Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Adrenergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.S100 Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Supraoptic Nucleus: Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Hypothalamic Area, Lateral: Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Respiratory Center: Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.Enteric Nervous System: Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)Cholinergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Synaptic Potentials: The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Mirror Neurons: Neurons that fire when an animal acts or observes the same action of another thus coding the motor response. They were originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey and studies have shown that neurons that have a similar mechanism are present in humans. Mirror neurons are theorized to be related to social cognition.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.

Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/57549)

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart. (2/57549)

1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (3/57549)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (4/57549)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (5/57549)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (6/57549)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (7/57549)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

Trans-synaptically induced bursts in regular spiking non-pyramidal cells in deep layers of the cat motor cortex. (8/57549)

In deep layers of the cat motor cortex, we have investigated the properties of neurons displaying trans-synaptically induced bursts. In in vivo experiments, extracellularly recorded burst neurons were separated into two subtypes based on their dependence on stimulation sites, the medullary pyramid or the ventrolateral (VL) thalamic nucleus, from which bursts of 10-20 spikes were triggered. The spike amplitude attenuation and frequency adaptation during a burst were more prominent in pyramid-dependent burst neurons than in VL-dependent burst neurons. Intracellular recordings in in vivo experiments revealed that pyramid-dependent bursts emerged from a long-lasting depolarization, while each spike during a VL-dependent burst was narrow in half-width and was followed by a fast AHP, similar to fast spiking neurons. In in vitro slice experiments, intracellular recordings were obtained from neurons that displayed a burst of attenuated spikes emerging from a long-lasting depolarization, and were also obtained from fast spiking neurons. They were morphologically recovered to be multipolar cells with sparsely spiny dendrites and local axonal networks, suggesting that they are inhibitory interneurons. The multipolar neurons displaying bursts of attenuated spikes may mediate the recurrent inhibition of pyramidal tract cells.  (+info)

Multipolar neurons are neurons that have one axon and many dendrites. These dendrites or multi-processes give the neuron many connection points to other neurons. Multipolar neurons function as either...
Jochen Meier Ivonne Strmel Radu Iosub Sonja Schmidt and Rosemarie Grantyn Developmental Physiology Johannes Mller Institute Humboldt University Medical School (Charit) Berlin Germany Efficient delivery of DNA to primary neuronal cell cultures is of critical importance,Effectene,Transfection,Reagent,provides,efficient,gene,delivery,,,,,,,,,,,,to,primary,neuronal,cell,cultures,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Suprathreshold corticostriatal responses recorded from medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia are different. Their differences readily distinguish D1- and D2-type receptor expressing MSNs in both bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice and their control littermates as well as in rats: indirect pathway neurons are more excitable than direct pathway neurons revealing autoregenerative spikes underlying their spike trains, whereas direct pathway neurons exhibit more prolonged plateau potentials and spike trains. SFK 81297, a selective agonist for D1-class receptors enhanced corticostriatal responses in direct pathway neurons, while quinelorane, a selective agonist for D2-class receptors reduced orthodromic and autoregenerative responses in indirect pathway neurons thus making both neuron classes similarly excitable. Because dopaminergic postsynaptic actions target CaV1 (L) class voltage-gated calcium channels in MSNs, we hypothesized that these
Elimination of spinal neurons that possess the SPR using SP-SAP offers the unique opportunity to determine the role of SPR-expressing neurons, as well as other neurons, in pain processing. SP-SAP induced specific degeneration of neurons expressing SPR receptors. This observation was made previously (Mantyh et al., 1997; Nichols et al., 1999) and is supported by present data. An interesting finding of the present study was the proportional change in the functional classification of spinal neurons encountered in animals pretreated with SP-SAP. The proportion of HT neurons encountered in control animals was ∼36%, whereas only 7% of the neurons identified in SP-SAP-treated animals were HT. This suggests that SP-SAP targeted primarily HT neurons. It has been shown in cats that HT neurons possess more SPRs than WDR neurons (Ma et al., 1996, 1997), suggesting that HT neurons are more vulnerable to SP-SAP because of the greater number of SPRs on these neurons.. The absence of sensitization and windup ...
Primary sensory neurons in the DRG play an essential role in initiating pain by detecting painful stimuli in the periphery. Tissue injury can sensitize DRG neurons, causing heightened pain sensitivity, often leading to chronic pain. Despite the functional importance, how DRG neurons function at a population level is unclear due to the lack of suitable tools. Here we developed an imaging technique that allowed us to simultaneously monitor the activities of >1,600 neurons/DRG in live mice and discovered a striking neuronal coupling phenomenon that adjacent neurons tend to activate together following tissue injury. This coupled activation occurs among various neurons and is mediated by an injury-induced upregulation of gap junctions in glial cells surrounding DRG neurons. Blocking gap junctions attenuated neuronal coupling and mechanical hyperalgesia. Therefore, neuronal coupling represents a new form of neuronal plasticity in the DRG and contributes to pain hypersensitivity by "hijacking" ...
There are various types of enteric neurons. initial with top cell routine leave at E11.5 accompanied by neurofilament-M neurons Telotristat Etiprate calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons (top cell routine leave for both at E12.5-E13.5) tyrosine hydroxylase neurons (E15.5) nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) neurons (E15.5) and calretinin neurons (P0). Almost all myenteric neurons got exited Telotristat Etiprate the cell routine by P10. We didnt observe any EdU+/NOS1+ myenteric neurons in the tiny intestine of adult mice pursuing EdU shot at E10.5 or E11.5 that was unexpected as previous research show that NOS1 neurons can be found in E11.5 mice. Research using the proliferation marker Ki67 uncovered that hardly any NOS1 neurons in the E11.5 and E12.5 gut had been proliferating. Nevertheless Cre-lox-based hereditary fate-mapping revealed a little sub-population of myenteric neurons that seems to exhibit NOS1 just transiently. Jointly our outcomes confirm a romantic relationship between enteric ...
New research involving people diagnosed with Lou Gehrigs disease sheds light on how individual neurons control muscle movement in humans - and could help in the development of better brain-controlled prosthetic devices.
NETMORPH is a modular simulation tool for building synaptically connected networks with realistic neuron morphologies. Axonal and dendritic morphologies are created by using stochastic rules for the behavior of individual growth cones, the structures at the tip of outgrowing axons and dendrites (collectively called neurites) that mediate neurite elongation and branching. In brief, each growth cone has at each time step a probability to elongate the trailing neurite, to branch and produce two daughter growth cones, and to turn and change the direction of neurite outgrowth. The parameter values of the outgrowth model can be optimized so as to obtain an optimal match with the morphology of specific neuron types. Neurons are positioned in 3D space and grow out independently of each other. Axons and dendrites are not guided by any extracellular cues. Synapses between neurons are formed when crossing axonal and dendritic segments come sufficiently close to each other. NETMORPH is written in C++ and ...
Video articles in JoVE about gabaergic neurons include Vibrodissociation of Neurons from Rodent Brain Slices to Study Synaptic Transmission and Image Presynaptic Terminals, Reliable Identification of Living Dopaminergic Neurons in Midbrain Cultures Using RNA Sequencing and TH-promoter-driven eGFP Expression, The Neuroblast Assay: An Assay for the Generation and Enrichment of Neuronal Progenitor Cells from Differentiating Neural Stem Cell Progeny Using Flow Cytometry, Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies, Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors, Intracortical Inhibition Within the Primary Motor Cortex Can Be Modulated by Changing the Focus of Attention, Protocol for the Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Mixed Cultures of Neurons and Glia for Neurotoxicity Testing, Tuning in the
NEURON files from the paper: On the mechanisms underlying the depolarization block in the spiking dynamics of CA1 pyramidal neurons by D.Bianchi, A. Marasco, A.Limongiello, C.Marchetti, H.Marie,B.Tirozzi, M.Migliore (2012). J Comput. Neurosci. In press. DOI: 10.1007/s10827-012-0383-y. Experimental findings shown that under sustained input current of increasing strength neurons eventually stop firing, entering a depolarization block. We analyze the spiking dynamics of CA1 pyramidal neuron models using the same set of ionic currents on both an accurate morphological reconstruction and on its reduction to a single-compartment. The results show the specic ion channel properties and kinetics that are needed to reproduce the experimental findings, and how their interplay can drastically modulate the neuronal dynamics and the input current range leading to depolarization block ...
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Adult mouse DRG neurones have been maintained for 14 days in cultures where non-neuronal cell proliferation was inhibited by the inclusion of 5 × 10(−6) microM-cytosine arabinoside (AraC) in the medium from the onset of culture. On uncoated plastic neurone numbers significantly declined in the absence of non-neuronal cell outgrowth compared with uninhibited co-cultures. However, when neurones were maintained in the presence of AraC on certain coated surfaces this decrease in neurone numbers was not observed. Combinations of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LAM) proved most effective for 7 and 14 days in vitro, although either was beneficial if used separately. Microexudates produced by the fibroblast line, 3T6, also significantly improved neuronal counts for 14 days in vitro. However, a microexudate derived from primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes, although advantageous for 7 days in vitro, was not effective in maintaining neurones over the 14-day culture period, reminiscent of previous ...
... Marcia Barinaga A decade of experimental treatments using fetal neurons to replace brain cells that die in Parkinsons disease can provide lessons for planning stem cell therapies Swedish neuroscientist Anders Björklund and his colleagues may have caught a glimpse of what the future holds for the treatment of failing organs. For more than 10 years, Björklund has been part of a team at Lund University in Sweden that has been grafting neurons from aborted fetuses into the brains of patients with Parkinsons disease. In many cases, the transplanted cells have dramatically relieved the patients symptoms, which include slowness of movement and rigidity. That is just the kind of therapy that stem cell researchers hope to make routine for treating all sorts of degenerative diseases, if they can coax the cells to develop into limitless supplies of specific cell types that can be used to repair or replace damaged organs. Although the current ...
Alzheimers Disease (7) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (8) Antibodies (6) Apoptosis Detection (7) axonal regeneration (3) Cancer Research (7) Cerebral Ischemia (4) diabetes (6) e-18 Primary Rat Neurons (11) embryonic stem cells (19) enteric nervous system (5) FLICA (5) FLIVO (2) Glia Markers (5) Glial Markers (15) Hippocampal Neurons (6) human embryonic stem cells (3) Human Neural Progenitors (10) Human Neurons (6) Hypothalamic Neurons (1) Immunocytochemistry (5) Immunofluorescence (12) Immunohistochemistry (23) inflammatory response (13) MitoPT (2) Multiple Sclerosis (11) Neural Crest (2) Neural Progenitor Cells (7) Neural Stem Cell Markers (8) Neurofilament Markers (12) Neurogenesis (5) Neuronal Markers (14) Neuropathic Pain (19) Neuropeptides (7) Neuroprotection (4) neuroscience (3) Neurotoxicity (9) Neurotransmission (10) Nociceptive Pain (18) Obesity Research (6) Oligodendrocytes (8) Otx2 Antibody (2) Pain Research (27) Parkinsons Disease (10) placental mesenchymal stem cells (1) Polcaspase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of mitochondrial K+ release and cellular efflux in ischemic and apoptotic neuronal death. AU - Liu, Dong. AU - Slevin, John R.. AU - Lu, Chengbiao. AU - Chan, Sic L.. AU - Hansson, Magnus. AU - Elmér, Eskil. AU - Mattson, Mark P.. PY - 2003/8. Y1 - 2003/8. N2 - We measured and manipulated intracellular potassium (K+) fluxes in cultured hippocampal neurons in an effort to understand the involvement of K+ in neuronal death under conditions of ischemia and exposure to apoptotic stimuli Measurements of the intracellular K+ concentration using the fluorescent probe 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4′-[1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazacyclooctadecane-7, 16-diyl-bis(5-methoxy-6,2-benzofurandiyl)]bis-, tetrakis [(acetyloxy) methyl] ester (PBFI) revealed that exposure of neurons to cyanide (chemical hypoxia), glutamate (excitotoxic insult) or staurosporine (apoptotic stimulus) results in efflux of K+ and cell death. Treatment of neurons with 5-hydroxydecanoate (5HD), an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective lesion of the hippocampus increases the differentiation of immature neurons in the monkey amygdala. AU - Chareyron, Loïc J.. AU - Amaral, David G. AU - Lavenex, Pierre. AU - Rakic, Pasko. PY - 2016/12/13. Y1 - 2016/12/13. N2 - A large population of immature neurons is present in the ventro-medial portion of the adult primate amygdala, a region that receives substantial direct projections from the hippocampal formation. Here, we show the effects of neonatal (n = 8) and adult (n = 6) hippocam-pal lesions on the populations of mature and immature neurons in the paralaminar, lateral, and basal nuclei of the adult monkey amygdala. Compared with unoperated controls (n = 7), the number of mature neurons was about 70% higher in the paralaminar nucleus of neonate- and adult-lesioned monkeys, and 40% higher in the lateral and basal nuclei of neonate-lesioned monkeys. The number of immature neurons in the paralaminar nucleus was 40% higher in neonate-lesioned monkeys and 30% ...
Transplantation studies suggest that the laminar fates of cerebral cortical neurons are determined by environmental signals encountered just before mitosis. In ferret, E29 progenitor cells normally produce neurons of layers 5 and 6. When transplanted during S-phase into an older ventricular zone, E29 progenitors produce neurons that change their fates and migrate to layer 2/3; however, cells transplanted later in the cell cycle migrate to their normal deep-layer positions even in an older environment (McConnell and Kaznowski, 1991). Here we utilize three culture systems to investigate the nature of the environmental signals involved in laminar specification. E29 cells were first cultured at low density to ascertain whether cell contact and/or short-range cues are required for deep layer specification. Neurons transplanted after a short time in low-density culture failed to adopt their normal fates and migrated instead to the upper layers. When crude cell contacts were restored by pelleting E29 ...
Here, based on our previous work on linear synaptic filtering [1-3], we build a general theory for the stationary firing response of integrate-and-fire (IF) neurons receiving stochastic inputs filtered by one, two or multiple synaptic channels each characterized by an arbitrary timescale. The formalism applies to arbitrary IF model neurons, and to arbitrary forms of input noise (i.e., not required to be Gaussian or to have small amplitude), as well as to any form of synaptic filtering (linear or non-linear). The theory determines with exact analytical expressions the firing rate of an IF neuron for long synaptic time constants using the adiabatic approach. The correlated spiking (cross-correlations function) of two neurons receiving common as well as independent sources of noise is also described (see figure 1). The theory is exemplified using leaky, quadratic and noise thresholded IF neurons (LIF, QIF, NTIF). Although the adiabatic approach is exact when at least one of the synaptic timescales ...
BDNF and nitric oxide signaling both contribute to plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. However the role of combined signaling of both pathways at the same synapse is largely unknown. Using NO imaging with diaminofluoresceine in cultured hippocampal neurons we analyzed the time course of neurotrophin induced NO signals. Application of exogenous BDNF, NT-4, and NT-3 (but not NGF) induced NO signals in the soma and in proximal dendrites of hippocampal neurons that were sensitive to NO synthase activity, TrkB signaling, and intracellular calcium elevation. The effect of NO signaling on neurotrophin secretion was analyzed in BDNF-GFP and NT-3-GFP transfected hippocampal neurons. Exogenous application of the NO donor sodium-nitroprusside markedly inhibited neurotrophin secretion. However, endogenously generated NO in response to depolarization and neurotrophin stimulation, both did not result in a negative feedback on neurotrophin secretion. These results suggest that a negative feedback of NO signaling on
Rabbit Polyclonal to OR10J5 adherent monolayer tradition solution to examine variations in effectiveness of neural differentiation, PKO and WT Sera cells were differentiated into neurons from the adherent monolayer tradition technique. Morphological changes had been observed 20350-15-6 manufacture throughout a differentiation period, and immunocytochemistry was performed with MAP2, an adult neuron marker. There have been no variations in the morphology or differentiation of MAP2-positive cells between WT and PKO cells (Fig. 1A). Particularly, the effectiveness of neural differentiation into dopaminergic neurons demonstrated no difference between PKO and WT Sera cells, as dependant on immunocytochemistry with TH, a dopaminergic neuron marker (Fig. 1B). Real-time RT-PCR evaluation with dopaminergic neuron markers such as for example Nurr1, Pitx3, AADC, TH, and D2R also demonstrated no difference between WT and PKO cells (Fig. 1C). Fig. 1 Induction of dopaminergic neurons from wild-type (WT) and ...
