The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Hypothalamic nucleus overlying the beginning of the OPTIC TRACT.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.
Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
Neurons that fire when an animal acts or observes the same action of another thus coding the motor response. They were originally discovered in the premotor and parietal cortex of the monkey and studies have shown that neurons that have a similar mechanism are present in humans. Mirror neurons are theorized to be related to social cognition.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.

Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/57549)

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

Long-term effects of N-2-chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride on noradrenergic neurones in the rat brain and heart. (2/57549)

1 N-2-Chlorethyl-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP 4) 50 mg/kg intraperitoneally, produced a long-term decrease in the capacity of brain homogenates to accumulate noradrenaline with significant effect 8 months after the injection. It had no effect on the noradrenaline uptake in homogenates from the striatum (dopamine neurones) and on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in various brain regions. 2 In vitro DSP 4 inhibited the noradrenaline uptake in a cortical homogenate with an IC50 value of 2 muM but was more than ten times less active on the dopamine uptake in a striatal homogenate and the 5-HT uptake in a cortical homogenate. 3 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited the uptake of noradrenaline in the rat heart atrium in vitro but this action was terminated within 2 weeks. 4 DSP 4 (50 mg/kg i.p.) cuased a decrease in the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) activity in the rat brain and heart. The onset of this effect was slow; in heart a lag period of 2-4 days was noted. In brain the DBH-activity in cerebral cortex was much more decreased than that in hypothalamus which was only slightly affected. A significant effect was still found 8 months after the injection. The noradrenaline concentration in the brain was greatly decreased for at least two weeks, whereas noradrenaline in heart was only temporarily reduced. 5 The long-term effects of DSP 4 on the noradrenaline accumulation, the DBH activity and noradrenaline concentration in the rat brain were antagonized by desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p.). 6 It is suggested that DSP 4 primarily attacks the membranal noradrenaline uptake sites forming a covalent bond and that the nerve terminals, as a result of this binding, degenerate.  (+info)

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (3/57549)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

oko meduzy mutations affect neuronal patterning in the zebrafish retina and reveal cell-cell interactions of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. (4/57549)

Mutations of the oko meduzy (ome) locus cause drastic neuronal patterning defect in the zebrafish retina. The precise, stratified appearance of the wild-type retina is absent in the mutants. Despite the lack of lamination, at least seven retinal cell types differentiate in oko meduzy. The ome phenotype is already expressed in the retinal neuroepithelium affecting morphology of the neuroepithelial cells. Our experiments indicate that previously unknown cell-cell interactions are involved in development of the retinal neuroepithelial sheet. In genetically mosaic animals, cell-cell interactions are sufficient to rescue the phenotype of oko meduzy retinal neuroepithelial cells. These cell-cell interactions may play a critical role in the patterning events that lead to differentiation of distinct neuronal laminae in the vertebrate retina.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (5/57549)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (6/57549)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Sex differences in the effects of early neocortical injury on neuronal size distribution of the medial geniculate nucleus in the rat are mediated by perinatal gonadal steroids. (7/57549)

Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats, untreated female rats and female rats treated perinatally with testosterone propionate, all of which had received either neonatal cortical freezing or sham injury. Both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had significantly smaller MGN neurons when compared to their sham-operated counterparts, whereas untreated females with microgyria did not. These differences were also reflected in MGN neuronal size distribution: both male and androgenized female rats with microgyria had more small and fewer large neurons in their MGN in comparison to shams, while there was no difference in MGN neuronal size distribution between lesioned and sham females. These findings suggest that perinatal gonadal steroids mediate the sex difference in thalamic response to induction of microgyria in the rat cortex.  (+info)

Trans-synaptically induced bursts in regular spiking non-pyramidal cells in deep layers of the cat motor cortex. (8/57549)

In deep layers of the cat motor cortex, we have investigated the properties of neurons displaying trans-synaptically induced bursts. In in vivo experiments, extracellularly recorded burst neurons were separated into two subtypes based on their dependence on stimulation sites, the medullary pyramid or the ventrolateral (VL) thalamic nucleus, from which bursts of 10-20 spikes were triggered. The spike amplitude attenuation and frequency adaptation during a burst were more prominent in pyramid-dependent burst neurons than in VL-dependent burst neurons. Intracellular recordings in in vivo experiments revealed that pyramid-dependent bursts emerged from a long-lasting depolarization, while each spike during a VL-dependent burst was narrow in half-width and was followed by a fast AHP, similar to fast spiking neurons. In in vitro slice experiments, intracellular recordings were obtained from neurons that displayed a burst of attenuated spikes emerging from a long-lasting depolarization, and were also obtained from fast spiking neurons. They were morphologically recovered to be multipolar cells with sparsely spiny dendrites and local axonal networks, suggesting that they are inhibitory interneurons. The multipolar neurons displaying bursts of attenuated spikes may mediate the recurrent inhibition of pyramidal tract cells.  (+info)

Multipolar neurons are neurons that have one axon and many dendrites. These dendrites or multi-processes give the neuron many connection points to other neurons. Multipolar neurons function as either...
atterns in a network, it was found that the weighted hidden neuron activations feeding the output neuron(s) displayed remarkably consistent patterns. Specifically, redundant hidden neurons exhibit weighted activation patterns that are highly correlated. Therefore, the paper proposes identifying hidden neurons with weighted activation patterns that are highly correlated and using one neuron to represent a group of correlated neurons. The paper proposes to automate this process in two steps: 1) Map the correlated weighted hidden neuron activation patterns onto a self organising map; and 2) Form clusters of SOM neurons themselves to find the maximum likely number of clusters of correlated activity patterns. The likely number of clusters on the map indicates the required number of hidden neurons to model the data. The paper highlights the approach using an example and demonstrates its application to solving two problems including a realistic problem of predicting river flows in a catchment in New ...
