The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
Neurons that fire when an animal acts or observes the same action of another thus coding the motor response. They were originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey and studies have shown that neurons that have a similar mechanism are present in humans. Mirror neurons are theorized to be related to social cognition.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.

Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/57549)

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart. (2/57549)

1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (3/57549)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (4/57549)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (5/57549)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (6/57549)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (7/57549)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

Trans-synaptically induced bursts in regular spiking non-pyramidal cells in deep layers of the cat motor cortex. (8/57549)

In deep layers of the cat motor cortex, we have investigated the properties of neurons displaying trans-synaptically induced bursts. In in vivo experiments, extracellularly recorded burst neurons were separated into two subtypes based on their dependence on stimulation sites, the medullary pyramid or the ventrolateral (VL) thalamic nucleus, from which bursts of 10-20 spikes were triggered. The spike amplitude attenuation and frequency adaptation during a burst were more prominent in pyramid-dependent burst neurons than in VL-dependent burst neurons. Intracellular recordings in in vivo experiments revealed that pyramid-dependent bursts emerged from a long-lasting depolarization, while each spike during a VL-dependent burst was narrow in half-width and was followed by a fast AHP, similar to fast spiking neurons. In in vitro slice experiments, intracellular recordings were obtained from neurons that displayed a burst of attenuated spikes emerging from a long-lasting depolarization, and were also obtained from fast spiking neurons. They were morphologically recovered to be multipolar cells with sparsely spiny dendrites and local axonal networks, suggesting that they are inhibitory interneurons. The multipolar neurons displaying bursts of attenuated spikes may mediate the recurrent inhibition of pyramidal tract cells.  (+info)

Multipolar neurons are neurons that have one axon and many dendrites. These dendrites or multi-processes give the neuron many connection points to other neurons. Multipolar neurons function as either...
atterns in a network, it was found that the weighted hidden neuron activations feeding the output neuron(s) displayed remarkably consistent patterns. Specifically, redundant hidden neurons exhibit weighted activation patterns that are highly correlated. Therefore, the paper proposes identifying hidden neurons with weighted activation patterns that are highly correlated and using one neuron to represent a group of correlated neurons. The paper proposes to automate this process in two steps: 1) Map the correlated weighted hidden neuron activation patterns onto a self organising map; and 2) Form clusters of SOM neurons themselves to find the maximum likely number of clusters of correlated activity patterns. The likely number of clusters on the map indicates the required number of hidden neurons to model the data. The paper highlights the approach using an example and demonstrates its application to solving two problems including a realistic problem of predicting river flows in a catchment in New ...
Traditionally, cultures of primary cortical neurons are prepared from embryonic animals because at prenatal stages neurons have not yet developed extensive axonal and dendritic arbors and are not highly innervated, thus rendering the cells less susceptible to damage during dissociation of the neuronal tissue. The appropriate developmental age for preparing primary cultures of any cell type is determined by the time at which the cells of interest are generated and abundant. Most cerebral cortical neurons are generated between embryonic days (E) 11 and 17 in the mouse (embryos being considered 0.5 days old when a vaginal plug is detected in the morning). Here we describe a method to obtain short-term cultures of mouse primary cortical neurons at E15.5 and a practical application using fluorescent immunocytochemistry.
Jochen Meier Ivonne Strmel Radu Iosub Sonja Schmidt and Rosemarie Grantyn Developmental Physiology Johannes Mller Institute Humboldt University Medical School (Charit) Berlin Germany Efficient delivery of DNA to primary neuronal cell cultures is of critical importance,Effectene,Transfection,Reagent,provides,efficient,gene,delivery,,,,,,,,,,,,to,primary,neuronal,cell,cultures,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Suprathreshold corticostriatal responses recorded from medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia are different. Their differences readily distinguish D1- and D2-type receptor expressing MSNs in both bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice and their control littermates as well as in rats: indirect pathway neurons are more excitable than direct pathway neurons revealing autoregenerative spikes underlying their spike trains, whereas direct pathway neurons exhibit more prolonged plateau potentials and spike trains. SFK 81297, a selective agonist for D1-class receptors enhanced corticostriatal responses in direct pathway neurons, while quinelorane, a selective agonist for D2-class receptors reduced orthodromic and autoregenerative responses in indirect pathway neurons thus making both neuron classes similarly excitable. Because dopaminergic postsynaptic actions target CaV1 (L) class voltage-gated calcium channels in MSNs, we hypothesized that these
Elimination of spinal neurons that possess the SPR using SP-SAP offers the unique opportunity to determine the role of SPR-expressing neurons, as well as other neurons, in pain processing. SP-SAP induced specific degeneration of neurons expressing SPR receptors. This observation was made previously (Mantyh et al., 1997; Nichols et al., 1999) and is supported by present data. An interesting finding of the present study was the proportional change in the functional classification of spinal neurons encountered in animals pretreated with SP-SAP. The proportion of HT neurons encountered in control animals was ∼36%, whereas only 7% of the neurons identified in SP-SAP-treated animals were HT. This suggests that SP-SAP targeted primarily HT neurons. It has been shown in cats that HT neurons possess more SPRs than WDR neurons (Ma et al., 1996, 1997), suggesting that HT neurons are more vulnerable to SP-SAP because of the greater number of SPRs on these neurons.. The absence of sensitization and windup ...
Other articles where Multipolar neuron is discussed: human nervous system: The peripheral nervous system: Motor ganglia have multipolar cell bodies, which have irregular shapes and eccentrically located nuclei and which project several dendritic and axonal processes. Preganglionic fibres originating from the brain or spinal cord enter motor ganglia, where they synapse on multipolar cell bodies. These postganglionic cells, in turn, send their…
Primary sensory neurons in the DRG play an essential role in initiating pain by detecting painful stimuli in the periphery. Tissue injury can sensitize DRG neurons, causing heightened pain sensitivity, often leading to chronic pain. Despite the functional importance, how DRG neurons function at a population level is unclear due to the lack of suitable tools. Here we developed an imaging technique that allowed us to simultaneously monitor the activities of >1,600 neurons/DRG in live mice and discovered a striking neuronal coupling phenomenon that adjacent neurons tend to activate together following tissue injury. This coupled activation occurs among various neurons and is mediated by an injury-induced upregulation of gap junctions in glial cells surrounding DRG neurons. Blocking gap junctions attenuated neuronal coupling and mechanical hyperalgesia. Therefore, neuronal coupling represents a new form of neuronal plasticity in the DRG and contributes to pain hypersensitivity by hijacking ...
There are various types of enteric neurons. initial with top cell routine leave at E11.5 accompanied by neurofilament-M neurons Telotristat Etiprate calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons (top cell routine leave for both at E12.5-E13.5) tyrosine hydroxylase neurons (E15.5) nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) neurons (E15.5) and calretinin neurons (P0). Almost all myenteric neurons got exited Telotristat Etiprate the cell routine by P10. We didnt observe any EdU+/NOS1+ myenteric neurons in the tiny intestine of adult mice pursuing EdU shot at E10.5 or E11.5 that was unexpected as previous research show that NOS1 neurons can be found in E11.5 mice. Research using the proliferation marker Ki67 uncovered that hardly any NOS1 neurons in the E11.5 and E12.5 gut had been proliferating. Nevertheless Cre-lox-based hereditary fate-mapping revealed a little sub-population of myenteric neurons that seems to exhibit NOS1 just transiently. Jointly our outcomes confirm a romantic relationship between enteric ...
New research involving people diagnosed with Lou Gehrigs disease sheds light on how individual neurons control muscle movement in humans - and could help in the development of better brain-controlled prosthetic devices.
Activation of MLK and c-Jun is required for the death of GDNF-deprived sympathetic neurons. (A) Quantitation of neurons with strong nuclear immunostaining for phosphorylated c-Jun expressed as a percentage of all neurons. Neurons were deprived of neurotrophic factors in the presence of caspase inhibitor BAF for 48 h and immunostained with antibodies to phosphorylated serines 63 or 73 of c-Jun. Control neurons maintained with GDNF or NGF were stained as well. The mean ± SEM of four (for P-Ser-63) or three (for P-Ser-73) independent cultures is shown. Neurotrophic factor-maintained and -deprived groups were compared by t test. (B) Typical examples of weak (GDNF-deprived neurons) or strong (NGF-deprived neurons) nuclear immunostaining. Corresponding phase-contrast images are shown on the right column. Levels of the fluorescent images were equally enhanced with Adobe Photoshop software. Bar, 10 μm. (C) GDNF- or NGF- deprived sympathetic neurons were microinjected with expression plasmid encoding ...
GABAergic pathways in the brainstem play an essential role in respiratory rhythmogenesis and interactions between the respiratory and cardiovascular neuronal control networks. However, little is known about the identity and function of these GABAergic inhibitory neurons and what determines their activity. In this study we have identified a population of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral medulla that receive increased excitatory post-synaptic potentials during inspiration, but also have spontaneous firing in the absence of synaptic input. Using transgenic mice that express GFP under the control of the Gad1 (GAD67) gene promoter, we determined that this population of GABAergic neurons is in close apposition to cardioinhibitory parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NA). These neurons fire in synchronization with inspiratory activity. Although they receive excitatory glutamatergic synaptic inputs during inspiration, this excitatory neurotransmission was not altered by blocking
OCT intensity and phase fluctuations correlated with activity-dependent neuronal calcium dynamics in the Drosophila CNS [Invited]
NETMORPH is a modular simulation tool for building synaptically connected networks with realistic neuron morphologies. Axonal and dendritic morphologies are created by using stochastic rules for the behavior of individual growth cones, the structures at the tip of outgrowing axons and dendrites (collectively called neurites) that mediate neurite elongation and branching. In brief, each growth cone has at each time step a probability to elongate the trailing neurite, to branch and produce two daughter growth cones, and to turn and change the direction of neurite outgrowth. The parameter values of the outgrowth model can be optimized so as to obtain an optimal match with the morphology of specific neuron types. Neurons are positioned in 3D space and grow out independently of each other. Axons and dendrites are not guided by any extracellular cues. Synapses between neurons are formed when crossing axonal and dendritic segments come sufficiently close to each other. NETMORPH is written in C++ and ...
Experimental observations of the intracellular recorded electrical activity in individual neurons show that the temporal behavior is often chaotic. We discuss both our own observations on a cell from the stom-atogastric central pattern generator of lobster and earlier observations in other cells.. In this paper we work with models of chaotic neurons, building on models by Hindmarsh and Rose for bursting, spiking activity in neurons. The key feature of these simplified models of neurons is the presence of coupled slow and fast subsystems. We analyze the model neurons using the same tools employed in the analysis of our experimental data.. We couple two model neurons both electrotonically and electrochemically in inhibitory and excitatory fashions. In each of these cases, we demonstrate that the model neurons can synchronize in phase and out of phase depending on the strength of the coupling. For normal synaptic coupling, we have a time delay between the action of one neuron and the response of ...
Video articles in JoVE about gabaergic neurons include Vibrodissociation of Neurons from Rodent Brain Slices to Study Synaptic Transmission and Image Presynaptic Terminals, Reliable Identification of Living Dopaminergic Neurons in Midbrain Cultures Using RNA Sequencing and TH-promoter-driven eGFP Expression, The Neuroblast Assay: An Assay for the Generation and Enrichment of Neuronal Progenitor Cells from Differentiating Neural Stem Cell Progeny Using Flow Cytometry, Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies, Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors, Intracortical Inhibition Within the Primary Motor Cortex Can Be Modulated by Changing the Focus of Attention, Protocol for the Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Mixed Cultures of Neurons and Glia for Neurotoxicity Testing, Tuning in the
NEURON files from the paper: On the mechanisms underlying the depolarization block in the spiking dynamics of CA1 pyramidal neurons by D.Bianchi, A. Marasco, A.Limongiello, C.Marchetti, H.Marie,B.Tirozzi, M.Migliore (2012). J Comput. Neurosci. In press. DOI: 10.1007/s10827-012-0383-y. Experimental findings shown that under sustained input current of increasing strength neurons eventually stop firing, entering a depolarization block. We analyze the spiking dynamics of CA1 pyramidal neuron models using the same set of ionic currents on both an accurate morphological reconstruction and on its reduction to a single-compartment. The results show the specic ion channel properties and kinetics that are needed to reproduce the experimental findings, and how their interplay can drastically modulate the neuronal dynamics and the input current range leading to depolarization block ...
A fundamental property of neuronal circuits is the ability to adapt to altered sensory inputs. It is well established that the functional synaptic changes underlying this adaptation are reflected by structural modifications in excitatory neurons. In contrast, the degree to which structural plasticity in inhibitory neurons accompanies functional changes is less clear. Here, we use two-photon imaging to monitor the fine structure of inhibitory neurons in mouse visual cortex after deprivation induced by retinal lesions. We find that a subset of inhibitory neurons carry dendritic spines, which form glutamatergic synapses. Removal of visual input correlates with a rapid and lasting reduction in the number of inhibitory cell spines. Similar to the effects seen for dendritic spines, the number of inhibitory neuron boutons dropped sharply after retinal lesions. Together, these data suggest that structural changes in inhibitory neurons may precede structural changes in excitatory circuitry, which ...
The researchers focused on brain cells that transmit information from the brains cortex. Some of the cortical neurons are responsible for muscle control and are the ones lost or damaged in people with spinal cord injuries and ALS.. These stem cell-derived neurons can grow nerve fibers between the brains cerebral cortex and the spinal cord, so this study confirms the use of stem cells for therapeutic goals, the research teams leader, James Weimann, said in a news release from the Society for Neuroscience.. In laboratory dishes, the researchers grew stem cells that were precursors to cortical neurons until the cells displayed many of the characteristics of mature neurons. The new neurons were then transplanted into the cortex of newborn mice, specifically into regions that control vision, touch and movement.. The transplanted neurons grew into the appropriate brain structures and avoided inappropriate areas, the researchers reported.. The study is in the Jan. 20 issue of the Journal of ...
Neurons are cells that make up our brain and spinal cord allowing us to process our surroundings. They fire electric and chemical signals when the potential difference across their cell membrane reaches a critical voltage.. Unlike other body cells, neurons dont undergo mitosis (cell splitting). Instead, neural stem cells can generate new specialized neurons by differentiating into neuroblasts that, upon migration to a specific area, can turn into a neuron. The neuroblasts can undergo mitosis.. Neural stem cells, like all stem cells, may sit around for long periods of time before they generate a neuroblast. In the 1960s, scientists had the first indication that neurons might be generated in an adult rodent brain but it wasnt until the 1990s that scientists discovered the neural stem cells and the generation of neurons in the adult rodent brain. So it has long been wondered whether or not humans get new brain cells.. In the late 1990s scientists studying neurogenesis, the creation of new ...
Alzheimers Disease (8) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (9) Antibodies (6) Apoptosis Detection (7) axonal regeneration (3) Cancer Research (7) Cerebral Ischemia (4) diabetes (6) e-18 Primary Rat Neurons (11) embryonic stem cells (19) enteric nervous system (5) FLICA (5) FLIVO (2) Glia Markers (6) Glial Markers (15) Hippocampal Neurons (6) human embryonic stem cells (3) Human Neural Progenitors (10) Human Neurons (6) Hypothalamic Neurons (1) Immunocytochemistry (5) Immunofluorescence (12) Immunohistochemistry (23) inflammatory response (13) MitoPT (2) Multiple Sclerosis (11) Neural Crest (2) Neural Progenitor Cells (7) Neural Stem Cell Markers (8) Neurofilament Markers (12) Neurogenesis (5) Neuronal Markers (14) Neuropathic Pain (19) Neuropeptides (7) Neuroprotection (4) neuroscience (3) Neurotoxicity (9) Neurotransmission (10) Nociceptive Pain (18) Obesity Research (6) Oligodendrocytes (8) Otx2 Antibody (2) Pain Research (27) Parkinsons Disease (11) placental mesenchymal stem cells (1) Polcaspase ...
