the synapses potentiated by the two procedures belong to the same or overlapping populations. Experiments were conducted to determine interactions between the underlying regulatory mechanisms and the level of their convergence. Inhibiting PKA does not impede tetanus-induced LTP, and chelating postsynaptic Ca2+ with BAPTA does not block DEP, indicating that the initial steps of the induction processes are independent. Pharmacological and voltage-clamp analyses indicate that the two pathways converge on functional AMPA/kainate receptors for the chemically mediated EPSP and gap junctions for the electrotonic component or at intermediaries common to both pathways. A cellular model incorporating these interactions is proposed on the basis of differential modulation of synaptic responses via receptor-protein phosphorylation.  (+info)

Neural mapping of direction and frequency in the cricket cercal sensory system. (3/5514)

Primary mechanosensory receptors and interneurons in the cricket cercal sensory system are sensitive to the direction and frequency of air current stimuli. Receptors innervating long mechanoreceptor hairs (>1000 microm) are most sensitive to low-frequency air currents (<150 Hz); receptors innervating medium-length hairs (900-500 microm) are most sensitive to higher frequency ranges (150-400 Hz). Previous studies demonstrated that the projection pattern of the synaptic arborizations of long hair receptor afferents form a continuous map of air current direction within the terminal abdominal ganglion (). We demonstrate here that the projection pattern of the medium-length hair afferents also forms a continuous map of stimulus direction. However, the afferents from the long and medium-length hair afferents show very little spatial segregation with respect to their frequency sensitivity. The possible functional significance of this small degree of spatial segregation was investigated, by calculating the relative overlap between the long and medium-length hair afferents with the dendrites of two interneurons that are known to have different frequency sensitivities. Both interneurons were shown to have nearly equal anatomical overlap with long and medium hair afferents. Thus, the differential overlap of these interneurons with the two different classes of afferents was not adequate to explain the observed frequency selectivity of the interneurons. Other mechanisms such as selective connectivity between subsets of afferents and interneurons and/or differences in interneuron biophysical properties must play a role in establishing the frequency selectivities of these interneurons.  (+info)

Differential expression of the mRNA for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 in cells of the adult rat dorsal root and nodose ganglia and its downregulation by axotomy. (4/5514)

Sensitivity to the pungent vanilloid, capsaicin, defines a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are mainly polymodal nociceptors. The recently cloned vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) is activated by capsaicin and noxious heat. Using combined in situ hybridization and histochemical methods, we have characterized in sensory ganglia the expression of VR1 mRNA. We show that this receptor is almost exclusively expressed by neurofilament-negative small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglion cells. Within this population, VR1 mRNA is detected at widely varying levels in both the NGF receptor (trkA)-positive, peptide-producing cells that elicit neurogenic inflammation and the functionally less characterized glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-responsive cells that bind lectin Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (IB4). Cells without detectable levels of VR1 mRNA are found in both classes. A subpopulation of the IB4-binding cells that produce somatostatin has relatively low levels of VR1 mRNA. A previously uncharacterized population of very small cells that express the receptor tyrosine kinase (RET) and that do not label for trkA or IB4-binding has the highest relative levels of VR1 mRNA. The majority of small visceral sensory neurons of the nodose ganglion also express VR1 mRNA, in conjunction with the BDNF receptor trkB but not trkA. Axotomy results in the downregulation of VR1 mRNA in dorsal root ganglion cells. Our data emphasize the heterogeneity of VR1 mRNA expression by subclasses of small sensory neurons, and this may result in their differential sensitivity to chemical and noxious heat stimuli. Our results also indicate that peripherally derived trophic factors may regulate levels of VR1 mRNA.  (+info)

Localization of sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons innervating the heart of the Beijing duck by means of the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. (5/5514)

Sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons were labeled by injections of horseradish peroxidase into various regions of the heart in 33 Beijing ducks. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the heart were located in the paravertebral ganglia C15 (C16 is the last cervical segment in the duck) to T3, especially in the ganglion T1. The coronary sulcus and ventricle were more abundantly innervated by sympathetic neurons than the atrium. The left side of the heart was preferentially innervated by sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the left side of paravertebral ganglia but the right side of the heart were equally supplied from the right and left ganglia. Within the medulla oblongata, the number of labeled vagal preganglionic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus was much greater than that in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. Labeled neurons of the nucleus ambiguus were found in many ducks injected into the coronary sulcus. Cardiac sensory neurons were observed in the dorsal root ganglia C15 to T2 (highest in the ganglion T1) and in the nodose and jugular ganglia of the vagus nerve. These labeled neurons probably form the afferent and efferent limbs of cardiac reflexes and control circulation in the Beijing duck.  (+info)

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (6/5514)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia. (7/5514)

The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase.  (+info)

Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers. (8/5514)

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

Spinal afferent neurons are responsible for the transduction and transmission of noxious (painful) stimuli and innocuous stimuli that do not reach conscious sensations from visceral organs to the central nervous system. Although the location of the nerve cell bodies of spinal afferents is well known to reside in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), the morphology and location of peripheral nerve endings of spinal afferents that transduce sensory stimuli into action potentials is poorly understood. The individual nerve endings of spinal afferents that innervate the urinary bladder have never been unequivocally identified in any species. We used an anterograde tracing technique developed in our laboratory to selectively label only spinal afferents. Mice were anesthetized and unilateral injections of dextran-amine made into lumbosacral DRGs (L5-S2). Seven to nine days postsurgery, mice were euthanized, the urinary bladder removed, then fresh-fixed and stained for immunoreactivity to ...
We (30) have recently reported that the majority of mouse LS colon sensory neurons respond to heat, protons, and capsaicin, consistent with the expression of TRPV1 channels. In the present report, we examined, in greater detail, the acid-sensitive currents in this population of colon sensory neurons as well as in a second TL sensory pathway innervating the distal colon. We found that visceral sensory neurons labeled from the colon are functionally distinct from unlabeled neurons, which likely project to nonvisceral targets, such as the skin or muscle. Whereas most unlabeled DRG neurons generated transient amiloride-sensitive currents in response to acid, most LS and TL colon sensory neurons responded with slowly activating, sustained currents that were reversibly inhibited by the TRPV1 blocker capsazepine. Consistent with the role of TRPV1 as the principal mediator of acid-sensitive currents in colon sensory neurons, the peak current and fraction of neurons responding to acid were significantly ...
Garcia-Morales, Carla, Liu, Chiung-Hui, Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad, Hajihosseini, Mohammad K. and Wheeler, Grant N. (2009) Frizzled-10 promotes sensory neuron development in Xenopus embryos. Developmental Biology, 335 (1). pp. 143-155. ISSN 1095-564X Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
Distension of the main pulmonary artery and its bifurcation are known to result in a reflex vasoconstriction and increased respiratory drive; however, these responses are observed at abnormally high distending pressures. In this study we recorded afferent activity from pulmonary arterial baroreceptors to investigate their stimulus-response characteristics and to determine whether they are influenced by physiological changes in intrathoracic pressure. In chloralose-anaesthetized dogs, a cardiopulmonary bypass was established, the pulmonary trunk and its main branches were vascularly isolated and perfused with venous blood at pulstatile pressures designed to simulate the normal pulmonary arterial pressure waveform. Afferent slips of a cervical vagus were dissected and nerve fibres identified that displayed discharge patterns with characteristics expected from pulmonary arterial baroreceptors. Recordings were obtained with (a) chest open (b) chest closed and resealed, and (c) with phasic negative ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Discharge properties of group III and IV muscle afferents: their responses to mechanical and metabolic stimuli.. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
In buy The Primary Afferent Neuron: A past time cause of Borrelia burgdorferi: a space Barsic future and disease deals. J Clin Microbiol 1992; classic Johnson RC. role areas for groups and their store to times in adhesion and in not.
Muscle sensory neurons are involved in proprioceptor signaling and also report on metabolic state and injury related events. We...
Specific subpopulations of lung-related primary afferent neurons in dorsal root and vagal sensory ganglia have been reported to express P2X2 and P2X3 receptors both in the neuronal cell bodies and in their peripheral terminals. The afferent innervation of airways and lungs is organised as sensory receptor structures, of which at least seven types with a vagal origin and two with a spinal origin have been reported. In view of the recently suggested therapeutic promise of ATP antagonism - specifically at P2X3 receptor expressing nociceptive fibres - in respiratory disorders, the present work focusses on four distinct populations of pulmonary sensory receptors that have so far been reported to express P2X2/3 receptors ...
View Notes - Test #4 picture questions from BIO 2113 at Chatt Tech. Figure 12.1 Using Figure 12.1, match the following: 1) Afferent impulses from all senses and all parts of the body converge here
In this video, youll learn about sensory neurons and how they give rise to your five senses. Also, youll explore the brains role in processing...
There is both morphological and functional evidence that capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons innervate the digestive tract. The possible function of these neurons in gastric ulceration and gastrointestinal motility was investigated in rats which had been systemically pretreated with capsaicin (50-125 mg/kg). It was found that capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons do not participate in the physiologic control of gastrointestinal propulsion. However, the inhibition of gastrointestinal transit due to surgical trauma or peritoneal irritation with iodine was reduced in capsaicin-treated rats. It was concluded that capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons may be involved in sympathetic reflex inhibition of gastrointestinal propulsion. Gastric ulceration induced by the intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin or intragastric administration of ethanol was greatly aggravated in capsaicin-treated rats. Since an involvement of the autonomic nervous system as well as of histamine and prostaglandins in this effect of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell and molecular analysis of long-term sensitization in Aplysia. AU - Castellucci, V. F.. AU - Frost, W. N.. AU - Goelet, P.. AU - Montarolo, P. G.. AU - Schacher, S.. AU - Morgan, J. A.. AU - Blumenfeld, H.. AU - Kandel, E. R.. PY - 1986/12/1. Y1 - 1986/12/1. N2 - We have found that one cellular locus for the storage of the memory underlying short-term sensitization of the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex in Aplysia is the set of monosynaptic connections between the siphon sensory cells and the gill and siphon motor neurons. These connections also participate in the storage of memory underlying long-term sensitization. In animals that have undergone long-term sensitization, the amplitudes of the monosynaptic connections are significantly larger (2.2x) than the ones in control animals. To study the mechanisms of onset and retention of long-term synaptic facilitation that underly long-term sensitization and the role of protein synthesis in long-term memory, we have developed ...
Sensory neurons possess the central and peripheral branches and they form unique spinal neural circuits with motoneurons during development. Peripheral branches of sensory axons fasciculate with the motor axons that extend toward the peripheral muscles from the central nervous system (CNS), whereas the central branches of proprioceptive sensory neurons directly innervate motoneurons. Although anatomically well documented, the molecular mechanism underlying sensory-motor interaction during neural circuit formation is not fully understood. To investigate the role of motoneuron on sensory neuron development, we analyzed sensory neuron phenotypes in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of Olig2 knockout (KO) mouse embryos, which lack motoneurons. We found an increased number of apoptotic cells in the DRG of Olig2 KO embryos at embryonic day (E) 10.5. Furthermore, abnormal axonal projections of sensory neurons were observed in both the peripheral branches at E10.5 and central branches at E15.5. To ...
The interneuronally mediated reflex actions evoked by electrical stimulation of group II muscle afferents in low spinal cats have been reinvestigated with intracellular recording from motoneurones to
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Contribution of nerve growth factor to augmented TRPV1 responses of muscle sensory neurons by femoral artery occlusion. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Vol 9: Peripheral Glia Have a Pivotal Role in the Initial Response to Axon Degeneration of Peripheral Sensory Neurons in Zebrafish.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The use of genetically encoded calcium indicators in vivo reveals polymodality is a rare phenomenon in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, most of these neurons respond specifically to a single type of sensation, such as mechanical stimulation, cold, or heat, reports a team of researchers led by Edward Emery and John Wood, University College London, UK.
The use of genetically encoded calcium indicators in vivo reveals polymodality is a rare phenomenon in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons. Instead, most of these neurons respond specifically to a single type of sensation, such as mechanical stimulation, cold, or heat, reports a team of researchers led by Edward Emery and John Wood, University College London, UK.
To : All First of all I would like to thank you all who answered my first question about examples of sensory neurones who have cell body located close to the stimulus ? The answers were as follows : PHOTORECEPTORS, COCHLEAR HAIR CELL, STRECH RECEPTORS, OLFACTORY RECEPTORS, GUASTATORY RECEPTORS. I looked up the sensors and found that all of them responds in a linear fashion to a increase in stimulus. However, in the enteric nervous system several authors say that the AH neurones are the sensory neurones. The AH neurone is characterized by having a prolonged after- hyperpolarization (,4 seconds) following an action potential, which is caused by opening of calcium activated potassium channels. I have always wondered why a sensory neurone would behave with such a strange pattern. The neurone is complete inactive during the after- hyperpolarization, so it is not really a matter of adaptation, but more a question of making the neurone completely inactive. The AH neurones are possibly coupled to a ...