Highly connected neurons, called hub cells, are thought to contribute to certain forms of epilepsy and have also been shown to orchestrate synchrony in the hippocampus of developing rats. How hub cells are capable of hijacking networks to synchrony is not well understood. We hypothesize that the excitability type of hub cells may be an important factor. In general, neuronal excitability (which characterizes how neurons respond to input) falls into two categories, Type I and Type II, with networks of only Type II neurons synchronizing very well, and networks of only Type I neurons synchronizing rather poorly. We used computer simulations to investigate the synchronization properties of networks with a mixture of Type I and Type II neurons. We were particularly interested in the effect of placing Type II neurons as hub cells in the network. The results of these simulations show that relatively few Type II neurons are capable of hijacking the network to synchrony when they are placed as hub cells, ...
To : All First of all I would like to thank you all who answered my first question about examples of sensory neurones who have cell body located close to the stimulus ? The answers were as follows : PHOTORECEPTORS, COCHLEAR HAIR CELL, STRECH RECEPTORS, OLFACTORY RECEPTORS, GUASTATORY RECEPTORS. I looked up the sensors and found that all of them responds in a linear fashion to a increase in stimulus. However, in the enteric nervous system several authors say that the AH neurones are the sensory neurones. The AH neurone is characterized by having a prolonged after- hyperpolarization (,4 seconds) following an action potential, which is caused by opening of calcium activated potassium channels. I have always wondered why a sensory neurone would behave with such a strange pattern. The neurone is complete inactive during the after- hyperpolarization, so it is not really a matter of adaptation, but more a question of making the neurone completely inactive. The AH neurones are possibly coupled to a ...
The medial amygdala (MeA) is a central node in the interwoven circuits that regulate social behavior based on pheromones. Aromatase-expressing (arom+) neurons in the MeA are key for the establishment and maintenance of sex differences. Here, we characterized the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of arom+ neurons and non-aromatase (arom-) neurons in the MeA of male and female mice. Most electrophysiological properties were similar for arom+ neurons in the MeA between sexes, but the relative refractory period was twice as large in female mice. We also show that the firing pattern and firing frequency is markedly different between arom+ and arom- neurons. The activity of MeA neurons could be modulated by estradiol, which reduced activity in arom+ neurons in males. The differences between arom+ and arom- neurons were observed in both sexes suggesting that aromatase expression delineates a neural population in the MeA with similar and unique electrophysiological properties.
Finally, our article on human and mouse neurons has been published! The picture above shows the neurons of a human and a mouse. Human and mouse neurons are similar overall, but they also have…
A major challenge confronting the developing embryo is that of generating the appropriate numbers and distinct classes of neurons essential for constructing functional neuronal circuits. This involves tight coordination between proliferation, specification and differentiation during the course of neurogenesis. The developing spinal cord is a pertinent model with which to dissect the crosstalk that exists between these different programs, because we have a good understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing spinal neurons specification and differentiation (Dessaud et al., 2008).. The spinal cord develops from a caudal stem zone containing a pool of undifferentiated neural progenitors performing only proliferative divisions, one progenitor generating two daughter progenitor cells (PP) (Akai et al., 2005). Neural progenitors exiting the stem zone to contribute to the formation of the neural tube become subjected to morphogens, including Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which controls their specification, ...
It has been 10+ years since Gould et al. and Kempermann et al. showed that learning and enriched environments can enhance the survival of new neurons. These findings are logical precursors to the current study since, if these new neurons have all the necessary components, they suggest experience could add to the mnemonic functions of the hippocampus. But subsequent studies indicated that experience could also decrease the survival of new neurons. So perhaps structural changes to new neurons that are more relevant to learning might be worth investigating. For example, in many of my own experiments, I have failed to observe learning-induced changes in the number of new neurons but, if the number of dendrites or spines is increased, then there could still be an enhanced ability to process information. Or there could be the removal of some spines and the formation of others, suggesting a transformation in the type of information processed by new neurons. To get at these possibilities, Tronel et al. ...
The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) mediates important brain functions and contributes to the pathophysiology and successful drug treatment of many common psychiatric disorders, especially depression. It is established that a key mechanism involved in the control of 5-HT neurones is feedback inhibition by presynaptic 5-HT autoreceptors, which are located on 5-HT cell bodies and nerve terminals. However, recent experiments have discovered an unexpected complexity of 5-HT neurone control, specifically in the form of postsynaptic 5-HT feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms have the physiological effects of 5-HT autoreceptors but use additional 5-HT receptor subtypes and operate through neural inputs to 5-HT neurones. A postsynaptic feedback system that excites 5-HT neurones has also been reported. This article discusses current knowledge of the pharmacology and physiology of these new found 5-HT feedback mechanisms and considers their possible contribution to depression
The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) mediates important brain functions and contributes to the pathophysiology and successful drug treatment of many common psychiatric disorders, especially depression. It is established that a key mechanism involved in the control of 5-HT neurones is feedback inhibition by presynaptic 5-HT autoreceptors, which are located on 5-HT cell bodies and nerve terminals. However, recent experiments have discovered an unexpected complexity of 5-HT neurone control, specifically in the form of postsynaptic 5-HT feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms have the physiological effects of 5-HT autoreceptors but use additional 5-HT receptor subtypes and operate through neural inputs to 5-HT neurones. A postsynaptic feedback system that excites 5-HT neurones has also been reported. This article discusses current knowledge of the pharmacology and physiology of these new found 5-HT feedback mechanisms and considers their possible contribution to depression
The metazoan gut performs multiple physiologic functions, including digestion and absorption of nutrients, and also serves as a physical and chemical barrier against ingested pathogens and abrasive particles. Maintenance of these functions and structures is partly controlled by the nervous system, yet the precise roles and mechanisms of the neural control of gut integrity remain to be clarified in Drosophila. Here we screened for GAL4 enhancer-trap strains and labeled specific subsets of neurons. To inhibit their neuronal activity, we used Kir2.1. We identified an NP3253 line that is susceptible to oral infection by Gram-negative bacteria. The subset of neurons driven by the NP3253 line includes some of the enteric neurons innervating the anterior midgut, and these flies have a disorganized proventricular structure with high permeability of the peritrophic matrix and epithelial barrier. The findings of the present study indicate that neural control is crucial for maintaining the barrier function ...
The Neuron model simulates the membrane potentials in vertebrate neurons, which are modeled as three serially connected compartments: dendrite, soma, and axon. The model is designed to simulate the dynamic properties of neurons including electrotonic spread between neuronal compartments (dendrite, soma, and axon).
The word mosaic conjures up images of colorful tiles artfully arranged. For neurobiologists, the word may invoke the genetic hodgepodge that is the human brain. In the November 1 Science, researchers led by Fred Gage at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, report that the genetic makeup of our most vaunted organ is actually a mosaic of genetically distinct neurons. They found scads of genomic changes in single cells from individual brains. Neurons with different genomes are bound to have different phenotypes, though what this means for the health of the brain is unclear.. The scientists had previously found that neurons can lose or duplicate entire chromosomes and that small retrotransposons frequently copy and paste themselves within the genome of a given brain cell (see Rehen et al., 2005, Jun 2005 news story on Muotri et al., 2005). First author Michael McConnell, now at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, and colleagues characterize copy number ...
The brain regulates fertility via GnRH release. For most of the mammalian reproductive cycle, GnRH release is pulsatile and estradiol feedback suppresses GnRH and LH release. At the end of the follicular phase, high sustained estradiol levels initiate a surge of continuous GnRH release culminating in ovulation (Sarkar et al., 1976; Moenter et al., 1991). This shift in estradiol feedback is associated with changes in both intrinsic properties of, and synaptic inputs to, these cells. Here we show that, during positive feedback, GnRH neurons integrate changes in their intrinsic properties with changes to fast-synaptic transmission to increase firing rate.. This work supports findings demonstrating increased GABAergic drive to GnRH neurons is correlated with increased firing rate in several animal models (Sullivan and Moenter, 2004, 2005; Christian et al., 2005; Pielecka et al., 2006; Christian and Moenter, 2007; Roland and Moenter, 2011; Adams et al., 2018a). Past conclusions have been limited to ...
Maladaptive responses to stress might play a role in the sensitivity of neurons to stress. To identify novel cellular responses to stress, we performed transcriptional analysis in acutely stressed mouse neurons, followed by functional characterization in Caenorhabditis elegans. In both contexts, we found that the gene GDPGP1/mcp-1 is down-regulated by a variety of stresses. Functionally, the enzyme GDPGP1/mcp-1 protects against stress. Knockdown of GDPGP1 in mouse neurons leads to widespread neuronal cell death. Loss of mcp-1 , the single homologue of GDPGP1 in C. elegans, leads to increased degeneration of GABA neurons as well as reduced survival of animals following environmental stress. Overexpression of mcp-1 in neurons enhances survival under hypoxia and protects against neurodegeneration in a tauopathy model. GDPGP1/mcp-1 regulates neuronal glycogen levels, indicating a key role for this metabolite in neuronal stress resistance. Together, our data indicate that down-regulation of ...
EH}} ==Overview== A pseudounipolar neuron (pseudo - false, uni - one) is a [[sensory neuron,sensory]] [[neuron]] in the [[peripheral nervous system]]. This neuron contains a long [[dendrite]] and a short [[axon]] that connects to the [[spinal cord]]. The dendrite and axon are sometimes called distal process and proximal process, respectively.,ref>http://neuro.vetmed.ufl.edu/neuro/neurocl.htm,/ref> ==The dendrite of a pseudounipolar neuron== By definition a pseudounipolar neuron has one dendrite and one axon. Just as for every neuron, the dendrite conducts [[nerve impulses]] toward the [[cell body]], and the axon conducts them away from the cell body. However, the dendrite of a pseudounipolar neuron is structurally and functionally an axon, except at its terminal part where it contacts a specialized [[sensory organ]].,ref>http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mcb.figgrp.6110,/ref> When the sensory organ transduces information, it initiates an [[action potential]] ...
Experimental results suggest that neurons in the cortex synchronize their action potentials on the millisecond time scale. More importantly this binding expresses functional relationships between the neurons. A model of neuronal interactions is proposed in which simultaneous discharges of neurons develop through specialized synaptic circuits. As an important prerequisite for this synchronization it is demonstrated that SynFire chains, generating different levels of excitation, propagate their activity waves at distinct velocities. Two chains were coupled by excitatory synapses and their activity was initiated at different times. Due to synaptic interactions, activity in the earlier-initiated chain accelerates propagation in the other chain until the two activity waves are synchronized. Compared with several neural network models with oscillatory units, physiologically more plausible neurons are simulated. It is still under debate whether neurons in the cortex show oscillatory dischargesper se. In
The flexible neurons also greatly expand the brains capacity to perform tasks. In the computer model, neural networks without mixed selectivity neurons could learn about 100 tasks before running out of capacity. That capacity greatly expanded to tens of millions of tasks as mixed selectivity neurons were added to the model. When mixed selectivity neurons reached about 30 percent of the total, the networks capacity became "virtually unlimited," Miller says - just like a human brain. […]. Miller is now trying to figure out how the brain sorts through all of this activity to create coherent messages. There is some evidence suggesting that these neurons communicate with the correct targets by synchronizing their activity with oscillations of a particular brainwave frequency.. "The idea is that neurons can send different messages to different targets by virtue of which other neurons they are synchronized with," Miller says. "It provides a way of essentially opening up these special channels of ...
p,The timing of action potentials in sensory neurons contains substantial information about the eliciting stimuli. Although the computational advantages of spike timing-based neuronal codes have long been recognized, it is unclear whether, and if so how, neurons can learn to read out such representations. We propose a new, biologically plausible supervised synaptic learning rule that enables neurons to efficiently learn a broad range of decision rules, even when information is embedded in the spatiotemporal structure of spike patterns rather than in mean firing rates. The number of categorizations of random spatiotemporal patterns that a neuron can implement is several times larger than the number of its synapses. The underlying nonlinear temporal computation allows neurons to access information beyond single-neuron statistics and to discriminate between inputs on the basis of multineuronal spike statistics. Our work demonstrates the high capacity of neural systems to learn to decode information ...
To send messages along neurons is energetically demanding, and the brain uses both oxygen and glucose intensely. The brain, for example, uses 20 percent of the bodys glucose supply. The cells energy-producing factories, called mitochondria, are scattered throughout the long, slender axons of neurons in order to provide all parts of the cell with a constant supply of energy. As the neurons get bigger, so do the number of mitochondria, according to the new study.. We make new neurons in the womb, and this process continues after birth. Even a few areas in the adult brain continue to make new neurons throughout life. "We assume that the metabolic shift we describe in this new study happens every time a progenitor cell turns into a neuron," says the studys first author Xinde Zheng, a Salk research associate.. The cells that eventually become neurons initially use a pathway called glycolysis, which is a major energy-producing process that takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell and turns glucose ...
In the developing cerebral cortex, cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic signals govern the establishment of neuron subtype-specific identity. Here we show that, within the niche of the striatum, the expression of a single transcription factor, Fezf2, is sufficient to generate corticofugal neurons from progenitors fated to become medium spiny neurons. This demonstrates that a specific population of cortical projection neurons can be directed to differentiate outside of the cortex by cell-autonomous signaling.
In this contribution we present the activation of neuronal ensembles of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons by controlled synchronization. The main problem consists in to impose a particular spiking-bursting behavior in all the neurons of the network. We consider a network where the neurons are in its resting state, it is desired that the neurons change their resting state to a particular behavior of activation, dictated by a neuron called the reference neuron. The goal is reached by controlling some neurons in the network controlling only the membrane potential (electrical synapse). The key feature of the present contribution is that by controlling a small number of neurons in the network a desired behavior is induced in all the neurons in the network despite its network topology. The important parameters are the control gain and the coupling strength, thus the activation of the network lays down on a compromise between the control gain and the coupling strength ...
The prion protein, PrPC, whose conformational misfolding originates deadly prions, has a still unclarified cellular function despite decades of intensive research. Following our recent finding that PrPC limits Ca2+ entry via store-operated Ca2+ channels in neurons, we investigated whether the protein could also control the activity of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). To this end, we compared local Ca2+ movements in primary cerebellar granule neurons and cortical neurons, expressing, or not, PrPC, transduced with genetically encoded Ca2+ probes. Our investigation demonstrated that PrPC downregulates Ca2+ entry through each specific agonist-stimulated iGluR or after stimulation by glutamate. In spite of the displacement from the plasma membrane of PrP-KO mitochondria, glutamate addition resulted in a higher mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by PrP-KO neurons compared to the PrPC-expressing counterpart, because the increased Ca2+ entry through iGluRs in PrP-KO neurons reflected in a parallel ...