Adult mouse DRG neurones have been maintained for 14 days in cultures where non-neuronal cell proliferation was inhibited by the inclusion of 5 × 10(−6) microM-cytosine arabinoside (AraC) in the medium from the onset of culture. On uncoated plastic neurone numbers significantly declined in the absence of non-neuronal cell outgrowth compared with uninhibited co-cultures. However, when neurones were maintained in the presence of AraC on certain coated surfaces this decrease in neurone numbers was not observed. Combinations of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LAM) proved most effective for 7 and 14 days in vitro, although either was beneficial if used separately. Microexudates produced by the fibroblast line, 3T6, also significantly improved neuronal counts for 14 days in vitro. However, a microexudate derived from primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes, although advantageous for 7 days in vitro, was not effective in maintaining neurones over the 14-day culture period, reminiscent of previous ...
Fetal Neuron Grafts Pave the Way for Stem Cell Therapies Marcia Barinaga A decade of experimental treatments using fetal neurons to replace brain cells that die in Parkinsons disease can provide lessons for planning stem cell therapies Swedish neuroscientist Anders Björklund and his colleagues may have caught a glimpse of what the future holds for the treatment of failing organs. For more than 10 years, Björklund has been part of a team at Lund University in Sweden that has been grafting neurons from aborted fetuses into the brains of patients with Parkinsons disease. In many cases, the transplanted cells have dramatically relieved the patients symptoms, which include slowness of movement and rigidity. That is just the kind of therapy that stem cell researchers hope to make routine for treating all sorts of degenerative diseases, if they can coax the cells to develop into limitless supplies of specific cell types that can be used to repair or replace damaged organs. Although the current ...
Alzheimers Disease (7) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (8) Antibodies (6) Apoptosis Detection (7) axonal regeneration (3) Cancer Research (7) Cerebral Ischemia (4) diabetes (6) e-18 Primary Rat Neurons (11) embryonic stem cells (19) enteric nervous system (5) FLICA (5) FLIVO (2) Glia Markers (5) Glial Markers (15) Hippocampal Neurons (6) human embryonic stem cells (3) Human Neural Progenitors (10) Human Neurons (6) Hypothalamic Neurons (1) Immunocytochemistry (5) Immunofluorescence (12) Immunohistochemistry (23) inflammatory response (13) MitoPT (2) Multiple Sclerosis (11) Neural Crest (2) Neural Progenitor Cells (7) Neural Stem Cell Markers (8) Neurofilament Markers (12) Neurogenesis (5) Neuronal Markers (14) Neuropathic Pain (19) Neuropeptides (7) Neuroprotection (4) neuroscience (3) Neurotoxicity (9) Neurotransmission (10) Nociceptive Pain (18) Obesity Research (6) Oligodendrocytes (8) Otx2 Antibody (2) Pain Research (27) Parkinsons Disease (10) placental mesenchymal stem cells (1) Polcaspase ...
Destruction and death of neurons can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. One possible way to treat neurodegenerative diseases and damage of the nervous system is replacing damaged and dead neurons by cell transplantation. If new neurons can replace the lost neurons, patients may be able to regain the lost functions of memory, motor, and so on. Therefore, acquiring neurons conveniently and efficiently is vital to treat neurological diseases. In recent years, studies on reprogramming human fibroblasts into neurons have emerged one after another, and this paper summarizes all these studies. Scientists find small molecules and transcription factors playing a crucial role in reprogramming and inducing neuron production. At the same time, both the physiological microenvironment in vivo and the physical and chemical factors in vitro play an essential role in the induction of neurons. Therefore, this paper summarized and analyzed these relevant factors. In addition, due to the unique advantages of physical
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of mitochondrial K+ release and cellular efflux in ischemic and apoptotic neuronal death. AU - Liu, Dong. AU - Slevin, John R.. AU - Lu, Chengbiao. AU - Chan, Sic L.. AU - Hansson, Magnus. AU - Elmér, Eskil. AU - Mattson, Mark P.. PY - 2003/8. Y1 - 2003/8. N2 - We measured and manipulated intracellular potassium (K+) fluxes in cultured hippocampal neurons in an effort to understand the involvement of K+ in neuronal death under conditions of ischemia and exposure to apoptotic stimuli Measurements of the intracellular K+ concentration using the fluorescent probe 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4′-[1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazacyclooctadecane-7, 16-diyl-bis(5-methoxy-6,2-benzofurandiyl)]bis-, tetrakis [(acetyloxy) methyl] ester (PBFI) revealed that exposure of neurons to cyanide (chemical hypoxia), glutamate (excitotoxic insult) or staurosporine (apoptotic stimulus) results in efflux of K+ and cell death. Treatment of neurons with 5-hydroxydecanoate (5HD), an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective lesion of the hippocampus increases the differentiation of immature neurons in the monkey amygdala. AU - Chareyron, Loïc J.. AU - Amaral, David G. AU - Lavenex, Pierre. AU - Rakic, Pasko. PY - 2016/12/13. Y1 - 2016/12/13. N2 - A large population of immature neurons is present in the ventro-medial portion of the adult primate amygdala, a region that receives substantial direct projections from the hippocampal formation. Here, we show the effects of neonatal (n = 8) and adult (n = 6) hippocam-pal lesions on the populations of mature and immature neurons in the paralaminar, lateral, and basal nuclei of the adult monkey amygdala. Compared with unoperated controls (n = 7), the number of mature neurons was about 70% higher in the paralaminar nucleus of neonate- and adult-lesioned monkeys, and 40% higher in the lateral and basal nuclei of neonate-lesioned monkeys. The number of immature neurons in the paralaminar nucleus was 40% higher in neonate-lesioned monkeys and 30% ...
New York University researchers have created a developmental atlas of gene expression in neurons, using gene sequencing and machine learning to categorize more than 250,000 neurons in the brains of fruit flies. Their study, published in Nature, finds that neurons exhibit the most molecular diversity during development and reveals a previously unknown type of neurons only present before flies hatch.. Diversity of the different cell types that make up our brains can only be fully understood in light of their developmental history, said NYU Biology Professor Claude Desplan, the studys senior author.. Brains are composed of thousands of different types of neurons. Despite sharing the same genetic information, neurons achieve this diversity by turning on different sets of genes in each neuron type and at each point in their development. To understand the diversity of brain cells, researchers have long studied fruit flies, whose brains, although much simpler than those of humans, can be used as a ...
J. Z. YOUNG; Cellular Basis for Long-Term Neuronal Adaptation. Biochem Soc Trans 1 October 1978; 6 (5): 839-841. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Determining the neuronal circuitry responsible for specific behaviors is a major focus in the field of neurobiology. Activity-dependent immediate early genes (IEGs), transcribed and translated shortly after neurons discharge action potentials, have been used extensively to either identify or gain genetic access to neurons and brain regions involved in such behaviors. By using immunohistochemistry for the protein product of the IEG c-Fos combined with retrograde labeling of specific neuronal populations, precise experimental timing, and identical data acquisition and processing, we present a method to quantitatively identify specific neuronal subpopulations that were active during social encounters. We have previously used this method to show a stronger recruitment of ventral hippocampal neurons that project to the medial prefrontal cortex, compared to those that project to the lateral hypothalamus, following social interactions. After optimization of surgeries for the injection of retrograde tracers,
Protecting nerve cells from losing their characteristic extensions, the dendrites, can reduce brain damage after a stroke. Neurobiologists from Heidelberg University have demonstrated this by means of research on a mouse model. The team, led by Prof. Dr Hilmar Bading in cooperation with Junior Professor Dr Daniela Mauceri, is investigating the protection of neuronal architecture to develop new approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases.
Transplantation studies suggest that the laminar fates of cerebral cortical neurons are determined by environmental signals encountered just before mitosis. In ferret, E29 progenitor cells normally produce neurons of layers 5 and 6. When transplanted during S-phase into an older ventricular zone, E29 progenitors produce neurons that change their fates and migrate to layer 2/3; however, cells transplanted later in the cell cycle migrate to their normal deep-layer positions even in an older environment (McConnell and Kaznowski, 1991). Here we utilize three culture systems to investigate the nature of the environmental signals involved in laminar specification. E29 cells were first cultured at low density to ascertain whether cell contact and/or short-range cues are required for deep layer specification. Neurons transplanted after a short time in low-density culture failed to adopt their normal fates and migrated instead to the upper layers. When crude cell contacts were restored by pelleting E29 ...
Here, based on our previous work on linear synaptic filtering [1-3], we build a general theory for the stationary firing response of integrate-and-fire (IF) neurons receiving stochastic inputs filtered by one, two or multiple synaptic channels each characterized by an arbitrary timescale. The formalism applies to arbitrary IF model neurons, and to arbitrary forms of input noise (i.e., not required to be Gaussian or to have small amplitude), as well as to any form of synaptic filtering (linear or non-linear). The theory determines with exact analytical expressions the firing rate of an IF neuron for long synaptic time constants using the adiabatic approach. The correlated spiking (cross-correlations function) of two neurons receiving common as well as independent sources of noise is also described (see figure 1). The theory is exemplified using leaky, quadratic and noise thresholded IF neurons (LIF, QIF, NTIF). Although the adiabatic approach is exact when at least one of the synaptic timescales ...
BDNF and nitric oxide signaling both contribute to plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. However the role of combined signaling of both pathways at the same synapse is largely unknown. Using NO imaging with diaminofluoresceine in cultured hippocampal neurons we analyzed the time course of neurotrophin induced NO signals. Application of exogenous BDNF, NT-4, and NT-3 (but not NGF) induced NO signals in the soma and in proximal dendrites of hippocampal neurons that were sensitive to NO synthase activity, TrkB signaling, and intracellular calcium elevation. The effect of NO signaling on neurotrophin secretion was analyzed in BDNF-GFP and NT-3-GFP transfected hippocampal neurons. Exogenous application of the NO donor sodium-nitroprusside markedly inhibited neurotrophin secretion. However, endogenously generated NO in response to depolarization and neurotrophin stimulation, both did not result in a negative feedback on neurotrophin secretion. These results suggest that a negative feedback of NO signaling on
Rabbit Polyclonal to OR10J5 adherent monolayer tradition solution to examine variations in effectiveness of neural differentiation, PKO and WT Sera cells were differentiated into neurons from the adherent monolayer tradition technique. Morphological changes had been observed 20350-15-6 manufacture throughout a differentiation period, and immunocytochemistry was performed with MAP2, an adult neuron marker. There have been no variations in the morphology or differentiation of MAP2-positive cells between WT and PKO cells (Fig. 1A). Particularly, the effectiveness of neural differentiation into dopaminergic neurons demonstrated no difference between PKO and WT Sera cells, as dependant on immunocytochemistry with TH, a dopaminergic neuron marker (Fig. 1B). Real-time RT-PCR evaluation with dopaminergic neuron markers such as for example Nurr1, Pitx3, AADC, TH, and D2R also demonstrated no difference between WT and PKO cells (Fig. 1C). Fig. 1 Induction of dopaminergic neurons from wild-type (WT) and ...
Highly connected neurons, called hub cells, are thought to contribute to certain forms of epilepsy and have also been shown to orchestrate synchrony in the hippocampus of developing rats. How hub cells are capable of hijacking networks to synchrony is not well understood. We hypothesize that the excitability type of hub cells may be an important factor. In general, neuronal excitability (which characterizes how neurons respond to input) falls into two categories, Type I and Type II, with networks of only Type II neurons synchronizing very well, and networks of only Type I neurons synchronizing rather poorly. We used computer simulations to investigate the synchronization properties of networks with a mixture of Type I and Type II neurons. We were particularly interested in the effect of placing Type II neurons as hub cells in the network. The results of these simulations show that relatively few Type II neurons are capable of hijacking the network to synchrony when they are placed as hub cells, ...
To : All First of all I would like to thank you all who answered my first question about examples of sensory neurones who have cell body located close to the stimulus ? The answers were as follows : PHOTORECEPTORS, COCHLEAR HAIR CELL, STRECH RECEPTORS, OLFACTORY RECEPTORS, GUASTATORY RECEPTORS. I looked up the sensors and found that all of them responds in a linear fashion to a increase in stimulus. However, in the enteric nervous system several authors say that the AH neurones are the sensory neurones. The AH neurone is characterized by having a prolonged after- hyperpolarization (,4 seconds) following an action potential, which is caused by opening of calcium activated potassium channels. I have always wondered why a sensory neurone would behave with such a strange pattern. The neurone is complete inactive during the after- hyperpolarization, so it is not really a matter of adaptation, but more a question of making the neurone completely inactive. The AH neurones are possibly coupled to a ...
The medial amygdala (MeA) is a central node in the interwoven circuits that regulate social behavior based on pheromones. Aromatase-expressing (arom+) neurons in the MeA are key for the establishment and maintenance of sex differences. Here, we characterized the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of arom+ neurons and non-aromatase (arom-) neurons in the MeA of male and female mice. Most electrophysiological properties were similar for arom+ neurons in the MeA between sexes, but the relative refractory period was twice as large in female mice. We also show that the firing pattern and firing frequency is markedly different between arom+ and arom- neurons. The activity of MeA neurons could be modulated by estradiol, which reduced activity in arom+ neurons in males. The differences between arom+ and arom- neurons were observed in both sexes suggesting that aromatase expression delineates a neural population in the MeA with similar and unique electrophysiological properties.
Finally, our article on human and mouse neurons has been published! The picture above shows the neurons of a human and a mouse. Human and mouse neurons are similar overall, but they also have…
A major challenge confronting the developing embryo is that of generating the appropriate numbers and distinct classes of neurons essential for constructing functional neuronal circuits. This involves tight coordination between proliferation, specification and differentiation during the course of neurogenesis. The developing spinal cord is a pertinent model with which to dissect the crosstalk that exists between these different programs, because we have a good understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing spinal neurons specification and differentiation (Dessaud et al., 2008).. The spinal cord develops from a caudal stem zone containing a pool of undifferentiated neural progenitors performing only proliferative divisions, one progenitor generating two daughter progenitor cells (PP) (Akai et al., 2005). Neural progenitors exiting the stem zone to contribute to the formation of the neural tube become subjected to morphogens, including Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which controls their specification, ...
It has been 10+ years since Gould et al. and Kempermann et al. showed that learning and enriched environments can enhance the survival of new neurons. These findings are logical precursors to the current study since, if these new neurons have all the necessary components, they suggest experience could add to the mnemonic functions of the hippocampus. But subsequent studies indicated that experience could also decrease the survival of new neurons. So perhaps structural changes to new neurons that are more relevant to learning might be worth investigating. For example, in many of my own experiments, I have failed to observe learning-induced changes in the number of new neurons but, if the number of dendrites or spines is increased, then there could still be an enhanced ability to process information. Or there could be the removal of some spines and the formation of others, suggesting a transformation in the type of information processed by new neurons. To get at these possibilities, Tronel et al. ...