Sensory Neuron Diagram Labeled - See more about Sensory Neuron Diagram Labeled, sensory neuron diagram labeled, sensory neuron diagram labeled gcse
Both cell types generic kamagra super 160mg without a prescription, in conjunction with enteric microbiota produce a variety of signalling molecules that can activate a number of receptors on extrinsic primary afferent neurons buy kamagra super 160 mg with visa. Therefore, endocrine, neuronal and immune signals are all integrated and are sent to specific brain regions and may alter cognition, mood and emotions. The stomach is predominantly governed by vago-vagal reflexes, thus signals arising from extrinsic and intrinsic neurons are relatively weak. In the intestines, intrinsic primary afferent neurons and enteric motorneurons are important for intestinal function afferents are much stronger in the intestine, which are reliant on these signals [17]. Inter- estingly, some of these intrinsic afferents are normally unresponsive to mechanical stimuli, and only become responsive during periods of inflammation [33]. These terminals contain chemosensitive receptors, which are responsive to the ...
Whole cell patch recordings were obtained from medium diameter (35-45 microm) dorsal root ganglion neurons. Using electrophysiological parameters, we were able to subclassify acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglion cells into three uniform (types 5, 6 and 9) and one mixed class (type 8) of neurons. …
Neurons send signals to other cells as electrochemical waves travelling along thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals called neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses. A cell that receives a synaptic signal may be excited, inhibited, or otherwise modulated. Sensory neurons are activated by physical stimuli impinging on them, and send signals that inform the central nervous system of the state of the body and the external environment. Motor neurons, situated either in the central nervous system or in peripheral ganglia, connect the nervous system to muscles or other effector organs. Central neurons, which in vertebrates greatly outnumber the other types, make all of their input and output connections with other neurons. The interactions of all these types of neurons form neural circuits that generate an organisms perception of the world and determine its behavior. Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glial cells (or simply ...
Types The simplest way to classify neurons is based on their function (see Figure 3).Which of the following types of neurons carry impulses away.. Which of the following statements about sensory. downward utilizes cell bodies of first order sensory neurons.The following image. function of the nervous system, neurons have.Interneurons are types of nerve. the analogous neurons have been named. some of the more compelling ideas about the possible functions of interneurons.Functions of the Nervous System 1. interpret the message from the sensory neurons ...
The flexible neurons also greatly expand the brains capacity to perform tasks. In the computer model, neural networks without mixed selectivity neurons could learn about 100 tasks before running out of capacity. That capacity greatly expanded to tens of millions of tasks as mixed selectivity neurons were added to the model. When mixed selectivity neurons reached about 30 percent of the total, the networks capacity became virtually unlimited, Miller says - just like a human brain. […]. Miller is now trying to figure out how the brain sorts through all of this activity to create coherent messages. There is some evidence suggesting that these neurons communicate with the correct targets by synchronizing their activity with oscillations of a particular brainwave frequency.. The idea is that neurons can send different messages to different targets by virtue of which other neurons they are synchronized with, Miller says. It provides a way of essentially opening up these special channels of ...
neuron - MedHelps neuron Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for neuron. Find neuron information, treatments for neuron and neuron symptoms.
What and When: The 2018 NEURON Summer Course is a six day hands-on course about computational modeling with NEURON. It will start at 9 AM on Monday, August 6, and end at 5 PM on Saturday, August 11, 2018. This course will present what you need to know to use NEURON to model individual neurons and networks of neurons, and is suitable for participants at all levels of expertise ...
On Thursday 11 March 2010 15:09:33 J.A.Legris wrote: , , See for a , computational romp around this question. Result: 10^11 to 10^13 , neurons. I went over this and could not find anything that is more than a rough estimation. Judging fronm the number of neurons in the retina to the number of neurons in the brain seems to be al little bit oversimplified. Neurons are not distributed homogeneously throughout the brain (white / grey matter). Moreover the density (number of neurones per volume) may vary also. To get a real idea on the numbers iiI would like to see a paper dealing with sections, reconstructions and comparisons of different parts of the brain. Kind regards Michael ...
Chemotherapy‐Induced Neuropathy and Drug Discovery Platform Using Human Sensory Neurons Converted Directly from Adult Peripheral Blood Academic Article ...
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Yes I tried it and yes I saw the error message once, but Im having the hardest time getting it to recur. The first and only time I saw it was after I was just fooling around running a series of simulations, then clicked on the Excitatory Myelinated panels Re-Create button a couple of times, and there was the error. I quit NEURON and tried to deliberately cause the error, but so far without success. Is it necessary to run one or more simulations, or is it enough to click on one of these Re-Create buttons several times? Just clicking 4 or even many times on one or the other button, or always on one, doesnt seem to do it on this PC under 32 bit CentOS 6.4 with NEURON 7.3 (840:c597ab253106) 2013-03-31. What version of NEURON are you using, and under what OS ...
Depressing reading in this piece by George Monbiot on Canada: So here I am, watching the astonishing spectacle of a beautiful, cultured nation turning itself into a corrupt petro-state. Canada is slipping down the development ladder, retreating from a complex, diverse economy towards dependence on a single primary resource, which happens to be the dirtiest […]
Zheng et al demonstated in Neuron, that mapped basal Ca2+ in neurons and astrocytes with submicron resolution helps to unveil heterogeneous concentration landscapes that depend on age and preceding activity of the bain. Monitoring nanomolar-scale molecular interaction between OGB1 nanomolar sensitivity dye and Ca2+ was performed by Femto2D-Galvo equipped with FLIM module. Zheng et al, Neuron, 2015
Get the total number of neurons in the entire network. This number does also include the bias neurons, so a 2-4-2 network has 2+4+2 +2(bias) = 10 neurons. ...
This module on the biological basis of behavior provides an overview of the basic structure of neurons and their means of communication. Neurons, cells in the central nervous system, receive information from our sensory systems (vision, audition, olfac...
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Are neurons likely to be a site for cancer formation? Why or why not?The answer is no. Neurons are among a special class of terminally-differentia...
Suggested essay topics and study questions for s Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain. Perfect for students who have to write Neurons, Hormones, and the Brain essays.
The neurosimulator NEURON, Hines, M. L. , Methods in Neuronal Modeling, edited by C. Koch and I. Segev. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p.129-136, (1998) ...
The neurosimulator NEURON, Hines, M. L. , Methods in Neuronal Modeling, edited by C. Koch and I. Segev. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, p.129-136, (1998) ...
We explain Neurons with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|Identify the components, types, and functions of neurons.|/p|
Scientists have known about D1 neurons that can turn one drink into two-or more. Now, theyve discovered D2 neurons, which tell us to stop.
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This is the fourth piece in my neuron series. The other three pieces are 8 x 8 and this one is 18 x 24. The medium is scratchboard and ink and it is called Swimming Underwater with the Neurons. Several of my friends make a
Casing of the axon made of a fatty substance (myelin) providing electrical insulation for the neuron and increasing the conduction speed of the nerve impulse. ...
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
The computational properties of a neuron are intimately related to its morphology. However, unlike electrophysiological properties, it is not straightforward to collapse the complexity of the three-di
A neuron, also known as a nerve cell, detects stimuli in its environment, integrates the information and then decides whether or not to transmit a signal to the next cell. There are three varieties...
The movement of molecules in the neuron extensions known as axons is a process that is vital for the survival of cells and the smooth operation of the nervous system. It is performed by vesicles that travel fast thanks to the energy-hungry molecular engines. At the
Neurons are the basic computational building blocks that compose our brain. They transmit and receive electrical signals in the body.
Neuron Toolbook 2 - posted in Windows XP, 2000, 2003, NT: I have installed this program, but I get a SHELL.DLL error (as in a cannot find ) and a TB80NET.EXE error. I have looked and found that my shell.dll fille is in the correct place, so I cant figure out what is going on. I have uninstalled and reinstalled the application, but still get the same error.
Interaction Between Neurons and Glia in Aging and Disease und Buchbewertungen gibt es auf Bücher können hier direkt online erworben werden.
Tens of billions of cells in your body die everyday. Its a natural process, important for keeping the body healthy. Now, in a world first, researchers have directly imaged the death of neurons in mice, and as how the body clears them out afterwards.
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Date: Tue, 21 May 1996 21:06:33 -0500 From: Colin P. A. Kennedy ,[email protected], Message-Id: ,[email protected], To: [email protected], [email protected] Subject: Re: Web neurons There is a reason for CGI, you know ...
Liu, Chang; Glowatzki, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Paul Albert (2015-11-24). "Unmyelinated type II afferent neurons report cochlear ... It is theorized that type II afferent fibers become excited after damage to hair cells and synapses, triggering a release of ...
Rizzolatti, G; Scandolara, C; Matelli, M; Gentilucci, M. (1981). "Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque monkeys ... Each multisensory neuron responded to a touch within a specific "tactile receptive field" on the body surface. Each neuron also ... Some neurons responded to sound sources near the tactile receptive field. Some neurons also responded mnemonically, becoming ... Neuron. 43 (4): 585-593. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.07.029. PMID 15312656. Cooke, DF; Graziano, MSA (2004). "Sensorimotor ...
These impulses are transmitted to the brain through afferent neurons. Senses and receptors[edit]. While debate exists among ... "Neuron. 67 (1): 49-60. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.05.023. PMC 2904318. PMID 20624591.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ... This action potential then travels along afferent neurons to specific brain regions where it is processed and interpreted.[5] ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ...
These impulses are transmitted to the brain through afferent neurons.. Senses and receptors[edit]. While debate exists among ... This action potential then travels along afferent neurons to specific brain regions where it is processed and interpreted.[5] ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... which is carried along one or more afferent neurons towards a specific area of the brain. While the term sensory cortex is ...
and perpendicular to the afferent striatopallidal axons. There are only a few small local circuitry neurons. The globus ... The latter is made up of similar neuronal elements, has similar afferents from the striatum, similar projections to the ... The synaptology is very peculiar (see primate basal ganglia system). The striatal afferents contribute more than 90% of ... In primates, almost all pallidal neurons are very large, parvalbumin-positive, with very large dendritic arborizations. These ...
Rizzolatti, G., Scandolara, C., Matelli, M. and Gentilucci, J (1981). "Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque ... Yet the same neurons become active when the monkey watches an experimenter grasp an object in the same way. The neurons are ... The motor neuron sends an electrical impulse to a muscle. When the neuron in the cortex becomes active, it causes a muscle ... Mirror neurons were first discovered in area F5 in the monkey brain by Rizzolatti and colleagues. These neurons are active when ...
... s are at the ends of afferent neurons. works within the capsule. Ion channels are situated near these ... In sensory transduction, the afferent nerves transmit through a series of synapses in the central nervous system, first in the ...
Rizzolatti, G., Scandolara, C., Matelli, M. and Gentilucci, J (1981). "Afferent properties of periarcuate neurons in macaque ... Yet the same neurons become active when the monkey watches an experimenter grasp an object in the same way. The neurons are ... Mirror neurons were first discovered in area F5 in the monkey brain by Rizzolatti and colleagues. These neurons are active when ... Neurons here are responsive to tactile stimuli, visual stimuli, and auditory stimuli. These neurons are especially sensitive to ...
It activates the afferent sensory neuron. A large number of important drugs exert their effects by interacting with ... Noradrenergic neurons (i.e., neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is norepinephrine) are comparatively few in number, and ... The noradrenergic neurons in the brain form a neurotransmitter system, that, when activated, exerts effects on large areas of ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.011. PMID 23040811. Berridge CW, Schmeichel BE, España RA (2012). "Noradrenergic modulation of ...
Pathways Arise from Subpopulations of Primary Afferent Nociceptor". Neuron. 47 (6): 787-793. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.08.015. ... Once this threshold is reached a signal is passed along the axon of the neuron into the spinal cord. Nociceptive threshold ... 33 (1-2). Pastor, J.; Soria, B.; Belmonte, C. (1996). "Properties of the nociceptive neurons of the leech segmental ganglion". ... Illich, P. A.; Walters, E. T. (1997). "Mechanosensory neurons innervating Aplysia siphon encode noxious stimuli and display ...
... the pseudounipolar neuron, secondary afferentme neurons, and tertiary afferent neurons. There are also slowly adapting ... Those that receive the neuron synapses are classified as secondary afferents. These neurons go to the thalamus and then ... An indentation, as stated before, becomes an electrical signal in the peripheral process of a primary afferent neuron. This ... This makes sense as afferent is defined conducting toward something. These neurons are sending signals towards the brain. ...