Traditionally, cultures of primary cortical neurons are prepared from embryonic animals because at prenatal stages neurons have not yet developed extensive axonal and dendritic arbors and are not highly innervated, thus rendering the cells less susceptible to damage during dissociation of the neuronal tissue. The appropriate developmental age for preparing primary cultures of any cell type is determined by the time at which the cells of interest are generated and abundant. Most cerebral cortical neurons are generated between embryonic days (E) 11 and 17 in the mouse (embryos being considered 0.5 days old when a vaginal plug is detected in the morning). Here we describe a method to obtain short-term cultures of mouse primary cortical neurons at E15.5 and a practical application using fluorescent immunocytochemistry.
Jochen Meier Ivonne Strmel Radu Iosub Sonja Schmidt and Rosemarie Grantyn Developmental Physiology Johannes Mller Institute Humboldt University Medical School (Charit) Berlin Germany Efficient delivery of DNA to primary neuronal cell cultures is of critical importance,Effectene,Transfection,Reagent,provides,efficient,gene,delivery,,,,,,,,,,,,to,primary,neuronal,cell,cultures,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Suprathreshold corticostriatal responses recorded from medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia are different. Their differences readily distinguish D1- and D2-type receptor expressing MSNs in both bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice and their control littermates as well as in rats: indirect pathway neurons are more excitable than direct pathway neurons revealing autoregenerative spikes underlying their spike trains, whereas direct pathway neurons exhibit more prolonged plateau potentials and spike trains. SFK 81297, a selective agonist for D1-class receptors enhanced corticostriatal responses in direct pathway neurons, while quinelorane, a selective agonist for D2-class receptors reduced orthodromic and autoregenerative responses in indirect pathway neurons thus making both neuron classes similarly excitable. Because dopaminergic postsynaptic actions target CaV1 (L) class voltage-gated calcium channels in MSNs, we hypothesized that these
Elimination of spinal neurons that possess the SPR using SP-SAP offers the unique opportunity to determine the role of SPR-expressing neurons, as well as other neurons, in pain processing. SP-SAP induced specific degeneration of neurons expressing SPR receptors. This observation was made previously (Mantyh et al., 1997; Nichols et al., 1999) and is supported by present data. An interesting finding of the present study was the proportional change in the functional classification of spinal neurons encountered in animals pretreated with SP-SAP. The proportion of HT neurons encountered in control animals was ∼36%, whereas only 7% of the neurons identified in SP-SAP-treated animals were HT. This suggests that SP-SAP targeted primarily HT neurons. It has been shown in cats that HT neurons possess more SPRs than WDR neurons (Ma et al., 1996, 1997), suggesting that HT neurons are more vulnerable to SP-SAP because of the greater number of SPRs on these neurons.. The absence of sensitization and windup ...
Other articles where Multipolar neuron is discussed: human nervous system: The peripheral nervous system: Motor ganglia have multipolar cell bodies, which have irregular shapes and eccentrically located nuclei and which project several dendritic and axonal processes. Preganglionic fibres originating from the brain or spinal cord enter motor ganglia, where they synapse on multipolar cell bodies. These postganglionic cells, in turn, send their…
Primary sensory neurons in the DRG play an essential role in initiating pain by detecting painful stimuli in the periphery. Tissue injury can sensitize DRG neurons, causing heightened pain sensitivity, often leading to chronic pain. Despite the functional importance, how DRG neurons function at a population level is unclear due to the lack of suitable tools. Here we developed an imaging technique that allowed us to simultaneously monitor the activities of >1,600 neurons/DRG in live mice and discovered a striking neuronal coupling phenomenon that adjacent neurons tend to activate together following tissue injury. This coupled activation occurs among various neurons and is mediated by an injury-induced upregulation of gap junctions in glial cells surrounding DRG neurons. Blocking gap junctions attenuated neuronal coupling and mechanical hyperalgesia. Therefore, neuronal coupling represents a new form of neuronal plasticity in the DRG and contributes to pain hypersensitivity by hijacking ...
There are various types of enteric neurons. initial with top cell routine leave at E11.5 accompanied by neurofilament-M neurons Telotristat Etiprate calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons (top cell routine leave for both at E12.5-E13.5) tyrosine hydroxylase neurons (E15.5) nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) neurons (E15.5) and calretinin neurons (P0). Almost all myenteric neurons got exited Telotristat Etiprate the cell routine by P10. We didnt observe any EdU+/NOS1+ myenteric neurons in the tiny intestine of adult mice pursuing EdU shot at E10.5 or E11.5 that was unexpected as previous research show that NOS1 neurons can be found in E11.5 mice. Research using the proliferation marker Ki67 uncovered that hardly any NOS1 neurons in the E11.5 and E12.5 gut had been proliferating. Nevertheless Cre-lox-based hereditary fate-mapping revealed a little sub-population of myenteric neurons that seems to exhibit NOS1 just transiently. Jointly our outcomes confirm a romantic relationship between enteric ...
New research involving people diagnosed with Lou Gehrigs disease sheds light on how individual neurons control muscle movement in humans - and could help in the development of better brain-controlled prosthetic devices.
Activation of MLK and c-Jun is required for the death of GDNF-deprived sympathetic neurons. (A) Quantitation of neurons with strong nuclear immunostaining for phosphorylated c-Jun expressed as a percentage of all neurons. Neurons were deprived of neurotrophic factors in the presence of caspase inhibitor BAF for 48 h and immunostained with antibodies to phosphorylated serines 63 or 73 of c-Jun. Control neurons maintained with GDNF or NGF were stained as well. The mean ± SEM of four (for P-Ser-63) or three (for P-Ser-73) independent cultures is shown. Neurotrophic factor-maintained and -deprived groups were compared by t test. (B) Typical examples of weak (GDNF-deprived neurons) or strong (NGF-deprived neurons) nuclear immunostaining. Corresponding phase-contrast images are shown on the right column. Levels of the fluorescent images were equally enhanced with Adobe Photoshop software. Bar, 10 μm. (C) GDNF- or NGF- deprived sympathetic neurons were microinjected with expression plasmid encoding ...