The brain has evolved adaptive mechanisms for coping with stress and responds to stressors in highly stereotyped ways. One of the major physiological responses to stressful stimuli, the secretion of pituitary and adrenal hormones, is controlled by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing neurons located in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). CRH neuroendocrine neurons constitute the primary control center in the brain for initiating hormonal responses to stress, and the control of these neurons by other parts of the brain has been the subject of intensive investigation. One of the most massive sources of input to these neurons is the collection of axonal inputs originating from subpopulations of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons located in the hindbrain. These CA neurons are critical regulators of the mammalian stress axis, releasing the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and other co-localized peptide hormones (such as neuropeptide Y) onto CRH neuroendocrine ...
The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) mediates important brain functions and contributes to the pathophysiology and successful drug treatment of many common psychiatric disorders, especially depression. It is established that a key mechanism involved in the control of 5-HT neurones is feedback inhibition by presynaptic 5-HT autoreceptors, which are located on 5-HT cell bodies and nerve terminals. However, recent experiments have discovered an unexpected complexity of 5-HT neurone control, specifically in the form of postsynaptic 5-HT feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms have the physiological effects of 5-HT autoreceptors but use additional 5-HT receptor subtypes and operate through neural inputs to 5-HT neurones. A postsynaptic feedback system that excites 5-HT neurones has also been reported. This article discusses current knowledge of the pharmacology and physiology of these new found 5-HT feedback mechanisms and considers their possible contribution to depression
The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) mediates important brain functions and contributes to the pathophysiology and successful drug treatment of many common psychiatric disorders, especially depression. It is established that a key mechanism involved in the control of 5-HT neurones is feedback inhibition by presynaptic 5-HT autoreceptors, which are located on 5-HT cell bodies and nerve terminals. However, recent experiments have discovered an unexpected complexity of 5-HT neurone control, specifically in the form of postsynaptic 5-HT feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms have the physiological effects of 5-HT autoreceptors but use additional 5-HT receptor subtypes and operate through neural inputs to 5-HT neurones. A postsynaptic feedback system that excites 5-HT neurones has also been reported. This article discusses current knowledge of the pharmacology and physiology of these new found 5-HT feedback mechanisms and considers their possible contribution to depression
It has long been a dogma of neuroscience that the human brain is born with all the neurons it will ever have, and that those neurons must endure for a lifetime. But evidence has been accumulating that this dogma may not strictly be true. Neurons in the hippocampus and cerebellum, for example, differentiate through the first several years of childhood. In other species, such as mice and marmoset monkeys, new neuron growth has been found in adults. And neuronal progenitor cells have been discovered in adult human brains, although it was not known whether these stem cells normally divide into neurons. It now appears that they do, according to a study appearing in the November 1 issue of Nature Medicine by Peter S. Eriksson et al. The study involved terminal cancer patients who had been administered a diagnostic agent, BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine), that labels dividing cells. Upon the patients death, their brains were examined for the presence of BrdU. All of the patients showed evidence of recent ...
Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)/re-oxygenation (OGDR) induces profound oxidative injury and neuronal cell death. It mimics ischemia-reperfusion neuronal injury. CPI-1189 is a novel tumor necrosis factor alpha-inhibiting compound with potential neuroprotective function. Here in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and primary murine cortical neurons, CPI-1189 pretreatment potently inhibited OGDR-induced viability reduction and cell death. In OGDR-stimulated neuronal cells, p38 phosphorylation was blocked by CPI-1189. In addition, CPI-1189 alleviated OGDR-induced reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione consumption. OGDR-induced neuronal cell apoptosis was also inhibited by CPI-1189 pretreatment. Furthermore, in SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons, CPI-1189 alleviated OGDR-induced programmed necrosis by inhibiting mitochondrial p53-cyclophilin D-adenine nucleotide translocase 1 association, mitochondrial depolarization, and lactate dehydrogenase release to the medium. In summary, CPI-1189
We thank the reviewers for their thorough review. We have considered all of the comments, and in response have performed additional analyses, and have edited the text of the document to address each of the critiques. Below we respond in a point-by-point manner to each comments, our responses are in bold.. Synthesis Statement for Author (Required): SYNTHESIS. In this manuscript, the authors review the analysis of MEA data performed in previously published works and discuss the best ways to analyze MEA recordings. The authors discuss several important limitations of the MEA approach and they offer information and guidelines on ways to address these limitations. This information will be important to share with the broader neuroscience community and with scientists who. are interested in beginning to work with MEAs in particular. However, the reviewers also identified several concerns that need to be addressed.. 1) Neuronal density and array density seem to be two key variables that should greatly ...
The metazoan gut performs multiple physiologic functions, including digestion and absorption of nutrients, and also serves as a physical and chemical barrier against ingested pathogens and abrasive particles. Maintenance of these functions and structures is partly controlled by the nervous system, yet the precise roles and mechanisms of the neural control of gut integrity remain to be clarified in Drosophila. Here we screened for GAL4 enhancer-trap strains and labeled specific subsets of neurons. To inhibit their neuronal activity, we used Kir2.1. We identified an NP3253 line that is susceptible to oral infection by Gram-negative bacteria. The subset of neurons driven by the NP3253 line includes some of the enteric neurons innervating the anterior midgut, and these flies have a disorganized proventricular structure with high permeability of the peritrophic matrix and epithelial barrier. The findings of the present study indicate that neural control is crucial for maintaining the barrier function ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Neural Regeneration. AU - So, Kwok Fai. AU - Xu, Xiao Ming. PY - 2015/2/6. Y1 - 2015/2/6. N2 - Neural Regeneration provides an overview of cutting-edge knowledge on a broad spectrum of neural regeneration, including: Neural regeneration in lower vertebrates Neural regeneration in the peripheral nervous system Neural regeneration in the central nervous system Transplantation-mediated neural regeneration Clinical and translational research on neural regeneration The contributors to this book are experts in their fields and work at distinguished institutions in the United States, Canada, Australia, and China. Nervous system injuries, including peripheral nerve injuries, brain and spinal cord injuries, and stroke affect millions of people worldwide every year. As a result of this high incidence of neurological injuries, neural regeneration and repair is becoming a rapidly growing field dedicated to the new discoveries to promote structural and functional recoveries based on neural ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effects of Sindbis Viral Vectors on Neuronal Function. AU - Uyaniker, Seçil. AU - van der Spek, Sophie J.F.. AU - Reinders, Niels R.. AU - Xiong, Hui. AU - Li, Ka Wan. AU - Bossers, Koen. AU - Smit, August B.. AU - Verhaagen, Joost. AU - Kessels, Helmut W.. PY - 2019/8/8. Y1 - 2019/8/8. N2 - Viral vectors are attractive tools to express genes in neurons. Transduction of neurons with a recombinant, replication-deficient Sindbis viral vector is a method of choice for studying the effects of short-term protein overexpression on neuronal function. However, to which extent Sindbis by itself may affect neurons is not fully understood. We assessed effects of neuronal transduction with a Sindbis viral vector on the transcriptome and proteome in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, and analyzed the electrophysiological properties of individual CA1 neurons, at 24 h and 72 h after viral vector injection. Whereas Sindbis caused substantial gene expression alterations, changes at the ...
In contrast, in neurons projecting to dopamine neurons, dendrites curved and coursed circuitously or turned inward toward the soma (Figure 6K). Furthermore, spines of inputs to GABAergic neurons were evenly. spaced and were of similar size. In contrast, inputs to dopamine neurons had uneven spines and varicosities, and their dendrites were irregular in contour (Figures 6D and 6H, inset). These results suggest that, whereas neurons projecting to GABAergic neurons are click here consistent with typical medium spiny neurons, neurons projecting to dopaminergic neurons have significantly different morphologies. We make two conclusions from these data: First, striatal neurons do project monosynaptically to dopamine neurons; and second, our technique is capable of revealing exquisite, cell-type-specific connectivity. Whereas SNc dopamine neurons receive the most input from the DS, VTA dopamine Buparlisib neurons receive the most input from the Acb (Figure 3). Although heterogeneity of the Acb was ...
Neurons in the gracile nucleus of the camel brain stem were studied by Golgi method. Neurons were classified based on soma size and shape, density of dendritic tree, morphology and distribution of appendages. Six types of neurons were identified. Type I neurons had very large somata with appendages on their somata and distal dendrites. Type II neurons had large somata and almost smooth dendrites. Type III neurons displayed medium size somata with dendritic appendages of different forms. Type IV neurons were small to medium spheroidal or triangular neurons. Somata and dendrites of these neurons had appendages of different forms. Type V medium-size neurons had bipolar, round or fusiform somata and poorly branching dendritic tree. Some spines and appendages were seen on somata and dendrites of these neurons. Neurons of type VI were medium-size unipolar, round or fusiform with spines on their dendrites. The radiating branching pattern was more common than the tufted for all types of neurons. Wide overlap
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multi-neuron action potentials recorded with tetrode are not instantaneous mixtures of single neuronal action potentials.. AU - Shiraishi, Yasushi. AU - Katayama, Norihiro. AU - Takahashi, Tetsuya. AU - Karashima, Akihiro. AU - Nakao, Mitsuyuki. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - Multiunit recording with multi-site electrodes in the brain has been widely used in neuroscience studies. After the data recording, neuronal spikes should be sorted according to the pattern of spike waveforms. For the spike sorting, independent component analysis (ICA) has recently been used because ICA has potential for resolving the problem to separate the overlapped multiple neuronal spikes. However the performance of spike sorting by using ICA has not been examined in detail. In this study, we quantitatively evaluate the performance of ICA-based spike sorting method by using simulated multiunit signals. The simulated multiunit signal is constructed by compositing real extracellular action potentials recorded ...
In sensory systems, peripheral organs convey sensory inputs to relay networks where information is shaped by local microcircuits before being transmitted to cortical areas. In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity that are transmitted to output neurons in olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. How sensory information is transferred and shaped at this level remains still unclear. Here we employ mouse genetics, 2-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, to identify a novel population of glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT3+) in the glomerular layer of the adult mouse OB as well as several of their synaptic targets. Both peripheral and serotoninergic inputs control VGLUT3+ neurons firing. Furthermore, we show that VGLUT3+ neuron photostimulation in vivo strongly suppresses both spontaneous and odour-evoked firing of bulbar output neurons. In conclusion, we identify and characterize here a microcircuit controlling the transfer of sensory information at an early
The mammalian brain maintains few developmental niches where neurogenesis persists into adulthood. One niche is located in the olfactory system where the olfactory bulb continuously receives functional interneurons. In vivo two-photon microscopy of lentivirus-labeled newborn neurons was used to directly image their development and maintenance in the olfactory bulb. Time-lapse imaging of newborn neurons over several days showed that dendritic formation is highly dynamic with distinct differences between spiny neurons and non-spiny neurons. Once incorporated into the network, adult-born neurons maintain significant levels of structural dynamics. This structural plasticity is local, cumulative and sustained in neurons several months after their integration. Thus, I provide a new experimental system for directly studying the pool of regenerating neurons in the intact mammalian brain and suggest that regenerating neurons form a cellular substrate for continuous wiring plasticity in the olfactory bulb.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biochemical changes associated with selective neuronal death following short-term cerebral ischaemia. AU - Sims, Neil R.. AU - Zaidan, Emad. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1995/6. Y1 - 1995/6. N2 - A brief interruption of blood flow to the brain results in the selective loss of specific subpopulations of neurons. Important advances have been made in recent years in defining the biochemical changes associated with cerebral ischaemia and reperfusion and in identifying physical and chemical interventions capable of modifying the extent of neuronal loss. Neuronal death is not irreversibly determined by the ischaemic period but develops during recirculation over a period of hours or even days in different susceptible neuronal populations. The onset of ischaemia produces a rapid decline in ATP production and an associated major redistribution of ions across the plasma membrane including a large intracellular accumulation of Ca2+ in many ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synaptic potentials in rat locus coeruleus neurones. AU - Cherubini, E.. AU - North, R. A.. AU - Williams, John. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - 1. Intracellular recordings were made from locus coeruleus neurones in a slice of tissue cut from the rat pons. A depolarizing postsynaptic potential (PSP) followed electrical stimulation of the slice surface; the latency was 1-3 ms and the duration was 50-200 ms. 2. The reversal potential of the PSP (estimated by extrapolation from potentials between -60 and -90 mV) was -27 mV when the recording electrodes contained potassium chloride, and -36 mV when electrodes contained potassium acetate or methylsulphate. 3. Kynurenic acid depressed the PSP amplitude by up to 60%. The residual PSP reversed polarity at -50 mV (extrapolated, potassium chloride in electrodes) or -70 mV (observed, potassium methylsulphate in electrodes): it was blocked by bicuculline (10 μM). 4. Exogenously applied γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) depolarized cells when the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic firing properties of type I spiral ganglion neurons. AU - Davis, Robin. AU - Crozier, Robert A.. PY - 2015/7/2. Y1 - 2015/7/2. N2 - Spiral ganglion neurons, the first neural element in the auditory system, possess complex intrinsic properties, possibly required to process frequency-specific sensory input that is integrated with extensive efferent regulation. Together with their tonotopically-graded sizes, the somata of these neurons reveal a sophisticated electrophysiological profile. Type I neurons, which make up ~95 % of the ganglion, have myriad voltage-gated ion channels that not only vary along the frequency contour of the cochlea, but also can be modulated by regulators such as voltage, calcium, and second messengers. The resultant developmentally- and tonotopically-regulated neuronal firing patterns conform to three distinct response modes (unitary, rapid, and slow) based on threshold and accommodation. This phenotype, however, is not static for any individual type ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Excitation of rat locus coeruleus neurons by adenosine 5′-triphosphate. T2 - Ionic mechanism and receptor characterization. AU - Shen, Ke-Zhong. AU - North, R. A.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - ATP and several congeners were applied to locus coeruleus neurons in slices cut from rat pons. Whole-cell recording of membrane current showed that ATP caused an inward current at -60 mV. Effective concentrations (applied by superfusion) were 3-300 μM, and the peak current was about 150 pA at -60 mV. 2-Methylthioadenosine 5′-triphosphate was slightly more potent than ATP, adenosine 5′-diphosphate was about equipotent with ATP, α,β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate was slightly less potent than ATP, and β,γ′-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate and adenosine 5′-monophosphate had little or no effect. Adenosine (100 μM) caused small outward currents (40 pA). By changing the ionic composition of the pipette and extracellular solution, it was shown that the inward current ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons. AU - Berretta, N.. AU - Bernardi, G.. AU - Mercuri, N. B.. PY - 2000/6. Y1 - 2000/6. N2 - The effect of noradrenaline was studied in principal neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata in rat brain slices using patch clamp recordings. Perfusion of noradrenaline or the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine increased the spontaneous firing activity of reticulata cells. The α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin counteracted the effects of noradrenaline. In contrast, the β-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol did not affect the activity of reticulata cells and the β-adrenoceptor antagonist pindolol did not prevent noradrenalines effect. In whole-cell recordings, at -60 mV holding potential, noradrenaline caused a tetrodotoxin-resistant inward current with a time-course similar to the increase in firing activity. Analysis of the reversal potential of this current did not give homogeneous ...
Anatomic imaging of patients with chronic well-treated hypertension has demonstrated dilatation of the lateral cerebral ventricles and left brain atrophy, whereas positron emission tomography has shown only subtle reductions in regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in some subcortical nuclei. To further explore the implications of the imaging changes, an analytic technique designed to determine functional neuronal connectivity between regions of interest (ROIs) was applied to the data on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose to determine if and where in the brain reduction of functional neuronal connectivity occurred.. Glucose metabolism was measured by positron emission tomography in 17 older men (age, 68 +/- 8 years) with well-controlled, noncomplicated hypertension of at least 10 years duration and in 25 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. A significant correlation difference analysis was performed to determine which ROI pairs had reduced correlation coefficients ...