These impulses are transmitted to the brain through afferent neurons. While debate exists among neurologists as to the specific ... This action potential then travels along afferent neurons to specific brain regions where it is processed and interpreted. ... which is carried along one or more afferent neurons towards a specific area of the brain. While the term sensory cortex is ... Neuron. 67 (1): 49-60. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.05.023. PMC 2904318. PMID 20624591.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) ...
1a spindle afferents activate 1a inhibitory neuron. Ib inhibitory interneuron: Found in lamina V, VI, VII. Afferent or Golgi ... relay neurons, association neurons, connector neurons, intermediate neurons or local circuit neurons) are neurons that connect ... conducting flow of signals or information between a sensory neuron and or motor neuron[citation needed]. Relay (disambiguation ... not direct motor neurons or sensory neurons. Interneurons are the central nodes of neural circuits, enabling communication ...
Synaptic integration by V1 neurons depends on location within the orientation map. Neuron 36: 969-978, 2002. Newton, J.R., C. ... Disruption of retinogeniculate afferent segregation by antagonists to NMDA receptors. Nature 351: 568-570, 1991. Nelson, S., L ... Neuron 47: 267-280, 2005. Tropea, D., G. Kreiman, A. Lyckman, S. Mukherjee, H. Yu, S. Horng and M. Sur. Gene expression changes ... Neuron 32: 1181-1192, 2001. Dragoi, V., J. Sharma, E.K. Miller and M. Sur. Dynamics of neuronal sensitivity in visual cortex ...
Afferent signals enter the spinal cord at the superficial layer of the dorsal horn Second order neurons cross the midline of ... Jänig, W. (1996-01-05). "Neurobiology of visceral afferent neurons: neuroanatomy, functions, organ regulations and sensations ... Afferent signals from the vagus nerve enter the brainstem making synaptic connections with the nucleus of the solitary tract ... Afferent signals from the mechanoreceptors or proprioceptors enter the spinal cord at the dorsal root ganglia Second order ...
The main function of the IHCs is to transmit sound information via afferent neurons. They do this by transducing mechanical ... This electric current creates action potentials within the connected afferent neurons. OHCs are different in that they actually ... Whereby, neurons which would normally be stimulated by the dead region, have been reassigned to respond to functioning areas ... Thus, an increase in firing rate of the auditory neurons connected to the hair cell occurs. On the other hand, the bending of ...
The dendrites receive most of the synaptic inputs from afferent neurons that regulate the magnocellular neurons; typically a ... These cells are neuroendocrine neurons, are electrically excitable, and generate action potentials in response to afferent ... magnocellular neuron receives about 10,000 synapses from afferent neurons. Parvocellular neurosecretory cell Leng, G; Brown, CH ... Magnocellular neurosecretory cells in rats (where these neurons have been most extensively studied) in general have a single ...
... and third-order neurons. The first-order neuron is the afferent neuron. It enters the spinal cord through the dorsal root ... The peripheral nervous system is composed of afferent and efferent neurons; disorder of these neurons is called peripheral ... sensory neurons) found in various layers of the skin and body. The afferent neuron travels to the spinal column and then to the ... In most cases, the nerve damage occurs in afferent neurons in the foot and lower limbs. Nerve damage can be assessed with ...
The pupillary light reflex neural pathway on the each side has an afferent limb and two efferent limbs. The afferent limb has ... Types of neurons[edit]. The optic nerve, or more precisely, the photosensitive ganglion cells through the retinohypothalamic ... The afferent limb carries sensory input. Anatomically, the afferent limb consists of the retina, the optic nerve, and the ... Afferent signals from the left eye cannot pass through the transected left optic nerve to reach the intact efferent limb on the ...
"Deletion of leptin signaling in vagal afferent neurons results in hyperphagia and obesity". Molecular Metabolism. 3 (6): 595- ...
The ENS contains sensory receptors, primary afferent neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. The events that are controlled, ... According to preclinical studies, 30% of myenteric plexus' neurons are enteric sensory neurons, thus Auerbach's plexus has also ... The myenteric plexus originates in the medulla oblongata as a collection of neurons from the ventral part of the brain stem. ... Since many of the same neurotransmitters are found in the ENS as the brain, it follows that myenteric neurons can express ...
Yoshida, K., McCormack, S., Espana, R.A., Crocker, A., & Scammell, T.E. (2006). Afferents to the orexin neurons of the rat ... Neurons located in different structures of the medial temporal lobe are what cause the transformation from an egocentric to an ... Neuron, 22,221-232. Speakman, J., Hambly, C., Mitchell, S., Krol, E. (2007). Animal models of obesity. Obes Rev 8(Suppl 1),55- ... Neuron. 33, 815. Kelley, A.E., Baldo, B.A., & Pratt, W.E. (2005). A proposed hypothal- amicethalamicestriatal axis for the ...
Afferent signals are sensory neuronal signals that ascend to the brain. Afferent neurons significant in dyspnea arise from a ... As the brain receives its plentiful supply of afferent information relating to ventilation, it is able to compare it to the ... It is believed the central processing in the brain compares the afferent and efferent signals; and dyspnea results when a " ... It is thought that three main components contribute to dyspnea: afferent signals, efferent signals, and central information ...
Often tumor cells secrete growth factors which activate receptors close to primary afferent neurons. Activation of these neural ... For many years it has been known that bones are innervated with sensory neurons. Yet their exact anatomy remained obscure due ... Bone tissue is innervated by both myelinated (A beta and A delta fiber) and unmyelinated (C fiber) sensory neurons. In ... Mouse and other animal models are being heavily used to determine the neuron tissue densities in bone and mechanisms for ...
Willis, William D.; Coggeshall, Richard E. (31 January 2004). Sensory Mechanisms of the Spinal Cord: Primary afferent neurons ... "Neuron. 65 (2): 150-164. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.009. PMC 3717333. PMID 20152123.. ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2006.11.012. PMID 17178409.. *^ Stone, James V. (2012): "Vision and Brain: How we perceive the world", ... Some processing of texture and movement occurs within the neurons on the retina before the information is sent to the brain. In ...
The Ia afferent signals are transmitted monosynaptically to many alpha motor neurons of the receptor-bearing muscle. The ... The motor part of the spindle is provided by motor neurons: up to a dozen gamma motor neurons and one or two beta motor neurons ... Gamma motor neurons supply only muscle fibres within the spindle, whereas beta motor neurons supply muscle fibres both within ... The sensory endings of a primary (group Ia) afferent and a secondary (group II) afferent coil around the non-contractile ...
The primary afferent neurons responsible for histamine-induced itch are unmyelinated C-fibres. Two major classes of human C- ... Neuropathic itch can originate at any point along the afferent pathway as a result of damage of the nervous system. They could ... There is little detailed data on central activation for contagious itching, but it is hypothesized that a human mirror neuron ... Andrew D, Craig AD (January 2001). "Spinothalamic lamina I neurons selectively sensitive to histamine: a central neural pathway ...
de Lartigue G, Ronveaux CC, Raybould HE (September 2014). "Deletion of leptin signaling in vagal afferent neurons results in ... The sensory fibers originate from neurons of the nodose ganglion, whereas the motor fibers come from neurons of the dorsal ... which receives afferent taste information and primary afferents from visceral organs The spinal trigeminal nucleus - which ... A non-invasive VNS device that stimulates an afferent branch of the vagus nerve is also being developed and will soon[when?] ...
These electrical impulses are then transmitted along afferent lateral neurons to the brain. While both varieties of neuromasts ... The mechanoreceptive hair cells of the lateral line structure are integrated into more complex circuits through their afferent ... The synapses that directly participate in the transduction of mechanical information are excitatory afferent connections that ... However, a variety of different neuromast and afferent connections are possible, resulting in variation in mechanoreceptive ...
The first order afferent neuron carries sensory information to the second order neuron in the dorsal horn. The axon of the ... large alpha motor neurons, medium gamma motor neurons, and small neurons thought to be interneurons. These neurons differ in ... A large loss of large alpha motor neurons, medium gamma motor neurons, and small neurons was recorded in cases of muscular ... The number of large alpha motor neurons and medium gamma motor neurons was greatly reduced and the number of small neurons was ...
... coexists with the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in primary afferents that respond to painful stimulation.[ ... Its receptor - the neurokinin type 1 - is distributed over cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes of many cell types (neurons, glia ... and neurons containing norepinephrine that are targeted by the currently used antidepressant drugs.[12] The SP receptor ... "Cytokine regulation of substance P expression in sympathetic neurons". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
... where the sensory neurons synapse with the two other kinds of neurons, the projection neurons and the local neurons.[1] There ... "Odotopic afferent representation of the glomerular antennal lobe organization in the mushroom bodies of ants (Hymenoptera: ... The interaction between the olfactory receptor neurons, local neurons and projection neurons reformats the information input ... In Drosophila, each olfactory sensory neuron generally expresses a single olfactory receptor gene,[5] and the neurons ...
... these afferent neurons fire at low frequencies. Low-frequency afferent signals cause relaxation of the bladder by inhibiting ... sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons and exciting lumbar sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Conversely, afferent input ... causing excitation of sacral preganglionic neurons. The firing of these neurons causes the wall of the bladder to contract; as ... When the afferent and efferent nerves are both destroyed, as they may be by tumors of the cauda equina or filum terminale, the ...
... the afferent neurons transmit messages through synapses in the dorsal column nuclei, where second-order neurons send the signal ... Stretching a spindle fiber initiates a volley of impulses in the sensory neuron (a I-a neuron) attached to it. The impulses ... Some of the branches of the I-a axons synapse directly with alpha motor neurons.These carry impulses back to the same muscle ... These, in turn, synapse with motor neurons leading back to the antagonistic muscle, a flexor in the back of the thigh. By ...
regulation of neuron differentiation. • neuron projection morphogenesis. • modulation of chemical synaptic transmission. • ... from environmental stimuli are initially processed by the cortex before being transmitted to the hippocampus along an afferent ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.02.034. PMID 21435558. S2CID 15373477.. *^ a b Matsuoka Y, Li X, Bennett V (June 2000). "Adducin: ... helping to support survival of existing neurons, and encouraging growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses.[10][11 ...
অন্তর্বাহী স্নায়ু (Afferent nerve). *বহির্বাহী স্নায়ু (Efferent nerve) / চেষ্টীয় স্নায়ু (Motor nerve) ... স্নায়ুকোষ (Neuron). *স্নায়ু অক্ষ (Axon). *স্নায়ুপ্রশাখা (Dendrite). *স্নায়ুসন্নিধি (Synapse). *স্নায়ুধারীয় বর্জ্য ...
Neuron. 63 (5): 643-56. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.08.014. PMID 19755107. Colby, C. L.; Goldberg, M. E. (1999). "Space and ... The CA3 is innervated by two afferent paths known as the perforant path (PPCA3) and the dentate gyrus (DG)-mediated mossy ... The identification of neurons that anticipate expected rewards in a spatial task support this hypothesis. The medial prefrontal ... Pratt, W. E.; Mizumori, S. J. Y. (2001). "Neurons in rat medial prefrontal cortex show anticipatory rate changes to predictable ...
Afferent nerve fiber/. Sensory neuron. *GSA. *GVA. *SSA. *SVA. *fibers *Ia or Aα ...
Afferent leg. The afferent leg of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for conveying sensory information to the brain, ... Nerves that control skeletal muscles in mammals correspond with neuron groups along the primary motor cortex of the brain's ... Signals are picked up by sensory receptors and sent to the spinal cord and brain via the afferent leg of the peripheral nervous ... In this case, the signal from the afferent fiber does not reach the brain, but produces the reflexive movement by direct ...
... does not govern every activity in the body.[19][20] For instance the signal (be it via neurons or hormones) from ... via afferent nerve fibers, to the solitary nucleus in the medulla oblongata.[48] From here motor nerves belonging to the ... Inhibitory neurons using GABA, make compensating changes in the neuronal networks preventing runaway levels of excitation.[61] ... Inhibitory neurons in the central nervous system play a homeostatic role in the balance of neuronal activity between excitation ...
Inhibition of central neuron excitation.. *N6-3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl adenine riboside (B2) ... Afferent arteriolar constriction in Kidney. *decreased heart rate. *N6-Cyclopentyladenosine. *N6-3-methoxyl-4-hydroxybenzyl ...
In the cerebellar cortex there are a variety of inhibitory neurons (interneurons). The only excitatory neurons present in the ... Afferent nerve fiber/. Sensory neuron. *GSA. *GVA. *SSA. *SVA. *fibers *Ia or Aα ... The name granule cell has been used for a number of different types of neuron whose only common feature is that they all have ... Granule neurons have high levels of the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. This enzyme is dependent on the presence of ...