Efficient neuronal function depends on the continued modulation of the local neuronal proteome. Local protein synthesis plays a central role in tuning the neuronal proteome at specific neuronal regions. Various aspects of translation such as the localization of translational machinery, spatial spread of the newly translated proteins, and their site of action are carried out in specialized neuronal subcompartments to result in a localized functional outcome. In this review, we focus on the various aspects of these local translation compartments such as size, biochemical and organelle composition, structural boundaries, and temporal dynamics. We also discuss the apparent absence of definitive components of translation in these local compartments and the emerging state‐of‐the‐art tools that could help dissecting these conundrums in greater detail in the future. ...
Author Summary Dynamic gain, the amount by which features at specific frequencies in the input to a neuron are amplified or attenuated in its output spiking, is fundamental for the encoding of information by neural populations. Most studies of dynamic gain have focused on neurons without intrinsic degrees of freedom exhibiting integrator-type subthreshold dynamics. Many neuron types in the brain, however, exhibit complex subthreshold dynamics such as resonance, found for instance in cortical interneurons, stellate cells, and mitral cells. A resonator neuron has at least two degrees of freedom for which the classical Fokker-Planck approach to calculating the dynamic gain is largely intractable. Here, we lift the voltage-reset rule after a spike, allowing us to derive a complete expression of the dynamic gain of a resonator neuron model. We find the gain can exhibit only six shapes. The resonant ones have peaks that become large due to intrinsic adaptation and become sharp due to an intrinsic frequency. A
How neurons change their cytoskeleton to adopt their complex polarized morphology is still not understood. Growing evidence suggests that proteins that help build microtubule structures during cell division are also involved in building and remodeling the complex cytoskeletons of neurons. Kif20b (previously called MPP1 or Mphosph1) is the most divergent member of the Kinesin-6 family of
Development of cytoskeletal polarity in cultured hippocampal neurons after 15 days in vitro. Neurons were immunostained for MAP2, a microtubule asso...
To reach their final destinations in the brain, newborn nerve cells have to travel through hoards of other neurons while constantly staying on the alert for the signposts that will direct them to their proper locations. Neurobiologists had few clues to the molecular machinery guiding these migrations until 2 years ago, when they discovered a protein called Reelin, the product of a gene which, when mutated, apparently disrupts the movements of certain brain neurons. Although Reelin looked as if it might be a signal to guide the migrating neurons, at the time no one knew how it might do this. Now, in new work reported in the August issue of Neuron and in this weeks Nature, researchers have uncovered a protein that may be part of a signaling pathway triggered by Reelin as it attracts the nerve cells to their destinations. The protein, called mDab1, is made by a gene that is mutated in mice known as scramblers, which have a behavior and brain disorganization that appear identical to those of mice ...
Various GABAergic neuron types of the amygdala cooperate to control principal cell firing during fear-related and other behaviors, and understanding their specialized roles is important. Among GABAergic neurons, the so-called intercalated cells (ITCcs) are critically involved in the expression and extinction of fear memory. Tightly clustered small-sized spiny neurons constitute the majority of ITCcs, but they are surrounded by sparse, larger neurons (L-ITCcs) for which very little information is known. We report here a detailed neurochemical, structural and physiological characterization of rat L-ITCcs, as identified with juxtacellular recording/labeling in vivo. We supplement these data with anatomical and neurochemical analyses of nonrecorded L-ITCcs. We demonstrate that L-ITCcs are GABAergic, and strongly express metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α and GABAA receptor α1 subunit, together with moderate levels of parvalbumin. Furthermore, L-ITCcs are innervated by fibers enriched with metabotropic
Despite the failure of classical basal media to support optimal neurophysiological activity, when combined with the right supplements, these media manage to support survival and neuronal differentiation in vitro.. Electrical activity is known to play an important role in neuronal development and synaptic function (47⇓-49). Typically in the brain, most newly generated glutamatergic synapses lack functional AMPA receptor-mediated transmission. Over time, these synapses are eliminated if kept silent, whereas those exposed to correlated electrical activity will maturate and prevail (47). We asked whether BrainPhys+sup could improve the synaptic function of mature neurons. To address that question, we randomly patched a homogeneous sample of 65 synapsin-GFP-positive neurons in cultures growing side by side in DMEM/F12 or BrainPhys basal (with the same supplements). To avoid possible bias due to tissue culture variability, we compared the effects of the media on neurons from the same NPCs, plated at ...
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The Neuron shipped with 200 modeled sounds already in its memory, but using their proprietary software application, ModelMaker (Mac/Win) a user can add their own sampled sounds to be modeled by the Neurons neural network, and these can be stored in the user memory banks (sounds could be brought into the Neuron via analog, S/PDIF or USB connections). Instead of oscillators, the Neuron uses Resynators, of which it has two. Each resynator holds a single model (you can freely assign any models in memory to each resynator to build your sound). Each resynator has a joystick that lets you adjust the scape and the sphere of the sound. Scape refers to the generation properties of a sound (such as the excitation source in a real instrument), sphere would contain all parameters referring to the properties of the resonating instrument body. The Neurons Blender function lets you mix the results of the two resynators in a variety of ways, including morphing and crossfading. It even lets you ...
Around 15 years ago, researchers discovered that the adult rodent brain contains discrete populations of stem cells which continue to divide and produce new neurons throughout life. This discovery was an important one, as it overturned a persistent dogma in neuroscience which held that the adult mammalian brain cannot regenerate. Since then, neural stem cells…
Notice that the neurons arent being called "junk neurons," as in the exploded concept of vast libraries of "junk DNA." Quite the contrary, they are given the somewhat glamorous cachet of "dark" neurons, as in "dark matter." Perhaps something has been learned from the collapse of the concept of "junk DNA." The neurons from the deep dark past story sounds like the myth of the triune brain (that is, our mammal brain is built on top of a reptile brain, and our human brain is built on that). It sounds really convincing if you believe it anyway but it doesnt represent how the brain is organized very well. A lot of this stuff would make great sci-fi, of course. See also: Life Forms Are Not Machines And Neurons Are Not Neural Networks Unique Type Of Cell Found In Human Brain: Rosehip Neurons. Researcher: Y chromosome not a genetic wasteland after all and. Do We Have A Reptilian Brain? At Last, A Question We Can Easily Answer. Follow UD News at Twitter! ...
I am trying to use this same approach in a new network model, but I am having some trouble. I am trying to record the LFP contribution from a subset of neurons in a network of 800 total neurons. The problem is that the LFP registers action potentials, but not post-synaptic potentials. For instance, I ran a simulation in which I recorded both the intracellular voltage and the LFP from one single neuron in the network. (I recorded the LFP from a single neuron by defining a subset of sections belonging to just that neuron, then passing that subset of sections to a callback using extra_scatter_gather.) The intracellular voltage shows EPSPs ...
Anybody do the Ion channel effects on neuron membrane potentials KA passage. I could not follow through what the 2nd paragraph meant. A scientist is...
Development of the axon and dendritic arbors in cultured hippocampal neurons after 7 days in vitro. MAP2 staining (red) highlights the dendrites, whil...
Types The simplest way to classify neurons is based on their function (see Figure 3).Which of the following types of neurons carry impulses away.. Which of the following statements about sensory. downward utilizes cell bodies of first order sensory neurons.The following image. function of the nervous system, neurons have.Interneurons are types of nerve. the analogous neurons have been named. some of the more compelling ideas about the possible functions of interneurons.Functions of the Nervous System 1. interpret the message from the sensory neurons ...
When two neurons connect, they link together with a structure called a synapse, a space through which one neuron can send and receive electrical and chemical signals to or from another neuron. Even if multiple neurons are very close together, they need synapses to truly communicate.. The Lois laboratory has developed a method for tracing the flow of information across synapses, called TRACT (Transneuronal Control of Transcription). Using genetically engineered Drosophila fruit flies, TRACT allows researchers to observe which neurons are "talking" and which neurons are "listening" by prompting the connected neurons to produce glowing proteins.. With TRACT, when a neuron "talks"-or transmits a chemical or electrical signal across a synapse-it will also produce and send along a fluorescent protein that lights up both the talking neuron and its synapses with a particular color. Any neurons "listening" to the signal receive this protein, which binds to a so-called receptor molecule-genetically ...
Fin Design + Effects was commissioned by Glowy Films to design direct and visualise a 30 second animation to showcase the launch of the new Mazda 6 Atenza into the Chinese market.. The story follows the birth of a neuron. It then branches out connecting with other neurons to create a network of pulsing energy. Neuron "synapses" burst forth, mapping out the key components of the Mazda 6. This journey continues onwards until both driver and Mazda 6 connect as one.. Some of the challenges on this project were the custom development of the Neuron effect that grows to build the Mazda 6. Approximately 3 weeks of R&D was taken to develop the specific behaviour of the branching neurons.. The whole commercial is one long camera move without any edits or transitions over the 30 second duration. It is a special skill that our 3D team has to create a CG camera that flows naturally and moves seamlessly. In this case, from the macro world of a Neuron, through the car interior, to the exterior of the car ...
This color combined image shows the spatial relationship between filamentous actin (red) and microtubule array (green) in cultured hippocampal neurons...
Neural stem/progenitor cell study offers novel avenues for understanding the etiology and for developing potential treatment of many developmental and behaviora...
In their latest tests, the research group and colleagues from the Max Planck Institute and the University Hospital Münster and the University of Bielefeld succeeded in creating stable nerve tissue in the brain from neurons that had been reprogrammed from skin cells. The stem cell researchers technique of producing neurons, or more specifically induced neuronal stem cells (iNSC), in a petri dish from the hosts own skin cells considerably improves the compatibility of the implanted cells. The treated mice showed no adverse side effects even six months after implantation into the hippocampus and cortex regions of the brain. In fact it was quite the opposite -- the implanted neurons were fully integrated into the complex network of the brain. The neurons exhibited normal activity and were connected to the original brain cells via newly formed synapses, the contact points between nerve cells ...
What and When: The 2018 NEURON Summer Course is a six day hands-on course about computational modeling with NEURON. It will start at 9 AM on Monday, August 6, and end at 5 PM on Saturday, August 11, 2018. This course will present what you need to know to use NEURON to model individual neurons and networks of neurons, and is suitable for participants at all levels of expertise ...
Neurons process and transmit information in the form of electrical signals. Their electrical excitability is due to the presence of voltage-sensitive ion channels in the neuronal plasma membrane. In recent years, the voltage-sensitive sodium channel of mammalian brain has become the first of these important neuronal components to be studied at the molecular level. This article describes the distribution of sodium channels among the functional compartments of the neuron and reviews work leading to the identification, purification, and characterization of this membrane glycoprotein.. ...
Cognitive decline in old age is linked to decreasing production of new neurons. Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center have discovered in mice that significantly more neurons are generated in the brains of older animals if a signaling molecule called Dickkopf-1 is turned off. In tests for spatial orientation and memory, mice in advanced adult age whose Dickkopf gene had been silenced reached an equal mental performance as young animals.

The hippocampus - a structure of the brain whose shape resembles that of a seahorse - is also called the gateway to memory. This is where information is stored and retrieved. Its performance relies on new neurons being continually formed in the hippocampus over the entire lifetime. However, in old age, production of new neurons dramatically decreases. This is considered to be among the causes of declining memory and learning ability, Prof. Dr. Ana Martin-Villalba, a neuroscientist, explains.

Martin-Villalba, who heads a research
Tissue and organ function has been conventionally understood in terms of the interactions among discrete and homogeneous cell types. This approach has proven difficult in neuroscience due to the marked diversity across different neuron classes, but it may be further hampered by prominent within-class variability. Here, we considered a well-defined canonical neuronal population-hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (CA1 PCs)-and systematically examined the extent and spatial rules of transcriptional heterogeneity. Using next-generation RNA sequencing, we identified striking variability in CA1 PCs, such that the differences within CA1 along the dorsal-ventral axis rivaled differences across distinct pyramidal neuron classes. This variability emerged from a spectrum of continuous gene-expression gradients, producing a transcriptional profile consistent with a multifarious continuum of cells. This work reveals an unexpected amount of variability within a canonical and narrowly defined neuronal population ...
Neuronal differentiation and aging are known to involve many genes, which may also be differentially expressed during these developmental processes. From primary cultured cerebral cortical neurons, we have previously identified various differentially expressed gene transcripts from cultured cortical neurons using the technique of arbitrarily primed PCR (RAP-PCR). Among these transcripts, clone 0-2 was found to have high homology to rat and human synaptic glycoprotein. By in silico analysis using an EST database and the FACTURA software, the full-length sequence of 0-2 was assembled and the clone was named as mouse synaptic glycoprotein homolog 2 (mSC2). DNA sequencing revealed transcript size of mSC2 being smaller than the human and rat homologs. RT-PCR indicated that mSC2 was expressed differentially at various culture days. The mSC2 gene was located in various tissues with higher expression in brain, lung, and liver. Functions of mSC2 in neurons and other tissues remain elusive and will ...
Looking for Adaptive Linear Neuron? Find out information about Adaptive Linear Neuron. Name given by Widrow to adaptive linear neurons, that is neurons which learn using the Widrow-Huff Delta Rule. See also Madaline Explanation of Adaptive Linear Neuron
A research team from Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciencia (Portugal) developed a new genetic technique that allows the elimination of specific neurons of the peripheral nervous system without affecting the brain. Using this novel technique in mice, the researchers were able to study the function of the neurons that innervate the adipose tissue, and saw that their elimination results in mice pounding up very quickly. This study was published on April 3rd in Nature Communications.
Axon terminals are distal terminations of the branches of an axon. An axon nerve fiber is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses (called "action potentials") away from the neurons cell body, or soma, in order to transmit those impulses to other neurons. Neurons are interconnected in complex arrangements, and use electrochemical signals and neurotransmitter chemicals to transmit impulses from one neuron to the next; axon terminals are separated from neighboring neurons by a small gap called a synapse, across which impulses are sent. The axon terminal, and the neuron to which it is attached, is sometimes referred to as the "presynaptic" neuron ...
This disclosure provides improved methods for obtaining populations of neural progenitor cells and differentiated neurons from pluripotent stem cells. The technology can be used to produce progenitors that proliferate through at least 40 doublings, while maintaining the ability to differentiate into a variety of different neural phenotypes. Cell populations have been obtained that contain a high proportion of cells staining for tyrosine hydroxylase, which is a feature of dopaminergic neurons. The neural progenitors and terminally differentiated neurons of this invention can be generated in large quantities for use in drug screening and the treatment of clinically important neurological disorders, such as Parkinsons disease ...
Adult neurogenesis occurs in a unique microenvironment (niche) and recapitulates the complete neural developmental process in a mature central nervous system. Our primary research interests are: 1) To identify the circuit mechanisms that regulate neural circuit organization and function at distinct stages of adult neurogenesis, including activation and fate choice of quiescent neural stem cells, survival of proliferating neural progenitors, and synaptic integration of newborn neurons; 2) To understand how circuit-level information-processing properties are remodeled by the integration of new neurons into existing circuits and how dysregulation of this process may contribute to various neurological and mental disorders. Our long-range goals are to translate general principles governing neural network function into directions relevant for understanding neuropsychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia and autism, and neuronal replacement therapy for brain injuries, such as stroke and Alzheimers ...