The production of ferret visual cortical neurons was studied using 3H- thymidine autoradiography. The genesis of cortical neurons begins on or slightly before embryonic day 20 (E20) of the 41 d gestational period, continues postnatally until 2 weeks after birth (P14), and follows an inside-out radial gradient with neurons for the deeper cortical layers being generated before those for the superficial layers. Layer I neurons are generated both early (E20-E30) and late (P1-P14) in the period of cortical neurogenesis and, thus, provide at least a partial exception to the inside-out gradient of cortical neurogenesis. Tangential gradients of cortical neurogenesis extend across areas 17 and 18 in both the anterior-to-posterior and lateral-to-medial directions. Neither of these gradients bears a meaningful relationship to the cortical representation of the visual field. Most infragranular and granular layer neurons are generated prenatally, while most supragranular layer neurons are produced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucocorticoids enhance the excitability of principal basolateral amygdala neurons. AU - Duvarci, Sevil. AU - Paré, Denis. PY - 2007/4/18. Y1 - 2007/4/18. N2 - A large body of pharmaco-behavioral data implicates the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) in the facilitation of memory consolidation by emotions. Overall, this evidence suggests that stress hormones released during emotional arousal increase the activity of BLA neurons. In turn, this increased BLA activity would facilitate synaptic plasticity elsewhere in the brain, to which the BLA projects. However, the direct effects of glucocorticoids on BLA neurons are incompletely understood. In the present study, we examined the direct effects of corticosterone (CORT) on principal neurons of the rat BLA in vitro using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. We found that application of a stress level of CORT for 20 min caused significant changes in the passive properties and responsiveness of BLA cells measured 1-2 h later. ...
Hello everyone, I have a question about neuronal cell cultures, and although I know we are a group who work primarily with tissues, sometimes these types of questions come to my lab and I am intrigued enough to try to find an answer. And I though I would consult with my fellow histonetters to see if any of you have any suggestions. An investigator who works with neuronal cell cultures has fixed them with 3.5% paraformaldehyde in 1xPBS solution with success, twice. Then the third time he saw blebbing on the cell membranes, and after consulting with our confocal microscopy expert, he changed to 4% paraformaldehyde (in, I believe, the same buffer) and had the same results. It turns out our expert has had the same problem with seemingly healthy cells that develop the blebbing upon fixation. My first instinct was that he needs to adjust the osmolarity of the solutions. Then I fell back to my electron microscopy experience and thought he may need to use a different fixative/buffering system, such as ...
Vagal projecting (VP) neurons were localized by intraneural injections of fluorescent dyes or cholera toxin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP) or by intraperitoneal injection of fluorescent dyes. Spinal projecting (SP) neurons were localized by injecting CT-HRP or contrasting dyes into the C4/C5 cord segments. No doubly labelled neurons were seen in the three nuclei known to project to both vagus nerve and spinal cord, viz., dorsal nucleus of the vagus (DNV), nucleus ambiguous complex (NAc) and the intermediate region (NI) between DNV and NAc. VP and SP neurons intermingled in the caudal parts of the NAc and DNV. In the middle part of the NAc, VP neurons congregated mostly dorsal to the SP neurons. In the rostral extremity of the NAc, SP neurons were rarely encountered. No SP neurons were seen in the rostral end of the DNV. In contradistinction to the few VP neurons in the NI, there were many SP neurons in this region. The ratios of VP to SP neurons in DNV were on the average 20 to 1 and ...
BioAssay record AID 349212 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at RYR2 receptor in rat cerebellar granule neurons assessed activation of [45Ca2+] uptake at 20 uM after 10 mins.
In severe cases of sensorineural hearing loss where the numbers of auditory neurons are significantly depleted, stem cell-derived neurons may provide a potential source of replacement cells. The success of such a therapy relies upon producing a population of functional neurons from stem cells, to enable precise encoding of sound information to the brainstem. Using our established differentiation assay to produce sensory neurons from human stem cells, patch-clamp recordings indicated that all neurons examined generated action potentials and displayed both transient sodium and sustained potassium currents. Stem cell-derived neurons reliably entrained to stimuli up to 20 pulses per second (pps), with 50% entrainment at 50 pps. A comparison with cultured primary auditory neurons indicated similar firing precision during low-frequency stimuli, but significant differences after 50 pps due to differences in action potential latency and width. The firing properties of stem cell-derived neurons were also
The distribution of serotonin (5HT-ir), FMRF amide (FMRF a-ir), catch-relaxing-peptide (CARP-ir), dopamine (DA-ir), gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA-ir), and leucokinin (LK-ir) immunoreactive neurons were compared in the ganglia of Helix CNS. These neurons are not distributed randomly, but their location outlines distinct groups in the ganglia. In a few groups only DA-ir, GABA-ir and LK-ir neurons can be seen, whereas in the majority of groups FMRFa-ir, CARP-ir and 5HT-ir neurons are localized together. In the latter groups of immunoreactive neurons either FMRFa- and CARP- or 5HT- and FMRFa-immunoreactivities coexist in numerous neurons. Immunoreactive groups composed of DA-ir, GABA-ir and LK-ir neurons are localized exclusively in the areas of the origin of skin nerves, suggesting that these neurons are related to the processing of cutaneous afferent information. Other groups constituted by 5HT-ir, FMRFa-ir and CARP-ir neurons are localized first of all in ganglia the neurons of which innervate large
Abstract: The size and extent of folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex are important factors that influence a species cognitive abilities and sensorimotor skills. Studies in various animal models and in humans have provided insight into the mechanisms that regulate cortical growth and folding. Both protein-coding genes and microRNAs control cortical size, and recent progress in characterizing basal progenitor cells and the genes that regulate their proliferation has contributed to our understanding of cortical folding. Neurological disorders linked to disruptions in cortical growth and folding have been associated with novel neurogenetic mechanisms and aberrant signalling pathways, and these findings have changed concepts of brain evolution and may lead to new medical treatments for certain disorders.. ...
Recently some studies demonstrate that adult neuronal genome is a genetic mosaic but the role of this mosaicism and how is generated are not well known. The two main mechanisms that could result in the neuronal mosaic genome are somatic recombination and the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition. Some evidences, alterations in central nervous system development found in knock-out (KO) mice for proteins related with DNA repair processes and L1 activation in neuronal precursors, suggest that neuronal genome mosaicism may be related with the generation of neuronal diversity during central nervous system development. However, if genome reorganization processes happen in the adult nervous system during neuronal plasticity events are not established. Recently, it has been reported that neuronal activity transiently provokes increase of neuronal DNA breaks in cerebral areas where long-term neuronal plasticity events takes place, in some case related with cognition. DNA breaks have been related with the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of message expression in single neurons of Alzheimers disease brain. AU - Callahan, L. M.. AU - Chow, N.. AU - Cheetham, J. E.. AU - Cox, Christopher. AU - Coleman, P. D.. PY - 1998/1. Y1 - 1998/1. N2 - Because many cell types and disease states exist in the sample of cells in even a very small region of Alzheimers disease (AD) brain tissue, optimal understanding of disease mechanisms requires study at the level of the single cell. Our Golgi studies of single neurons in the AD brain have revealed reduced dendritic extent in many but not all, brain regions. This reduced dendritic extent is interpreted as reduced capacity of neurons in AD to proliferate new dendritic material. Studies of message expression in single neurons reveal that neurons containing neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) show reduced expression of messages for proteins related to growth of neuronal processes and to synapses. Neighboring neurons free of NFTs express these messages at levels approximating the ...
In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time an ultrafast fully functional photonic spiking neuron. Our experimental setup constitutes a complete all-optical implementation of a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron, a computational primitive that provides a basis for general purpose analog optical computation. Unlike purely analog computational models, spiking operation eliminates noise accumulation and results in robust and efficient processing. Operating at gigahertz speed, which corresponds to at least 108 speed-up compared with biological neurons, the demonstrated neuron provides all functionality required by the spiking neuron model. The two demonstrated prototypes and a demonstrated feedback operation mode prove the feasibility and stability of our approach and show the obtained performance characteristics.. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dyrk1A phosphorylates p53 and inhibits proliferation of embryonic neuronal cells. AU - Park, Joongkyu. AU - Oh, Yohan. AU - Yoo, Lang. AU - Jung, Min Su. AU - Song, Woo Joo. AU - Lee, Sang Hun. AU - Seo, Hyemyung. AU - Chung, Kwang Chul. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/10/8. Y1 - 2010/10/8. N2 - Down syndrome (DS) is associated with many neural defects, including reduced brain size and impaired neuronal proliferation, highly contributing to the mental retardation. Those typical characteristics of DS are closely associated with a specific gene group Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) on human chromosome 21. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired neuronal proliferation in DS and, more specifically, a regulatory role for dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y) phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A), a DSCR gene product, in embryonic neuronal cell proliferation. We found that Dyrk1A phosphorylates p53 at Ser-15 ...
Programmed cell death is a prominent feature of embryonic development and is essential in matching the number of neurons to the target tissues that are innervated. Although a decrease in neuronal number which coincides with peripheral synaptogenesis has been well documented in the avian ciliary ganglion, it has not been clear whether cell death also occurs earlier. We observed TUNEL-positive neurons as early as stage 24, with a large peak at stage 29. This cell death at stage 29 was followed by a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in total neuron number at stage 31. The total number of neurons was recovered by stage 33/34. This suggested that dying neurons were replaced by new neurons. This replacement process did not involve proliferation because bromodeoxyuridine applied at stages 29 and 31 was unable to label neurons harvested at stage 33/34. The peak of cell death at stage 29 was increased 2.3-fold by removal of the optic vesicle and was reduced by 50% when chCNTF was ...
wistar fetal cortex neurons cells wistar fetal rat cortex neurons cells | order wistar fetal cortex neurons cells wistar fetal rat cortex neurons cells | How to use: wi
Given that neurons operate by means of signal transmission and not on distinctive slow or fast timescales, Im assuming that you are looking for abstract models of neurons that are more realistic than the time-independent artificial representations most often used in neural networks, but correct me if Im wrong.. There are neuron models that attempt to mimic the biological processes of the neuron, and there are also abstract models of neurons that attempt to work in imperfect or specific conditions (i.e. in response to individual neurotransmitters, as demonstrated during synaptic transmission). These models usually take into account the action potentials (spikes) and refractory periods of real neurons, and thus these models are also known as spiking neuron models.. Here is one model of a spiking neuron, which attempts to imitate authentic spiking as observed in cortical neurons. This model incorporates Hodgkin-Huxley-type-dynamics with integrate-and-fire-type properties. ...
Translocator protein (TSPO) imaging can be used to detect neuroinflammation (including microglial activation) after acute cerebral infarction. However, longitudinal changes of TSPO binding after mild ischemia that induces selective neuronal loss (SNL) without acute infarction are not well understood. Here, we performed TSPO imaging with [18F]DPA-714 to determine the time course of neuroinflammation and SNL after mild focal ischemia. Mild focal ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 20 min. In MCAO rats without acute infarction investigated by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, in vitro ARG revealed a significant increase of [18F]DPA-714 binding in the ipsilateral striatum compared with that in the contralateral side at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after MCAO. Increased [18F]DPA-714 binding was observed in the cerebral cortex penumbra, reaching maximal values at 7 days after MCAO. Activation of striatal microglia and astrocytes was observed with immunohistochemistry
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aging and mammalian cerebral cortex. T2 - Monkeys to humans. AU - Morrison, John. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 12813209. AN - SCOPUS:0038647799. VL - 17. JO - Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. JF - Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. SN - 0893-0341. IS - SUPPL. 2. ER - ...
Also, their analysis revealed that the axonal branching of rosehip neurons was more robust than any other type of cell observed in this brain region, with the volume of axonal terminations, or boutons, measuring four times larger than NGFC boutons.. Furthermore, the researchers say that the rosehip neuron has a molecular marker signature of (GAD1+CCK+, CNR1-SST-CALB2-PVALB-), a signature not seen in the mouse cortex.. According to the paper, the researchers still have much to learn about the function of rosehip neurons in the human brain. Because they observed rosehip neurons connecting to their partner neurons - pyramidal neurons, in very specific places, they hypothesize that rosehip neurons might be controlling the flow of information in a distinctive way.. One next step will be to see if postmortem brains from patients with neuropsychiatric disorders display rosehip neurons with alterations, to begin investigating whether or not these newly discovered cells play a role in mental ...
The goal of this study was to understand the spontaneous neuronal activities and acoustic responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI), and the modulation of different divisions of the medial geniculate body (MGB) on different layers of the auditory cortex (AC) especially AI, through in vivo intracellular recordings and/or extracellular recordings in adult urethane-anesthetized guinea pigs. One hundred and eighty nine neurons/units in AC, distributed among all six cortical layers, were recorded intracellularly and/or extrcellularly. Thirty-one of forty intracellular recorded neurons (77.50 %) and one hundred and thirty of one hundred and forty nine extracellular recorded units (87.25%) showed excitatory responses to a noise burst stimulus applied to the contralateral ear of the animals. The extracellularly recorded neurons showed synchronized spikes with the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), action potential (AP) and/or rhythmic oscillation of the intracellularly recorded ...
In order for the axon to initiate an action potential, we know that the axon initial segment must be brought to threshold. So my question is as follows: Say we have the minimum charge input, X, necessary to depolarize the axon initial segment of Neuron 1. Now, we have Neuron 2, which has a larger soma. Will this same input X be sufficient to depolarize the axon initial segment of Neuron 2?. I am trying to explore how physical concepts like capacitance manifest in biological systems. Neuron 1s soma (approximated as a sphere) presumably has a lower capacitance than Neuron 2s soma (approximated as a sphere), due to the difference in cross sectional area of the somas. Therefore, I would assume that Neuron 2s axon initial segment requires greater input to depolarize than Neuron 1s axon initial segment.. Is this simplistic idealization of somas actually observed in experiments? ...
Expression of the neuronal marker NeuN and satellite glial cell markers GFAP and S-100 in primary rhesus DRG cultures. Primary rhesus DRG cultures showing a mat
Problem statement: It has been well documented that drugs of abuse such as cocaine can cause enhanced progression of HIV-Associated Neuropathological Disorders (HAND), the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects remain poorly understood. Approach: In present study, we explored the impact of cocaine exposure (I and 10 μM) on the dendritic beading in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Using the approach of transfection with green fluorescent protein, we observed significant dendritic swelling in hippocampal neurons exposed to 10 μM but not 1 μM of cocaine when compared with the saline treated group. Results: Cocaine exposure also resulted in decreased expression of the synaptic plasticity gene, Arc as evidenced by Western blotting. Intriguingly, cocaine exposure of primary neurons in the presence of the neurotoxin-HIV envelope protein gp 120, resulted in increased enhancement of neuronal beading as compared with exposure of neurons to either agent alone. Conclusion: Taken together these
from neuron import h Warning: no DISPLAY environment variable. --No graphics will be displayed. NEURON -- Release 7.4 (1370:16a7055d4a86) 2015-11-09 Duke, Yale, and the BlueBrain Project -- Copyright 1984-2015 See Traceback (most recent call last): File ,stdin,, line 1, in ,module, File /home/lmedina/.local/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/neuron/, line 479, in ,module, set_vec_as_numpy = nrn_dll_sym(nrnpy_set_vec_as_numpy) File /home/lmedina/.local/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/neuron/, line 394, in nrn_dll_sym dll = nrn_dll() File /home/lmedina/.local/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/neuron/, line 454, in nrn_dll raise Exception(unable to connect to the NEURON library) Exception: unable to connect to the NEURON library ,,, v=h.Vector() Traceback (most recent call last): File ,stdin,, line 1, in ,module, NameError: name h is not ...