GABAergic pathways in the brainstem play an essential role in respiratory rhythmogenesis and interactions between the respiratory and cardiovascular neuronal control networks. However, little is known about the identity and function of these GABAergic inhibitory neurons and what determines their activity. In this study we have identified a population of GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral medulla that receive increased excitatory post-synaptic potentials during inspiration, but also have spontaneous firing in the absence of synaptic input. Using transgenic mice that express GFP under the control of the Gad1 (GAD67) gene promoter, we determined that this population of GABAergic neurons is in close apposition to cardioinhibitory parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NA). These neurons fire in synchronization with inspiratory activity. Although they receive excitatory glutamatergic synaptic inputs during inspiration, this excitatory neurotransmission was not altered by blocking
OCT intensity and phase fluctuations correlated with activity-dependent neuronal calcium dynamics in the Drosophila CNS [Invited]
NETMORPH is a modular simulation tool for building synaptically connected networks with realistic neuron morphologies. Axonal and dendritic morphologies are created by using stochastic rules for the behavior of individual growth cones, the structures at the tip of outgrowing axons and dendrites (collectively called neurites) that mediate neurite elongation and branching. In brief, each growth cone has at each time step a probability to elongate the trailing neurite, to branch and produce two daughter growth cones, and to turn and change the direction of neurite outgrowth. The parameter values of the outgrowth model can be optimized so as to obtain an optimal match with the morphology of specific neuron types. Neurons are positioned in 3D space and grow out independently of each other. Axons and dendrites are not guided by any extracellular cues. Synapses between neurons are formed when crossing axonal and dendritic segments come sufficiently close to each other. NETMORPH is written in C++ and ...
Video articles in JoVE about gabaergic neurons include Vibrodissociation of Neurons from Rodent Brain Slices to Study Synaptic Transmission and Image Presynaptic Terminals, Reliable Identification of Living Dopaminergic Neurons in Midbrain Cultures Using RNA Sequencing and TH-promoter-driven eGFP Expression, The Neuroblast Assay: An Assay for the Generation and Enrichment of Neuronal Progenitor Cells from Differentiating Neural Stem Cell Progeny Using Flow Cytometry, Viral-mediated Labeling and Transplantation of Medial Ganglionic Eminence (MGE) Cells for In Vivo Studies, Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors, Intracortical Inhibition Within the Primary Motor Cortex Can Be Modulated by Changing the Focus of Attention, Protocol for the Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Mixed Cultures of Neurons and Glia for Neurotoxicity Testing, Tuning in the
NEURON files from the paper: On the mechanisms underlying the depolarization block in the spiking dynamics of CA1 pyramidal neurons by D.Bianchi, A. Marasco, A.Limongiello, C.Marchetti, H.Marie,B.Tirozzi, M.Migliore (2012). J Comput. Neurosci. In press. DOI: 10.1007/s10827-012-0383-y. Experimental findings shown that under sustained input current of increasing strength neurons eventually stop firing, entering a depolarization block. We analyze the spiking dynamics of CA1 pyramidal neuron models using the same set of ionic currents on both an accurate morphological reconstruction and on its reduction to a single-compartment. The results show the specic ion channel properties and kinetics that are needed to reproduce the experimental findings, and how their interplay can drastically modulate the neuronal dynamics and the input current range leading to depolarization block ...
The researchers focused on brain cells that transmit information from the brains cortex. Some of the cortical neurons are responsible for muscle control and are the ones lost or damaged in people with spinal cord injuries and ALS.. These stem cell-derived neurons can grow nerve fibers between the brains cerebral cortex and the spinal cord, so this study confirms the use of stem cells for therapeutic goals, the research teams leader, James Weimann, said in a news release from the Society for Neuroscience.. In laboratory dishes, the researchers grew stem cells that were precursors to cortical neurons until the cells displayed many of the characteristics of mature neurons. The new neurons were then transplanted into the cortex of newborn mice, specifically into regions that control vision, touch and movement.. The transplanted neurons grew into the appropriate brain structures and avoided inappropriate areas, the researchers reported.. The study is in the Jan. 20 issue of the Journal of ...
Neurons are cells that make up our brain and spinal cord allowing us to process our surroundings. They fire electric and chemical signals when the potential difference across their cell membrane reaches a critical voltage.. Unlike other body cells, neurons dont undergo mitosis (cell splitting). Instead, neural stem cells can generate new specialized neurons by differentiating into neuroblasts that, upon migration to a specific area, can turn into a neuron. The neuroblasts can undergo mitosis.. Neural stem cells, like all stem cells, may sit around for long periods of time before they generate a neuroblast. In the 1960s, scientists had the first indication that neurons might be generated in an adult rodent brain but it wasnt until the 1990s that scientists discovered the neural stem cells and the generation of neurons in the adult rodent brain. So it has long been wondered whether or not humans get new brain cells.. In the late 1990s scientists studying neurogenesis, the creation of new ...
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Adult mouse DRG neurones have been maintained for 14 days in cultures where non-neuronal cell proliferation was inhibited by the inclusion of 5 × 10(−6) microM-cytosine arabinoside (AraC) in the medium from the onset of culture. On uncoated plastic neurone numbers significantly declined in the absence of non-neuronal cell outgrowth compared with uninhibited co-cultures. However, when neurones were maintained in the presence of AraC on certain coated surfaces this decrease in neurone numbers was not observed. Combinations of fibronectin (FN) and laminin (LAM) proved most effective for 7 and 14 days in vitro, although either was beneficial if used separately. Microexudates produced by the fibroblast line, 3T6, also significantly improved neuronal counts for 14 days in vitro. However, a microexudate derived from primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes, although advantageous for 7 days in vitro, was not effective in maintaining neurones over the 14-day culture period, reminiscent of previous ...