The middle panels (labeled B) show the mean firing rate response to each of the composite forms tested (5 × 16 array) at the most responsive spatial location. The adjacent panels to the right show the Z scores of the responses after subtracting the mean spatial response (see Experimental Procedures and Figure S1A, available online, for details of assessing significance). Example neuron I is preferentially tuned Selleckchem MEK inhibitor to straight shapes, neuron II to medium-curvature shapes, and neuron III to high-curvature/C shapes. Neuron IV had a significant spatial response. but no significant shape selectivity. The distribution of spatial and shape selective tuning is shown in Figure 1B. Across the population, 80 of 93 neurons showed significant shape selectivity while a smaller subset (n = 13, labeled in blue) had spatial tuning without significant shape tuning. We did not analyze this subset further. Furthermore, among neurons with significant shape selectivity, those preferring either ...
The neuron that receives signals via a synaptic connection. A chemical synaptic connection between two neurons allows to transmit signals from a presynaptic neuron to a postsynaptic neuron.
Collapsin-response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are highly expressed in the developing brain where they play major roles in axonal outgrowth, neurite differentiation, and apoptosis (1). Their continued expression in areas of high synaptic remodeling such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, and the olfactory system suggests that these proteins may also be involved in adult brain plasticity (2). CRMP-1 was initially identified as a dihydro-pyrimidinase expressed exclusively in brain (3); later studies have shown that it is involved with neurotrophin (NT) 3-induced neurite formation and outgrowth (4). CRMP-1 localization switches from axonal to somatodendritic when neurons reach functional maturity, suggesting that it is involved in early neuronal differentiation as well as in later processes related to the survival or death of the newly generated neurons (5). ...
How brain size and neuron size are controlled is not clearly understood. Brain size correlates with body size both between and within different species of animals, and as animals develop and grow their nervous systems also enlarge (1, 2). Differences in brain size are not just due to cell number, but also to the extent of the arborizations that neurons make. For example, both within and between closely related species of mammals, the length and complexity of dendritic arborizations in ganglia of the autonomic nervous system correlate with the size of peripheral target tissues (3, 4). Moreover, the number of primary dendritic branches per neuron correlates with the number of preganglionic neurons providing synaptic input, and this in turn parallels activity levels (3, 5). How the growth of neuronal arbors in the central nervous system is regulated is poorly understood. DArcy Thompson, in his seminal work On Growth and Form, suggested that "the ganglion cells […] continue to grow, and their ...
Freely adjust this neuron diagram science template from color scheme to text font style to reflect a more valid human neuron system. Get to know the every detail of your own neuron cell body. More design features are included in the free trial.
import numpy as np from neuron import h """There should be some code here to create a neuron model with a soma""" #To create a numpy array containing the stimulation time tstim = np.array([10,20]) #To convert this array into a NEURON vector tstim_n = h.Vector(tstim) #Then create a VecStim object and play the NEURON vector vplay = h.VectStim() vplay.play(tstim_n) #This is the pointprocess object syn = h.ExpSyn(soma(0.5)) #To connect the pointprocess and play vector using a netcon netcon = h.NetCon(vplay, syn) netcon.weight[0] = 0.001 """There should be some code here to launch a NEURON simulation ...
Connector neurons, also called interneurons, connect sensory neurons to motor neurons. They interpret the impulses received from sensory neurons and determines the appropriate response to the stimuli. It then passes this impulse along to motor neurons. Interneurons are located in the spinal cord or the brain.. ...
if a stimulus is weak, only a small amount of neurotransmitter will be released, resulting in the threshold not being reached. Summation is therefore used to add together the effect of neurotransmitters realeased from multiple neurones.. Spatial summation. Two or more neurones release their neurotransmitters at the same time onto the same postsynaptic neurone. The sum of these neurotransmitters is enough to reach the threshold value and and trigger an action potential in the postsynaptic neurone.. Temporal summation. Two or more nerve impulses arrive in quick succession from the same presynaptic neurone. This makes an action potential more likely because more transmitter is released onto the synaptic cleft, reaching the threshold value.. ...
At birth, the neurons in the visual and motor cortices have connections to the superior colliculus, spinal cord, and pons ... The neurons in each cortex are selectively pruned, leaving connections that are made with the functionally appropriate processing centers ... Therefore, the neurons in the visual cortex prune the synapses with neurons in the spinal cord, and the motor cortex severs connections with the superior colliculus ...
is the effector organ? The effector organ is one of the five basic components of a reflex arc. The other four components are motor neuron, the sensory receptor, the sensory neuron, and the interneurons. The motor neuron organizes the action. The sensory receptor recognizes the stimulus and sends it to the sensory neuron. The interneurons, on the other hand, lie between two neurons and ...
INTRODUCTION Scientists are building detailed maps of the cellular composition in the human brain to learn about its development. In the human cortex, the largest area of the mammalian brain, neural circuits are formed through anatomical refinement, including axon and synaptic pruning, and the emergence of complex patterns of network activity during early fetal development. Cellular analyses in the human brain are restricted to postmortem material, which cannot reveal the process of development. Model organisms are, therefore, commonly used for studies of brain physiology, development, and pathogenesis, but the results from model organisms do not always translate to humans. RATIONALE Systems to model human neuron dynamics and their dysfunction in vivo are needed. While biopsy specimens and the generation of neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could provide the necessary human genetic background, two- and three-dimensional cultures lack factors that normally support neuronal ...
Neurons send signals to other cells as electrochemical waves travelling along thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals called neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses. A cell that receives a synaptic signal may be excited, inhibited, or otherwise modulated. Sensory neurons are activated by physical stimuli impinging on them, and send signals that inform the central nervous system of the state of the body and the external environment. Motor neurons, situated either in the central nervous system or in peripheral ganglia, connect the nervous system to muscles or other effector organs. Central neurons, which in vertebrates greatly outnumber the other types, make all of their input and output connections with other neurons. The interactions of all these types of neurons form neural circuits that generate an organisms perception of the world and determine its behavior. Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glial cells (or simply ...
In this work we aim to cast the problem of steering cortical areas of the brain away from pathological behavior found in neural disorders as optimal control problems. Applying this methodology from control theory permits a systematic way to design input to be used in implant devices. By applying methods from optimal ensemble control, we can design stimuli which are robust to variation and uncertainty in system parameters. We have done this for both single neuron models and population level models. Population level models offer several advantages - namely the measurements that are made by clinical equipment (e.g., EEG) and stimulus we deliver are typically at this aggregated level rather than at the individual neuron level.. An exciting direction that we are currently exploring, because the brain is a complex system relatively well characterized by its neural connectivity, is connecting some of this work to our research into control of networks.. ...
Our findings represent a breakthrough in the understanding of how the complexity and resiliency of the brain are sustained when confronted with adversities such as stroke, Parkinsons or Alzheimers and neuroprotection signaling needs to be activated," says Dr. Bazan. "A key factor is how neurons communicate among themselves. These novel molecules participate in communicating messages to overall synaptic organization to ensure an accurate flow of information through neuronal circuits.. We know how neurons make synaptic connections with other neurons, however these connections have to be malleable to change strength appropriately. Elovanoids might play a central role as synaptic organizers, especially important in conditions resulting from synaptic dysfunction such as autism or amyotropic lateral sclerosis, for which we have no therapeutic answers." ...
These two papers from the Greengard and Gouras labs identify specific pre- and postsynaptic defects in cultured neurons induced by exposure to the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). It is well-established that synaptic loss likely occurs early in the Alzheimer pathological cascade, and rodent studies have demonstrated a specific depression in long-term potentiation associated with Aβ1-42. These two new studies, therefore, provide mechanistic insights into neuronal alterations potentially associated with AD memory loss. The Snyder et al. study demonstrates a specific loss of surface NMDA glutamate receptors in cortical neurons exposed to Aβ. Importantly, they go far beyond this observation and provide evidence for an Aβ-dependent molecular cascade that involves the α7 nicotinic receptor, protein phosphatase 2B, and tyrosine phosphatase, ultimately culminating in enhanced endocytosis of the NMDA receptor. In the Almeida et al. study, cultured primary neurons from the well-studied Tg2576 AD mouse model ...
Much like snowflakes, no two neurons are exactly alike. But its not their size or shape that sets them apart, its the way they respond to incoming stimuli.. Carnegie Mellon University researchers have discovered that this diversity is critical to overall brain function and essential in how neurons process complex stimuli and code information. The researchers published their findings, the first to examine the function of neuron diversity, in Nature Neuroscience.. Estimates say that the human brain alone has upwards of 100 billion neurons, which can be broken down into a number of different types. While members of the same type look structurally alike, and, as a group, contribute to completing the same overall task, each individual neuron in that group fires in response to subtle differences in the incoming stimulus.. "Diversity is an intrinsic good," said Nathan Urban, professor and head of CMUs Department of Biological Sciences. "A population in which each member is a little different - in ...
Rapid signaling between vertebrate neurons occurs primarily at synapses, intercellular junctions where quantal release of neurotransmitter triggers rapid changes in membrane conductance through activation of ionotropic receptors. Glial cells express many of these same ionotropic receptors, yet little is known about how receptors in glial cells become activated in situ. Because synapses were thought to be the sole provenance of neurons, it has been assumed that these receptors must be activated following diffusion of transmitter out of the synaptic cleft, or through nonsynaptic mechanisms such as transporter reversal. Two recent reports show that a ubiquitous class of progenitors that express the proteoglycan NG2 (NG2 cells) engage in rapid signaling with glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons through direct neuron-glia synapses. Quantal release of transmitter from neurons at these sites triggers rapid activation of aminomethylisoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) or GABA(A) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Shock membrane electropotential drops and limited diffusive distance of β-amyloids in cerebral neurons are detrimental enhancement to Alzheimers diseases. AU - Chang, Chi Huan. AU - Peng, Chiung Huei. AU - Chen, Kuan Chou. AU - Huang, Hsien Bin. AU - Chiu, Wen Ta. AU - Peng, Robert Y.. PY - 2009/10/15. Y1 - 2009/10/15. N2 - Molecular physicobiochemical calculations indicated that the metallic ion binding to beta-amyloids (Aβ) may induce production of hydrogen peroxide, which triggers the Ca ion redistribution from the extracellular to the intracellular compartmentation, resulting in a transient membrane electropotential drop by at least 208.06 mV. Moreover, using the Mark and Houwink empirical equation, we predicted that the diffusible distances of all Aβ identities would be confined in a very tiny region within a radius less than 3.96 × 10-4 cm in brain at 192 h after produced. Because of the inherent tendency of aggregation behaved by the Aβs, the maximum diffusion ...
Background: Neuronal circuit assembly comprises a number of developmental processes that ultimately underlie function. Identifying the molecular events that dictate these processes can give key insights into how neuronal circuit formation is coordinated. To begin to identify such molecular mechanisms, we have analysed the expression of a candidate gene of entirely unknown function within the nervous system. Here we reveal the spatial and temporal distribution of Lzts1 in mouse and chick embryonic spinal cord and propose potential biological functions. Results: Lzts1 mRNA is transiently expressed at the border of the ventricular and mantle zones in subsets of sensory and motor spinal neurons. The protein is localized to the cell body, axon, and trailing process of motor, commissural, and dorsal root neurons during development. Conclusions: Taken together, the spatial and temporal distribution of Lzts1 is consistent with a potential function(s) in cell cycle regulation, axon growth or guidance, ...
Video created by Peking University for the course Advanced Neurobiology I. Lets learn more about the basic unit of the nervous system: the neuron. 2000+ courses from schools like Stanford and Yale - no application required. Build career skills ...
Recent improvements in light microscopic techniques, in particular laser-scanning fluorescence microscopy, in combination with optical stimulation methods, namely optical switches and caged molecules, have made it possible to study the structure and function of neurons and their synapses in intact brain tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. These novel techniques are increasingly making it possible to study the neuronal mechanisms underlying brain functions such as learning and memory. We have implemented and tested an optical technique based on epi-fluorescence microscopy to study neuronal communication at the level of single synapses. The idea was to be able to dynamically raise the concentration of Ca2+ ions in dendritic spines or presynaptic nerve terminals of neurons, affecting calcium dependent protein systems involved in synaptic transmission and therefore inducing synaptic plasticity. For this, we made use of photo-labile calcium chelators, known as calcium-cages, which ...
Something so simple as where you parked your car can be understood as brain activity involving neurons changing their behavior upon association between a person and a particular place.-Hopes&Fears
Description:. In neuronal systems, development and learning occur through some form of Hebbs postulate - neurons that fire together, wire together. That is, modifications in synaptic strength and transmission efficiency are driven by correlations between pre and post synaptic neuronal firing activity. This leads to fascinating dynamical model systems in which the parameters of the model themselves depend on the solutions temporal activity. In this short course, we will survey the mathematical theories of synaptic plasticity that are currently used to model Hebbian learning in neuronal networks. We will explore correlation plasticity based upon mean firing rates, as well as that based upon spike-timing-dependent-plasticity (STDP) based upon the spikes times of pre- and post- synaptic neurons. We will develop learning rules for updating synapses between excitatory neurons, as well as synapses from inhibitory neurons (where pre-synaptic spiking is not relevant). We will also discuss STDP when ...
STEMdiff™ Forebrain Neuron Differentiation Kit generates forebrain-type neural precursors from ESC- and iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells
Those who know me know that I love timecourses. Everything changes over time and by characterizing these changes we can understand a phenomenon in its entirety, hopefully. We certainly cant understand it if we dont know how it changes over time! Despite all of the neurogenesis timecourse data Ive summarized previously, there are still some gaps. For example, we still dont know that much about how neurons born in infancy compare to neurons born in adulthood, and whether they go through the same growth processes. This was one of the questions I proposed to NSERC 3.5 years ago, which was funded, and is finally beginning to see the light of day. Much of this work is still in progress since, well, timecourses take time! Our model, the rat, lives for 2 years and so studying developmentally-born neurons means labelling those cells in infancy and then letting the rat grow up, letting those neurons do their thing, for 2 full years. Its completely understandable that people get frustrated when ...
There are many modes of communication that neurons use to transmit information besides what has come to be called neurotransmission. Many of these other types of communication can be classified as neuromodulatory, where instead of conveying excitation or inhibition, the signal from one neuron changes the properties of other neurons or synapses.
Weve seen that low frequencies are not produced by cortical neurons but rather by rhythm generators in the area below the cortex. As a result, neurons over large regional or even global areas of the brain can resonate to these frequencies. As they do so, they tend to operate jointly in a manner we can describe with the concepts of phase, coherence and synchrony.. Neurons which are synchronized to one of these generators use very little energy and tend to be able to pass information smoothly. When levels of slow-wave synchrony are low, this may indicate damage to the neurons or their connections, but it can also indicate the presence of unnecessary faster rhythms in the cortex.. Local frequencies. When a pool of neurons is activated to perform a task, it begins producing its own energy and de-synchronizes from subcortical generators. This activity, which we call Beta, is produced by neurons firing 13-21 times per second (13-21 Hz). As we mentioned in the previous section, when 12-15 Hz., the ...
In culture, hippocampal neurons develop a polarized form, with a single axon and several dendrites. Transecting the axons of hippocampal neurons early in development can cause an alteration of polarity; a process that would have become a dendrite instead becomes the axon (Dotti, C. G., and G. A. Banker. 1987. Nature (Lond.). 330:254-256). To investigate this phenomenon more systematically, we transected axons at varying lengths. The greater the distance of the transection from the soma, the greater the probability for regrowth of the original axon. However, it was not the absolute length of the axonal stump that determined the response to transection, but rather its length relative to the lengths of the cells other processes. If one process was greater than 10 microns longer than the others, it invariably became the axon regardless of its identity before transection. Conversely, when a cells processes were nearly equal in length, it was impossible to predict which would become the axon. In ...