At a synapse, the plasma membrane of the signal-passing neuron (the presynaptic neuron) comes into close apposition with the ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.11.007. PMID 16364893.. *^ a b Kimata, Tsubasa; Tanizawa, Yoshinori; Can, Yoko; et al. (June 1, 2012 ... the connection between the two neurons is strengthened when both neurons are active at the same time, as a result of the ... Afferent nerve fiber/. Sensory neuron. *GSA. *GVA. *SSA. *SVA. *fibers *Ia or Aα ...
... and the electrical activity of these neurons is regulated by afferent synaptic inputs from other brain regions. By contrast, ... Hence, neuroendocrine neurons are good "model systems" for studying general questions, like "how does a neuron regulate the ... neurons and the somatostatin neurons, which stimulate and inhibit GH secretion, respectively. The GHRH neurones are located in ... They are secreted directly into systemic circulation by the hypothalamic neurons. History[edit]. Pioneers[edit]. Ernst and ...
"Available data demonstrate that discrete regions of the cerebellum and associated brainstem areas contain neurons that alter ... Fear conditioning occurs in the basolateral amygdala, which receives glutaminergic input directly from thalamic afferents, as ...
... is the neurotrophic theory which states that PCD is required to optimize the connection between neurons and their afferent ... However, PCD of neurons due to Bax deletion or Bcl-2 overexpression does not result in prominent morphological or behavioral ...;2-2. Zup, SL (2003). "Overexpression of bcl-2 reduces sex differences in neuron number in the brain and spinal cord". ... Another theory proposes that developmental PCD in the nervous system occurs in order to correct for errors in neurons that have ...
The solitary nucleus, which contains the general visceral afferent fibers for taste, as well as the special visceral afferent ... The soma (cell bodies) in these nuclei are the second-order neurons of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway, and their ... The ventral respiratory group and the dorsal respiratory group are neurons involved in this regulation. The pre-Bötzinger ... The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, which contain the special somatic afferent column. ...
They found that neurons located in the brainstem of fish are responsible for the genesis of the respiratory rhythm. The ... Here the shark pumps blood to its gills via the ventral aorta artery where it branches into afferent brachial arteries. ... Neurons fired in a pattern resembling human neuronal patterns. Professor James D. Rose of the University of Wyoming claimed the ... In both aquatic and terrestrial respiration, the exact mechanisms by which neurons can generate this involuntary rhythm are ...
Like other neurons, lower motor neurons have both afferent (incoming) and efferent (outgoing) connections. Alpha motor neurons ... Afferent inputEdit. Selected pathways between upper motor neurons and alpha motor neurons UMN origin α-MN target Tract name ... An alpha motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates is a motor unit. A motor neuron pool contains the cell bodies of all ... Alpha (α) motor neurons (also called alpha motoneurons), are large, multipolar lower motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal ...
Neuron. 65 (1): 7-19. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.11.031. PMC 2822727. PMID 20152109.. ... de Olmos J, Hardy H, Heimer L (Sep 1978). "The afferent connections of the main and the accessory olfactory bulb formations in ... "Neuron. 61 (1): 6-9. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.12.023. PMC 2649674. PMID 19146808.. ... Malenka RC, Bear MF (Sep 2004). "LTP and LTD: an embarrassment of riches". Neuron. 44 (1): 5-21. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.09. ...
Talk:General somatic afferent fibers. *Talk:General somatic efferent fibers. *Talk:General visceral efferent fibers ... Talk:Anaxonic neuron. *Talk:Angular bundle. *Talk:Ansa lenticularis. *Talk:Anterior ethmoidal nerve ...
Afferent nerve fiber/. Sensory neuron. *GSA. *GVA. *SSA. *SVA. *fibers *Ia or Aα ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.07.001. PMID 15260957.. *^ George Zanazzi & Gary Matthews. The Molecular Architecture of Ribbon ... Two neurons make near contact through structures called synapses allowing them to communicate with each other. As shown in the ... The ribbon synapse is a special type of synapse found in sensory neurons such as photoreceptor cells, retinal bipolar cells, ...
... called spindle neurons. These are also called von Economo neurons, identified as characterising a distinctive subregion as the ... The insula receives information from "homeostatic afferent" sensory pathways via the thalamus and sends output to a number of ... The spindle neurons found at a higher density in the right frontal insular cortex are also found in the anterior cingulate ... It has been speculated that these neurons are involved in cognitive-emotional processes that are specific to primates including ...
The proprioceptive sense is believed to be composed of information from sensory neurons located in the inner ear (motion and ... on the basis that some of the afferent information (back to the brain) comes from other structures, including tendons, joints, ... first-order sensory neuron), reaching the mesencephalic tract and the mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve. ... "A C. Elegans stretch receptor neuron revealed by a mechanosensitive TRP channel homologue". Nature. 440 (7084): 684-687. ...
Magnocellular neurons: *Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin and arginine vasopressin AVP), the majority of ... afferent *Medial forebrain bundle. *Retinohypothalamic tract. *efferent *Mammillothalamic tract. *Stria terminalis. *Dorsal ...
... is inflammation arising from the local release by afferent neurons of inflammatory mediators such as ... "decrease expression of the proinflammatory neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in sensory neurons,"[ ... decrease expression of the proinflammatory neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in sensory neurons". J ...
The Primary Afferent Neuron: A survey oj recent morpho:functional aspects. H held in Zurich on March 24th. 1988 in connection ... As sCientific research on the primary afferent neuron is so extensive. it is impossible to take inventory of all the present ... This book is based on contributions presented at the symposion "The Primary Afferent Neuron: A survey oj recent morpho: ... shows how morphological research contributes to our present -day concepts of the primary afferent neuron. Although fundamental ...
Unmyelinated type II afferent neurons report cochlear damage. Chang Liu, Elisabeth Glowatzki, and Paul Albert Fuchs ... Loud sound progressively damages type I afferent neurons and OHCs (1). Once damaged beyond repair, these do not regenerate as ... In support of this hypothesis, sparse (∼5% of all spiral ganglion neurons) unmyelinated type II afferents can survive cochlear ... 2015) Type II spiral ganglion afferent neurons drive medial olivocochlear reflex suppression of the cochlear amplifier. Nat ...
Unmyelinated type II afferent neurons report cochlear damage. Chang Liu, Elisabeth Glowatzki, and Paul Albert Fuchs ... Intriguingly, type II afferents remain intact in damaged regions of the cochlea. Here, we show that type II afferents are ... unmyelinated afferents-C fibers. Like somatic C fibers, unmyelinated type II cochlear afferents differ in size, number, and ... Type II afferents may be the cochleas nociceptors, prompting avoidance of further damage to the irreparable inner ear. ...
Efferent neurons carry nerve impulses from the central... ... Afferent neurons are special nerve cells that are responsible ... What Type of Neuron Carries Information to the CNS?. A: Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, carry sensory ... Afferent neurons are also known as sensory receptor neurons. For example, a touch stimulus creates a sensation in the brain ... These are neurons that form a connection between two or more neurons creating a complex network of neurons. They are also ...
Fine afferent fibers respond to a number of potentially harmful physiological stimuli including pressure, heat and a variety of ... Nerve Growth Factor Dorsal Root Ganglion Dorsal Root Ganglion Neuron Afferent Nerve Terminal Inflammatory Hyperalgesia These ... Dray A. (1994) Influences of the Chemical Environment on Peripheral Afferent Neurons. In: Urban L. (eds) Cellular Mechanisms of ... Nowycky, M. (1992) Voltage gated ion channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons. In: Sensory Neurons: Diversity, Development and ...
Buy The Primary Afferent Neuron by Wolfgang Zenker, Winifred L. Neuhuber from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your ... The Primary Afferent Neuron: A Survey of Recent Morpho-Functional Aspects (Paperback). Wolfgang Zenker (editor), Winifred L. ... As sCientific research on the primary afferent neuron is so extensive. it is impossible to take inventory of all the present ... This book is based on contributions presented at the symposion "The Primary Afferent Neuron: A survey oj recent morpho: ...
... we report that peripheral nerve injury increases expression of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a in the injured DRG neurons via ... increases excitability in DRG neurons and leads to spinal cord central sensitization and neuropathic pain symptoms. These ... neurons, which may contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. DNA methylation represses gene expression. Here, ... DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a contributes to neuropathic pain by repressing Kcna2 in primary afferent neurons. *Jian-Yuan Zhao1, ...
Synonyms for afferent neuron at with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Find descriptive ... More words related to afferent neuron. nerve cell. noun. . cell of the nervous system ...
... afferent neuron explanation free. What is afferent neuron? Meaning of afferent neuron medical term. What does afferent neuron ... Looking for online definition of afferent neuron in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to afferent neuron: afferent pathway. afferent neuron. A neuron that conducts sensory impulses toward the brain or ... Afferent neurons mediating escape swimming of the marine mollusc, Tritonia.. Evidence that the swim afferent neurons of ...
Afferent and efferent synaptic connections of somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in the rat fascia dentata.. Leranth C1, ... The aim of this study was to determine whether somatostatin (SS)-immunoreactive neurons of the rat fascia dentata are involved ... These observations suggest that SS-immunoreactive neurons in the dentate hilar area may be driven directly by their perforant ... Via their dendrites in the outer molecular layer, the SS-immunoreactive neurons receive synaptic inputs from perforant pathway ...
Intermittent Failure of Spike Propagation in Primary Afferent Neurons during Tactile Stimulation. Dhekra Al-Basha and Steven A ... Intermittent Failure of Spike Propagation in Primary Afferent Neurons during Tactile Stimulation ... Intermittent Failure of Spike Propagation in Primary Afferent Neurons during Tactile Stimulation ... Intermittent Failure of Spike Propagation in Primary Afferent Neurons during Tactile Stimulation ...
... induced responses on primary afferent neurons of bullfrogs. An analysi … ... Glucocorticoid modulates the sensitivity of the GABAA receptor on primary afferent neurons of bullfrogs Brain Res. 1986 Mar 5; ... We suggest that glucocorticoids act as an antagonist of the GABAA receptor on primary afferent neurons, probably by reducing ... induced responses on primary afferent neurons of bullfrogs. An analysis with dose-response curves revealed that the ...
2012) Activation of VTA GABA neurons disrupts reward consumption. Neuron 73:1184-1194, doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.02.016, pmid: ... neurons within the VTA. The mean amplitude of the IPSCs onto confirmed TH(+) neurons was larger than onto TH(−) neurons (128.9 ... Opioid Modulation of Ventral Pallidal Afferents to Ventral Tegmental Area Neurons. Gregory O. Hjelmstad, Yanfang Xia, Elyssa B. ... Opioid Modulation of Ventral Pallidal Afferents to Ventral Tegmental Area Neurons. Gregory O. Hjelmstad, Yanfang Xia, Elyssa B. ...
... Saal, Hannes P ... Although information in tactile afferent neurons represented by firing rates has been studied extensively over nearly a century ... We conclude that information about tactile stimuli in timing of spikes in primary afferents, even if limited to the first ... Here, we used information theory to compare the information content in the discharges of 92 tactile afferents distributed over ...
Two populations of extrinsic primary afferent neurons, vagal and spinal, subserve this goal through different mechanisms. These ... in identifying molecular nocisensors on afferent neurons and in dissecting the signaling mechanisms whereby afferent neurons ... Two populations of extrinsic primary afferent neurons, vagal and spinal, subserve this goal through different mechanisms. These ... Spinal afferents, in addition, can initiate protective tissue reactions at the site of assault through release of calcitonin ...
... a neuron that sends collaterals to neighboring neurons has to rely on the fact that the neighboring neurons also have adjacent ... Tricas, T. C. and New, J. G. (1998). Sensitivity and response dynamics of elasmobranch electrosensory primary afferent neurons ... Response properties of electrosensory afferent fibers and secondary brain stem neurons in the paddlefish ... Response properties of electrosensory afferent fibers and secondary brain stem neurons in the paddlefish ...
For example, if I want to have ten burst events with 1000ms duration, the first burst should have 1000ms intra-burst intervals, then the second one is 900ms, up to the last one with 100ms; The interval between each burst (inter-burst) is 1000ms. Each cell receive the same style of burst, but may have different randnomness in event noise, so in this way, the network will not receive the exact same event for all cells at the same time, to avoid high synchronization ...
Synaptic convergence of afferent inputs in primary infrared-sensitive nucleus (LTTD) neurons of rattlesnakes (Crotalinae) as ... Synaptic convergence of afferent inputs in primary infrared-sensitive nucleus (LTTD) neurons of rattlesnakes (Crotalinae) as ... Synaptic convergence of afferent inputs in primary infrared-sensitive nucleus (LTTD) neurons of rattlesnakes (Crotalinae) as ... Synaptic convergence of afferent inputs in primary infrared-sensitive nucleus (LTTD) neurons of rattlesnakes (Crotalinae) as ...