Fetal Neuron Grafts Pave the Way for Stem Cell Therapies Marcia Barinaga A decade of experimental treatments using fetal neurons to replace brain cells that die in Parkinsons disease can provide lessons for planning stem cell therapies Swedish neuroscientist Anders Björklund and his colleagues may have caught a glimpse of what the future holds for the treatment of failing organs. For more than 10 years, Björklund has been part of a team at Lund University in Sweden that has been grafting neurons from aborted fetuses into the brains of patients with Parkinsons disease. In many cases, the transplanted cells have dramatically relieved the patients symptoms, which include slowness of movement and rigidity. That is just the kind of therapy that stem cell researchers hope to make routine for treating all sorts of degenerative diseases, if they can coax the cells to develop into limitless supplies of specific cell types that can be used to repair or replace damaged organs. Although the current ...
Alzheimers Disease (7) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (8) Antibodies (6) Apoptosis Detection (7) axonal regeneration (3) Cancer Research (7) Cerebral Ischemia (4) diabetes (6) e-18 Primary Rat Neurons (11) embryonic stem cells (19) enteric nervous system (5) FLICA (5) FLIVO (2) Glia Markers (5) Glial Markers (15) Hippocampal Neurons (6) human embryonic stem cells (3) Human Neural Progenitors (10) Human Neurons (6) Hypothalamic Neurons (1) Immunocytochemistry (5) Immunofluorescence (12) Immunohistochemistry (23) inflammatory response (13) MitoPT (2) Multiple Sclerosis (11) Neural Crest (2) Neural Progenitor Cells (7) Neural Stem Cell Markers (8) Neurofilament Markers (12) Neurogenesis (5) Neuronal Markers (14) Neuropathic Pain (19) Neuropeptides (7) Neuroprotection (4) neuroscience (3) Neurotoxicity (9) Neurotransmission (10) Nociceptive Pain (18) Obesity Research (6) Oligodendrocytes (8) Otx2 Antibody (2) Pain Research (27) Parkinsons Disease (10) placental mesenchymal stem cells (1) Polcaspase ...
Destruction and death of neurons can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. One possible way to treat neurodegenerative diseases and damage of the nervous system is replacing damaged and dead neurons by cell transplantation. If new neurons can replace the lost neurons, patients may be able to regain the lost functions of memory, motor, and so on. Therefore, acquiring neurons conveniently and efficiently is vital to treat neurological diseases. In recent years, studies on reprogramming human fibroblasts into neurons have emerged one after another, and this paper summarizes all these studies. Scientists find small molecules and transcription factors playing a crucial role in reprogramming and inducing neuron production. At the same time, both the physiological microenvironment in vivo and the physical and chemical factors in vitro play an essential role in the induction of neurons. Therefore, this paper summarized and analyzed these relevant factors. In addition, due to the unique advantages of physical
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of mitochondrial K+ release and cellular efflux in ischemic and apoptotic neuronal death. AU - Liu, Dong. AU - Slevin, John R.. AU - Lu, Chengbiao. AU - Chan, Sic L.. AU - Hansson, Magnus. AU - Elmér, Eskil. AU - Mattson, Mark P.. PY - 2003/8. Y1 - 2003/8. N2 - We measured and manipulated intracellular potassium (K+) fluxes in cultured hippocampal neurons in an effort to understand the involvement of K+ in neuronal death under conditions of ischemia and exposure to apoptotic stimuli Measurements of the intracellular K+ concentration using the fluorescent probe 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4′-[1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazacyclooctadecane-7, 16-diyl-bis(5-methoxy-6,2-benzofurandiyl)]bis-, tetrakis [(acetyloxy) methyl] ester (PBFI) revealed that exposure of neurons to cyanide (chemical hypoxia), glutamate (excitotoxic insult) or staurosporine (apoptotic stimulus) results in efflux of K+ and cell death. Treatment of neurons with 5-hydroxydecanoate (5HD), an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective lesion of the hippocampus increases the differentiation of immature neurons in the monkey amygdala. AU - Chareyron, Loïc J.. AU - Amaral, David G. AU - Lavenex, Pierre. AU - Rakic, Pasko. PY - 2016/12/13. Y1 - 2016/12/13. N2 - A large population of immature neurons is present in the ventro-medial portion of the adult primate amygdala, a region that receives substantial direct projections from the hippocampal formation. Here, we show the effects of neonatal (n = 8) and adult (n = 6) hippocam-pal lesions on the populations of mature and immature neurons in the paralaminar, lateral, and basal nuclei of the adult monkey amygdala. Compared with unoperated controls (n = 7), the number of mature neurons was about 70% higher in the paralaminar nucleus of neonate- and adult-lesioned monkeys, and 40% higher in the lateral and basal nuclei of neonate-lesioned monkeys. The number of immature neurons in the paralaminar nucleus was 40% higher in neonate-lesioned monkeys and 30% ...
New York University researchers have created a developmental atlas of gene expression in neurons, using gene sequencing and machine learning to categorize more than 250,000 neurons in the brains of fruit flies. Their study, published in Nature, finds that neurons exhibit the most molecular diversity during development and reveals a previously unknown type of neurons only present before flies hatch.. Diversity of the different cell types that make up our brains can only be fully understood in light of their developmental history, said NYU Biology Professor Claude Desplan, the studys senior author.. Brains are composed of thousands of different types of neurons. Despite sharing the same genetic information, neurons achieve this diversity by turning on different sets of genes in each neuron type and at each point in their development. To understand the diversity of brain cells, researchers have long studied fruit flies, whose brains, although much simpler than those of humans, can be used as a ...