Radial glial cell-neuron interaction directs axon formation at the opposite side of the neuron from the contact siteRadial glial cell-neuron interaction directs axon formation at the opposite side of the neuron from the contact site ...
In contrast, in neurons projecting to dopamine neurons, dendrites curved and coursed circuitously or turned inward toward the soma (Figure 6K). Furthermore, spines of inputs to GABAergic neurons were evenly. spaced and were of similar size. In contrast, inputs to dopamine neurons had uneven spines and varicosities, and their dendrites were irregular in contour (Figures 6D and 6H, inset). These results suggest that, whereas neurons projecting to GABAergic neurons are click here consistent with typical medium spiny neurons, neurons projecting to dopaminergic neurons have significantly different morphologies. We make two conclusions from these data: First, striatal neurons do project monosynaptically to dopamine neurons; and second, our technique is capable of revealing exquisite, cell-type-specific connectivity. Whereas SNc dopamine neurons receive the most input from the DS, VTA dopamine Buparlisib neurons receive the most input from the Acb (Figure 3). Although heterogeneity of the Acb was ...
It is well established that neurons regulate the properties of both central and peripheral glial cells. Some of these neuro-glial interactions are modulated by the pattern of neuronal electrical activity. In the present work, we asked whether blocking the electrical activity of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in vitro by a chronic treatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX) would modulate the expression of the T-type Ca2+ channel by mouse Schwann cells. When recorded in their culture medium, about one-half of the DRG neurons spontaneously fired action potentials (APs). Treatment for 4 days with 1 μM TTX abolished both spontaneous and evoked APs in DRG neurons and in parallel significantly reduced the percentage of Schwann cells expressing Ca2+ channel currents. On the fraction of Schwann cells still expressing Ca2+ channel currents, these currents had electrophysiological parameters (mean amplitude, mean inactivation time constant, steady-state inactivation curve) similar to those of control cultures. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of CRMP2 (Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2) is Involved in Proper Dendritic Field Organization. AU - Yamashita, Naoya. AU - Ohshima, Toshio. AU - Nakamura, Fumio. AU - Kolattukudy, Papachan. AU - Honnorat, Jérôme. AU - Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko. AU - Goshima, Yoshio. PY - 2012/1/25. Y1 - 2012/1/25. N2 - Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate signals for several extracellular molecules, such as Semaphorin3A and neurotrophins. The phosphorylation of CRMP1 and CRMP2 by Cdk5 at Ser522 is involved in axonal guidance and spine development. Here, we found that the Ser522-phosphorylated CRMP1 and/or CRMP2 are enriched in the dendrites of cultured cortical neurons and P7 cortical section. To determine the physiological role of CRMPs in dendritic development, we generated CRMP2 knock-in mutant mice (crmp2ki/ki) in which the Ser residue at 522 was replaced with Ala. Strikingly, the cortical basal dendrites of double mutant ...
Three types of neuron with smooth (aspiny) dendrites could be distinguished in the Golgi-impregnated rat neostriatum. Examples of each type of aspiny neuron were found with local axon collaterals within the neostriatum and these were selected for gold- toning and examination in the electron microscope. One type of aspiny neuron had an elongated, usually spindle-shaped, medium-size soma with two, or rarely three, primary dendrites originating from opposite poles of the cell; one example of this type of neuron had two separate axons. The second type of aspiny neuron had a nearly round, medium-size soma with four primary dendrites that branched profusely quite close to the cell body. A third type of aspiny neuron had a very large polygonal-shaped cell body. Afferent axon terminals were found in synaptic contact with the dendrites and cell bodies of all three types of aspiny neuron. Axon collaterals of each type of neuron displayed varicosities which, when examined in the electron microscope, were ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Asymmetrical protection of neostriatal neurons against transient forebrain ischemia by unilateral dopamine depletion. AU - Ren, Yubo. AU - Li, Xiaoda. AU - Xu, Zao C.. PY - 1997/7. Y1 - 1997/7. N2 - Neurons in the dorsal neostriatum are highly vulnerable to transient cerebral ischemia. It has been suggested that excessive dopamine release during ischemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of postischemic cell death in the neostriatum. However, it remains controversial whether depletion of dopamine protects neurons in the neostriatum against ischemic insult. In the present study, transient forebrain ischemia was induced using the four-vessel occlusion method. Ischemic depolarization was used as an indication of completed ischemia. Under our experimental conditions, ischemia that produces ~21 min ischemic depolarization caused more than 90% of cell death in the dorsolateral neostriatum. Using such ischemia as a standard insult, the effect of dopamine depletion on ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A slow excitatory postsynaptic current mediated by G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptors in rat ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. AU - Johnson, Steven W.. PY - 1997/2/28. Y1 - 1997/2/28. N2 - Dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area express metabotropic glutamate receptors, but activation of these receptors by synaptic release of neurotransmitter has not been demonstrated thus far. Patch pipettes were used to record membrane currents under voltage clamp from presumed dopamine-containing neurons in the whole-cell configuration in the rat brain slice. A short train of electrical stimuli delivered to bipolar electrodes placed in the slice evoked a slow excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC; 50-300 pA at -70 mV) which peaked 560 ms after onset and lasted several seconds, with a decay time-constant of 630 ms. This slow EPSC was voltage-dependent, and was abolished by tetrodotoxin (0.5 μM) or by perfusate containing low calcium (0.5 mM) and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin II depresses glutamate depolarizations and excitatory postsynaptic potentials in locus coeruleus through angiotensin II subtype 2 receptors. AU - Xiong, H.. AU - Marshall, K. C.. PY - 1994/9. Y1 - 1994/9. N2 - A previously reported depression of glutamate responses by angiotensin II was investigated to define the nature of this neuromodulatory effect. Studies were carried out in an in vitro brain slice preparation containing the locus coeruleus, using intracellular recordings, and iontophoretic, micropressure and bath perfusion methods for application of drugs. The angiotensin action was found to be blocked by a non-peptide antagonist specific for the angiotensin type 2 receptor, and not by an antagonist selective for the type 1 receptor. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials mediated primarily by excitatory amino acids were also depressed by angiotensin II. The angiotensin II depressions of glutamate were shown to be strong and highly specific. The low effectiveness of ...
Video articles in JoVE about olfactory receptor neurons include Perforated Patch-clamp Recording of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons in Intact Neuroepithelium: Functional Analysis of Neurons Expressing an Identified Odorant Receptor, Odorant-induced Responses Recorded from Olfactory Receptor Neurons using the Suction Pipette Technique, Whole Mount Immunolabeling of Olfactory Receptor Neurons in the Drosophila Antenna, High-throughput Analysis of Mammalian Olfactory Receptors: Measurement of Receptor Activation via Luciferase Activity, Recording Temperature-induced Neuronal Activity through Monitoring Calcium Changes in the Olfactory Bulb of Xenopus laevis, In-depth Physiological Analysis of Defined Cell Populations in Acute Tissue Slices of the Mouse Vomeronasal Organ, Localization of Odorant Receptor Genes in Locust Antennae by RNA In Situ Hybridization, Whole Mount Labeling of Cilia in the Main Olfactory System of Mice, The Olfactory System as a Model to Study Axonal Growth Patterns
Single-neuron modeling[edit]. Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.02.001. PMID 15721245.. *^ Coggan JS, Bartol TM, Esquenazi E, et al. (2005). "Evidence for ectopic ... The interactions of neurons in a small network can be often reduced to simple models such as the Ising model. The statistical ... Lapicque introduced the integrate and fire model of the neuron in a seminal article published in 1907.[16] This model is still ...
Mirror/echo neurons and auditory-motor interactions[edit]. The mirror neuron system has an important role in neural models of ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.06.013. PMID 15996544.. *^ a b Buhusi, C. V.; Meck, W. H. (2005). "What makes us tick? Functional and ... 2003). "Audiovisual mirror neurons and action recognition. Exp". Brain Res. 153: 628-636. doi:10.1007/s00221-003-1603-5. PMID ... Some mirror neurons are activated both by the observation of goal-directed actions, and by the associated sounds produced ...
Dystrophies, myositis, and motor neuron conditions[edit]. Pathologic atrophy of muscles can occur with diseases of the motor ...
Types of neurons[edit]. The optic nerve, or more precisely, the photosensitive ganglion cells through the retinohypothalamic ... Those neurons are the preganglionic cells with axons that run in the oculomotor nerves to the ciliary ganglia. ... Pretectal nuclei: From the neuronal cell bodies in some of the pretectal nuclei, axons synapse on (connect to) neurons in the ... Edinger-Westphal nuclei: Parasympathetic neuronal axons in the oculomotor nerve synapse on ciliary ganglion neurons. ...
Golgi I neurons have long axons that can move signals over long distances, such as in Purkinje cells, whereas Golgi II neurons ... The shape of a neuron often directs the neuron's function by establishing its synaptic partnerships. However, there is also a ... Neuron *^ a b Peters, Alan; Palay, Sanford L.; Webster, Henry deF. (January 1991). The Fine Structure of the Nervous System: ... and electrochemical properties of neurons. Neurons can be found in different shapes and sizes and can be classified based upon ...
Upper motor neuron syndrome[edit]. BTX-A is now a common treatment for muscles affected by the upper motor neuron syndrome ( ... Once bound to the nerve terminal, the neuron takes up the toxin into a vesicle. As the vesicle moves farther into the cell, it ...
between two neurons i and j. If w. i. j. ,. 0. {\displaystyle w_{ij},0}. , the updating rule implies that: *when s. j. =. 1. {\ ... Neurons "attract or repel each other"[edit]. The weight between two units has a powerful impact upon the values of the neurons ... is a form of local field [4] at neuron i. This learning rule is local, since the synapses take into account only neurons at ... If the bits corresponding to neurons i and j are equal in pattern μ. {\displaystyle \mu }. , then the product ϵ. i. μ. ϵ. j. μ ...
"Neuron. 81 (2): 321-332. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.11.018. PMC 3931000. PMID 24373884.. ... Cortical neuron development[edit]. Further information: Neurogenesis and Neuroepithelial cell. Cortical neurons are generated ... Neurons send excitatory fibers to neurons in the thalamus and also send collaterals to the thalamic reticular nucleus that ... Later born neurons migrate radially into the cortical plate past the deep layer neurons, and become the upper layers (two to ...
Mirror neurons[edit]. Main article: Mirror neurons. Mirror neurons are neurons in the brain that fire when another person is ... "Neuron. 65 (6): 845-51. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.03.003. PMC 3085837. PMID 20346759.. ... Research on mirror neurons, since their discovery in 1996,[34] suggests that they may have a role to play not only in action ... The neurons fire in imitation of the action being observed, causing the same muscles to act minutely in the observer as are ...
Neurons[edit]. A gap junction located in neurons is often referred to as an electrical synapse. The electrical synapse was ... When found in neurons or nerves it may also be called an electrical synapse. While an ephapse has some similarities to a gap ... Neurons within the retina show extensive coupling, both within populations of one cell type, and between different cell types. ... There has been some observation of weak neuron to glial cell coupling in the locus coeruleus, and in the cerebellum between ...
... neurons. In fact, Kisspeptin appears to act directly on GnRH neurons (via GPR54) to stimulate the secretion of GnRH. ... it is hypothesized that there are two different types of GFP-GnRH neurons due to expression in some neurons but not others, ... neuron projection. • Q14325730. Biological process. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • positive regulation of ... This event is thought to involve kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling, which leads to the eventual activation of GnRH neurons.[12] ...
Mirror neuron system[edit]. Main article: Mirror neuron. The mirror neuron system (MNS) consists of a network of brain areas ... leaving some areas of the brain with too many neurons and other areas with too few neurons.[65] Some research has reported an ... The connection between mirror neuron dysfunction and autism is tentative, and it remains to be seen how mirror neurons may be ... Lord C, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, Amaral DG (November 2000). "Autism spectrum disorders". Neuron. 28 (2): 355-63. doi:10.1016/ ...
Modelling the neurons in more detail[edit]. The artificial neuron model assumed by Kurzweil and used in many current artificial ... In addition the estimates do not account for glial cells which are at least as numerous as neurons, may outnumber neurons by as ... Each of the 1011 (one hundred billion) neurons has on average 7,000 synaptic connections to other neurons. It has been ... Williams RW, Herrup K (1988), "The control of neuron number", Annual Review of Neuroscience, 11: 423-53, doi:10.1146/annurev.ne ...
BEAM Nv Neurons[edit]. The standard for BEAM-based neurons is a capacitor that has one lead as an input, and the other going ... The most basic component included in Nv Networks is the Nv Neuron. The purpose of an Nv Neuron is simply to take an input, do ... The neuron functions because when an input is received (positive power on the input line), it charges the capacitor. Once the ... An example of this can be seen in a simple BEAM walker robot utilizing a bicore network (2 neurons). The neural network is set ...
Often, "a neuron can receive contacts from up to 10,000 presynaptic neurons, and, in turn, any one neuron can contact up to ... Neurons and Neural Systems[edit]. GENESIS works by creating simulation environments for constructing models of neurons or ... a b c d e f (Introduction to Neurons and Neuronal Networks John H. Byrne, Ph.D., Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, The UT ... "Dendrites are the region where one neuron receives connections from other neurons. The cell body or soma contains the nucleus ...
Neuron loss[edit]. Traditionally believed to play a major role in neuron loss, NFTs are an early event in pathologies such as ... of this neuron loss.[10] Coupled with the longevity of neurons containing NFTs, it is likely that some other factor is ... This then prompts the early formation of NFTs, which reduce oxidative damage and prolong the function of the neuron.[2] While ... Kril J. J.; Patel S.; Harding A. J.; Halliday G. M. (2002). "Neuron loss from the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease exceeds ...
Type I neurons make up 90-95% of the neurons and innervate the inner hair cells. They have relatively large diameters, are ... Type II neurons make up the remaining 5-10% of the neurons and innervate the outer hair cells. They have relatively small ... The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... Types of neurons[edit]. In mammals, cochlear nerve fibers are classified as either type I or type II. ...
"Neuron. 70 (5): 863-885. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.05.002. PMC 3939065. PMID 21658581.. ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.05.015. PMID 21658582.. *^ a b Sanders, Stephan J.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Hus, Vanessa; Luo, Rui ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.04.009.. *^ De Rubeis, Silvia; He, Xin; Goldberg, Arthur P.; Poultney, Christopher S.; Samocha, ... Amygdala neurons[edit]. This theory hypothesizes that an early developmental failure involving the amygdala cascades on the ...
Magnocellular neurons: *Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin and arginine vasopressin AVP), the majority of ...
talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Neurons: c-e; clarify re whether 'axons frequently travel'). *(diff , hist) . . m Varicella vaccine‎; 01: ...
"The Life and Times of the 10% Neuromyth - Knowing Neurons". Knowing Neurons. 13 February 2018. Archived from the original on 15 ... neurons in the brain. The misunderstanding of the function of local neurons may have led to the ten percent myth.[12] The myth ... In debunking the ten percent myth, Knowing Neurons editor Gabrielle-Ann Torre writes that using one hundred percent of one's ... Although parts of the brain have broadly understood functions, many mysteries remain about how brain cells (i.e., neurons and ...
As SMN protein generally promotes the survival of motor neurons, mutations in SMN1 results in slow degeneration motor neurons ... The SMN protein is widely expressed in neurons and serves many functions within neurons including spliceosome construction, ... Neurodengenerative diseases of motor neurons can cause degeneration of motor neurons involved in voluntary muscle control such ... Neurodegenerative diseases of sensory neurons can cause degeneration of sensory neurons involved in transmitting sensory ...