In vitro whole-cell patch-clamp methods were used to examine the contribution of one component of intracollicular circuitry, the superficial gray layer, to the generation of bursts of action potentials that occur in the intermediate layer and that command head and eye movements in vivo. Applying a single brief (0.5 ms) pulse of current to the superficial layer of rat collicular slices evoked prolonged bursts of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the cells of the intermediate layer. The EPSCs were sufficient to elicit bursts of action potentials that lasted as long as 300 ms and resembled presaccadic command bursts. To examine the contribution of neurons within the superficial layer to the production of these bursts, we determined how superficial neurons respond to the same current pulses that evoke bursts in the intermediate layer. Recordings from 61 superficial layer cells revealed 19 neurons that produced multiple action potentials following stimulation. Nine of these 19 neurons were ...
Intrinsic neuronal excitability has been reported to change during normal aging. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic forebrain structure, is involved in fear, stress and anxiety; behavioral features that exhibit age-dependent properties. To examine the effect of aging on intrinsic neuronal properties in BNST we compared patch clamp recordings from cohorts of female mice at two ages, 3-4 months (Young) and 29-30 months (Aged) focusing on 2 types of BNST neurons. Aged Type I neurons exhibited a hyperpolarized resting membrane potential (RMP) of circa -80 mV compared to circa -70 mV in the Young. A key finding in this study is a hyper-excitability of Type II neurons with age reflected in an increase in firing frequency in response to depolarizing current injections; activation of Type II neurons is believed to dampen anxiety like responses. Such age-related changes in intrinsic neurophysiological function are likely to modulate how the limbic system, acting via BNST, shapes ...
The consequences of ongoing neurogenesis have long been the subject of speculation. New neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus seem to be added throughout juvenile and adult life, suggesting that they do not replace neurons that die (36). Alternatively, work in the song-control system of birds has shown that neuronal replacement occurs in some nuclei, perhaps to play a role in song learning (37). Concerning olfaction, one possibility is that new interneurons are simply added to the bulbs, as they are in the hippocampus. Yet, although increases in the number of interneurons have been reported in the adult, substantial granule cell death has also been observed, suggesting that newly generated neurons may replace dying ones (38).. This ongoing recruitment of interneurons may also open new opportunities to investigate the cellular basis for olfactory processing and its functional plasticity. The presence of a pool of new neurons accompanied by the emergence of new synapses could play a role ...
Inhibitory neuronal activity is critical for the normal functioning of the brain, but is thought to go awry during neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Animal models have suggested both decreased and increased inhibition as possible initiators of epileptic activity, but it is not known if, or how, human inhibitory neurons shape seizures. Here, using large-scale recordings of neocortical single neurons in patients with secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures, we show that fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory activity first increases as a seizure spreads across the neocortex, impeding and altering the spatial flow of fast epileptic traveling waves. Unexpectedly, however, FS cells cease firing less than half-way through a seizure. We use biophysically-realistic computational models to show that this cessation is due to FS cells entering depolarization block as a result of extracellular potassium accumulation during the seizure and not because they are inhibited by other inhibitory subtypes. ...
The innate immune system plays a critical role in both the initial response to an invading pathogen, which frequently limits or contains pathogen replication and dissemination, and the induction of an effective adaptive immune response, which is most often the primary mechanism for pathogen clearance. The characteristics of the innate immune response are determined in part by the pathogen initiating the response but can also be influenced by the type of cell in which the response is generated. In this report, we examined the functional PRR-mediated pathways present in human neuronal cells and differentiated primary rat neurons, with a particular focus on those pathways previously identified as being important for antiviral innate immune responses in other cell types. We drew four main conclusions. First, human neuronal cells possess functional TLR3-, TLR4-, RIG-I-, and MDA5-mediated PRR pathways whose activity was maturation-dependent. Second, both extracellular and transfected poly(I-C) induced ...
"Knowing Neurons Infographics". Knowing Neurons. 21 April 2015. Retrieved 15 January 2017. "52 Brain Facts". Knowing Neurons. ... Knowing Neurons is also an official partner of Aeon Magazine. Knowing Neurons was founded by former editor-in-chief Dr. Kate ... "Knowing Neurons Team". Knowing Neurons. 6 October 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2017. Frohlich, Joel. "Consciousness, Self- ... and education through Knowing Neurons. Knowing Neurons has been partnered with digital magazine Aeon since 2016. Aeon features ...
Due to the linear nature of these neurons, positive and negative values are encoded by two neurons where one neuron encodes the ... Energy neurons sum the squared responses of two pairs of linear neurons which must be 90 degrees out of phase. Alternatively, ... Binocular neurons are neurons in the visual system that assist in the creation of stereopsis from binocular disparity. They ... Each neuron's response is limited such that only one may have a non-zero response for any time. This kind of limitation is ...
Acclimatisation is believed to occur when the synaptic knob of the presynaptic neuron runs out of vesicles containing ...
... is a 2013 documentary film by Canadian filmmaker Oliver Hockenhull. The film examines the evidence for the ... The director's cut premiered at the Vancouver Film Festival in 2013 and is titled From Neurons to Nirvana: The Great Medicines ... Mangusta Productions Director's site 108 minute version Neurons to Nirvana at IMDb v t e (Webarchive template wayback links, ... The popular released version is titled: Neurons to Nirvana: Understanding Psychedelic Medicines and runs 69 minutes The film ...
Neuron 20:847-54 Okamoto, K., Narayanan, R., Lee, S., Murata, K., Hayashi, Y., (2007) The role of CaMKII as an F-actin-bundling ... Stimulation of the neuron that promotes LTP causes larger spine volume, increased cell communication, and a greater ratio of F- ... LIMK1 knockout neurons are unable to form a cytoskeletal matrix within the dendritic spine, which has interesting implications ... Neuron, 35:121-133. Okamato, K. I., Nagai, T., Miyawaki, A., Hayashi, Y. (2004) Rapid and persistent modulation of actin ...
Each neuron is tuned to a particular unique landmark, and for that reason, these neurons are called place cells.[citation ... These assumptions work to show synchrony within coupled neurons that are linked to other neurons. The first assumption claims ... curves where the oscillation of a neuron is perturbed and the effect the perturbation has on the phase cycle of a neuron is ... Phase resetting in neurons is when the dynamical behavior of an oscillation is shifted. This occurs when a stimulus perturbs ...
Then, the Neurons discuss what they have done and the individual role they have played. The show ends with Nina and the Neurons ... of the five Neurons inside her brain based upon which of the senses is most appropriate to answer the question. Once the Neuron ... All 5 Neurons got chosen together by Nina due to the way touch, feel, hearing, sound, sight, looking, smell, scent, taste and ... Nina and the Neurons is a British television programme shown on the CBeebies channel, aimed at the children to help them ...
Interneurons connect neurons to other neurons within the same region of the brain or spinal cord. When multiple neurons are ... Neurons must maintain the specific electrical properties that define their neuron type. Thin neurons and axons require less ... NIF Search - Neuron via the Neuroscience Information Framework Cell Centered Database - Neuron Complete list of neuron types ... Immunohistochemistry Image Gallery: Neuron Khan Academy: Anatomy of a neuron Neuron images Portals: Biology Medicine (CS1 maint ...
Sensory neurons, also known as afferent neurons, are neurons in the nervous system, that convert a specific type of stimulus, ... The sensory neurons involved in smell are called olfactory sensory neurons. These neurons contain receptors, called olfactory ... These sensory neurons produce action potentials. Their axons form the olfactory nerve, and they synapse directly onto neurons ... The neurons in the olfactory bulb that receive direct sensory nerve input, have connections to other parts of the olfactory ...
... website, Neuron Data as aired on Discovery Channel, October 2nd, 1991 Neuron Data timeline and Web site ... Neuron Data is an American software development company that was founded June 1985 by Alain Rappaport, Patrick Perez and Jean- ... In 1991, Neuron Data released a GUI building tool named Open Interface. The Open Interface Elements development tool won the ... Neuron Data produced a client-server software development environment named C/S Elements in 1993. The following year, they ...
A mirror neuron is a neuron that fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by ... Thus, the neuron "mirrors" the behavior of the other, as though the observer were itself acting. Such neurons have been ... Reports on mirror neurons have been widely published and confirmed with mirror neurons found in both inferior frontal and ... Mirror neurons are believed to mediate the understanding of other animals' behaviour. For example, a mirror neuron which fires ...
Pioneer neurons settle in the marginal zone of the cortex and project to sub-cortical levels. In the rat, pioneer neurons are ... It is thought that axons of pioneer neurons, pioneer axons, serve as a pathway for additional neurons that develop later in the ... Unlike Cajal-Retzius cells, these neurons are reelin-negative. Pioneer neurons are born in the ventricular neuroepithelium all ... A pioneer neuron is a cell that is a derivative of the preplate in the early stages of corticogenesis of the brain. ...
The H1 neuron and related tangential neurons are suggested to be genetically determined, meaning that these neurons are ... The large process diameter of these neurons allowed them to be amongst the first visual neurons to be intracellularly recorded ... The H1 neuron is located in the visual cortex of true flies of the order Diptera and mediates motor responses to visual stimuli ... Other neurons are thought to be involved in analyzing the content of the visual scene itself, for example, to separate figure ...
Interneuron Unipolar neuron Pseudounipolar neuron Bipolar neuron Multipolar neuron Al, Martini, Frederic Et. Anatomy and ... An anaxonic neuron is a type of neuron where there is no axon or it cannot be differentiated from the dendrites. Being loyal to ... Pannese, Ennio (1994). Neurocytology: Fine Structure of Neurons, Nerve Processes, and Neuroglial Cells. Thieme. p. 21. ISBN 978 ... the undifferentiated anaxonic neuron where the axon cannot be differentiated from the dendrites, and the unipolar brush cell ( ...
... is a robotics development system manufacturer and retailer in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States. Their ... "Neuron Robotics introduces BowlerStudio, a free robotics design, simulation and 3D printing platform". Retrieved ... "Neuron Robotics Unveils BowlerStudio - Design, Simulate & 3D Print Advanced Robots ,". Retrieved 2016- ...
GnRH neurons, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons, are the cells in the brain that control the release of ... GnRH neurons integrate information from the body to regulate reproduction. The strongest activator of GnRH neurons is a hormone ... The shift to high frequency electrical activity in GnRH neurons is the signal that initiates puberty. GnRH neurons receive ... "Neural crest and ectodermal cells intermix in the nasal placode to give rise to GnRH-1 neurons, sensory neurons, and olfactory ...
Neuron Synthesizer Technology Homepage Neuron User Facebook Group Neuron Synth "Making of" The fate of Hartmann Music ... "Hartmann Neuron". Future Music. No. 135. April 2003. ISSN 0967-0378. OCLC 1032779031. "Hartmann Neuron VS". Computer Music. No ... The Hartmann Neuron VS, a Mac/Windows compatible VST software version of the instrument, was released in 2005. Even though the ... The Hartmann Neuron was an electronic musical instrument designed and built by industry designer Axel Hartmann of the German ...
"New release of NEURON includes reactive diffusion! - NEURON". " • View topic - NEURON 7.0 now available". " ... Neuron is a simulation environment for modeling individual and networks of neurons. It was primarily developed by Michael Hines ... A plot option can be activated to open a graph of spikes across time for individual neurons. Neuron comes equipped with a slew ... Neuron supports parallelization via the MPI protocol. Neuron is capable of handling diffusion-reaction models, and integrating ...
A unipolar neuron is a neuron in which only one process, called a neurite, extends from the cell body. The neurite then ... In multipolar neurons, multiple processes extend from the cell body including dendrites and axons. Some neurons in the ... Examples of bipolar neurons include most invertebrate sensory neurons and bipolar cells of the vertebrate retina. Some ... Pseudo-unipolar neurons initially develop as bipolar cells, but at some point the two processes that extend from the cell body ...
A command neuron is a single neuron (or small set of neurons) whose stimulation results in the evocation of an endogenous, ... neuron concept-believing that no neurons exist which can satisfy the strictures outlined in "The Command Neuron Concept". ... They suggested that for any neuron to qualify as a command neuron, its activity had to be both necessary and sufficient for the ... Mauthner Neuron Kupfermann and Weiss commentary on their seminal article Another definition of the command neuron (Articles ...
A spinal neuron is a neuron in the spinal cord. Some spinal neurons are heteromeric, i.e. they have processes pass over to the ... opposite side of the spinal cord Medical dictionary v t e (Spinal cord, Neurons, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs). ...
To date, HSD2 neurons have been identified and studied only in rats and mice. The term "HSD2 neurons" is used in the scientific ... HSD2 neurons do not produce a wide array of other proteins that typify most other subtypes of NTS neurons, including tyrosine ... HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone ... Thus, HSD2 neurons are selectively activated by conditions which do not significantly affect surrounding NTS neurons, and they ...
A pseudounipolar neuron is a type of neuron which has one extension from its cell body. This type of neuron contains an axon ... Bipolar neuron Multipolar neuron Unipolar neuron Gold, M. S.; Caterina, M. J. (2008-01-01), Masland, Richard H.; Albright, ... All pseudounipolar neurons are sensory neurons. The ones found in the dorsal root ganglia, and majority of those in cranial ... Pseudounipolar neurons are sensory neurons that have no dendrites, the branched axon serving both functions. The peripheral ...
A "red neuron" (acidophilic or "eosinophilic" neuron) is a pathological finding in neurons, generally of the central nervous ... Acidophilic neurons are often found in the first 12-24 hours after an ischemic injury such as a stroke. Since neurons are ... Acidophilic neurons also can be stained with acidic dyes other than eosin (e.g. acid fuchsin and light green yellowish). Kumar ...
The term neuron (spelled neurone in British English) was itself coined by Waldeyer as a way of identifying the cells in ... The neuron doctrine, as it became known, served to position neurons as special cases under the broader cell theory evolved some ... thereby validating the neuron theory. Neuron theory is an example of consilience where low level theories are absorbed into ... The neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells, a discovery due to decisive ...
Most research involving cholinergic neurons involves the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. However, cholinergic neurons only ... Cholinergic neurons, along with non-cholinergic neurons, have sleep/wake regulatory functions in the basal forebrain that can ... which were released by locus coeruleus neurons during wake cycles. In a basic summary, cholinergic neurons are always active ... The cholinergic neuron may also play a role in time memory, and the ability of an individual to form a memory around a certain ...
Neuron is one of the primary cell types in the nervous system. Neuron may also refer to: Artificial neuron is the basic unit in ... is a simulation environment used in computational neuroscience for modeling individual neurons and networks of neurons Neuron ... Look up Neuron or neuron in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is an electronic musical instrument The Dassault nEUROn is a ... United States This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Neuron. If an internal link led you here, you ...
A binding neuron (BN) is an abstract concept of processing of input impulses in a generic neuron based on their temporal ... Therefore, the LIF neuron as well can be considered as mathematical model of the BN concept. The binding neuron model ... Each of the two takes into account some features of real neurons since it is known that a realistic neuron can display both ... Leaky integrate and fire neuron is a widely used abstract neuronal model. If to state a similar problem for the LIF neuron with ...