J. Z. YOUNG; Cellular Basis for Long-Term Neuronal Adaptation. Biochem Soc Trans 1 October 1978; 6 (5): 839-841. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Determining the neuronal circuitry responsible for specific behaviors is a major focus in the field of neurobiology. Activity-dependent immediate early genes (IEGs), transcribed and translated shortly after neurons discharge action potentials, have been used extensively to either identify or gain genetic access to neurons and brain regions involved in such behaviors. By using immunohistochemistry for the protein product of the IEG c-Fos combined with retrograde labeling of specific neuronal populations, precise experimental timing, and identical data acquisition and processing, we present a method to quantitatively identify specific neuronal subpopulations that were active during social encounters. We have previously used this method to show a stronger recruitment of ventral hippocampal neurons that project to the medial prefrontal cortex, compared to those that project to the lateral hypothalamus, following social interactions. After optimization of surgeries for the injection of retrograde tracers,
Protecting nerve cells from losing their characteristic extensions, the dendrites, can reduce brain damage after a stroke. Neurobiologists from Heidelberg University have demonstrated this by means of research on a mouse model. The team, led by Prof. Dr Hilmar Bading in cooperation with Junior Professor Dr Daniela Mauceri, is investigating the protection of neuronal architecture to develop new approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases.
Transplantation studies suggest that the laminar fates of cerebral cortical neurons are determined by environmental signals encountered just before mitosis. In ferret, E29 progenitor cells normally produce neurons of layers 5 and 6. When transplanted during S-phase into an older ventricular zone, E29 progenitors produce neurons that change their fates and migrate to layer 2/3; however, cells transplanted later in the cell cycle migrate to their normal deep-layer positions even in an older environment (McConnell and Kaznowski, 1991). Here we utilize three culture systems to investigate the nature of the environmental signals involved in laminar specification. E29 cells were first cultured at low density to ascertain whether cell contact and/or short-range cues are required for deep layer specification. Neurons transplanted after a short time in low-density culture failed to adopt their normal fates and migrated instead to the upper layers. When crude cell contacts were restored by pelleting E29 ...
Here, based on our previous work on linear synaptic filtering [1-3], we build a general theory for the stationary firing response of integrate-and-fire (IF) neurons receiving stochastic inputs filtered by one, two or multiple synaptic channels each characterized by an arbitrary timescale. The formalism applies to arbitrary IF model neurons, and to arbitrary forms of input noise (i.e., not required to be Gaussian or to have small amplitude), as well as to any form of synaptic filtering (linear or non-linear). The theory determines with exact analytical expressions the firing rate of an IF neuron for long synaptic time constants using the adiabatic approach. The correlated spiking (cross-correlations function) of two neurons receiving common as well as independent sources of noise is also described (see figure 1). The theory is exemplified using leaky, quadratic and noise thresholded IF neurons (LIF, QIF, NTIF). Although the adiabatic approach is exact when at least one of the synaptic timescales ...
BDNF and nitric oxide signaling both contribute to plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. However the role of combined signaling of both pathways at the same synapse is largely unknown. Using NO imaging with diaminofluoresceine in cultured hippocampal neurons we analyzed the time course of neurotrophin induced NO signals. Application of exogenous BDNF, NT-4, and NT-3 (but not NGF) induced NO signals in the soma and in proximal dendrites of hippocampal neurons that were sensitive to NO synthase activity, TrkB signaling, and intracellular calcium elevation. The effect of NO signaling on neurotrophin secretion was analyzed in BDNF-GFP and NT-3-GFP transfected hippocampal neurons. Exogenous application of the NO donor sodium-nitroprusside markedly inhibited neurotrophin secretion. However, endogenously generated NO in response to depolarization and neurotrophin stimulation, both did not result in a negative feedback on neurotrophin secretion. These results suggest that a negative feedback of NO signaling on
Rabbit Polyclonal to OR10J5 adherent monolayer tradition solution to examine variations in effectiveness of neural differentiation, PKO and WT Sera cells were differentiated into neurons from the adherent monolayer tradition technique. Morphological changes had been observed 20350-15-6 manufacture throughout a differentiation period, and immunocytochemistry was performed with MAP2, an adult neuron marker. There have been no variations in the morphology or differentiation of MAP2-positive cells between WT and PKO cells (Fig. 1A). Particularly, the effectiveness of neural differentiation into dopaminergic neurons demonstrated no difference between PKO and WT Sera cells, as dependant on immunocytochemistry with TH, a dopaminergic neuron marker (Fig. 1B). Real-time RT-PCR evaluation with dopaminergic neuron markers such as for example Nurr1, Pitx3, AADC, TH, and D2R also demonstrated no difference between WT and PKO cells (Fig. 1C). Fig. 1 Induction of dopaminergic neurons from wild-type (WT) and ...
Highly connected neurons, called hub cells, are thought to contribute to certain forms of epilepsy and have also been shown to orchestrate synchrony in the hippocampus of developing rats. How hub cells are capable of hijacking networks to synchrony is not well understood. We hypothesize that the excitability type of hub cells may be an important factor. In general, neuronal excitability (which characterizes how neurons respond to input) falls into two categories, Type I and Type II, with networks of only Type II neurons synchronizing very well, and networks of only Type I neurons synchronizing rather poorly. We used computer simulations to investigate the synchronization properties of networks with a mixture of Type I and Type II neurons. We were particularly interested in the effect of placing Type II neurons as hub cells in the network. The results of these simulations show that relatively few Type II neurons are capable of hijacking the network to synchrony when they are placed as hub cells, ...
To : All First of all I would like to thank you all who answered my first question about examples of sensory neurones who have cell body located close to the stimulus ? The answers were as follows : PHOTORECEPTORS, COCHLEAR HAIR CELL, STRECH RECEPTORS, OLFACTORY RECEPTORS, GUASTATORY RECEPTORS. I looked up the sensors and found that all of them responds in a linear fashion to a increase in stimulus. However, in the enteric nervous system several authors say that the AH neurones are the sensory neurones. The AH neurone is characterized by having a prolonged after- hyperpolarization (,4 seconds) following an action potential, which is caused by opening of calcium activated potassium channels. I have always wondered why a sensory neurone would behave with such a strange pattern. The neurone is complete inactive during the after- hyperpolarization, so it is not really a matter of adaptation, but more a question of making the neurone completely inactive. The AH neurones are possibly coupled to a ...