... neurons.[37][38] Ghrelin-responsiveness of these neurons is both leptin- and insulin-sensitive.[39] Ghrelin reduces the ... Ghrelin also plays an important role in regulating reward cognition in dopamine neurons that link the ventral tegmental area to ... Ghrelin receptors are located on neurons in this circuit.[3][8] Hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is required for reward from ... releasing factor neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus following systemic injection of the GH secretagogue, GH-releasing peptide-6 ...
The stimulus-response model is a characterization of a statistical unit (such as a neuron). The model allows the prediction of ... "Neurons with hysteresis?". In Rodney Cotterill (ed.). Computer simulation in brain science. Cambridge University Press. pp. 74 ...
cAMP binds to, and activates cAMP-dependant protein kinase A (PKA), which is located intracellularly in the neuron. The PKA ... Voltage-gated dependent calcium channel, (VDCCs), are key in the depolarisation of neurons, and play a major role in promoting ... and potassium ions are pumped out of the neuron.[45] The activation of the potassium channel and subsequent deactivation of the ... belongs to a family of transcription factors and is positioned in the nucleus of the neuron. When the PKA is activated, it ...
"Neuron. 76 (2): 266-280. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.10.002. PMC 3714606 . PMID 23083731.. ... "Neuron. 76 (2): 266-280. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.10.002. PMC 3714606 . PMID 23083731.. ... Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of ... Retinal neurons include photoreceptor cells, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells. ...
"We have long considered the reorganization of the brains network of connections as solely the domain of neurons," said Ania ... The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the ... "These findings demonstrate that microglia are a dynamic and integral component of the complex machinery that allows neurons to ... The microglia "pulled up" the appropriate connections, physically disconnecting one neuron from another, while leaving other ...
Over time, we can become more cognitively efficient, using fewer neurons to do the same job. And the more often we fire up ... If I wanted to limber up my neurons, doing so online seemed a good idea -- it required no special game-playing equipment, for ... Yet, ironically, I can remember quite well the fact that as we age, some of the connections between our neurons begin to ...
... How Does a Neural Network Really Work? See the first in a three part series that explains machine learning through math ... This Artificial Neuron Can Talk to Real Brain... It works just like the real thing, but is just a smidgen bigger than… ... Scientists Find the Elusive Neurons Give Bats GPS Bats vector cells keep track of their angle and distance from a tar… ...
Retinal Neurons +Sensory Receptor Cells +Neurons, EfferentMotor Neurons +NeuropilNeuropil ThreadsNissl BodiesNitrergic Neurons ... Retinal Neurons +Sensory Receptor Cells +Neurons, EfferentMotor Neurons +NeuropilNeuropil ThreadsNissl BodiesNitrergic Neurons ... All MeSH CategoriesAnatomy CategoryNervous SystemNeuronsAdrenergic NeuronsAdrenergic FibersCholinergic NeuronsCholinergic ... All MeSH CategoriesAnatomy CategoryCellsNeuronsAdrenergic NeuronsAxonsAxon Initial SegmentGrowth ConesMossy Fibers, Hippocampal ...
The neuron did nothing. When he switched on. a bright light, the neuron became active. The light then went off, but the. neuron ... The neuron snapped into action, his. team says in last weeks Science (vol 277, p 239). "This neuron is able to keep. track of ... the neurons stay active when visual information disappears.. In one experiment, Graziano monitored one such "bimodal" neuron in ... The neuron was inactive. With the light switched off, he swivelled the. monkey around so that the tube was closer. ...
... and at the connection between the neuron and other neurons, or neurons and muscle cells, for example; these connections are ... Most neurons lack centrioles in their somas, which is the other reason why scientists believed for so long that adult neurons ... Although some of the neuron to neuron synapses occur at the perikaryon, the majority of them are found at the dendrites, which ... Neurons are designed to carry nerve impulses, basically waves of depolarization (see The Structure of the Muscles and Muscle ...
Data and computations related to neurons. Includes role of cells, defining criteria, morphology, location, electrophysiological ... Neurons From afferent sensory neurons to efferent motor neurons, find information about individual types of neuron identified ... Neurons. A neuron is a functional unit of the nervous system. There are roughly 100 billion nerve cells in the human brain that ... Properties of Neurons Explore structure characteristics, including cell body (soma), axon, dendrite and synapse properties, as ...
Watch Brain cell death caused by Mercury Killing neurons Autism ASD - Duration: 4:59. David Roscher 33,688 views ...
A command neuron is a single neuron (or small set of neurons) whose stimulation results in the evocation of an endogenous, ... neuron concept-believing that no neurons exist which can satisfy the strictures outlined in "The Command Neuron Concept". ... They suggested that for any neuron to qualify as a command neuron, its activity had to be both necessary and sufficient for the ... In 1978, Kupfermann and Weiss "The Command Neuron Concept" proposed a more rigorous definition of the command neuron than had ...
This page is part of a collection of pages on various topics of Software Automation in Neuroscience. Please direct questions and suggestions to the author Tyler Banks or Zhenru Chen at [email protected] ...
Spindle neurons, also called von Economo neurons (VENs), are a specific class of neurons that are characterized by a large ... Spindle neuron concentrations[edit]. ACC[edit]. The largest number of ACC spindle neurons are found in humans, fewer in the ... Neuronal volumes of ACC spindle neurons were larger in humans and bonobos (Pan paniscus) than the spindle neurons of the common ... Evrard HC, Forro T, Logothetis NK (May 2012). "Von Economo neurons in the anterior insula of the macaque monkey". Neuron. 74 (3 ...
Autophagy in Neurons.. Stavoe AKH1, Holzbaur ELF1.. Author information. 1. Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania ... There are both constitutive and stress-induced pathways for autophagy in neurons, which catalyze the turnover of aged or ... Autophagy is particularly important in neurons, which are terminally differentiated cells that must last the lifetime of the ... as well as the cell biology of bulk and selective autophagy in neurons. Finally, we discuss the role of autophagy in neuronal ...
This image shows a two-dimensional culture of subject-derived cortical neurons stained for neuronal markers MAP2 (red) and Tuj1 ... Neurons from people with autism exhibit different patterns of growth and develop at a faster rate. ... Neurons from people with autism exhibit different patterns of growth and develop at a faster rate. This image shows a two- ... dimensional culture of subject-derived cortical neurons stained for neuronal markers MAP2 (red) and Tuj1 (green). ...
Researchers elucidate new rules of connectivity of neurons in the neocortex As the adage goes "neurons that fire together, wire ... Studying sensory neurons could provide new insights to treat ALS Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have ... Maximal longevity in species can be better explained by number of neurons in the brain Scientists have thought that the main ... Study of gaze fixation in monkeys reveals role of dopamine neurons in response inhibition A University of Tsukuba-led study of ...
From Neurons to Networks is the third cloud film in the Let it Ripple: Mobile Films for Global Change series. All... ... "BRAIN POWER: From Neurons to Networks" is the third cloud film in the "Let it Ripple: Mobile Films for Global Change" series. ... Neurons and What They Do ~ An Animated Guide - Duration: 1:57. cosmiccontinuum 448,258 views ... Structure of a Neuron - Duration: 6:14. Smart Learning for All 487,608 views ...
Specialized cells called neurons allow you to think, feel, and move. Neurons arent only found in the brain. ... A human brain may contain as many as 100 billion neurons. Each neuron can connect to at least 1,000 other neurons, so a brain ... All animal brains are made up of neurons. A human brain has 100 billion neurons. Which animals brain has 1 billion neurons? ... Specialized cells called neurons allow you to think, feel, and move. Neurons arent only found in the brain. These tiny ...
This type of neuron is called a Purkinje cell. These neurons were stained using the Golgi Stain. (Image used with the ...
This is called a pyramidal neuron based on its shape.. Pyramidal neuron located in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog. This ... Pyramidal neuron in the cerebral cortex. (Image used with permission of The Slice of Life.). ... Neurons located in the cerebral cortex of the hamster. Golgi stain. (Image courtesy of Dr. James Crandall, Eunice Kennedy ... Neuron located in the cerebral cortex of the hamster. Golgi stain. (Image courtesy of Dr. James Crandall, Eunice Kennedy ...
The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein Kinase M molecule ... Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system ... Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system ... The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein Kinase M molecule ...
fann_get_total_neurons ( resource $ann. ) : int. Get the total number of neurons in the entire network. This number does also ... fann_get_total_neurons - Get the total number of neurons in the entire network ... Total number of neurons in the entire network, or FALSE. on error. ... include the bias neurons, so a 2-4-2 network has 2+4+2 +2(bias) = 10 neurons. ...
Repair defect in neurons hints at possible therapy for preventing ALS Houston Methodist researchers have discovered a repair ... Studying sensory neurons could provide new insights to treat ALS Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have ... Ezogabine treatment reduces motor neuron excitability in ALS patients, study shows Brian Wainger, MD, PhD, of the Healey Center ... Researchers create new light-activated tools for controlling neurons By enabling super-fast remote control of specific cells, ...
Neurons Poster created by nobeastsofierce. Order as shown, or change the print size or paper type & add custom framing. ... neuron. , neurons. , brain. , network. , cell. , cells. , electric. , synapse. , connection. , connect. , All Products: neuron ...
Brain Power: From Neurons to Networks (2012) 11min , Documentary, Short, Family , 4 November 2012 (USA) ...
... a researcher of natural sciences at Harvard has created neurons that light up as they fire. ... This brief spike in voltage travels down the neuron and then activates other neurons downstream. The genetically-altered ... A neuron has an active membrane around the whole cell and normally the inside of the cell is negatively-charged relative to the ... The genetically altered neurons use a gene from a Dead Sea microorganism that produces a protein that fluoresces when exposed ...
But it does have neurons, which have a great deal in common with the neurons in more complex animals that make up the brain and ... As they predicted, the ultrasound activated the neuron and the worm turned. And they tested other neurons as well, confirming ... who said the ability to zero in on one neuron or a group of neurons without having to insert anything into the body was " ... How ultrasound can activate neurons and make a roundworm change course.Published On. Sept. 28, 2015. By. James Gorman ...
  • Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have shown that mutations in specific genes that destroy motor neurons and thereby cause the devastating effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-- also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease -- also attack sensory neurons. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers also pinpointed one of the key molecular mechanisms in this process and observed that when a single receptor - called P2Y12 - was turned off the microglia ceased removing the connections between neurons. (rochester.edu)
  • Soon, researchers were finding command neurons in multiple invertebrate and vertebrate species , including: crickets, cockroaches, lobsters, and certain fish . (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed a stem cell-based model in order to study the resilience and vulnerability of neurons in the neurodegenerative disease ALS. (news-medical.net)
  • The genetically altered neurons use a gene from a Dead Sea microorganism that produces a protein that fluoresces when exposed to the electrical signal in a neuron, allowing researchers to visually trace how signals are transmitted through cells. (wired.com)
  • For the first time, researchers say, they have done the same with ultrasound, opening the way to a noninvasive way to probe the functions of neurons. (nytimes.com)
  • In the new work, researchers identified a specific mechanism that made neurons in a tiny worm sensitive to ultrasound. (nytimes.com)
  • Researchers believe that large cells called nucleus gigantocellularis neurons, pictured here, modulate blood flow by releasing nitric oxide. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers then added these metabolites to human neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers suggest that proteins thought to destroy neurons in people with ALS may actually have the opposite effect. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Cambridge, working in collaboration with the University of Oxford and the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), have developed a new model of a neural network, offering a novel theory of how neurons work together when performing complex movements. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The researchers found that neurons in the motor cortex might not be wired together with nearly as much randomness as had been previously thought. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Researchers looked at this phenomenon in lab mice and found that stroking stimulates a very specific set of neurons that have to do with hair. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The difference was particularly obvious in two-year old mice: In the knockout mice of this age, the researchers counted 80 percent more young neurons than in control animals of the same age. (scoop.it)
  • Although the 'Jen' and 'Halle' neurons behave much like a grandmother cell, the findings do not mean that a given brain cell will react to only one person or object, notes Christof Koch, one of the study's researchers at the California Institute of Technology. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Researchers at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) have uncovered a process used to encode memories in the synapse layer connecting neurons of the human brain. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Now, a group of researchers from the Institute of Computational Physics and Complex Systems at Lanzhou University, China, has used a combination of two computer models to study the ways different kinds of neurons can impact synchronisation. (springer.com)
  • MCT) -- In their hunt for a switch in the brain that turns on and off the drive to eat, obesity researchers have come up with a bright idea: They have tried a relatively new technique to activate or suppress certain neurons' electrical activity - introducing tiny molecular lights called optogenetics into cells' midst. (philly.com)
  • The researchers were able to glean which neurons process satiety signals by genetically engineering light-sensitivity into certain cells. (philly.com)
  • The population of amygdala central nucleus neurons identified by the researchers as implicated in satiety "suggests that these cells could provide a target for therapeutic interventions to treat obesity, anorexia or other eating disorders," the researchers wrote. (philly.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Cambridge identified the previously-unknown neuron type, which they say actively and spontaneously simulates mental decision processes when social partners learn from one another. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The researchers go on to speculate that if simulation neurons became dysfunctional this could restrict social cognition, a symptom of autism. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Surprisingly, the researchers found that when an animal observed its partner, the observer's amygdala neurons seemed to play out a decision computation. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Researchers found that the unusual nerve terminals in these neurons made lasso-like structures around the base of each hair follicle. (upi.com)
  • The researchers also expected to see cell death in adult cells with damaged telomeres, so they were surprised to find that neurons seemed to function normally if telomeres were damaged later in development, following cell division. (scripps.edu)
  • The researchers did notice an interesting difference in a brain region called the dentate gyrus, one of the few regions that continues making new neurons throughout life. (scripps.edu)
  • The researchers studied how the neurons derived from each person responded to increased levels of serotonin, mimicking the effect of SSRIs. (psychcentral.com)
  • Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. (nih.gov)
  • On either side of the cell body are the parts of the neuron that make it famous: the dendrite and the axon. (infoplease.com)
  • Explore structure characteristics, including cell body (soma), axon, dendrite and synapse properties, as well as electrophysiological characteristics of a neuron. (wolframalpha.com)
  • Spindle neurons , also called von Economo neurons ( VENs ), are a specific class of neurons that are characterized by a large spindle -shaped soma (or body), gradually tapering into a single apical axon (the ramification that transmits signals) in one direction, with only a single dendrite (the ramification that receives signals) facing opposite. (wikipedia.org)
  • bipolar neuron A neuron that has two processes, an axon and a dendron, extending in different directions from its cell body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Besides the axon, neurons have other branches called dendrites that are usually shorter than axons and are unmyelinated. (britannica.com)
  • A neuron consists of a cell body containing the nucleus, a single axon which sends messages by conveying electrical signals to other neurons, and a host of dendrites which deliver incoming signals. (greenfacts.org)
  • Illustration showing sensory neuron and its axon with myelin sheath. (smartdraw.com)
  • The neuron is composed of three main parts: axon, cell body and dendrites. (psychcentral.com)
  • The axon,which carries impulses away from the cell body, carries information via electrical impulse to its end (terminal) where neurotransmitters (chemical substances) are released into the synapse,a tiny junction between neurons. (psychcentral.com)
  • They observed that the microglia targeted the synaptic cleft - the business end of the connection that transmits signals between neurons. (rochester.edu)
  • Allman's team proposes that spindle neurons help channel neural signals from deep within the cortex to relatively distant parts of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons connect through long, spidery branches, carrying signals that control all your thoughts and behaviors. (amnh.org)
  • A single neuron can launch as many as 1,000 electrochemical signals per second! (amnh.org)
  • Signals can travel from neuron to neuron faster than race cars. (amnh.org)
  • In a scientific first that could help us better understand how signals travel in the brain , a researcher of natural sciences at Harvard has created neurons that light up as they fire. (wired.com)
  • Now, we will be able to study how the signal spreads, whether it moves through all neurons at the same speed, and even how signals change if the cells are undergoing something akin to learning. (wired.com)