Immunoreactivity of the synapses on the primary afferent axons and sensory neurons of the spinal cord Lampetra fluviatilis were ... AnimalsAntibodiesAxonsGlutamic AcidImmunohistochemistryLampreysMicroscopy, ImmunoelectronNeurons, AfferentSensory Receptor ... Immunoreactivity of the synapses on the primary afferent axons and sensory neurons of the spinal cord Lampetra fluviatilis].. ... TY - JOUR T1 - [Immunoreactivity of the synapses on the primary afferent axons and sensory neurons of the spinal cord Lampetra ...
The Neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor is co-expressed with Nppb in primary afferent neurons and Y2 activation reduces histaminergic ... The Neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor is co-expressed with Nppb in primary afferent neurons and Y2 activation reduces histaminergic ... The Neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor is co-expressed with Nppb in primary afferent neurons and Y2 activation reduces histaminergic ... The Neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor is co-expressed with Nppb in primary afferent neurons and Y2 activation reduces histaminergic ...
To predict how iDC might affect different types of afferent sensory neurons, we first considered how AC electrical stimulation ... WDR neurons are second-order neurons in the dorsal horn that receive convergent non-noxious (Aβ fiber) and noxious (Aδ, C ... Differential expression of voltage-gated sodium channels in afferent neurons renders selective neural block by ionic direct ... Differential expression of voltage-gated sodium channels in afferent neurons renders selective neural block by ionic direct ...
H. Hirata, I. D. Meng; A Special Type of Primary Afferent Sensory Neuron Plays a Critical Role in Tear Production: Implications ... A Special Type of Primary Afferent Sensory Neuron Plays a Critical Role in Tear Production: Implications for Dry Eye Disease ... A Special Type of Primary Afferent Sensory Neuron Plays a Critical Role in Tear Production: Implications for Dry Eye Disease ... 2) These neurons displayed the highly sensitive response to cooling (less than 1oC) of cornea as well as a "paradoxical" ...
Verberne AJM, Saita M, and Sartor DM. Chemical stimulation of vagal afferent neurons and sympathetic vasomotor tone. Brain Res ... Only one neuron was studied in each experiment. CCK-sensitive RVLM presympathetic neurons are a subpopulation of the total ... CCK-induced inhibition of presympathetic vasomotor neurons: dependence on subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents and central NMDA ... CCK-induced inhibition of presympathetic vasomotor neurons: dependence on subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents and central NMDA ...
Immunohistochemical localisation of cholinergic markers in putative intrinsic primary afferent neurons of the guinea-pig small ... Primary afferent neurons intrinsic to the guinea-pig intestine, like primary afferent neurons of spinal and cranial sensory ... Does defensin NP-1 influence the excitability of the primary afferent neurons of the guinea pig small intestine?. Doklady ... were used to determine whether neurons that have previously been identified as intrinsic primary afferent neurons in the guinea ...
... dynamics in primary afferent neurons and also in spinal cord neurons following noxious stimuli to normal tissue or using ... Journal Article] Axotomy increases plasma membrane Ca^,2+, pump isoform4 in primary afferent neurons2007. *. Author(s). Ogura, ... DRG / nociception / pain / MAPK / ERK / p38 / primary afferent neurons / 細胞内シグナル / TRPA1 / 一次知覚ニューロン / ニューロパチックペイン / 侵害刺激 / 後根神 ... Journal Article] Axotomy increases plasma membrane Ca^,2+, pumpisoform4 in primary afferent neurons2007. *. Author(
... Allette, Yohance Mandela ... Modulatory actions of HMGB1 on TLR4 and rage in the primary afferent sensory neuron. Login ... Further downstream signaling of HMGB1 in the neuron has yet to be identified, however important steps have been taken to ... nociceptive sensory neurons. It was demonstrated that the neuronal signaling associated with exposure to HMGB1 is dependent ...
Modulation of the excitability of neurons in the BLA by CRF … ... Neurons in the Basolateral Nucleus of the Amygdala to Afferent ... Modulation of the excitability of neurons in the BLA by CRF may regulate the immediate response to stressful events and the ... CRF was found to increase the amplitude of field potentials recorded in the BLA following excitatory afferent stimulation, in ...
The S and T afferent neurons of the TCMRO convey signals to the CNS solely by means of graded changes in membrane potential. ... These nonspiking afferents transduce receptor movement and transmit this information with extremely high fidelity. The SNR of ... Intracellular recordings were made from the S and T afferents adjacent to the transduction site at the origin of the receptor ... The rate of information transfer of these afferents was determined by measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNuR) of these cells ...
Our findings reveal that Ano2/TMEM16B is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel in vagal afferents of nodose neurons and a major ... that is induced by CCK in intestinal vagal afferents of nodose neurons. The CaCC subunit Anoctamin 2 (Ano2/TMEM16B) is the ... 3 neurons from 2 ganglia of 1 mouse). (. D. ) CCK-8 induced a rapid dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i with a maximal response ... 7-15 neurons at each dose level from a total of 10 ganglia of 5 mice). (. B. ) The CCK-8 (10 nM) induced current in individual ...
  • This differential behavior invites comparison with somatic pain responses driven by the anatomically distinct subset of small-diameter, unmyelinated afferents-C fibers. (
  • Like somatic C fibers, unmyelinated type II cochlear afferents differ in size, number, and innervation pattern from type I afferents that encode sound. (
  • Fine afferent fibers respond to a number of potentially harmful physiological stimuli including pressure, heat and a variety of noxious chemicals. (
  • In order to gain insights into the algorithms involved, we compared the response properties of units in the dorsal octavolateral nucleus (DON) with primary afferent fibers in the paddlefish. (
  • To begin to address this question, we investigated signal processing in the first relay center of the paddlefish, the dorsal octavolateral nucleus (DON), by comparing the response properties of the second order neurons in the DON with those of the primary afferent fibers, which carry the information from peripheral receptors to the brain. (
  • A presumed, yet so far unknown neuronal connectivity within this central nucleus exerts a synaptic computation that constrains the relatively large receptive field of primary afferent fibers. (
  • On the basis of the variants of voltage-gated sodium channels expressed in different types of neurons in the peripheral nerves, we hypothesized that the small-diameter nociceptive fibers could be preferentially blocked. (
  • the gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) is a powerful stimulant of gastrointestinal vagal afferent nerve fibers ( 1 , 12 , 24 , 25 ) and has selective effects on sympathetic vasomotor outflow that are dependent on intact vagal afferents ( 17 ). (
  • Spinal neuronal responses to stimulation of cardiopulmonary sympathetic afferent (CPS) fibers were studied in 25 alpha-chloralose-anesthetized cats. (
  • Eighty-two neurons located in the T7-T9 segments were tested for responses to electrical stimulation of CPS fibers. (
  • Activation of vagal afferent fibers results in inhibition of food intake, gastric emptying, and stimulation of pancreatic secretion. (
  • Intravenous administration of a 5-HT3 antagonist blocked these responses suggesting that nodose neuronal responses to luminal osmolarity and to the digestion products of carbohydrates are dependent on the release of endogenous 5- HT from the mucosal enterochromaffin (EC) cells, which acts on the 5-HT3 receptors on vagal afferent fibers to stimulate vagal afferent neurons. (
  • Sensory neurons and fibers from multiple spinal cord levels innervate the rabbit lumbar disc. (
  • Alpha motor neurons are distinct from gamma motor neurons , which innervate intrafusal muscle fibers of muscle spindles . (
  • An alpha motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates is a motor unit . (
  • 1. Any of the cordlike bundles of fibers made up of neurons through which sensory stimuli and motor impulses pass between the brain or other parts of the central nervous system and the eyes, glands, muscles, and other parts of the body. (
  • We were concerned with the afferent fibers in the ventral root that travel distally and then enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root. (
  • Fatigue-induced metabolite shift in the interstitium provokes excitation and/or sensitisation of high-threshold afferent fibers, with complex effects on the spinal premotoneuronal network involved in the modulation of motoneuronal output. (
  • The results indicate that some axon terminals of the primary afferent fibers to laminae I and II of the dorsal horn are provided with mGluR7. (
  • Although the signal-to-noise ratio of primary afferent fiber responses to EOD appears to be low when compared to that generated by ventilation, these fibers have a high, steady rate of resting activity and, in these experiments, are being strongly modulated by the fish's ventilatory potentials. (
  • Interestingly, AF occurs with the stimulation at the wrist level (mixed-nerve stimulation) of the median nerve but is not seen with the stimulation of skin branches (digital nerve) from the second finger This may suggest that this facilitation occurs through thick afferent fibers stemming from muscle spindles (51,53). (
  • Under physiological conditions, potentially harmful stimuli are integrated by the nociceptors of primary afferent fibers and relayed for final processing in the supraspinal centers. (
  • Prior scientific evidence shows that when the active device stimulates the afferent fibers of the vagus nerve, there is a rapid and sustained change in brain chemistry characterized by the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters, and a decrease in the over-expression of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. (
  • afferent fibers , central pathways, discharge characteristics. (
  • Botulinum toxin A modulates afferent fibers in neurogenic detrusor overactivity," European Journal of Neurology, vol. (
  • DNP reflex afferents also were bilaterally presynaptically inhibited segmentally by other DNP afferents, particularly by myelinated fibers. (
  • It is theorized that type II afferent fibers become excited after damage to hair cells and synapses, triggering a release of ATP in response. (
  • The peripheral nervous system consists of the sensory and motor neurons. (
  • The first discusses the peripheral sensory receptors, the second the spinal ganglion cells, and the third the central terminals of primary afferents. (
  • Here, we report that peripheral nerve injury increases expression of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a in the injured DRG neurons via the activation of the transcription factor octamer transcription factor 1. (
  • We report here that the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3a, but not DNMT3b, is significantly increased in the injured DRG neurons after peripheral nerve injury. (
  • This prevents the peripheral afferent neurons transmitting nociceptive pain signals. (
  • Spinal afferents, in addition, can initiate protective tissue reactions at the site of assault through release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from their peripheral endings. (
  • Here, we used intracellular recordings of LTTD neurons in isolated rattlesnake brains to decipher the spatio-temporal pattern of excitatory and inhibitory responses following electrical stimulation of single and multiple peripheral pit organ-innervating nerve branches. (
  • The responses of individual neurons consisted of complex spike sequences that derived from spatially and temporally specific interactions between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs from the same as well as from adjacent peripheral nerve terminal areas. (
  • To determine in aging mice the proportion, morphology and neurochemical characteristics of trigeminal ganglion cold primary sensory neurons and of their cold peripheral axons innervating the cornea, and the relationship of morphological changes with basal tearing rate. (
  • Changes in the in morphological and neurochemical properties of corneal cold sensory neurons and their peripheral axons may be associated with the disturbances in basal tearing rate observed in mice with aging. (
  • We now report the existence of a specific type of peripheral sensory neuron that monitors the fluid level of the ocular surface and display properties consistent with their role in the modulation of basal tearing. (
  • Mechanosensitivity of peripheral afferents of the saphenous nerve as well as of spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) and nociceptive-specific (NS) neurons were measured after systemic or spinal application of J-2156. (
  • Mechanosensitivity of peripheral afferents and spinal neurons was significantly reduced by J-2156. (
  • Relations between metabolic homeostasis, diet, and peripheral afferent neuron biology. (
  • A peripheral motor neuron that originates in the ventral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord and terminates in skeletal muscles. (
  • A neuron whose process constitutes a part of the peripheral nervous system (cranial, spinal, or autonomic nerves). (
  • A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in the central nervous system and whose axon terminates in a peripheral ganglion, synapsing with postganglionic neurons. (
  • While their cell bodies are found in the central nervous system (CNS), α motor neurons are also considered part of the somatic nervous system -a branch of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)-because their axons extend into the periphery to innervate skeletal muscles . (
  • This suggests that activation of opioid receptors on peripheral sensory axons contributes to decreased afferent activity after injury. (
  • The questions to be answered included the proportion and distribution of spinal neurons receiving ventral root afferent inputs and their peripheral input characteristics. (
  • Studies in anesthetized rats showed a lack of an increase in afferent renal nerve activity in response to increased renal pelvic pressure and impaired prostaglandin E 2 -mediated release of substance P from the renal pelvic nerves in DRX rats fed either a high or a normal sodium diet, suggesting that DRX resulted in decreased responsiveness of peripheral renal sensory nerves. (
  • Differential regulation of P2X(3) mRNA expression by peripheral nerve injury in intact and injured neurons in the rat sensory ganglia. (
  • Altered sodium channel expression in second-order spinal sensory neurons contributes to pain after peripheral nerve injury. (
  • Yang F, Chung CY, Wacnik PW, Carteret AF, McKelvy AD , Meyer RA, Raja SN, Guan Y. (2011) Electrical stimulation at distinct peripheral sites in spinal nerve injured rats leads to different afferent activation profiles. (