The medial amygdala (MeA) is a central node in the interwoven circuits that regulate social behavior based on pheromones. Aromatase-expressing (arom+) neurons in the MeA are key for the establishment and maintenance of sex differences. Here, we characterized the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of arom+ neurons and non-aromatase (arom-) neurons in the MeA of male and female mice. Most electrophysiological properties were similar for arom+ neurons in the MeA between sexes, but the relative refractory period was twice as large in female mice. We also show that the firing pattern and firing frequency is markedly different between arom+ and arom- neurons. The activity of MeA neurons could be modulated by estradiol, which reduced activity in arom+ neurons in males. The differences between arom+ and arom- neurons were observed in both sexes suggesting that aromatase expression delineates a neural population in the MeA with similar and unique electrophysiological properties.
Finally, our article on human and mouse neurons has been published! The picture above shows the neurons of a human and a mouse. Human and mouse neurons are similar overall, but they also have…
A major challenge confronting the developing embryo is that of generating the appropriate numbers and distinct classes of neurons essential for constructing functional neuronal circuits. This involves tight coordination between proliferation, specification and differentiation during the course of neurogenesis. The developing spinal cord is a pertinent model with which to dissect the crosstalk that exists between these different programs, because we have a good understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing spinal neurons specification and differentiation (Dessaud et al., 2008).. The spinal cord develops from a caudal stem zone containing a pool of undifferentiated neural progenitors performing only proliferative divisions, one progenitor generating two daughter progenitor cells (PP) (Akai et al., 2005). Neural progenitors exiting the stem zone to contribute to the formation of the neural tube become subjected to morphogens, including Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which controls their specification, ...
It has been 10+ years since Gould et al. and Kempermann et al. showed that learning and enriched environments can enhance the survival of new neurons. These findings are logical precursors to the current study since, if these new neurons have all the necessary components, they suggest experience could add to the mnemonic functions of the hippocampus. But subsequent studies indicated that experience could also decrease the survival of new neurons. So perhaps structural changes to new neurons that are more relevant to learning might be worth investigating. For example, in many of my own experiments, I have failed to observe learning-induced changes in the number of new neurons but, if the number of dendrites or spines is increased, then there could still be an enhanced ability to process information. Or there could be the removal of some spines and the formation of others, suggesting a transformation in the type of information processed by new neurons. To get at these possibilities, Tronel et al. ...
The brain has evolved adaptive mechanisms for coping with stress and responds to stressors in highly stereotyped ways. One of the major physiological responses to stressful stimuli, the secretion of pituitary and adrenal hormones, is controlled by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing neurons located in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH). CRH neuroendocrine neurons constitute the primary control center in the brain for initiating hormonal responses to stress, and the control of these neurons by other parts of the brain has been the subject of intensive investigation. One of the most massive sources of input to these neurons is the collection of axonal inputs originating from subpopulations of catecholaminergic (CA) neurons located in the hindbrain. These CA neurons are critical regulators of the mammalian stress axis, releasing the neurotransmitters epinephrine, norepinephrine and other co-localized peptide hormones (such as neuropeptide Y) onto CRH neuroendocrine ...
The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) mediates important brain functions and contributes to the pathophysiology and successful drug treatment of many common psychiatric disorders, especially depression. It is established that a key mechanism involved in the control of 5-HT neurones is feedback inhibition by presynaptic 5-HT autoreceptors, which are located on 5-HT cell bodies and nerve terminals. However, recent experiments have discovered an unexpected complexity of 5-HT neurone control, specifically in the form of postsynaptic 5-HT feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms have the physiological effects of 5-HT autoreceptors but use additional 5-HT receptor subtypes and operate through neural inputs to 5-HT neurones. A postsynaptic feedback system that excites 5-HT neurones has also been reported. This article discusses current knowledge of the pharmacology and physiology of these new found 5-HT feedback mechanisms and considers their possible contribution to depression
The neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) mediates important brain functions and contributes to the pathophysiology and successful drug treatment of many common psychiatric disorders, especially depression. It is established that a key mechanism involved in the control of 5-HT neurones is feedback inhibition by presynaptic 5-HT autoreceptors, which are located on 5-HT cell bodies and nerve terminals. However, recent experiments have discovered an unexpected complexity of 5-HT neurone control, specifically in the form of postsynaptic 5-HT feedback mechanisms. These mechanisms have the physiological effects of 5-HT autoreceptors but use additional 5-HT receptor subtypes and operate through neural inputs to 5-HT neurones. A postsynaptic feedback system that excites 5-HT neurones has also been reported. This article discusses current knowledge of the pharmacology and physiology of these new found 5-HT feedback mechanisms and considers their possible contribution to depression
It has long been a dogma of neuroscience that the human brain is born with all the neurons it will ever have, and that those neurons must endure for a lifetime. But evidence has been accumulating that this dogma may not strictly be true. Neurons in the hippocampus and cerebellum, for example, differentiate through the first several years of childhood. In other species, such as mice and marmoset monkeys, new neuron growth has been found in adults. And neuronal progenitor cells have been discovered in adult human brains, although it was not known whether these stem cells normally divide into neurons. It now appears that they do, according to a study appearing in the November 1 issue of Nature Medicine by Peter S. Eriksson et al. The study involved terminal cancer patients who had been administered a diagnostic agent, BrdU (bromodeoxyuridine), that labels dividing cells. Upon the patients death, their brains were examined for the presence of BrdU. All of the patients showed evidence of recent ...
Oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)/re-oxygenation (OGDR) induces profound oxidative injury and neuronal cell death. It mimics ischemia-reperfusion neuronal injury. CPI-1189 is a novel tumor necrosis factor alpha-inhibiting compound with potential neuroprotective function. Here in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells and primary murine cortical neurons, CPI-1189 pretreatment potently inhibited OGDR-induced viability reduction and cell death. In OGDR-stimulated neuronal cells, p38 phosphorylation was blocked by CPI-1189. In addition, CPI-1189 alleviated OGDR-induced reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione consumption. OGDR-induced neuronal cell apoptosis was also inhibited by CPI-1189 pretreatment. Furthermore, in SH-SY5Y cells and cortical neurons, CPI-1189 alleviated OGDR-induced programmed necrosis by inhibiting mitochondrial p53-cyclophilin D-adenine nucleotide translocase 1 association, mitochondrial depolarization, and lactate dehydrogenase release to the medium. In summary, CPI-1189
We thank the reviewers for their thorough review. We have considered all of the comments, and in response have performed additional analyses, and have edited the text of the document to address each of the critiques. Below we respond in a point-by-point manner to each comments, our responses are in bold.. Synthesis Statement for Author (Required): SYNTHESIS. In this manuscript, the authors review the analysis of MEA data performed in previously published works and discuss the best ways to analyze MEA recordings. The authors discuss several important limitations of the MEA approach and they offer information and guidelines on ways to address these limitations. This information will be important to share with the broader neuroscience community and with scientists who. are interested in beginning to work with MEAs in particular. However, the reviewers also identified several concerns that need to be addressed.. 1) Neuronal density and array density seem to be two key variables that should greatly ...
The metazoan gut performs multiple physiologic functions, including digestion and absorption of nutrients, and also serves as a physical and chemical barrier against ingested pathogens and abrasive particles. Maintenance of these functions and structures is partly controlled by the nervous system, yet the precise roles and mechanisms of the neural control of gut integrity remain to be clarified in Drosophila. Here we screened for GAL4 enhancer-trap strains and labeled specific subsets of neurons. To inhibit their neuronal activity, we used Kir2.1. We identified an NP3253 line that is susceptible to oral infection by Gram-negative bacteria. The subset of neurons driven by the NP3253 line includes some of the enteric neurons innervating the anterior midgut, and these flies have a disorganized proventricular structure with high permeability of the peritrophic matrix and epithelial barrier. The findings of the present study indicate that neural control is crucial for maintaining the barrier function ...
The Neuron model simulates the membrane potentials in vertebrate neurons, which are modeled as three serially connected compartments: dendrite, soma, and axon. The model is designed to simulate the dynamic properties of neurons including electrotonic spread between neuronal compartments (dendrite, soma, and axon).
The word mosaic conjures up images of colorful tiles artfully arranged. For neurobiologists, the word may invoke the genetic hodgepodge that is the human brain. In the November 1 Science, researchers led by Fred Gage at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, report that the genetic makeup of our most vaunted organ is actually a mosaic of genetically distinct neurons. They found scads of genomic changes in single cells from individual brains. Neurons with different genomes are bound to have different phenotypes, though what this means for the health of the brain is unclear.. The scientists had previously found that neurons can lose or duplicate entire chromosomes and that small retrotransposons frequently copy and paste themselves within the genome of a given brain cell (see Rehen et al., 2005, Jun 2005 news story on Muotri et al., 2005). First author Michael McConnell, now at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, and colleagues characterize copy number ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Neural Regeneration. AU - So, Kwok Fai. AU - Xu, Xiao Ming. PY - 2015/2/6. Y1 - 2015/2/6. N2 - Neural Regeneration provides an overview of cutting-edge knowledge on a broad spectrum of neural regeneration, including: Neural regeneration in lower vertebrates Neural regeneration in the peripheral nervous system Neural regeneration in the central nervous system Transplantation-mediated neural regeneration Clinical and translational research on neural regeneration The contributors to this book are experts in their fields and work at distinguished institutions in the United States, Canada, Australia, and China. Nervous system injuries, including peripheral nerve injuries, brain and spinal cord injuries, and stroke affect millions of people worldwide every year. As a result of this high incidence of neurological injuries, neural regeneration and repair is becoming a rapidly growing field dedicated to the new discoveries to promote structural and functional recoveries based on neural ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Effects of Sindbis Viral Vectors on Neuronal Function. AU - Uyaniker, Seçil. AU - van der Spek, Sophie J.F.. AU - Reinders, Niels R.. AU - Xiong, Hui. AU - Li, Ka Wan. AU - Bossers, Koen. AU - Smit, August B.. AU - Verhaagen, Joost. AU - Kessels, Helmut W.. PY - 2019/8/8. Y1 - 2019/8/8. N2 - Viral vectors are attractive tools to express genes in neurons. Transduction of neurons with a recombinant, replication-deficient Sindbis viral vector is a method of choice for studying the effects of short-term protein overexpression on neuronal function. However, to which extent Sindbis by itself may affect neurons is not fully understood. We assessed effects of neuronal transduction with a Sindbis viral vector on the transcriptome and proteome in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, and analyzed the electrophysiological properties of individual CA1 neurons, at 24 h and 72 h after viral vector injection. Whereas Sindbis caused substantial gene expression alterations, changes at the ...
In contrast, in neurons projecting to dopamine neurons, dendrites curved and coursed circuitously or turned inward toward the soma (Figure 6K). Furthermore, spines of inputs to GABAergic neurons were evenly. spaced and were of similar size. In contrast, inputs to dopamine neurons had uneven spines and varicosities, and their dendrites were irregular in contour (Figures 6D and 6H, inset). These results suggest that, whereas neurons projecting to GABAergic neurons are click here consistent with typical medium spiny neurons, neurons projecting to dopaminergic neurons have significantly different morphologies. We make two conclusions from these data: First, striatal neurons do project monosynaptically to dopamine neurons; and second, our technique is capable of revealing exquisite, cell-type-specific connectivity. Whereas SNc dopamine neurons receive the most input from the DS, VTA dopamine Buparlisib neurons receive the most input from the Acb (Figure 3). Although heterogeneity of the Acb was ...