  • When we reach for the much-needed cup of coffee, the neurons spring into action, sending a series of signals from the brain to the hand. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The new theory was inspired by recent experiments carried out at Stanford University, which had uncovered some key aspects of the signals that neurons emit before, during and after the movement. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The neurobiologists were able to measure these signals at various contact points of the neuron. (innovations-report.com)
  • Not many scientists would have predicted such explicit single-neuron signals associated with individual people,' says Charles Connor, a neuroscientist at Johns Hopkins University. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The molecular signals prompt the creation of neurons in different brain areas. (thefutureofthings.com)
  • Shepherd GM (1994) Discrimination of molecular signals by the olfactory receptor neuron. (els.net)
  • Binocular neurons receive inputs from both the right and left eyes and integrate the signals together to create a perception of depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons with this defect could still build effective brain circuits, receive and send signals, and carry out proper gene expression. (scripps.edu)
  • That went one of two ways: activate one neuron at a time or activate millions of neurons at a time. (wired.com)
  • While an action such as reaching for a cup of coffee may seem straightforward, the millions of neurons in the brain's motor cortex must work together to prepare and execute the movement before the coffee ever reaches our lips. (cam.ac.uk)
  • One says that millions of neurons work in concert, piecing together various bits of information into one coherent picture, whereas the other states that the brain contains a separate neuron to recognize each individual object and person. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (rochester.edu)
  • These findings demonstrate that microglia are a dynamic and integral component of the complex machinery that allows neurons to reorganize their connections in the healthy mature brain," said Grayson Sipe, a graduate student in Majewska's lab and co-author of the study. (rochester.edu)
  • If I wanted to limber up my neurons, doing so online seemed a good idea -- it required no special game-playing equipment, for example -- so I set out to test a few brain-training sites. (washingtonpost.com)
  • This Artificial Neuron Can Talk to Real Brain. (popularmechanics.com)
  • BRAIN POWER: From Neurons to Networks" is the third cloud film in the "Let it Ripple: Mobile Films for Global Change" series. (youtube.com)
  • Neurons aren't only found in the brain. (amnh.org)
  • A human brain may have as many as ________ connections between neurons. (amnh.org)
  • A human brain may contain as many as 100 billion neurons. (amnh.org)
  • Each neuron can connect to at least 1,000 other neurons, so a brain may have as many as 100 trillion connections! (amnh.org)
  • A human brain has 100 billion neurons. (amnh.org)
  • Which animal's brain has 1 billion neurons? (amnh.org)
  • A frog brain has about 16 million neurons. (amnh.org)
  • In order to create the snazzy neurons, the team cultured brain cells in the lab and then infected them with a genetically altered virus that contained the protein-producing gene. (wired.com)
  • Scientists have a complete wiring diagram of the worm's 302 neurons and all of their connections - a connectome of the sort that some investigators of the human brain imagine someday achieving for the 85 billion or more neurons inside our skulls. (nytimes.com)
  • It also may hold for the 'neural code', the basic electrical vocabulary of the neurons in the brain. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Moreover, a comparison of human and monkey brains has revealed that in both of the studied brain regions, the code used by human neurons is more rich. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Thus dopamine neurons label environmental stimuli with appe- Despite their importance, rewards do not influence the brain titive value, predict and detect rewards and signal alerting and motivating events. (psu.edu)
  • Mirror neurons are motor neurons in the brain that serve to allow us to imitate or repeat the external actions of others. (mail-archive.com)
  • Kuffler SW, Nicholls JG (1976) From Neuron to Brain . (springer.com)
  • Scientists are now working on tools to image hundreds or thousands of neurons at a time at the millisecond time scale of the brain. (wired.com)
  • Scientists working in „connectomics", a research field occupied with the reconstruction of neuronal networks in the brain, are aiming at completely mapping of the millions or billions of neurons found in mammalian brains. (nextbigfuture.com)
  • A newly-developed, highly accurate representation of the way in which neurons behave when performing movements such as reaching could not only enhance understanding of the complex dynamics at work in the brain, but aid in the development of robotic limbs which are capable of more complex and natural movements. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Better models of how neurons behave will not only aid in our understanding of the brain, but could also be used to design prosthetic limbs controlled via electrodes implanted in the brain. (cam.ac.uk)
  • synapse, or connect, with afferent sensory neurons, nerve cells that conduct information to the brain. (britannica.com)
  • As the disease progresses, tau-a malformed protein that forms snarls and tangles inside neurons-shows up in more and more brain areas. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Brain Teaser: Ready to stimulate those neurons in your temporal lobes? (sharpbrains.com)
  • Well into our 70s, we con-tin-ue to devel-op new cells in an area of the brain respon-si-ble for new mem-o-ries and explo-ration of new envi-ron-ments, sci-en-tists report. (sharpbrains.com)
  • the brain and neurons, there could be no such thing as awareness. (mail-archive.com)
  • You see, Iacoboni studies a system in the brain that is called the "mirror neuron system," which activates when we perform certain actions, think about certain actions or watch others make an action. (fastcompany.com)
  • If I see someone crying, then I know exactly what they are going through because my mirror neurons are firing in my brain as if I am actually smiling or crying. (fastcompany.com)
  • Specific molecules in the immediate environment of these stem cells determine their fate: They may remain dormant, renew themselves, or differentiate into one of two types of specialized brain cells, astrocytes or neurons. (scoop.it)
  • When you spot a celebrity on a magazine cover, your brain recognizes the image in an instant--an effect that seems to occur because of a single neuron. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In the 1960s neurobiologist Jerome Lettvin named the latter idea the 'grandmother cell' theory, meaning that the brain has a neuron devoted just for recognizing each family member. (scientificamerican.com)
  • You will become intimately acquainted with the beauty and variety of neurons - the elementary building block/microchips of the brain. (coursera.org)
  • we next show that the membrane behaves like an electrical (resistance-capacitance) RC circuit and highlight the notion of "membrane time constant" and, consequently, the ability of neurons to summate (in time) successive (synaptic) inputs ("electrical memory") - a fundamental mechanism utilized by the brain. (coursera.org)
  • Are there "dark" neurons in the brain left over from a "Jurassic Park" past? (uncommondescent.com)
  • Alternatively, the postsynaptic cell may be another neuron that transmits the signal to another neuron in the brain or spinal cord. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Studying the brain involves measuring the activity of billions of individual brain cells called neurons. (springer.com)
  • Consequently, many brain measurement techniques produce data that is averaged to reflect the activity of large populations of these neurons. (springer.com)
  • Synchronisation is important to understanding how neurons behave, which is particularly relevant with regard to brain diseases like Alzheimer's, epilepsy and Parkinson's. (springer.com)
  • The study, published today in Cell , suggests that these newly-termed 'simulation neurons' - found in the amygdala, a collection of nerve cells in the temporal lobe of the brain - allow animals (and potentially also humans) to reconstruct their social partner's state of mind and thereby predict their intentions. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This would not have been possible with human brain imaging techniques that measure the averaged activity of large numbers of neurons. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The study, published today in Neuron , combined functional imaging, recordings of electrical activity in the brain and genetics to examine how neurons respond to a variety of stimuli in mice studies. (upi.com)
  • Mirror neurons became a hot topic, and the same regions in the human brain were discovered. (yomiuri.co.jp)
  • Regarding emotions that cannot be verified in monkeys, in 2003 Marco Iacoboni et al of UCLA proved that when subjects themselves expressed fear, sadness, anger, happiness, surprise, or disgust and when they saw those same emotions in another person, their mirror neurons and their amygdala, the parts of the brain that process emotional reactions, were activated at the same time via a link called the insula. (yomiuri.co.jp)
  • In essence, telomeres protect the blueprints for the construction of neurons, the nerve cells that relay nerve impulses throughout the brain and body. (scripps.edu)
  • Each nerve cell or neuron in the brain is responsible for a specific detail in the pattern of the retinal image. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Following the brain hypothesis, which stated that the brain is responsible for all behavior, the neuron hypothesis stated that the basic unit of brain structure and function is the nerve cell (neuron and glia cells). (psychcentral.com)
  • If we are to understand the brain and its complex activities it is important to understand neurons as a basic unit. (psychcentral.com)
  • In essence, you are your brain, and your brain is largely composed of neurons, so understanding these neurons is imperative to understanding yourself. (psychcentral.com)
  • For example, a touch stimulus creates a sensation in the brain only after the afferent neurons sense the stimuli and send the information about the stimuli. (reference.com)
  • Instead of replicating the computational power of neurons in our brain, why not include a neuron in a silicon chip and make a new form of biological processor? (forbes.com)
  • We take a neuron out of the brain and have combined neurological technology with synthetic biology. (forbes.com)
  • Reports of old brains' decrepi-tude have been great-ly exag-ger-at-ed, sci-en-tists report-ed on Mon-day, unveil-ing results that con-tra-dict a much-dis-cussed 2018 study and instead sup-port the idea that human gray mat-ter is capa-ble of gen-er-at-ing new neu-rons up to the ninth decade of life. (sharpbrains.com)
  • This concept came to epitomize the general neurobiological principle that complex information can be encoded on the level of individual neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the cellular level, Neurons, Networks, and Motor Behavior describes the computational characteristics of individual neurons and how these characteristics are modified by neuromodulators. (mit.edu)
  • But, when the behaviour of individual neurons is synchronized, it produces clearly visible oscillations. (springer.com)
  • So maybe it's not surprising that our brains may come equipped with neurons that let you find your lover's lips after the light goes out. (newscientist.com)
  • The appearance of spindle neurons in distantly related clades suggests that they represent convergent evolution -specifically, as an adaptation to accommodate the increasing size of these distantly-related animals' brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spindle neurons are relatively large cells that may allow rapid communication across the relatively large brains of great apes , elephants , and cetaceans . (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of spindle neurons in diverse whale species has led to the suggestion that they are "a possible obligatory neuronal adaptation in very large brains, permitting fast information processing and transfer along highly specific projections and that evolved in relation to emerging social behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, primitive forms of spindle neurons have also been discovered in macaque monkey brains and raccoons. (wikipedia.org)
  • All animal brains are made up of neurons. (amnh.org)
  • Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center have discovered in mice that significantly more neurons are generated in the brains of older animals if a signaling molecule called Dickkopf-1 is turned off. (scoop.it)
  • A new study has found a possible reason why: The neurons in at least some of these patients' brains may become hyperactive in the presence of the drugs. (psychcentral.com)
  • It's going to be a viable technique," said William Tyler, a neuroscientist at Arizona State University, who said the ability to zero in on one neuron or a group of neurons without having to insert anything into the body was "unparalleled. (nytimes.com)
  • There's no way to stimulate the same group of neurons consistently, experiment to experiment, animal to animal. (wired.com)
  • HSD2 neurons are a small group of neurons in the brainstem which are uniquely sensitive to the mineralocorticosteroid hormone aldosterone, through expression of HSD11B2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendrite s are thought to form receiving surfaces for synaptic input from other neurons. (britannica.com)
  • This means that HSD2 neurons probably release the excitatory transmitter glutamate onto their synaptic target neurons, as all Phox2b-expressing neurons in the NTS express the vescicular glutamate transporter VGlut2. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the PPN analysis, the total number of neurons and the number of AchNs were reduced in WS/LGS and WS cases, while DRPLA cases showed a decrease in the number and percentage of AchNs. (hindawi.com)
  • Positional invari-ance and selectivity for a wide array of stimuli suggest that MSTd neurons encode patterns of motion per se, regardless of whether these motions are generated by moving objects or by motion induced by observer locomotion. (psu.edu)
  • Binocular neurons, in the sense of being activated by stimuli in either eye, are first found in the visual cortex in layer 4. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to obtain new memories in adulthood may depend on neurogenesis -- the generation of new neurons in the hippocampus -- to clear out old memories that have been. (eurekalert.org)
  • Martin-Villalba, who heads a research department at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and her team are trying to find the molecular causes for this decrease in new neuron production (neurogenesis). (scoop.it)
  • Graziadei GAM and Graziadei PPC (1979) Neurogenesis and neuron regeneration in the olfactory system of mammals. (els.net)
  • A lack of telomeres appeared to halt the growth of new neurons, a process called adult neurogenesis. (scripps.edu)
  • A highly accurate model of how neurons behave when performing complex movements could aid in the design of robotic limbs which behave more realistically. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Empathy is another type of mirroring, and has been linked with mirror neuron activity. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Deficits in mirror neuron activity have also been found in autism , in line with the parallel finding that autistics have deficits in empathy. (psychologytoday.com)
  • According to the new study, "subjects with active psychosis were found to have greater … mirror neuron activity, which correlated to greater psychotic symptoms. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The authors point out that this finding translates to nearly 20 percent greater mirror neuron activity in actively psychotic subjects compared to healthy participants, and that this degree of mirror neuron activity was directly correlated with the severity of their psychotic symptoms, despite the fact that many of them were taking anti-psychotic medications at the time. (psychologytoday.com)
  • for instance, mu wave suppression in electroencephalography recordings is considered as an evidence of mirror neuron activity. (scirp.org)
  • Professor Earl Miller discusses the hypothesis that an entire network of neurons are required to perceptually identify a single object. (curriki.org)
  • In this approach, a network of neurons is connected one-by-one. (ibm.com)
  • Could data propagate over a network of neurons, instead of from one neuron to another? (ibm.com)
  • These are neurons that form a connection between two or more neurons creating a complex network of neurons. (reference.com)
  • But a closer look at what exactly the neurons in the human cingulate cortex and amygdala are saying has revealed that they employ strikingly different neural codes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But at a minimum, the authors have shown the following: in both humans and rhesus monkeys, neurons in the cingulate cortex employ a richer neural code than neurons in the amygdala. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Experiments with conventional tracers and immunofluorescence staining have demonstrated peripheral viscerosensory input from the vagus nerve, input from nearby neurons in the NTS and area postrema, and descending input from the medial central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN). (wikipedia.org)
  • When scientists "turned the lights on" and activated a unique cluster of cells in the amygdala central nucleus associated with satiety, the effect was not increased anxiety, but calm: In lab tests, mice whose satiety neurons were activated by molecular light were no more likely to show signs of fear than were control mice: They just ate less. (philly.com)
  • We were surprised to find that amygdala neurons not only learn the value of objects from social observation but actually use this information to simulate a partner's decisions. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Until now, however, it was unknown whether amygdala neurons also contribute to advanced social cognition, such as simulating others' decisions. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The study recorded activity from individual amygdala neurons as macaque monkeys took part in an observational learning task. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Location of neurons predicting partner's choices superimposed on a stained section through one animal's amygdala. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Grabenhorst said: "Simulation and decision neurons are closely intermingled within the amygdala. (cam.ac.uk)
  • However, scientists are now beginning to appreciate that, in addition to serving as the brain's first line of defense, these cells also have a nurturing side, particularly as it relates to the connections between neurons. (rochester.edu)
  • Neurons are designed to carry nerve impulses, basically waves of depolarization (see The Structure of the Muscles and Muscle Cells "You've Got Potential"), along the length of the cell, which is made up of cytoplasmic extensions called dendrites and axons . (infoplease.com)
  • Command decisions are increasingly seen as being governed by networks of interacting and redundant cells, not simply by single neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autophagy is particularly important in neurons, which are terminally differentiated cells that must last the lifetime of the organism. (nih.gov)
  • Specialized cells called neurons allow you to think, feel, and move. (amnh.org)