  • To determine the functional significance of this ganglionic framework, we backfilled the following types of neurons with cobalt chloride: sensory hair afferents, slow and fast extensor motor neurons, the segmental stretch receptor neurons, and their inhibitory accessory cells. (
  • There are several types of neurons that are classified by the location of where they transmit information. (
  • Interneurons aren't motor or sensory types of neurons. (
  • Neurons have special cell parts called dendrites and axons. (
  • Via their dendrites in the outer molecular layer, the SS-immunoreactive neurons receive synaptic inputs from perforant pathway axons which were identified by their anterograde degeneration following entorhinal lesions. (
  • The existence of GABA-like immunoreactivity in the synapses on the primary afferent axons and GABA- and glutamate immunoreactive synapses on the dorsal cell somatic membrane was shown using double postembedding immunogold cytochemistry. (
  • These morphological findings suggest that control of the sensory information in the lamprey spinal cord is realized by means of presynaptic inhibition through the synapses on the primary afferent axons as well as directly through the synapses on the somata of the sensory neurons. (
  • All of the axons of these neurons exit or enter each of the first five abdominal ganglia through the second pair of nerves. (
  • Axons of ganglion neurons converge at the optic disk to form the optic nerve. (
  • Are the processes on afferent neurons that go from the sensory receptor to the cell body considered axons or dendrites? (
  • The cell sizes indicate that small diameter CGRP-immunoreactive cells and most LA4-immunoreactive cells are likely to have unmyelinated axons, and together the two populations can account for the great majority of unmyelinated trigeminal primary afferent neurons. (
  • The termination pattern of septohippocampal axons visualized by anterograde transport of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin was studied in the hippocampal formation in the rat, with special reference to the innervation of neurons immunoreactive for the neuroactive peptides cholecystokinin, somatostatin or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. (
  • The appearance of some axons exiting the main fiber tracts and exhibiting expanded growth cones suggests that afferent fiber extension was still underway [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1I OMITTED]. (
  • 13) Site of axons and afferent neurons. (
  • Wraps functionally related axons, synchronizing the activity of the neuron group in waves (humans have the largest and most abundant astrocytes). (
  • Radial glia: Guides the migration of neurons and the growth of axons and dendrites during embryonic development. (
  • For example, a touch stimulus creates a sensation in the brain only after the afferent neurons sense the stimuli and send the information about the stimuli. (
  • Somatic afferent neurons firing in the spinal cord can inhibit viscerosomatic neurons in the dorsal horn from responding to stimuli. (
  • We conclude that information about tactile stimuli in timing of spikes in primary afferents, even if limited to the first spikes, surpasses that contained in firing rates and that these measures of afferents' responses might capture different aspects of the stimulus. (
  • We examined several forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) dynamics in primary afferent neurons and also in spinal cord neurons following noxious stimuli to normal tissue or using inflammatory pain model or neuropathic pain model. (
  • Double-labeling studies revealed that nodose neurons responded to 5-HT-dependent luminal stimuli contain mainly glutamate and substance P. Over the past year or so it has become clear that there are multiple possible excitatory inputs to a common vagal afferent route with synergistic interactions being common. (
  • Different types of tactile afferents respond to mechanical stimuli with different selectivity. (
  • Rapidly adapting type 1 (RA1) afferents respond to stimuli that bump against the skin and convey information about motion across the skin ( Johansson and Westling, 1987 ). (
  • and (vii) with some exceptions, most neurons receiving ventral root inputs were excited best by mechanical and/or thermal noxious stimuli applied to the periphery. (
  • These are the neurons which respond to stimuli. (
  • At a given receptive-field location, LGN neurons, particularly cells in the parvocellular laminae, tended to prefer either radially oriented stimuli or stimuli oriented more horizontally than their polar axis. (
  • Distance chemoreceptors are integral to receiving stimuli as gases in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the vomeronasal organ . (
  • The interneurons facilitate the movement of information between the efferent neurons and the afferent neurons. (
  • Synapses between primary afferent neurons and the giant interneurons also occur in the periphery, in the antenniform leg, a feature first discovered by Foelix (1975). (
  • Alpha motor neurons receive input from a number of sources, including upper motor neurons , sensory neurons , and interneurons . (
  • We investigated neuronal transmission from cercal sensory afferent neurons to ascending giant interneurons (GIs). (
  • intrinsic enteric neurons are recognized: sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. (
  • Sensory neuron s, activated by either mechanical or chemical stimulation of the innermost surface of the gut, transmit information to interneurons located within the Auerbach and the Meissner plexi, and the interneurons relay the information to motor neurons. (
  • This study was designed to determine whether this effect involved subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents and/or central N -methyl- d -aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. (
  • These results suggest that the effects of systemic CCK on the discharge of RVLM presympathetic neurons is mediated via an action on receptors located on subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents. (
  • Thus in addition to examining the role of subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents in the actions of systemic CCK on sympathetic vasomotor outflow, the importance of central NMDA receptors has been assessed by examining the effect of administration of a centrally active NMDA receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (MK-801), on CCK-induced inhibition of RVLM presympathetic neurons. (
  • We identified a potentially novel Ca2+-activated chloride (Cl-) current (CaCC) that is induced by CCK in intestinal vagal afferents of nodose neurons. (
  • Our findings reveal that Ano2/TMEM16B is a Ca2+-activated chloride channel in vagal afferents of nodose neurons and a major determinant of CCK-induced satiety, body weight control, and energy expenditure, making it a potential therapeutic target in obesity. (
  • This review addresses the role for both cholecytokinin (CCK) and serotonin (5-HT) released from enteroendocrine cells and acting as paracrine agents on the terminals of vagal afferents in responses to a number of luminal signals. (
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the order of neurodegenerative responses in vagal afferents after RYGB in the nodose ganglia (NG) and NTS in male and female rats. (
  • Reorganization of vagal afferents was evaluated by fluorescent staining against isolectin 4. (
  • The surgery did not produce rapid changes in the density of vagal afferents and microglia activation in the NTS. (
  • These data indicate that decreased density of vagal afferents and increased microglia activation in the NTS likely ensue as a result of RYGB-induced neuronal damage. (
  • We used guinea pig primary cells, tissue bioassay, in vivo electrophysiology, and a guinea pig conscious cough model to investigate a role for TRPV4 in mediating sensory nerve activation in vagal afferents and the possible downstream signaling mechanisms. (
  • The elegantly coiled, mechanically tuned cochlear duct and functional differentiation between inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs), afferent and efferent neuronal connections are among the features that enable the widest acoustic frequency range and most complex vocalizations among vertebrate species. (
  • To determine the specific VTA neuronal targets of VP afferents and their sensitivity to mu opioid receptor agonists, we virally expressed channel rhodopsin (ChR2) in rat VP neurons and optogenetically activated their terminals in the VTA. (
  • Trigeminal afferents transmit information about changing temperature patterns as neuronal spike discharge in a topographic manner to the hindbrain nucleus of the lateral descending trigeminal tract (LTTD). (
  • In all cases ( n = 6 neurons in 6 individual rats), dizocilpine inhibited the effects of CCK, PBG, and PE on RVLM presympathetic neuronal discharge. (
  • While it seems firmly established that the cardiovascular effects of CCK are dependent on vagal afferent mechanisms, it would seem prudent to seek support for this concept at the single neuronal level. (
  • As afferents do not project directly into the lumen, their activation depends on an intermediary step, i.e. neuronal activation by a secondary substance released from within the mucosal epithelium. (
  • It is suggested that during movements of the hindleg, activation of sciatic sensory fibres leads to re-patterning of neuronal activity in RVLM neurons via inhibition of visceral sensory inputs. (
  • Sciatico-vagal inhibition is likely to affect the activity of those RVLM neurons that modulate higher neuronal activities via ascending projections. (
  • Aoki Y, An HS, Takahashi K, Miyamoto K, Lenz ME, Moriya H, Masuda K. Axonal growth potential of lumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons in an organ culture system: response of nerve growth factor-sensitive neurons to neuronal injury and an inflammatory cytokine. (
  • These are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, produce myelin as mentioned before and importantly provides support and protection for the neurons in the brain and nervous system. (
  • Synaptic connections of SS-immunoreactive neurons were determined at the electron microscopic level by using normal and colchicine pretreated rats. (
  • Single sensory neurons innervating the cornea were recorded in vivo extracellularly from the trigeminal ganglion of isoflurane-anesthetized rats with tungsten microelectrodes. (
  • Recordings were made from CCK-sensitive RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons in halothane-anesthetized, paralyzed male Sprague-Dawley rats. (
  • In the present study, we used single-unit extracellular recording techniques to examine the effects of stimulation of cardiac sympathetic afferents on baro- or chemosensitive neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in anesthetized rats. (
  • Methods: Action potentials (APs) and excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) were investigated in BRNs/barosensitive neurons identified by conduction velocity (CV), capsaicin-conjugated with Iberiotoxin-sensitivity and fluorescent dye using intact nodose slice and brainstem slice in adult female rats. (
  • Cardiopulmonary sympathetic afferent input to lower thoracic spinal neurons. (
  • Given the high concentration of the compound required to inhibit spinal neurons, it is unlikely that the behavioral effect seen in CFA model is mediated centrally. (
  • Spinal neurons receiving ventral root afferent inputs were investigated in anesthetized and paralyzed cats. (
  • Binding of isolectin B4 (IB4) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of CGRP for the changes in primary afferents, IHC of NK1 for sensory neurons , and of cleaved caspase 3 and NeuN for the apoptotic changes in spinal neurons were performed. (
  • It is suggested that inhibition of PARP by 3-AB may attenuate alterations of primary afferents and spinal neurons , at least in early stage, after spinal nerve injury . (
  • For all encoding schemes, afferents terminating close to the stimulation site tended to convey more information about surface curvature than more remote afferents that tended to convey more information about force direction. (
  • In the present study, CRF was found to increase the amplitude of field potentials recorded in the BLA following excitatory afferent stimulation, in vitro. (
  • Conditioning stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve (2 V) led to a time-dependent inhibition of responses to vagal stimulation (100 µA) in each RVLM neuron that received convergent sciatic and vagal sensory inputs (n = 50). (
  • None of these neurons had direct spinal projections, and only 8% of them exhibited a visible response to stimulation of the aortic depressor nerve. (
  • Electrical stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), which evoked fictive static contraction or fictive locomotion, inhibited the discharge of 44 of the 64 dorsal horn neurons tested. (
  • The mean depth from the dorsal surface of the spinal cord of the 44 neurons whose discharge was inhibited by MLR stimulation was 1.77 ± 0.04 mm. (
  • Fourteen of the twenty-two neurons whose discharge was inhibited by fictive scratching were found to be inhibited by MLR stimulation as well. (
  • Stimulation of the MLR or the elicitation of fictive scratching had no effect on the activity of 22 dorsal horn neurons receiving input from group III and IV tibial nerve afferents. (
  • 0.05) less than that for the neurons whose discharge was inhibited by either MLR stimulation or fictive scratching. (
  • The L7 ventral root was cut near the spinal cord and the distal stump was stimulated while making a systematic search for neurons in the entire gray matter of the ipsilateral spinal cord that responded to the stimulation. (
  • We recorded the extracellular activity of i) Area X pallidal neurons and ii) DLM neurons in response to electrical stimulation of Area X afferent structures, namely HVC (used as a proper name) and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN). (
  • In vivo , almost all pallidal neurons of Area X displayed a rapid excitation in response to stimulation in either HVC (n = 48) or LMAN (n = 20). (
  • In DLM neurons in vivo , HVC stimulation evoked rapid and precise excitatory responses, with an average latency of 17.8 ms (n = 12). (
  • Afferent fiber stimulation evokes a short excitatory response in pallidal cells, which is shaped by an inhibitory network in Area X. This response profile could play various roles in driving firing in DLM, either providing a strong inhibition allowing subsequent post-inhibitory rebound, or shortening rebound firing induced by a previous pause. (
  • A simple and novel technique for recording afferent discharge due to mechanical stimulation of lanceolate terminals of palisade endings innervating mouse ear skin hair follicles is presented. (
  • Crain, S.M. and Shen, K-F. (1990) Opioids can evoke direct receptor-mediated excitatory effects on sensory neurons. (
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether somatostatin (SS)-immunoreactive neurons of the rat fascia dentata are involved in specific excitatory circuitries that may result in their selective damage in models of epilepsy. (