9, 2006, French Defence Ministry Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dassault nEUROn. [1] Dassault nEUROn page nEUROn & ... Alenia Aereonautica official Neuron data sheet[permanent dead link] Chirac kicks off six-nation nEUROn UCAV programme, Flight ... French Senate's report "A. The project nEUROn, launched by France, is joined by its main European partners" Demonstrator neUROn ... French UCAV projects and international nEUROn, December 3, 2010 "Leonardo-Finmeccanica's Aircraft Division - NEURON". Leonrdo- ...
... neurons are neurons in the hypothalamus of the brain that are central to the hormonal control of reproduction. KNDy neurons in ... Kisspeptin then activates the GPR54 receptors on GnRH neurons inducing the pulsatile release of GnRH and on KNDy neurons, ... in KNDy neurons to inhibit NKB and kisspeptin secretion and inhibits GnRH secretion acting directly on GnRH neuron receptors. ... KNDy neurons are involved in positive feedback of the HPG axis. This mechanism is best exemplified by the LH surge in the ...
New Neurons in Neocortex? New Study Says NO!. By Ellen Kuwana Neuroscience for Kids Staff Writer December 30, 2001. This month ... That new neurons can grow and develop, even within limited areas of the brain, was amazing news because if, indeed, nerve cells ... One marker (BrdU) tagged new cells, a second marker tagged neurons (nerve cells), and the third marker tagged glial cells (glia ...
Neurons cant regrow after damage, but new connections between neurons form throughout life.. Neurons in Culture:. The Theory ... Sensory Neurons: bring information from the 5 senses into the central nervous system.. Motor Neurons: send information from the ... All about Brain Cell (Neuron). The little grey cells that make up your mind are primarily neurons. You have approximately 100 ... Neurons to Nirvana: A 2013 documentary about psychedelic drug research.. NeuroN Music: A K-POP band. ...
Ivanti Neurons is a Hyper-automation Platform to Self-Heal, Self-Secure, and Self-Service from Cloud to the Edge. ... Ivanti Neurons Solutions Foundation. Ivanti Neurons fuels your IT with real-time intelligence you can act on, enables devices ... Ivanti Neurons for Patch Intelligence. Use accurate, real-time data to act on threats faster and reduce your time to patch ... Ivanti Neurons fuels your IT with real-time intelligence you can act on, enables devices to self-heal and self-secure, and ...
So how high is the total numer of neurons in the human CNS according ,, , to the latest estimates? ,, ,, These numbers are ... Even the 2 ,, million neurons (or so) in bee brains are- to my knowledge- just rough ,, estimates.... ,, ,, Rehgards ,, Michael ... Neuroscience] Re: The total number of neurons in the human CNS. Kalman Rubinson via (by kr4 from ... I never fpoun d serious etsimations based on counting neurons in a certain ,, volume or better certain volumes of different ...
JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it ...
They form neural progenitor cultures that can produce differentiated neural tissue and motor neurons that maintain the disease ... a first step might be to make patient-specific neurons. The inherited disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), one of the most ... How can we investigate a disease affecting neurons, which cannot be isolated from patients for analysis? As the study of one ... How can we investigate a disease affecting neurons, which cannot be isolated from patients for analysis? As the study of one ...
Either or both of the following 2 sets of motor neurons can be affected: Upper motor neurons (UMNs), which originate from t... ... Motor neuron disorders (MNDs) are a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous group of neurologic diseases characterized by ... progressive degeneration of motor neurons; they include both sporadic and hereditary diseases. ... 1] Either or both of the following two sets of motor neurons can be affected:. * Upper motor neurons (UMNs), which originate ...
Creation of New Neurons Critical to Antidepressant Action in Mice. Blocking the formation of neurons in the hippocampus blocks ... The Gist: "We have known that antidepressants influence the birth of neurons in the hippocampus. Now it appears that this ... Chronic stress, anxiety and depression have been linked to atrophy or loss of hippocampal neurons. A few years ago, Hens ... Neurons communicate with each other by secreting messenger chemicals, or neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, which cross the ...
In this issue of Neuron, Deng et al. (2019) report the generation of a new set of tools to manipulate the entire set of ... In this issue of Neuron, we are proud to present the first in a series of special issues on neurological and neuropsychiatric ... In this issue of Neuron, a study by Juechems et al. (2019) illustrates that this core principle might shape the way medial ... On the cover: In this issue of Neuron, Hudry and Vandenberghe (pages 839-862) review the remarkable progress in the field of ...
Place + in front of a word which must be found and - in front of a word which must not be found. Put a list of words separated by , into brackets if only one of the words must be found. Use * as a wildcard for partial matches. ...
Neuron; न्यूरॉन; 神经元; Neuroni; neuron; neuron; Sel saraf; நரம்பணு; neurone; Cillín néarach; нейрон; Newòn; Neuron; نیوران; ਨਰਵ ... neuron; неурон; Neuron; neurônio; Нейрон; nervecelle; nevron; Sél saraf; دەمارەخانە; neuron; عصبون; Neuron; Neurona; нэўрон; 神經 ... nowiki,neurona; Taugafruma; Neuron; neuron; newron; Неврон; Neuron; عصبون; Nerônina; neurón; Neuròna; Neurono; Nervenzelle; 신경 ... Neuron; نیورونز; Närvirakk; Nervna ćelija; Živčana stanica; Neuronas; Neuron; Neuronen; tế bào thần kinh; nơ-ron; Neuron; nervu ...
WHO Study Group on Neuronal Aging and its Implications in Human Neurological Pathology; World Health Organization (‎Organisation mondiale de la Santé, 1981)‎ ...
Browse Motor neuron disease news, research and analysis from The Conversation ... Articles on Motor neuron disease. Displaying all articles. Cyanobacterial blooms and algae are common in water bodies around ... What we know, dont know and suspect about what causes motor neuron disease. Lyndsey Collins-Praino, University of Adelaide and ... Toxin linked to motor neuron disease found in Australian algal blooms. Brendan Main, University of Technology Sydney ...
Illumination of an extracellularly stained neuron by the laser microbeam evokes action potentials. With this techniq … ... the use of a laser and a novel fluorescent dye as a photostimulation probe has been developed to identify presynaptic neurons ... Identification of presynaptic neurons by laser photostimulation Science. 1983 Dec 2;222(4627):1025-7. doi: 10.1126/science. ... Illumination of an extracellularly stained neuron by the laser microbeam evokes action potentials. With this technique an ...
Apparently, what happened in the hypothalamus of adult mice - where the neurons were inserted - was that these were ... Researchers at Harvard University, Massachusetts General Hospital and Beth Israel Medical Center, deployed neurons from mouse ... differentiated into four different types of neurons that formed connections and restored the ability to process the signal of ...
... in their heads where blood cells transform into neurons - the process may one day help us to regenerate our own brain cells ... Humans can make new neurons, but only from specialised stem cells. Crayfish, meanwhile, can convert blood cells to neurons that ... To do so, they utilise what amounts to a "nursery" for baby neurons, a little clump at the base of the brain dubbed the niche. ... How to regenerate neurons is a key question for those studying neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinsons disease. Beltz ...
What Makes Neurons Contract to Generate Tension?. Anonym / Tuesday, October 4, 2016. 0 1919 ...
These neurons have a loss of functional activity, impaired metabolism, and increased brain inflammation. ... Now, scientists from the Salk Institute have found that neurons from people with Alzheimers disease show deterioration and ... Neurons (green) derived from a patient with Alzheimers disease. The nuclei (blue) of the neurons are also shown. Credit: Salk ... This is because a single neuron can make more than 1,000 connections with other neurons, affecting the brains communication ...
Scientists in Switzerland have developed a novel way to monitor a neurons electrical activity by bathing it in laser light. ... Neuron in 3-D: Scientists can create three-dimensional images of neurons using a technique known as holographic microscopy.. ... Use of the technology is currently limited to a single layer of neurons grown in culture. The researchers now hope to use it to ... "If they can adapt the method to neurons connected in slices, it will be much more useful," says Floyd Bloom, a neuroscientist ...
Young neurons send out branches in all directions in the hopes that some branches will connect to other neurons and form ... Scientists have believed that neurons need a long period of fine-tuning and training with other neurons before they take on ... While the research showed neurons firing in a more mature way than expected, it also revealed that neurons take their time ... Neuron. Keywords. * /Scientific community/Science careers/Science job market/Academic job market/Academic researchers ...
Signaling Neurons Make Neighbor Cells "Want In". Synapses are primed to strengthen (and thus enable learning) if a nearby one ... Neurons, or nerve cells, each have a pair of projections-the axon and the dendrite, which transmit and receive impulses, ... People didnt know how these associations over the course of 10 minutes or so could be coded in neurons, he says. It provides ... Scientists have found that when electrical impulses are passed from one neuron to another, they not only strengthen the synapse ...
The science journal Neuron published a paper in July on the underrepresentation of African Americans in brain research, ...
Foundational studies of the activities of spiking neurons in the awake and behaving human brain and the insights they yield ... Single Neuron Studies of the Human Brain Probing Cognition. Edited by Itzhak Fried, Ueli Rutishauser, Moran Cerf and Gabriel ... Foundational studies of the activities of spiking neurons in the awake and behaving human brain and the insights they yield ... These developments allow cognitive processes to be characterized at unprecedented resolution: single neuron activity. Direct ...
Sleep and waking activity of pontine gigantocellular field neurons.. Title. Sleep and waking activity of pontine ... Animals, Cats, Motor Activity, Neurons, Pons, Restraint, Physical, Sleep Stages, Sleep, REM, Wakefulness. ...
Researchers stimulated neurons to regrow across scarred spinal tissue in rodents. ... Neurons traveled across the scar tissue and formed connections with neurons on the other side. The regrown neurons could ... Regrowing neurons across scarred spinal tissue. At a Glance. *Researchers stimulated neurons to regrow across scarred spinal ... "For decades researchers have been trying to make severed neurons regrow across a spinal cord injury and reconnect with neurons ...
Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons ... These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin- ... These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin- ... In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ...
They targeted the entire protein-coding genome in human neurons with CRISPRi and CRISPRa, in search of genes critical to neuron ... Why would these pathways only manifest in neurons? George Perry of the University of Texas, San Antonio, explained that neurons ... CRISPR Interference-Based Platform for Multimodal Genetic Screens in Human iPSC-Derived Neurons. Neuron. 2019 Oct 23;104(2):239 ... and differentiated them into neurons. Compared to their PSAP-replete counterparts, these KO neurons churned out more ROS and ...
Classification by action on other neurons *Excitatory neurons evoke excitation of their target neurons. Excitatory neurons in ... Spinal motor neurons use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter.. *Inhibitory neurons evoke inhibition of their target neurons ... Information outflow from dendrites to other neurons can also occur. Neurons can have great longevity (human neurons can ... junctions where neurons pass signals to target cells, which may be other neurons, muscle cells, or gland cells. Neurons such as ...
  • As the salamander re-builds all lost dopamine-producing neurons, the researchers examined how the salamander brain detects the absence of these cells. (
  • What they found out was that the salamander's stem cells are automatically activated when the dopamine concentration drops as a result of the death of dopamine-producing neurons, meaning that the neurotransmitter acts as a constant handbrake on stem cell activity. (
  • When the salamanders were treated with L-dopa, the production of new dopamine-producing neurons was almost completely inhibited and the animals were unable to recover. (
  • All a single neuron can do is flash a small signal on to its neighbors - and only when enough incoming synapses are active. (
  • This is because a single neuron can make more than 1,000 connections with other neurons, affecting the brain's communication system . (
  • These developments allow cognitive processes to be characterized at unprecedented resolution: single neuron activity. (
  • and discusses insights into diseases such as epilepsy and movement disorders gained from examining single neuron activity. (
  • Just one single neuron can realize deep learning algorithms, which previously required an artificial complex network consisting of thousands of connected neurons and synapses. (
  • We've shown that efficient learning on dendritic trees of a single neuron can artificially achieve success rates approaching unity for handwritten digit recognition. (
  • Also, combining automatic tracking of single neuron activity with statistical clustering , we characterize and map neuronal ensembles in behaving Hydra , finding three major non-overlapping ensembles of neurons (CB, RP1 and RP2) whose activity correlates with contractions and elongations. (
  • That new neurons can grow and develop, even within limited areas of the brain, was amazing news because if, indeed, nerve cells could be replaced, this information would be valuable for developing new therapies for disorders such as Alzheimer's disease , Parkinson's disease , and stroke . (
  • But measuring brain-power doesn't have to be tricky: research shows that there is enough electrical power flickering in your neurons to illuminate a flashlight bulb. (
  • Brain cells, or neurons, are the building blocks of the nervous system. (
  • These neurons have a loss of functional activity, impaired metabolism, and increased brain inflammation. (
  • The Gage team found that senescent neurons are a source of the late-life brain inflammation observed in Alzheimer's disease. (
  • As the neurons deteriorate, they release inflammatory factors that trigger a cascade of brain inflammation and cause other brain cells to run haywire. (
  • The fact that our findings were consistent across both settings supports our results that these senescent neurons are truly having a robust inflammatory response that is significantly affecting the brain," says first author Joseph Herdy, a graduate student in the Gage lab. (
  • The authors note that the consequences of even a small number of senescent neurons in the aging brain could have a significant impact on brain function. (
  • More work still needs to be conducted on how senescent neurons lead to Alzheimer's disease as well as the consequences of removing these neurons from the brain. (
  • In the future, the authors plan to test some of the drugs that can enter the brain to see how they affect senescent neurons. (
  • Researchers at Harvard University, Massachusetts General Hospital and Beth Israel Medical Center, deployed neurons from mouse embryos in adult animals that had a brain defect, failure to respond to the hormone leptin, which is responsible for regulating metabolism and weight control in many mammals, including mice and humans. (
  • To do so, they utilise what amounts to a "nursery" for baby neurons, a little clump at the base of the brain dubbed the niche. (
  • The work, which is detailed in a paper in the March 24 issue of Neuron, took place in the brain of a small see-through fish called a zebra fish. (
  • The pair specifically monitored hundreds of neurons in the region of the brain that respond to images. (
  • Still, the experiments mark the first time researchers have been able to watch neurons in an entire region of the brain as they fire one by one in real time. (
  • While the research showed neurons firing in a more mature way than expected, it also revealed that neurons take their time establishing the final wiring of the brain. (
  • A new discovery about the function of neurons could help scientists understand how the brain assembles information during learning and memory formation. (
  • Foundational studies of the activities of spiking neurons in the awake and behaving human brain and the insights they yield into cognitive and clinical phenomena. (
  • For many years, researchers thought that the scar that forms after a spinal cord injury actively prevents damaged neurons, the cells that carry messages to and from the brain, from regrowing. (
  • In vertebrate animals, neurons are the core components of the brain , spinal cord , and peripheral nerves . (
  • A sensory neuron transmits impulses from a receptor, such as those in the eye or ear, to a more central location in the nervous system, such as the spinal cord or brain. (
  • Thus, brain size and number of neurons in most species vary by a factor of two. (
  • The brain is a complex network containing billions of neurons. (
  • For the last 70 years a core hypothesis of neuroscience has been that brain learning occurs by modifying the strength of the synapses, following the relative firing activity of their connecting neurons. (
  • This change in electrical charge of the neuron is what propagates and sends the signal to the spinal cord and then to the brain to register as a sensation, such as pain or pressure. (
  • If the observed subject moved his leg, the observer-primate had neurons fire in its premotor cortex, an area of the brain responsible for planning movements. (
  • The study used 73 birds of 28 species, all of which had been killed with a general anesthetic, whose brains were then removed and dissected into different brain regions before having cells, neurons, and non-neuronal cells counted. (
  • Take the super-cute goldcrest as an example: Its body mass is nine times smaller than that of the mouse, but its brain has twice the number of neurons. (
  • It's impressive in regard to raw numbers, too: Ravens and kea parrots have 1.2 billion neurons in their cerebral cortex, a brain area associated with consciousness, more than capuchin monkeys have. (
  • Since their brains are packed so tightly with neurons, the authors reason, the "information processing" capability of the brain is increased, to risk a computationalist metaphor . (
  • The rise of the body temperature, or fever, is an important brain-orchestrated mechanism for fighting against infectious or inflammatory disease, and is tightly regulated by the neurons located in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). (