  • In ALS, motor neurons - which are the nerve cells that control voluntary muscle movement - will gradually deteriorate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In a previous study, the team found that fibrous aggregates made of just three SOD1 proteins - referred to as "trimers" - can destroy motor neuron-like cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hence, in analogy to vertebrate hair cells, the mechanosensory neurons of the fly serve dual, transducing, and actuating roles, documenting a striking functional parallel between the vertebrate cochlea and the ears of Drosophila . (pnas.org)
  • Metabolic interactions between neurons and glial cells can occur in at least two different ways, 1) transfer of a metabolite from a cell type, competent in producing this specific intermediate, to another cell type, which does not have the metabolic machinery to do so, and 2) release of messengers from one cell type which regulate the metabolic activity in a different cell type. (springer.com)
  • However, for reasons that are unclear, neurons seemed more resistant to RNAi than other cell types, perhaps because of differences related to the RNA transport across the cell membrane or the RNAi pathway in these cells. (pnas.org)
  • Nevertheless, neurons are cells, and some of their most important functional properties arise from their cellular characteristics and from cell-cell interactions that are not directly related to signaling activities. (springer.com)
  • We di-rectly tested whether MSTd neurons perform such a decom-position by examining whether there are cells that are pref-erentially tuned to intermediate spiral motions, which combine both expansion/contraction and rotation components. (psu.edu)
  • Sensory cells carry afferent impulses to a central interneuron, which makes contact with a motor neuron. (britannica.com)
  • Soft culture substrates improve the yield of functional motor neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells. (nature.com)
  • Neural stem cells in the hippocampus are responsible for continuous supply of new neurons. (scoop.it)
  • Martin-Villalba's team discovered that stem cells in the hippocampus of Dickkopf knockout mice renew themselves more often and generate significantly more young neurons. (scoop.it)
  • Moreover, the newly formed cells in the adult Dickkopf-1 mutant mice matured into potent neurons with multiple branches. (scoop.it)
  • These cells probably respond to a wide range of items (some neurons responded to more than one person or object). (scientificamerican.com)
  • We are not saying that these are grand-mother cells, but for familiar things, like your family or celebrities, things you see frequently, the neurons are wired up and fire in a very specific way--much more so than previously thought,' Koch explains. (scientificamerican.com)
  • They asked whether the neuron is a separate "independent" unit (like other cells in other tissues) or whether it is part of a continuum? (coursera.org)
  • In HSD2 neurons (and all other cells that express both HSD2 and MR), aldosterone binds to MR and translocates it from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, causing transcriptional changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike aldosterone-sensitive cells in epithelial tissues (e.g. in the kidney), the physiologic effects of aldosterone-MR activation in HSD2 neurons are unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • These disparity selective cells, also known as binocular neurons, were again found in the awake behaving macaque monkey in 1985. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used stem cell reprogramming techniques to turn the skin cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and from there into neurons. (psychcentral.com)
  • What's exciting is that we could look directly at human cells, neurons that are not usually accessible in living patients," said Krishna Vadodaria, a Salk staff scientist and first author of the new paper. (psychcentral.com)
  • This artistic image shows neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells of antidepressant (SSRI) resistant depressed patients. (psychcentral.com)
  • Neurons are small cells that reside throughout the human body. (reference.com)
  • Sensory neurons are nerve cells that run from receptor cells in the body to the sp. (reference.com)
  • We have long considered the reorganization of the brain's network of connections as solely the domain of neurons," said Ania Majewska, Ph.D. , an associate professor in the Department of Neuroscience at the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) and senior author of the study. (rochester.edu)
  • Ten years ago this month, Nature Neuroscience published the first paper showing that a light-sensitive protein from algae worked-and worked well-at turning on rat neurons. (wired.com)
  • Iacoboni, a UCLA neurologist & neuroscientist, is a leading authority on "mirror neurons," a recently discovered phenomenon that some experts predict will transform neuroscience similarly to the way the discovery of DNA transformed biology. (fastcompany.com)
  • The study's lead author, Dr Fabian Grabenhorst from the Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, says: "We started out looking for neurons that might be involved in social learning. (cam.ac.uk)
  • IBM announced a breakthrough with artificial neurons to detect patterns and correlations, to speed up cognitive computing for faster processing of big data. (eweek.com)
  • In a blog post on the new discovery, IBM research scientist Manuel Le Gallo said IBM has developed artificial neurons that can be used to detect patterns and discover correlations in big data, with power budgets and at densities comparable to those seen in biology. (eweek.com)
  • Le Gallo said the artificial neurons are built to mimic what a biological neuron does, though they won't have the exact same functionality. (eweek.com)
  • Artificial neurons and processing elements for artificial neurons are disclosed. (google.com)
  • But millions of new connections between neurons form with every new experience and everything you learn. (amnh.org)
  • Michael Graziano and his team at Princeton University in New Jersey discovered three years ago that some neurons in the brain's premotor cortex seem to do two related jobs: they are important for tactile sensation and for visual awareness of the area immediately around the face. (newscientist.com)
  • In 1999, neuroscientist Prof. John Allman and colleagues at the California Institute of Technology first published a report on spindle neurons found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of hominids, but not in any other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons located in the cerebral cortex of the hamster. (washington.edu)
  • First observed in monkeys, these are neurons in the motor cortex which fire to produce an action but which are also seen to fire at a much lower level when the subject observes the action carried out by another actor. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In people as in monkeys, it seems that seeing someone else perform an act is reflected in the mirror neurons of the cortex. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The behaviour of neurons in the motor cortex can be likened to a mousetrap or a spring-loaded box, in which the springs are waiting to be released and are let go once the lid is opened or the mouse takes the bait. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Cortex neurons have been found to play a major role in these degenerative and developmental disorders. (lonza.com)
  • Cortex neurons have been used in understanding the mechanism of neuronal plasticity. (lonza.com)
  • When neurons are lost due to stroke, for example, a group of new cortex neurons will begin to perform the functions of the original group. (lonza.com)
  • Ferrari, P.F., Gallese, V., Rizzolatti, G. and Fogassi, L. (2003) Mirror Neurons Responding to the Observation of Ingestive and Communicative Mouth Actions in the Monkey Ventral Premotor Cortex. (scirp.org)
  • Binocular neurons appear in the striate cortex (V1), the prestriate cortex (V2), the ventral extrastriate area (V4), the dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT), medial superior temporal area, caudal intraparietal area, and a collection of areas in the anterior inferior temporal cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons in the prestriate cortex (V2) are more sensitive to different disparities than those in the striate cortex (V1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Binocular neurons in the striate cortex (V1) are only sensitive to absolute disparity, where in other visual cortical areas they are sensitive to relative disparity. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the prestriate cortex (V2) and ventral extrastriate area (V4), binocular neurons respond most readily to a centre-surround stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed] On one hand, the anticorrelated response of the binocular neurons in the striate cortex (V1), the prestriate cortex (V2), dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT), and medial superior temporal area, all show similar responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary neurons were cultured directly from the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats, acting as in vitro model in the present study. (hindawi.com)
  • Neurons, too, have a nucleus, but it is away from where the action is! (infoplease.com)
  • Although the nucleus is usually a hotbed of activity, it is less so in neurons. (infoplease.com)
  • Acetylcholinergic neurons (AchNs) in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) are involved in mental development, and disruption of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can lead to epilepsy. (hindawi.com)
  • Multiple mGluR subtypes are localized within the rat thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), and we have examined the effects of activating these different receptor subtypes on the excitability of these neurons using an in vitro slice preparation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) consists of a thin layer of GABA-containing neurons that forms a shell predominantly lateral to the dorsal thalamus ( Jones, 1985 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, a circuit diagram made up of mouse, monkey, or human neurons might be expected to perform the same computation. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Over time, we can become more cognitively efficient, using fewer neurons to do the same job. (washingtonpost.com)
  • These specialized functions have often been attributed to anatomy: one region might have greater or fewer neurons than the other, and those neurons might wire into different circuits. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A command neuron is a single neuron (or small set of neurons) whose stimulation results in the evocation of an endogenous , specific, naturally occurring behavior pattern (Carew, 2000). (wikipedia.org)
  • In one patient, a single neuron responded to seven different photographs of actor Jennifer Aniston, while it practically ignored the 80 other images of animals, buildings, famous or nonfamous people that were also presented. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Besides celebrities, famous buildings, such as the Sydney Opera House and the Tower of Pisa, elicited single-neuron firing. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The first time I learned that scientists could control neurons with light, I definitely did not keep my cool. (wired.com)
  • Before optogenetics, neuroscientists largely relied on iplanting electrodes to control neurons. (wired.com)
  • The auditory sense organ, Johnston's organ, is located in the second segment of the antenna (Fig. 1 A ). The organ houses several hundred stretch-sensitive chordotonal sensilla, each comprising two to three primary neurons with ciliated dendrites ( 15 , 19 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • It has six layers and contains between 10 and 14 billion neurons. (lonza.com)
  • This image shows a two-dimensional culture of subject-derived cortical neurons stained for neuronal markers MAP2 (red) and Tuj1 (green). (eurekalert.org)
  • A University of Tsukuba-led study of gaze fixation in monkeys and their refusal to redirect the gaze onto a target in return for a reward reveals that dopamine neurons are key to inhibiting preplanned actions. (news-medical.net)
  • You can read the full study, titled Optical recording of action potentials in mammalian neurons using a microbial rhodopsin here. (wired.com)
  • They suggested that for any neuron to qualify as a command neuron, its activity had to be both necessary and sufficient for the initiation of the behavior it was purported to command. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fifty years of command neurons: the neurobiology of escape behavior in the crayfish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent advances in motor behavior research rely on detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the neurons and networks that generate motor behavior. (mit.edu)
  • The behavior of alpha-synuclein in neurons. (nih.gov)
  • The advancement of the treatment of psychiatric illness is hampered because neuron-neuron interactions that cause animal behavior are poorly understood. (google.com)
  • Present-day neuron models are unlikely to advance our understanding of how neurons control behavior. (google.com)
  • In understanding the biological bases of behavior it is important to gain an understanding of neurons and neurotransmitters. (psychcentral.com)
  • Here we review the core components of the pathway for autophagosome biogenesis, as well as the cell biology of bulk and selective autophagy in neurons. (nih.gov)
  • But Rodrigo Quian Quiroga of the University of Leicester in England and his colleagues decided to investigate just how selective single neurons might be. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The mirror neurons of the rhesus monkeys were activated much more strongly in response to the former than the latter, because the purpose or intention of putting something into one's mouth (that is, eating) is important to the monkeys, regardless of the kind of thing that is picked up. (yomiuri.co.jp)
  • There are both constitutive and stress-induced pathways for autophagy in neurons, which catalyze the turnover of aged or damaged mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, other cellular organelles, and aggregated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • This chapter considers neurons from a cellular perspective, focusing on those aspects of cellular existence that are unique in neurons or that figure importantly in neuronal function. (springer.com)
  • Dr Belinda Cupid, of the MND Association, said: "We know from recent research that signs of motor neurone damage, on a cellular level, in models of MND occur very much earlier than the symptoms appear, so any new knowledge of how healthy motor neurones and muscles interact will give us new clues about what might be going wrong in those people affected by this cruel disease. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The genetically-altered protein sits in the membrane of the neurons and light up as the pulse passes through them. (wired.com)
  • They were then able to choose and genetically modify single neurons and activate them with ultrasound. (nytimes.com)
  • Here we identify two genetically distinct, spatially segregated populations of excitatory neurons in the mouse BLA that participate in valence-specific behaviors and are connected through mutual inhibition. (nature.com)
  • Most neurons lack centrioles in their somas, which is the other reason why scientists believed for so long that adult neurons didn't divide. (infoplease.com)
  • The scientists found that while small aggregates of SOD1 can drive the neurological disease, it is possible that larger aggregates may actually help to protect neurons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A team of scientists at IBM Research in Zurich has developed technology that imitates the way neurons spike, such as when a person touches something sharp or very hot. (eweek.com)
  • And other scientists had put other opsins into neurons, but it never worked very well. (wired.com)
  • In the past decade, scientists have optimized that first opsin and found new ones that can inhibit neurons or respond to different colors of light. (wired.com)
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried have now shown for the first time that contact points between specific neuron types are clustered in groups on the target neuron. (innovations-report.com)
  • Scientists have identified a molecule which could be key to understanding the cause of motor neurone disease (MND) and other neurodegenerative disorders. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Olfactory receptor neurons are the primary sensory cell in a system designed to detect and discriminate between a large and diverse array of chemical ligands called odours. (els.net)
  • Firestein, Stuart J(Apr 2001) Olfactory Receptor Neurons. (els.net)
  • The term "HSD2 neurons" is used in the scientific literature to refer to a subpopulation of neurons in the NTS which express both the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Afferent neurons are also known as sensory receptor neurons. (reference.com)
  • Mirror neurons were first discovered in 1990s in the premotor area (F5) of macaque monkeys. (scirp.org)
  • Then, in 2005, Rizzolatti's colleague Leonardo Fogassi and his team demonstrated how the mirror neurons in rhesus macaques were activated differently depending on whether the monkeys saw experimenters picking up food and putting it to their mouth or picking it up and putting it into a container. (yomiuri.co.jp)
  • The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein Kinase M molecule. (eurekalert.org)
  • This particular protein called channelrhodopsin-2, isolated from green algae, is an ion channel that opens in response to blue light, creating a current much like a neuron firing. (wired.com)
  • The slightly longer version is that you find a gene unique to the neurons you want to stimulate, and use genetic tools to basically hitch the light-sensitive protein into those neurons and those neurons alone. (wired.com)
  • The subtype of motor neurons that is most likely to degenerate early in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is prone to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in mice, owing to low levels of SIL1, an ER-associated protein. (nature.com)
  • This neuron is able to keep track of the position of the head relative to the stimulus," says Graziano. (newscientist.com)
  • In lab tests on a patch of mouse skin, these neurons didn't respond to a single stimulus. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Nerve endings on one end of each neuron are encased in a special structure to sense a specific stimulus. (howstuffworks.com)
  • To study the effects on synchronisation, the authors examined neurons called inhibitory neurons - which work to slow down or stop the activity of other neurons. (springer.com)
  • Moreover, they explored the likelihood of these inhibitory neurons firing either spontaneously or not at all within the network. (springer.com)
  • Their findings indicate that inhibitory neurons can have a two-fold impact on oscillatory patterns. (springer.com)
  • This is the first report demonstrating an inhibitory effect of Rhy against MA impairment in cultured neurons in vitro . (hindawi.com)
  • How ultrasound can activate neurons and make a roundworm change course. (nytimes.com)
  • Francis Crick speculated about the 'way-out' idea of using light to activate neurons back decades ago. (wired.com)
  • The additive conditional shifts can then activate or deactivate neurons on the fly, depending on the task and the contents of memory. (microsoft.com)
  • Several other experimental conditions that reduce extracellular fluid volume-including PEG-hypovolemia, diuresis, and adrenalectomy-also activate HSD2 neurons, although none do so to as great an extent as simply removing sodium from the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Faced with replicating this biological process Agabi and his 10-person company, Koniku, based in the Bay Area investigated whether they could replicate the neuron using hardware or through software. (forbes.com)
  • His ultimate aim is to 'build a truly cognitive system' combing neurological and biological material made from synthetic neurons with silicon within the next five to seven years. (forbes.com)