  • These observations demonstrate that SS-immunoreactive neurons in the hilar region are integrated in the main excitatory impulse flow of the hippocampal formation. (
  • Taken together, our study reveals a crucial regulatory mechanism by PPTg excitatory inputs onto VTA non-DA neurons during appetitive Pavlovian conditioning. (
  • Eighty-seven percent of neurons tested received ongoing nicotinic cholinergic fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). (
  • The majority of SS-immunoreactive axon terminals form symmetric synapses with the granule cell dendrites in the outer molecular layer and also innervate deep hilar neurons. (
  • These afferents innervate the large ventral horseshoe neuropil (HN) in the core of each ganglion. (
  • Furthermore, we discovered that some of the crayfish afferents innervate glomeruli within the HN. (
  • Lesions of these neurons produce flaccid paralysis of the muscles they innervate. (
  • Like other regions of the spinal cord, cells in this lamina are somatotopically organized, meaning that the position of neurons within the spinal cord is associated with what muscles they innervate. (
  • Recent studies utilizing electrophysiological, anatomical and gene expression techniques indicate a surprisingly diverse set of distinct afferent subclasses, which innervate all layers of the colon and rectum. (
  • Extrinsic sensory afferents that innervate the colon and rectum are subdivided based on the location of their soma. (
  • Kainic acid (KA) selectively damages afferent synapses that innervate, in chickens, mainly tall hair cells. (
  • Our results thus provide further evidence that unmyelinated primary afferents can be divided into peptide and non-peptide containing subpopulations and that these populations innervate distinct regions of laminae I and II. (
  • C tactile (CT) neurons are a class of low-threshold C neurons that innervate the human skin. (
  • Afferent neurons are special nerve cells that are responsible for carrying nerve impulses from the receptors to the central nervous system. (
  • Efferent neurons carry nerve impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands. (
  • A neuron that conducts sensory impulses toward the brain or spinal cord. (
  • Neurons function in the initiation and conduction of impulses. (
  • They transmit impulses to other neurons or cells by releasing neurotransmitters at synapses. (
  • A neuron that mediates impulses between a sensory and a motor neuron. (
  • 2. A neuron of the retina that receives impulses from the rods and cones and transmits them to a ganglion neuron. (
  • A neuron whose axon carries motor impulses away from the brain or spinal cord. (
  • A neuron of the retina that receives impulses from bipolar neurons. (
  • A neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system either to muscle tissue to stimulate contraction or to glandular tissue to stimulate secretion. (
  • A motor neuron that transmits impulses to skeletal muscle. (
  • Figure 12.1 Using Figure 12.1, match the following: 1) Afferent impulses from all senses and all parts of the body converge here and synapse with at least one of its nuclei. (
  • A sensory neuron transmits impulses from a receptor, such as those in the eye or ear, to a more central location in the nervous system, such as the spinal cord or brain. (
  • Sensory cells carry afferent impulses to a central interneuron, which makes contact with a motor neuron. (
  • The motor neuron carries efferent impulses to the effector, which produces the response. (
  • These impulses are transmitted to the brain through afferent neurons . (
  • Then it carried out through afferent nerve/pathway to integrating centre for interpret Integrating centre receives impulses from various receptors. (
  • those found in the central nervous system are called neurons or nerve cells, and they are responsible for carrying messages within the body. (
  • Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, carry sensory information to the central nervous system, or CNS. (
  • Neural communication is any type of signaling between neurons throughout the nervous system. (
  • In addition, afferent neurons may synapse with other afferent nerve cells within the central nervous system. (
  • A neuron confined entirely to the central nervous system. (
  • A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in an autonomic ganglion and whose axon terminates in a visceral effector (smooth or cardiac muscle or glands). (
  • A motor neuron (actually an interneuron) found completely within the central nervous system that synapses with or regulates the actions of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and cranial nerves. (
  • Neurons are a specialized type of cell of the nervous system- but not the sole cell type. (
  • These are the neurons located in the central nervous system or CNS. (
  • A motor neuron pool contains the cell bodies of all the alpha motor neurons involved in contracting a single muscle. (
  • Alpha ( α ) motor neurons (also called alpha motoneurons ), are large, multipolar lower motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord . (
  • 18) Multipolar neurons are common here. (
  • This finding, together with previous evidence that type II afferents respond weakly to synaptic transmission from cochlear hair cells, and normally are insensitive to sound, supports the identification of type II afferents as cochlear nociceptors, mediating the sensation of painfully loud sound. (
  • Afferent and efferent synaptic connections of somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in the rat fascia dentata. (
  • Electrical activity and synaptic responses were recorded intracellularly in 415 neurons of the mouse superior mesenteric ganglion (SMG) attached to a segment of distal colon in vitro. (
  • These results show that mouse SMG neurons receive colonic mechanosensory afferent synaptic input and thus may participate in sympathetic intestinal reflexes. (
  • Each type of peptidergic neuron received multiple symmetrical synaptic input from the Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin-labelled septal afferents, as confirmed by correlated electron microscopy. (
  • Contains approximately 100 billion neurons and trillions of synaptic connections. (
  • Nerve injury induces changes in gene transcription in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. (
  • Conversely, in the absence of nerve injury, mimicking this increase reduces the Kcna2 promoter activity, diminishes Kcna2 expression, decreases Kv current, increases excitability in DRG neurons and leads to spinal cord central sensitization and neuropathic pain symptoms. (
  • There is compelling evidence indicating that not only injured primary afferents, but also their spared neighbors, show an alteration of excitability and gene expression and that these changes have functional roles in nociception, inflammatory pan and neuropathic pain. (
  • We also examined the expression of beta(3) mRNA in DRG neurons in the SNI model, a neuropathic pain model. (
  • We used activating transcription factor 3 to identify axotomized neurons, and found that beta(3) mRNA up-regulation occurred mainly in axotomized neurons in the neuropathic pain model. (
  • The pattern of expression of the voltage-gated sodium channels Na(v)1.8 and Na(v)1.9 does not change in uninjured primary sensory neurons in experimental neuropathic pain models. (
  • Upregulation of the voltage-gated sodium channel beta2 subunit in neuropathic pain models: characterization of expression in injured and non-injured primary sensory neurons. (
  • beta3, a novel auxiliary subunit for the voltage-gated sodium channel, is expressed preferentially in sensory neurons and is upregulated in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain. (
  • Like other neurons, lower motor neurons have both afferent (incoming) and efferent (outgoing) connections. (
  • interaction between primary afferents, mast cells, and sympathetic efferents. (
  • 15] These afferent neurons are CGRP-immunoreactive, and are believed to mediate the spinal reflex pathways to the sympathetic preganglionic neurons, and hence play a significant role in the pathogenesis of NDO. (
  • In accord with its effects on sympathetic vasomotor outflow, CCK selectively inhibits the discharge of a subpopulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic neurons ( 17 , 18 ). (
  • RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons are considered to play a major role in the generation of sympathetic vasomotor outflow, control of sympathetic cardiovascular reflexes, and arterial blood pressure ( 3 , 8 ). (
  • The neurocircuitry that mediates arterial baroreflex-mediated inhibition of RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons and sympathetic vasomotor outflow is described by a trisynaptic model, which includes N -methyl- d -aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor-mediated activation of propriomedullary GABAergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla ( 6 , 8 ). (
  • sensory afferents or sympathetic neurons). (
  • Activation of the cardiac "sympathetic afferent" reflex (CSAR) has been reported to depress the arterial baroreflex and enhance the arterial chemoreflex via a central mechanism. (
  • 5 The increase in afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) produced by the increased renal pelvic pressure leads to a reflex decrease in efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity (ERSNA) and diuresis and natriuresis, ie, a renorenal reflex response. (
  • What Are Afferent and Efferent Neurons? (
  • Efferent neurons are also known as effector or motor neurons. (
  • Afferent neurons are also known as sensory receptor neurons. (
  • Sensory neurons are nerve cells that run from receptor cells in the body to the sp. (
  • We suggest that glucocorticoids act as an antagonist of the GABAA receptor on primary afferent neurons, probably by reducing the number of functional GABAA receptor ionic channel complexes. (
  • Light activation of VP neuron terminals elicited GABAergic IPSCs in both dopamine (DA) and non-DA VTA neurons, and these IPSCs were inhibited by the mu opioid receptor agonist DAMGO. (
  • TG neurons projecting to the cornea were traced with Fast Blue applied onto the cornea of the mice and were identified in TG sections using immunofluorescence techniques against peripherin, neurofilaments 200, TrkA neurotrophic receptor and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP). (
  • This project investigated the role of HMGB1 through its receptors Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) and Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) as it pertained to the development of chronic inflammation and pathology in small diameter, nociceptive sensory neurons. (
  • The slow and fast extensor motor neurons, the stretch receptor neurons, and the accessory cells branch mostly in the dorsal part of the ganglion. (
  • Some neurons that possess low-affinity CCK-A receptor colocalize with leptin receptors (OB-Rs). (
  • Interaction between CCK-A receptor and OB-Rs in these neurons likely facilitates leptin mediation of short-term satiety. (
  • Generally a model of simulating cutaneous afferent response should at least consist of the receptor model to emulate the selectivity of each afferent type, and the spiking neuron model to generate action potentials in afferents. (
  • In current work we treat the tactile receptor and its associated afferents as a single tactile unit. (
  • While opioid receptor-effector uncoupling has been implicated in physical dependence, this phenomenon cannot fully account for withdrawal signs and symptoms or rebound responses in neurons after the administration of opioid receptor antagonists [ 5 ]. (
  • Vagal afferent neurons (VAN) express the cholecystokinin (CCK) type 1 receptor (CCK1R) and, as predicted with the role of CCK in inducing satiation, CCK1R? (
  • Each receptor cell synapses with several afferent sensory neurons, and each afferent neuron branches to several taste papillae, where each branch makes contact with many receptor cells. (
  • A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways , and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception . (
  • Although information in tactile afferent neurons represented by firing rates has been studied extensively over nearly a century, recent studies suggest that precise spike timing might be more important than firing rates. (
  • Background and Aims: The gastrointestinal hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) plays an important role in regulating meal size and duration by activating CCK1 receptors on vagal afferent neurons (VAN). (
  • It may result from the dysfunction of pain signaling pathways at multiple levels, such as cutaneous nociceptors, afferent neurons , and the spinal and supraspinal pathways, he said. (
  • This work presents a pieces of Python code to rapidly simulate the spiking responses of large numbers of single cutaneous tactile afferents with millisecond precision. (
  • To simulate the spike responses of all the major types of cutaneous tactile afferents, we proposed an electromechanical circuit model, in which a two-channel filter was developed to characterize the mechanical selectivity of tactile receptors, and a spike synthesizer was designed to recreate the action potentials evoked in afferents. (
  • Interaction of cutaneous and small-diameter, primarily fatigue-induced, muscle afferent inputs on fusimotor neurons has been studied in decerebrate cats. (
  • Possible mechanisms and functional role of interaction between cutaneous and muscle afferent inflows are discussed. (
  • shows how morphological research contributes to our present -day concepts of the primary afferent neuron. (
  • We reasoned that if activation of afferent renal nerves contributes to the homeostatic regulation of arterial pressure and sodium balance, then selective afferent renal denervation would alter the hemodynamic responses to a dietary sodium load. (
  • A neuron consists of a cell body (perikaryon) and its processes, an axon and one or more dendrites. (
  • A neuron whose axon crosses to the opposite side of the brain or spinal cord. (
  • A neuron with one axon and many dendrites. (
  • Terminology is just terminology, so "rules" are often made to be broken in biology: yes, an axon typically carries information away from the soma, but that's not the case here for neurons where the information sort of bypasses the soma. (
  • These observations suggest that SS-immunoreactive neurons in the dentate hilar area may be driven directly by their perforant path synapses and via the granule cells which are known to receive a dense innervation from the entorhinal cortex. (
  • However, afferent synapses beneath tall hair cells were swollen within 30 minutes after KA at both low (KA-L) and high (KA-H) doses. (
  • Systemic administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibits a subpopulation of rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic vasomotor neurons. (
  • The cholecystokinin-like immunoreactive neurons in all regions, and the somatostatin-immunoreactive cells in stratum oriens of CA1 region were the most preferred targets. (
  • VAChT immunoreactivity was in the majority of calbindin-immunoreactive varicosities in the myenteric ganglia, submucous ganglia and mucosa and also in the majority of the varicosities of neurons that were immunoreactive for calretinin and somatostatin and that had been previously established as being cholinergic. (