  • Inside the Brain: Modeling the Neuron (, MATLAB Central File Exchange. (
  • Previous research has shown that the astrocytes-;the glial cells in the brain and spinal cord-;may release one or more toxic factors that contribute to motor neuron death. (
  • Extending the collaboration beyond the European Research Area into North America reflects the global dimension of brain research and adds even more to the effectiveness of NEURON. (
  • The mammalian brain is big, but the state of its activity is controlled by a much smaller number of neurons. (
  • By analysing gene products in embryonic brain cells, we can now follow the differentiation paths of neurons and examine what exactly happens when the developing cells take different paths - for example in becoming a neuron either inhibiting or activating its target. (
  • According to the gene-expression-based identities, the immature neurons find their location in the brain and make contacts with other components of the neural circuitry. (
  • A study of the salamander brain shown how in acting as a kind of switch for stem cells, neurotransmitter dopamine controls the formation of new neurons in adult brain. (
  • As in mammals, the formation of neurons in the salamander mid-brain is virtually non-existent under normal circumstances. (
  • Silent Neurons: The Dark Matter of the Brain? (
  • So the 'dark matter' of the brain are neurons which don't fire in response to any stimulus tested. (
  • Silent neurons are related to the concept of 'sparse firing' , which is believed by some to be a general principle of brain organization. (
  • Another possible explanation for the presence of great numbers of inactive neurons is their narrow tuning to respond only to specific inputs [i.e. sparse coding]… but whether these considerations can explain the perpetual silence of the vast majority of neurons throughout the brain remains to be shown. (
  • In Fragile X, the FMR1 gene is silenced, leading to a missing protein that serves as a key regulator of brain proteins involved in neuron communication. (
  • Therapeutic stimulation of neurons with electrical energy or chemicals-and potentially with acoustic waves-can amplify or dampen neuronal impulses in the brain or body. (
  • During experiments with anesthetized rodents, the researchers penetrated the skull and brain with various brief pulses of acoustic waves, targeting specific neurons in the brain cortex. (
  • During embryonic development, GnRH neurons migrate along olfactory and vomeronasal axons through the nose into the brain, where they project to the median eminence to release GnRH. (
  • The novel coil they designed, while similar to the size of electrodes used for brain stimulation, was able to generate magnetic fields in excess of the thresholds required to activate neurons. (
  • We studied calcium and electrical activities of astrocytes and neurons using calcium imaging and patch-clamp techniques in parasagittal rat brain slices, conserving subthalamo- and pallido-nigral projections. (
  • Findings: Intracerebroventricular and intranasal IND-ASO administration for four weeks in a mouse model with AAV-mediated wild-type human α-synuclein overexpression in dopamine neurons prevented the synthesis and accumulation of α-synuclein in the connected brain regions, improving dopamine neurotransmission. (
  • These disorders include motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), which may involve motor neurons in the brain, spinal cord, and periphery, ultimately weakening the muscle. (
  • His brain was edematous and had hypoxic injury to the neurons. (
  • Autopsy findings included a soft swollen brain with axial herniation and hypoxic injury to the neurons. (
  • Ivanti Neurons for Zero Trust Access uses the web to create a secure connection from the device to an application, eliminating bandwidth and data charges through gateways while constantly verifying the user, their device, and applications based on granular constraints. (
  • Young neurons send out branches in all directions in the hopes that some branches will connect to other neurons and form synapses that transfer information. (
  • As the neuron matures, some of these branches form stable synapses while others recede. (
  • Scientists have found that when electrical impulses are passed from one neuron to another, they not only strengthen the synapse (connection) between them, but they also give a boost to neighboring synapses, priming them to learn more quickly and easily. (
  • synapses (or connections between neurons). (
  • Each of these neurons communicates simultaneously with thousands of others via their synapses (links), and collects incoming signals through several extremely long, branched "arms", called dendritic trees. (
  • Recreating neurons (and the synapses that link them) isn't just something that nerdy people do for nerd points, a computer that worked through "neurons" would be able to perform monstrously faster than what we have today. (
  • Now, scientists from the Salk Institute have found that neurons from people with Alzheimer's disease show deterioration and undergo a late-life stress process called senescence. (
  • But after using new technology for the first time to watch these cells develop, a team of researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine found that neurons come into this world with a good idea about what they'll become as adults. (
  • Here, it was found that neurons derived from these patients are completely insensitive to mechanical stimulation, and that they can be genetically corrected using CRISPR-Cas9 to restore their mechanosensitivity. (
  • Mirror neurons may be a part of this process. (
  • One path of research that is moving forward is trying to determine if individuals with autism, who normally have great difficulty reading the emotions of others, have some type of deficiency involving their mirror neurons. (
  • While the individual hearing the sales pitch may be listening to the words, her brain's mirror neurons are firing at the same time in reaction to the salesperson's emotions, demeanor, etc. (
  • The mirror neurons were initially described in the rhesus monkey's premotor cortex. (
  • Characteristically, the firing rate of mirror neurons increases not only during performance of a goal-directed action, but also when the animal is observing a similar action performed by another subject. (
  • These results led to the hypothesis that mirror neurons are components of a circuit involved with providing information crucial to social interactions, such as intention recognition, and that its malfunctioning could underlie social inabilities characteristic of autism, for instance. (
  • One marker (BrdU) tagged new cells, a second marker tagged neurons (nerve cells), and the third marker tagged glial cells (glia). (
  • Neurons, or nerve cells, each have a pair of projections-the axon and the dendrite, which transmit and receive impulses, respectively. (
  • In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. (
  • Neurons (also known as neurones and nerve cells ) are electrically excitable cells in the nervous system that process and transmit information from both internal and external environments. (
  • When nerve cells receive a signal of pain or other sensation, the signal opens sodium channels and floods the cell with positively charged sodium ions, which positively charge the neurons until the electrochemistry changes enough to inactivate the channels and close them. (
  • Each nerve in mammalian arms and legs contains multiple sensory neurons (nerve cells) transmitting pain and other sensations such as touch or feeling to the spinal cord. (
  • Next, working with anesthetized rats, they sent direct ionic current into the sciatic nerve in the legs and, using neural recording electrodes, recorded whether this current inhibited the activity of individual or groups of neurons at the spinal cord. (
  • An international team of investigators has discovered that an inorganic polyphosphate released by nerve cells known as astrocytes in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) contributes to the motor neuron death that is the signature of these diseases. (
  • Therefore by studying the salamander, scientists can understand how the production of new nerve cells can be resumed once it has stopped, and how it can be stopped when no more neurons are needed. (
  • A team of scientists at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have developed a new technique, using human stem cells, to efficiently grow sensory nerve cells (neurons) in a dish. (
  • Electric fields most effectively activate neurons when they are oriented along the length of nerve cells, but most implantable electrodes generate fields that spread uniformly in all directions. (
  • Accordingly, we treated postnatal day 3 rat cochlear organotypic cultures with various doses and durations of CoCl2 and quantified the damage to the hair cells, peripheral auditory nerve fibers, and spiral ganglion neurons (SGN). (
  • The researchers also discovered that targeting the deteriorating neurons with therapeutics could be an effective strategy for preventing or treating Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Blocking the formation of neurons in the hippocampus blocks the behavioral effects of antidepressants in mice, say researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (
  • The researchers now hope to use it to monitor simple neural circuits-connected neurons growing in a dish-as well as other cell types. (
  • Then, with the aid of a 6-foot-long laser and some fancy microscopy, the researchers were able to watch individual neurons as they matured in real time. (
  • The technical savvy involved in monitoring neurons will allow researchers to conduct experiments that were previously not possible. (
  • Researchers stimulated neurons to regrow across scarred spinal tissue in rodents using a three-pronged approach. (
  • The researchers next created a supportive environment for the reprogrammed neurons to grow at the injury site. (
  • For decades researchers have been trying to make severed neurons regrow across a spinal cord injury and reconnect with neurons on the other side. (
  • Fridman and Guan's team first devised a computer model to try to predict what happens when researchers use direct current to block the pain signals or inhibit other sensory neurons. (
  • This suggested to the researchers that it was theoretically possible to preferentially target one type of neuron over another, since the channels could be blocked at different levels of current. (
  • Now, researchers at both the University of Exeter in the UK and Stanford in the US have both managed to put GST's phase-changing properties to use - in their attempts to synthetically mimic the human neuron at the nano-scale. (
  • That is, if researchers are able to quickly expand on the success they've enjoyed with a single synthetic neuron. (
  • The researchers also showed that a failure in differentiation of the brainstem neurons leads to behavioural abnormalities, including hyperactivity and attention deficit. (
  • Now researchers have demonstrated that it has the potential to be targeted at neurons with specific functions. (
  • Two types of neurons observed by the researchers are excitatory and inhibitory neurons. (
  • When the researchers used tFUS to emit repeated bursts of ultrasound stimulation directly at excitatory neurons, they observed an elevated impulse rate, or spike. (
  • This new work builds on these prior techniques to precisely generate individual subtypes of sensory neurons in high purity-including a previously unrecognized class of "cold-mechanoreceptor" neuron-which the researchers suggest could be used for drug screening and studying human disorders of touch and pain. (
  • In their study, the researchers found that, by manipulating the expression of two genes called NGN2 and BRN3A, the developmental trajectory of human stem cells can be "programmed" between two specific subtypes of sensory neurons: (1) a cold-mechanoreceptor neuron that senses both cold and mechanical stimuli and (2) a touch receptor neuron specialized only to sense mechanical stimuli. (
  • Although such cold-mechanoreceptor neurons are not known to exist in mice, the researchers report that they surprisingly exist in humans based on an examination of peripheral nervous system tissue from adult human donors. (
  • As a proof-of-concept use, the researchers applied their new method to generate sensory neurons from human patients with a rare genetic disorder called PIEZO2 deficiency. (
  • The researchers also note that further investigation will be crucial to determine the presence of additional unrecognized sensory neuron subtypes in humans, which may not be found in commonly used animal models. (
  • The proposed ERA-NET NEURON II aims to coordinate national and regional programmes for disease-related neuroscience research in 21 participant funding organisations across 16 European Member States, Candidate and Associated countries, and Canada. (
  • First, the team genetically reprogrammed spinal cord neurons called propriospinal neurons in mouse and rat models of spinal cord injury. (
  • The study shows that exposure of spinal cord neurons to polyP reproduced the toxic effects of media from ALS astrocyte cultures, causing hyperexcitability, increased Ca2+ flow into neurons and enhanced motoneuron death. (
  • The purinergic receptors 2X3 on spiral ganglion neurons enha. (
  • Our purpose was to study the expression of purinergic receptors 2X2 (P2X2) and purinergic receptors 2X3 (P2X3) in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs), the afferent nerves of medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex, after long-term moderate noise exposure, and its relationship with the enhancement of MOC reflex. (
  • These results identify hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons as the main targets of Co ototoxicity in vitro and implicate the superoxide radical as a trigger of caspase-mediated ototoxicity. (
  • Apparently, what happened in the hypothalamus of adult mice - where the neurons were inserted - was that these were differentiated into four different types of neurons that formed connections and restored the ability to process the signal of leptin. (
  • Finally, we crossed EP3R conditional knock-out mice with either VGluT2-IRES-cre or Vgat-IRES-cre mice and used both male and female mice to confirm that the neurons that express EP3R and mediate fever are glutamatergic, not GABAergic. (
  • In such a situation, "We have studied mice with an imbalance in differentiation of neurons either activating or inhibiting the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems. (
  • Their study reports that humans may have a specific kind of sensory neuron that can sense both cold temperature and mechanical force, which is not found in mice. (
  • Accordingly, mutations in SEMA3A, NRP1, NRP2 and PLXNA1 have been linked to defective GnRH neuron development in mice and inherited GnRH deficiency in humans. (
  • Here, we show that only the combined loss of PLXNA1 and PLXNA3 phenocopied the full spectrum of nasal axon and GnRH neuron defects of SEMA3A knockout mice. (
  • Koniku Kore is used to fuse live neurons from mice stem cells into a silicon chip. (
  • The little grey cells that make up your mind are primarily neurons. (
  • However, scientists previously believed that senescence primarily occurred in dividing cells, not in neurons. (
  • In this study, Gage and his team took skin samples from people with Alzheimer's disease and converted those cells directly into neurons in the lab. (
  • 1 describe an elegant method in which skin cells taken from a patient with SMA were used to generate neurons of the same genetic make-up and characteristic features as the neurons affected in this disorder. (
  • Neurons communicate with each other by secreting messenger chemicals, or neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, which cross the synaptic gulf between cells and bind to receptors on neighboring cell membranes. (
  • An optical method involving the use of a laser and a novel fluorescent dye as a photostimulation probe has been developed to identify presynaptic neurons in a large ensemble of cells. (
  • Humans can make new neurons, but only from specialised stem cells. (
  • Crayfish, meanwhile, can convert blood cells to neurons that then resupply their eyestalks and smell circuits. (
  • Each cell will split into two daughter cells, precursors to full neurons, both of which migrate out of the niche. (
  • And seven weeks after transfusion the labelled cells were producing neurotransmitters, the chemicals that neurons use to communicate with each other ( Developmental Cell , ). (
  • It shows that two cell systems normally thought to be separate - cells that make blood and cells that make neurons - can cross over. (
  • Beltz points out that the precursor neurons in crayfish are similar to human stem cells with the exception that the human versions self-regenerate. (
  • If its claims hold, and future research reveals how crayfish blood cells are reprogrammed to become neurons, it could offer new therapeutic ways of doing the same with human cells. (
  • The basic function of a neuron is to communicate information, which it does via chemical or electric impulses across a synapse (the junction between cells). (
  • The complex coordination exhibited by neurons in its interaction with other bodily cells and systems reveals the remarkable harmony in living organisms. (
  • other neurons stimulate other types of cells, such as glands . (
  • Many neurons have only one axon, but this axon may-and usually will-undergo extensive branching, enabling communication with many target cells. (
  • The Neuron study provides evidence that the offending neurotoxic factor is a common inorganic polyphosphate, which was found to be released by both mouse and human astrocytes in cells with an array of ALS/FTD-linked mutations (including SOD1, TARDBP and C9ORF72). (
  • If we did a more extensive experiment using more diverse stimuli, we might find at least one stimulus that does activate each neuron - and there would be no more silent cells. (
  • As Barth and Poulet put it, "the fraction of responsive cells may be underestimated because the experimental stimulus applied may not be appropriate to drive the neurons tested. (
  • Sometimes different parts of different cells perform other functions, but these tend to be where the neuron receives its signal. (
  • The findings, published in a recent issue of the journal Cell Reports , highlight the importance of using stem cells to produce human-specific neurons in a laboratory setting, enabling investigation of human biology and disease in otherwise inaccessible tissue. (
  • Previous research has resulted in several existing methods, using human stem cells, to grow a mixture of sensory neuron subtypes that detect different kinds of stimuli like mechanical force, cold, and heat. (
  • Altogether, by producing specific neuron subtypes from individual human patients, the findings in the study emphasize how stem cells can be used to investigate human-specific aspects of sensory biology. (
  • Transcriptional programming of human mechanosensory neuron subtypes from pluripotent stem cells. (
  • This review summarizes recent research contributions by Dr. Robert Lisak in collaboration with Dr. Joyce Benjamins on direct effects of secretory products of immune cells on neurons and glia. (
  • In the current study, we investigated proliferation and differentiation of neuron cancer stem cells (NCSCs) on a 3-D porous collagen scaffold that mimics the natural extracellular matrix. (
  • These proteins are found on the surface of neurons and allow these cells to communicate with one another. (
  • The increased receptor activity may overexcite neurons, which disrupts normal communication between cells and can contribute to ataxia. (
  • The combination of RNA foci and overly excited neurons likely leads to the death of these cells over time. (
  • however, its ototoxic effects on the sensory hair cells, neurons, and support cells in the cochlea are poorly understood. (
  • Five-day treatment with 250 µM CoCl2 caused extensive damage to hair cells and neurons which increased with dose and treatment duration. (
  • How can we investigate a disease affecting neurons, which cannot be isolated from patients for analysis? (
  • There is great heterogeneity across the nervous system and across species in the size, shape, and function of neurons. (
  • van Zundert began to consider polyPs as a candidate cause of hyperexcitability in 2014, when it was reported that this molecule can act as a glial transmitter that mediates communications between astrocytes and neurons. (
  • To conclude, this study revealed a bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons in the SNr. (
  • Neurons can't regrow after damage, but new connections between neurons form throughout life. (
  • Although the neuron is considered a discrete unit, the output of the nervous system is produced by the connectivity of neurons (that is, the strength and configuration of the connections between neurons). (
  • The communication between neurons is established by the control of ion channels that regulate the membrane potential. (
  • Particularly significant to Bear: Autism's underlying genetic changes manifest themselves in problematic communication between neurons. (
  • The cell's contents are directly related to its electrical activity: when a neuron becomes electrically active, channels in the neuron's membrane open, allowing both water and ions to rush into the cell. (
  • The fundamental process that triggers these impulses is the action potential, an electrical signal that is generated by utilizing the electrically excitable membrane of the neuron. (
  • A neuron is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals. (
  • The cell body has branching dendrites coming off of it in order to receive signals from other neurons. (
  • The regrown neurons could conduct electrical signals across the injury site. (
  • Sensory neurons have specialized receptors to convert diverse stimuli from the environment (such as light, touch, and pressure) into electric signals. (
  • For their studies, He and his team designed an assembly that included an ultrasound transducer and a device that records data from neuron signals, called a multi-electrode array. (
  • They simultaneously recorded the change in electrophysiological signals from different neuron types with the multi-electrode array. (
  • Subsequent studies in CNS neuronal cultures showed that early responses of neurons to cytokines were fewer in number and lower in magnitude than in glia, consistent with the idea that microglia and astroglia serve as "first responders" to inflammatory signals. (
  • More stable long-term performance of these microcoils and the high-resolution signals produced by ever greater selectivity in neuron activation would significantly improve currently available neural prostheses and open up many new applications. (
  • We have shown how certain selector genes, which are expressed soon after the onset of neuronal differentiation, and control the activity of other neuron specific genes, determine the identity of the developing neuron. (
  • In this work, our aim was to study astrocyte-neuron relations in order to define a potential astrocyte implication in the regulation of the neuronal activity in the SNr. (
  • Here we demonstrate that excitatory MnPO neurons mediate fever and examine a potential central circuit underlying the development of fever responses. (
  • 2020. ADHD-like behaviors caused by inactivation of a transcription factor controlling the balance of inhibitory and excitatory neuron development in the mouse anterior brainstem. (
  • Note that n[2] is our output neuron here and we will calculate it's new activation value while it's given 0 here. (
  • In our example above, two input neurons are connected to output neuron. (
  • The typical neuron is connected to thousands of others forming an inconceivably dense signal-processing network. (
  • Yet they do this with fewer than one million neurons. (
  • Thus, the neocortex of the long-finned pilot whale contains an estimated 37 billion neurons, twice as many as the human neocortex. (
  • The blue-and-yellow macaw has almost 2 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex - more than the rhesus macaques found in India and China. (
  • They observed that inhibitory neurons subjected to the same tFUS energy did not display a significant spike rate disturbance. (
  • Tracking calcium dynamics from individual neurons in behaving animals. (
  • Chronic stress , anxiety and depression have been linked to atrophy or loss of hippocampal neurons. (
  • Model files from the paper: M. Migliore, E. Cook, D.B. Jaffe, D.A. Turner and D. Johnston, Computer simulations of morphologically reconstructed CA3 hippocampal neurons, J. Neurophysiol. (
  • 1 . Migliore M, Cook EP, Jaffe DB, Turner DA, Johnston D (1995) Computer simulations of morphologically reconstructed CA3 hippocampal neurons. (
  • A variety of approaches to encourage spinal neurons to regrow are therefore being investigated. (
  • The dendrite, a treelike structure, has several branches dotted with hundreds synaptic receiving terminals called 'spines,' each connected to the axons of scores of other neurons. (
  • Sensory neurons have axons that run from the toes to the dorsal column, over 1.5 meters in adults. (
  • A neuron can be a reasonably normal sized cell, although there is a huge range, but the axons can be quite long. (
  • Not all neurons' axons are several feet, but they could be. (
  • The secreted glycoprotein SEMA3A binds its receptors neuropilin (NRP) 1 or NRP2 to position these axons for correct GnRH neuron migration, with an additional role for the NRP co-receptor PLXNA1. (
  • These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. (
  • The sensory neurons of the TG and dorsal root ganglia detect both nociceptive and non-nociceptive stimuli. (
  • This stereotypic rise in body temperature (Tb) in response to inflammatory stimuli is a result of autonomic responses triggered by prostaglandin E2 action on EP3 receptors expressed by neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO EP3R neurons). (
  • In the primary auditory cortex of rat, for example, less than 10% of neurons discharge action potentials in response of acoustic stimuli, with the remaining majority keeping non-responsive (Hromadka et al. (
  • In this example, five of the neurons are 'silent' - they don't respond to any of the stimuli used in the experiment. (
  • In order to know whether there are truly silent neurons that don't respond to any stimulus, we would need to test all possible stimuli - which is a tall order. (
  • On the cover: In this issue of Neuron , Hudry and Vandenberghe (pages 839-862) review the remarkable progress in the field of gene therapy for nervous system disorders. (
  • By contrast, nociceptive, tactile, and proprioceptive information is encoded by the sensory neurons of the TG and dorsal root ganglia in the peripheral nervous system. (
  • Drawing of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal , the Spanish anatomist who first recognized the neuron's role as the primary functional unit of the nervous system. (
  • Neurons represent one component of a nervous system, which can be remarkably complex in higher organisms. (
  • Motor neurons transmit impulses from a central area of the nervous system to an effector, such as a muscle . (
  • By contrast, in the nervous system of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, males have 383 neurons, while hermaphrodites have a mere 302 neurons (Hobert 2005). (
  • The German-made Hartmann Neuron was a polyphonic synthesizer that attempted to break new ground using a new form of synthesis and sound-modeling they say was based on technology found in neural networks. (
  • The Neuron shipped with 200 modeled sounds already in its memory, but using their proprietary software application, ModelMaker (Mac/Win) a user can add their own sampled sounds to be modeled by the Neuron's neural network, and these can be stored in the user memory banks (sounds could be brought into the Neuron via analog, S/PDIF or USB connections). (
  • We may be entire generations away from anything close to a "neural net" like the sort that Mr. Data had, but putting hundreds of thousands of nano-scaled synthetic neurons to use as a processor isn't so wild a dream anymore. (
  • We have released A Simple Artificial Neuron Model in C++ and Very Simple Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Example in C++ and we also released Array Based Simple Artificial Neuron Model in C++ before. (
  • Together, this evidence gave rise to a model of GABAergic MnPO EP3R neurons tonically inhibiting thermogenesis from the RPa or the DMH/DHA, and that PGE2 inhibited this pathway, thus releasing a fever response ( Morrison and Nakamura, 2019 ). (
  • The longest axon of a human motor neuron can be over a meter long, reaching from the base of the spine to the toes. (
  • And at the end, it ends at the axon terminal where it can connect to other dendrites or maybe to other types of tissue or muscle if the point of this neuron is to tell a muscle to do something. (
  • And you'll sometimes hear the word-- the point at which the soma or the body of the neuron connects to the axon is as often referred to as the axon hillock-- maybe you can kind of view it as kind of a lump. (
  • Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. (
  • ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig disease, is the most common neurodegenerative disease of adult onset involving the motor neuron system. (
  • How to regenerate neurons is a key question for those studying neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson's disease. (
  • ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that involves the loss of motor neurons that control voluntary muscles. (
  • In Scientists Say Everyone Can Read Minds , LiveScience describes research that shows primate brains have an area where neurons fire sympathecally when one subject is watching another one. (
  • That's because, the research team lead by zoologist Seweryn Olkowicz at Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic, finds that bird brains are incredibly dense with neurons. (
  • The numbers are pretty astounding: The brains of songbirds and parrots have twice as many neurons of primate brains of the same mass and two to four times more neurons that rodent brains of the equivalent mass. (
  • The Theory of Everything: Stephen Hawking struggles with ALS, a motor neuron disease. (
  • A toxic chemical produced by algae and linked to motor neuron disease has been detected in NSW rivers. (
  • The patient's symptoms vary, depending on which set of motor neurons is involved. (
  • Also known as relay neurons, interneurons provide connections between sensory and motor neurons, as well as between each other. (
  • I am walking up Pendle Hill as Deadpool for Motor Neurone Disease Association because we need to raise funds for a cure. (
  • ALS and FTD are characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and frontal lobes, but the causes of this neurotoxicity have remained elusive. (
  • Additionally, van Zundert, Brown and colleagues found that motor neurons can be rescued from the astrocyte toxicity by reducing levels of polyP. (
  • As a postdoctoral fellow in Brown's laboratory in 2008, van Zundert discovered that increased electrical excitability of motor neurons is an early, critical feature in mouse models of ALS. (
  • Such a model, capable of reproducing a number of realistic behaviors of dopaminergic neurons, could be useful in further studies of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit. (
  • Research Group on Motor Neuron Diseases. (
  • and (d) for motor neuron disease (MND) - veterinarians, hairdressers, and graders and sorters (non-agricultural). (
  • This guideline covers assessing and managing motor neurone disease (MND). (
  • A fundamental understanding of the anatomy, biochemistry, ontogeny, and physiology of GnRH neurons aids in understanding the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of KS and idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). (
  • The study demonstrated that the ultrasound signal can be transmitted through the skull to selectively activate specific neuron sub-populations, in effect targeting neurons with different functions. (
  • The investigators, who are also affiliated with the Boston VA Healthcare System, describe their development of tiny magnetic coils capable of selectively activating target neurons in journal Science Advances . (
  • Methods: We used a non-viral gene therapy based on a new indatraline-conjugated antisense oligonucleotide (IND-ASO) to disrupt the α-synuclein mRNA transcription selectively in monoamine neurons of a PD-like mouse model and elderly nonhuman primates. (
  • When one of these spines receives stimulation (through the synapse it creates with another cell's axonal projection), the spine expands into the synapse, strengthening the link between its neuron and the other cell. (
  • D'autre part, nous avons mis en évidence que l'activité de ces cellules est modulée par la stimulation à haute fréquence du noyau sous-thalamique. (
  • Sigma receptors inhibit high-voltage-activated calcium channels in rat sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons. (
  • The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons regulate puberty onset and sexual reproduction by secreting GnRH to activate and maintain the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis. (
  • IHH results from dysfunction of GnRH neurons that have developed and migrated properly, whereas KS is caused by defective migration of GnRH neurons to their proper position in the hypothalamus during fetal development. (
  • They injected viruses containing three specific genes that neurons use to grow during normal development. (
  • They targeted the entire protein-coding genome in human neurons with CRISPRi and CRISPRa, in search of genes critical to neuron survival. (
  • STANFORD, Calif. - Scientists have believed that neurons need a long period of fine-tuning and training with other neurons before they take on their adult role. (
  • They expected to find that young neurons fire in response to a variety of different images, then refine their role over time so that in the adult fish the neurons only respond to images moving in a certain direction or near the left or right side of the visual field. (
  • Understanding how neurons mature into their adult role goes beyond zebra fish and their ability to see their eventual planktonic prey. (
  • Odorant molecules are detected through the combinatorial activation of ensembles of olfactory sensory neurons. (
  • This finding will require rethinking current concepts concerning the central thermoregulatory pathways based on the MnPO EP3R neurons being GABAergic. (
  • 2020. Molecular fingerprint and developmental regulation of the tegmental GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons derived from the anterior hindbrain. (
  • Illumination of an extracellularly stained neuron by the laser microbeam evokes action potentials. (
  • They can stimulate electrical connections and electrical activity in neurons. (
  • The use of magnetic rather than electrical fields to stimulate neurons presents several advantages, including the ability to penetrate scar tissue. (
  • But it had been believed that magnetic coils strong enough to activate neurons would be too large to be implanted within the brain's cortex. (
  • Scientists can create three-dimensional images of neurons using a technique known as holographic microscopy. (
  • Thus the aim of present study was to demonstrate the presence of neurons and to quantify the number of collections of neurons, number of neurons in each collection and area of the neurons of the plexus. (
  • 1987. The influence of skeletal muscle on the electrical excitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons in culture. (
  • ABSTRACT: Burst firing of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta can be induced in vitro by the glutamate agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate. (
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, is a progressive and fatal disease, attacking neurons that control voluntary movement. (
  • To find out if the modified system of direct ionic current could be safely used to preferentially target and silence pain-transmitting neurons, Fridman teamed up with pain researcher Yun Guan, M.D., Ph.D., an associate professor of anesthesiology, critical care medicine and neurological surgery at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. (
  • Little was known about the senescence-like state of aging human neurons. (
  • Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. (
  • A toxic brew of lysosomal lipids, reactive iron atoms, and oxidative stress can spell doom for human neurons. (
  • First genome-wide CRISPR screens in human neurons tweaks gene expression. (
  • I would like to provide some perspective on the numerology of neurons as expressed by Steven Mithen in his review of Suzana Herculano-Houzel's book The Human Advantage [ NYR , November 24]. (
  • And another Cell paper looks at what makes human neurons unique . (
  • It turns out that an incredibly cheap and plentiful alloy can be used to make a functional equivalent to the human neuron, and more than one research team has already put it to work that way. (
  • We do not know yet if the human counterparts of the neurons we studied are involved in these deficits. (
  • We could have a debate about what the most interesting cell in the human body is, but I think easily the neuron would make the top five, and it's not just because the cell itself is interesting. (
  • Human stem cell-derived sensory neurons, fluorescently labeled to reveal neurofilament proteins (red and green) and cell nuclei (blue). (
  • In this review, we propose a new methodology to study the mirror neuron system (MNS) in humans, based on measurements of manual reaction times during handedness recognition tasks. (
  • While electrode-based recording can monitor only a handful of neurons at a time, holographic microscopy could be used to monitor many more neurons simultaneously. (
  • In contrast, magnetic fields extend in specific directions, allowing selective targeting of neurons with the same orientation while simultaneously avoiding the activation of other neurons. (