  • A ) CCK-8 dose-dependently induces a large inward current with peak values at 32.5 ± 6.1, 17.1 ± 5.8, 12.0 ± 2.4, and 13.9 ± 2.8 pA/pF for 10, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 nM of CCK-8, respectively ( n = 7-15 neurons at each dose level from a total of 10 ganglia of 5 mice). (
  • The corresponding reversal potentials are -3.0 ± 0.4, 4.9 ± 0.3, and 38.3 ± 4.9 mV ( n = 3 neurons from 2 ganglia of 1 mouse). (
  • D ) CCK-8 induced a rapid dose-dependent increase in [Ca 2+ ] i with a maximal response reached with 10 nM and an EC50 at 1.2 ± 0.5 nM ( n = 17-34 neurons from 6 ganglia of 3 mice). (
  • 0.01) from 26.5 ± 6.4 ( n = 7) to 1.0 ± 0.5 pA/pF ( n = 4 neurons from 4 ganglia of 2 mice), with 10 mM of the fast Ca 2+ chelator BAPTA in the pipette solution. (
  • Together with our previous descriptions of the flexor motor neurons, these results allow us to relate both rapid tail-flips and slower postural movements to the structure of the segmental ganglia. (
  • Neurons of the nodose ganglia respond to intraduodenal perfusions of maltose, glucose, and hypertonic saline. (
  • Splanchnic nerve cell bodies are located within the thoracolumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG), whilst pelvic afferents have cell bodies within the lumbosacral DRG ( Grundy and Brierley, 2018 ). (
  • 1,2 The afferent renal nerves project to the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia at the T 6 -L 2 level, with the majority of cell bodies of the afferent renal nerves being at the T 9 -L 1 level. (
  • All primary sensory neurons that enter the spinal cord originate in ganglia that are located in openings in the vertebral column called the intervertebral foramina. (
  • The nodose ganglion contains neurons that may possess only high- or low-affinity CCK-A receptors or 5-HT3 receptors. (
  • Are the neurons in the dorsal root ganglion pseudounipolar? (
  • The latter neurons were found only in the cephalad ganglion region. (
  • Miller, SM & Szurszewski, JH 1997, ' Colonic mechanosensory afferent input to neurons in the mouse superior mesenteric ganglion ', American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology , vol. 272, no. 2 35-2, pp. (
  • The number of cochlear ganglion neurons in the KA-H group decreased progressively from 1 to 8-20 weeks, whereas hair cells in the basilar papilla remained morphologically intact out to 20 weeks after KA. (
  • Previous studies have show that in rat dorsal root ganglion cells CGRP coexists with most other known neuropeptides and can therefore be used as a general marker for peptide-containing primary afferents. (
  • In this article we report the effects of direct intracellular application of a constitutively active form of PKC (PKM) on whole cell calcium currents in acutely dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. (
  • The rate of current rundown was significantly increased in the presence of PKM+PKC-I, and PKC-I alone, suggesting that substantial enhancement of voltage-activated calcium currents by endogenous PKC occurred in this preparation of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. (
  • In the present study using a rodent model, transsynaptic anatomical tracing experiments of the BSM circuitry with pseudorabies virus demonstrated the bilateral nature and L6 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) location of glans afferent somas. (
  • Rescue of alpha-SNS sodium channel expression in small dorsal root ganglion neurons after axotomy by nerve growth factor in vivo. (
  • 2. Sensory Neurons: specialized to be sensitive to a type of stimulus (i.e. light, sound, or touch), cell body located in the dorsal route ganglion. (
  • Such a scheme may also be applicable in the case of CCK-induced inhibition of RVLM presympathetic vasomotor neurons ( 21 ). (
  • Electrophysiological experiments revealed that the lateral paragigantocellularis (LGPi) modulated the pudendal reflex via primary afferent depolarization (PAD) of DNP afferents (but not PN afferents), resulting in bilateral presynaptic inhibition. (
  • Reduced expression of TMEM16B in the heterozygote KO of the channel in sensory neurons results in an obese phenotype with a loss of CCK sensitivity in intestinal nodose neurons, a loss of CCK-induced satiety, and metabolic changes, including decreased energy expenditure. (
  • CCK-8 induces a Cl ‑ current in nodose neurons. (
  • Protein manifestation data in nodose neurons was quantified by Scion Image version 4.02 (Scion, Frederick, MD) using collection fluorescence threshold values (average LY 2874455 of 8C10 analyzed images used as the mean value per animal) and compared by College students t-test. (
  • CART peptide manifestation in nodose neurons, c-fos-IR in hindbrain and arcuate nucleus were compared by two-way ANOVA followed by post hoc analysis with Holm-Sidaks multiple assessment test for the effects of genotype, diet or treatment. (
  • To add further complexity, the proportions of these afferents vary within splanchnic and pelvic pathways, whilst the density of the splanchnic and pelvic innervation also varies along the colon and rectum. (
  • In this review we traverse this complicated landscape to elucidate afferent function, structure, and nomenclature to provide insights into how the extrinsic sensory afferent innervation of the colon and rectum gives rise to physiological defecatory reflexes and sensations of discomfort, bloating, urgency, and pain. (
  • The distribution of fascicle fields and receptive fields of individual afferents on the lateral side of the foot indicates that the glabrous skin portion of the innervation territory of the sural nerve is more densely innervated than the non-glabrous skin portion. (
  • If so, interruption of the afferent renal innervation by dorsal rhizotomy (DRX) at T 9 -L 1 would impair urinary sodium excretion and/or increase arterial pressure during high dietary sodium intake. (
  • The remaining thin, unmyelinated type II afferents extend hundreds of microns along the cochlear duct to contact many outer hair cells. (
  • Here, we show that type II afferents are activated when outer hair cells are damaged. (
  • This benefit, however, has been gained at a significant cost in the metabolic and mechanical vulnerability of cochlear hair cells and neurons. (
  • Neurons are small cells that reside throughout the human body. (
  • These substances may be present to a greater or lesser extent following tissue damage, inflammation or nerve injury and have a major influence in determining the long term properties of sensory neurons and other nearby cells. (
  • In the brainstem, α-MNs and other neurons reside within clusters of cells called nuclei , some of which contain the cell bodies of neurons belonging to the cranial nerves . (
  • We summarize those neurochemical mechanisms associated with opioid withdrawal including the recently defined importance of TNF α release from activated glial cells that communicate with TNF receptors on PAG neurons. (
  • The compound action potential (CAP) and cochlear microphonic (CM) potential were recorded to monitor the physiologic status of the afferent neurons and hair cells, respectively. (
  • How are neurons similar to other body-cells? (
  • There are a few similarities between cells in your body and the specialized neuron cell. (
  • A typical neuron has a few specialized structures that sets it apart from other cells. (
  • Reveals that neurons are individual cells. (
  • Schwann cells: A type of glia that builds the myelin sheaths around certain neurons in the periphery of the body (PNS). (
  • 3. Inter-Neurons/Intrinsic Neurons: pass information from one neuron to another, the majority of cells in NS are inter-neurons (i.e. cerebral cortex). (
  • synapse, or connect, with afferent sensory neurons, nerve cells that conduct information to the brain. (
  • GABAergic neurons in the ventral pallidum (VP) provide a major input to VTA neurons. (
  • This includes the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the ventral striatum (VS), the ventral pallidum (VP), and the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. (
  • Lamina IX is located predominantly in the medial aspect of the ventral horn, although there is some contribution to lamina IX from a collection of motor neurons located more laterally. (
  • The ultrastructure of the central terminals of nociceptive primary afferent (Cl terminals) neurons in the mouse substantia gelatinosa was studied by the cytochemical method using fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP). (
  • Thus, various types of FRAP-positive Cl terminals and some Cll terminals are considered to be central endings of the capsaicin-sensitive nociceptive primary afferents. (
  • However, VTA DA neurons also receive dense GABAergic inputs from extrinsic sources and opioid control of these extrinsically derived inputs also robustly controls VTA DA neuron firing (see below). (
  • We have recently shown that sensory vagal and somato-sensory (sciatic nerve) inputs converge in neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata, which was implicated in adjusting visceral activities to changing somatic performances. (
  • Previous studies have shown that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), one of the most effective weight loss treatments for obesity, results in neurodegenerative responses in vagal afferent gut-brain connection reflected by microglia activation and reduced sensory input to the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). (
  • The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the influence of stimulus orientation on the responses of individual neurons in the monkey's lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). (
  • Descending spinal noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons inhibit the neurotransmitters noradrenaline and serotonin, released from primary afferent neurons and dorsal horn neurons. (
  • In decerebrate paralyzed cats, we examined the effects of two central motor commands (fictive locomotion and scratching) on the discharge of dorsal horn neurons receiving input from group III and IV tibial nerve afferents. (
  • We recorded the impulse activity of 74 dorsal horn neurons, each of which received group III input from the tibial nerve. (
  • Fictive scratching, evoked by topical application of bicuculline to the cervical spinal cord and irritation of the ear, inhibited the discharge of 22 of the 29 dorsal horn neurons tested. (
  • We conclude that centrally evoked motor commands can inhibit the discharge of dorsal horn neurons receiving thin fiber input from the periphery. (
  • Degtyarenko, AM & Kaufman, MP 2000, ' Fictive locomotion and scratching inhibit dorsal horn neurons receiving thin fiber afferent input ', American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology , vol. 279, no. 2 48-2. (
  • Aguyo, L.G., Weight F.F., and White, G, (1991) TTX-insensitive action potentials and excitability of adult sensory neurons cultured in serum- and exogenous nerve growth factor-free medium. (
  • Several simulation examples were presented in this paper to reproduce action potentials, sensory adaptation, frequency characteristics and spiking timing for each afferent type. (
  • Tactile receptors are sensory receptors that respond to mechanical pressure or distortion by producing action potentials (spikes) in their associated afferents ( Zhu and Rozell, 2015 ). (
  • The protective responses triggered by sensory neurons comprise alterations in GI blood flow, secretion, and motility as well as modifications of immune function. (
  • These sensory neurons react to GI insults by triggering protective autonomic reflexes including the so-called cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex. (
  • Antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) were used to determine whether neurons that have previously been identified as intrinsic primary afferent neurons in the guinea-pig small intestine have a cholinergic phenotype. (
  • We conclude that the intrinsic primary afferent neurons are cholinergic and that they may release transmitter from their sensory endings in the mucosa. (
  • Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti-conjugated acetylcholine antibody revealed the distribution of cholinergic neurons in the TAG. (
  • The cercal sensory afferent neurons running through the cercal nerve root showed cholinergic immunoreactivity, and the cholinergic immunoreactive region in the neuropil overlapped with the terminal arborizations of the cercal sensory afferent neurons. (
  • Alpha motor neurons are derived from the basal plate (basal lamina) of the developing embryo . (
  • Alpha motor neurons are located in lamina IX according to the Rexed lamina system . (
  • Alpha motor neurons are located in a specific region of the spinal cord's gray matter. (
  • Sub-Populations of Smaller Diameter Trigeminal Primary Afferent Neuron" by Francisco J. Alvarez, H. R. Morris et al. (
  • Immunohistochemical tracing/labeling experiments on DRG neurons showed that, compared to putative reflex-connected urethral afferents, reflex-connected glans afferents had significantly more substance P (SP) immunoreactivity. (
  • Acylcarnitines as markers of exercise-associated fuel partitioning, xenometabolism, and potential signals to muscle afferent neurons. (
  • Both of these actions decrease GABAergic input onto VTA neurons, revealing two mechanisms by which endogenous or exogenous opioids can activate VTA neurons, including DA neurons. (
  • Two populations of extrinsic primary afferent neurons, vagal and spinal, subserve this goal through different mechanisms. (
  • This article focusses on significant advances that during the past couple of years have been made in identifying molecular nocisensors on afferent neurons and in dissecting the signaling mechanisms whereby afferent neurons govern inflammatory processes in the gut. (
  • Molecular studies are under way to gain insight into the mechanisms and the properties of these neurons to help discover new avenues for the treatment of dry eye. (
  • The primary motivation for this research was to gain insight into the receptive-field configuration of LGN neurons and consequently into the neural mechanisms which determine the spatial organization of LGN receptive fields in primates. (
  • In conclusion, this study indicates that CSAR activation inhibited NTS barosensitive neurons and excited NTS chemosensitive neurons, suggesting that the NTS plays an important role in processing the interactions between these cardiovascular reflexes. (
  • Results of the study revealed significantly increased DNA fragmentation in vagal neurons in the NG when observed at 24 h after RYGB. (
  • Interestingly, the peak, decay time constant, and area under curve of EPSCs were significantly enhanced by 100 nM iberiotoxin in ketamine-more sensitive myelinated NTS neurons (most likely Ah-types), rather than ketamine-less sensitive ones (A-types). (
  • In contrast, beta(3) mRNA was mainly expressed in small neurons and occasionally in medium- to large-size neurons, and beta(3) mRNA expression in small c-type neurons in ipsilateral DRGs was increased significantly compared with contralateral DRGs. (