Neurons in the gracile nucleus of the camel brain stem were studied by Golgi method. Neurons were classified based on soma size and shape, density of dendritic tree, morphology and distribution of appendages. Six types of neurons were identified. Type I neurons had very large somata with appendages on their somata and distal dendrites. Type II neurons had large somata and almost smooth dendrites. Type III neurons displayed medium size somata with dendritic appendages of different forms. Type IV neurons were small to medium spheroidal or triangular neurons. Somata and dendrites of these neurons had appendages of different forms. Type V medium-size neurons had bipolar, round or fusiform somata and poorly branching dendritic tree. Some spines and appendages were seen on somata and dendrites of these neurons. Neurons of type VI were medium-size unipolar, round or fusiform with spines on their dendrites. The radiating branching pattern was more common than the tufted for all types of neurons. Wide overlap
In sensory systems, peripheral organs convey sensory inputs to relay networks where information is shaped by local microcircuits before being transmitted to cortical areas. In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity that are transmitted to output neurons in olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli. How sensory information is transferred and shaped at this level remains still unclear. Here we employ mouse genetics, 2-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, to identify a novel population of glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT3+) in the glomerular layer of the adult mouse OB as well as several of their synaptic targets. Both peripheral and serotoninergic inputs control VGLUT3+ neurons firing. Furthermore, we show that VGLUT3+ neuron photostimulation in vivo strongly suppresses both spontaneous and odour-evoked firing of bulbar output neurons. In conclusion, we identify and characterize here a microcircuit controlling the transfer of sensory information at an early
The mammalian brain maintains few developmental niches where neurogenesis persists into adulthood. One niche is located in the olfactory system where the olfactory bulb continuously receives functional interneurons. In vivo two-photon microscopy of lentivirus-labeled newborn neurons was used to directly image their development and maintenance in the olfactory bulb. Time-lapse imaging of newborn neurons over several days showed that dendritic formation is highly dynamic with distinct differences between spiny neurons and non-spiny neurons. Once incorporated into the network, adult-born neurons maintain significant levels of structural dynamics. This structural plasticity is local, cumulative and sustained in neurons several months after their integration. Thus, I provide a new experimental system for directly studying the pool of regenerating neurons in the intact mammalian brain and suggest that regenerating neurons form a cellular substrate for continuous wiring plasticity in the olfactory bulb.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synaptic potentials in rat locus coeruleus neurones. AU - Cherubini, E.. AU - North, R. A.. AU - Williams, John. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - 1. Intracellular recordings were made from locus coeruleus neurones in a slice of tissue cut from the rat pons. A depolarizing postsynaptic potential (PSP) followed electrical stimulation of the slice surface; the latency was 1-3 ms and the duration was 50-200 ms. 2. The reversal potential of the PSP (estimated by extrapolation from potentials between -60 and -90 mV) was -27 mV when the recording electrodes contained potassium chloride, and -36 mV when electrodes contained potassium acetate or methylsulphate. 3. Kynurenic acid depressed the PSP amplitude by up to 60%. The residual PSP reversed polarity at -50 mV (extrapolated, potassium chloride in electrodes) or -70 mV (observed, potassium methylsulphate in electrodes): it was blocked by bicuculline (10 μM). 4. Exogenously applied γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) depolarized cells when the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic firing properties of type I spiral ganglion neurons. AU - Davis, Robin. AU - Crozier, Robert A.. PY - 2015/7/2. Y1 - 2015/7/2. N2 - Spiral ganglion neurons, the first neural element in the auditory system, possess complex intrinsic properties, possibly required to process frequency-specific sensory input that is integrated with extensive efferent regulation. Together with their tonotopically-graded sizes, the somata of these neurons reveal a sophisticated electrophysiological profile. Type I neurons, which make up ~95 % of the ganglion, have myriad voltage-gated ion channels that not only vary along the frequency contour of the cochlea, but also can be modulated by regulators such as voltage, calcium, and second messengers. The resultant developmentally- and tonotopically-regulated neuronal firing patterns conform to three distinct response modes (unitary, rapid, and slow) based on threshold and accommodation. This phenotype, however, is not static for any individual type ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Excitation of rat locus coeruleus neurons by adenosine 5′-triphosphate. T2 - Ionic mechanism and receptor characterization. AU - Shen, Ke-Zhong. AU - North, R. A.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - ATP and several congeners were applied to locus coeruleus neurons in slices cut from rat pons. Whole-cell recording of membrane current showed that ATP caused an inward current at -60 mV. Effective concentrations (applied by superfusion) were 3-300 μM, and the peak current was about 150 pA at -60 mV. 2-Methylthioadenosine 5′-triphosphate was slightly more potent than ATP, adenosine 5′-diphosphate was about equipotent with ATP, α,β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate was slightly less potent than ATP, and β,γ′-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate and adenosine 5′-monophosphate had little or no effect. Adenosine (100 μM) caused small outward currents (40 pA). By changing the ionic composition of the pipette and extracellular solution, it was shown that the inward current ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated excitation of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons. AU - Berretta, N.. AU - Bernardi, G.. AU - Mercuri, N. B.. PY - 2000/6. Y1 - 2000/6. N2 - The effect of noradrenaline was studied in principal neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata in rat brain slices using patch clamp recordings. Perfusion of noradrenaline or the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine increased the spontaneous firing activity of reticulata cells. The α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin counteracted the effects of noradrenaline. In contrast, the β-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol did not affect the activity of reticulata cells and the β-adrenoceptor antagonist pindolol did not prevent noradrenalines effect. In whole-cell recordings, at -60 mV holding potential, noradrenaline caused a tetrodotoxin-resistant inward current with a time-course similar to the increase in firing activity. Analysis of the reversal potential of this current did not give homogeneous ...
Anatomic imaging of patients with chronic well-treated hypertension has demonstrated dilatation of the lateral cerebral ventricles and left brain atrophy, whereas positron emission tomography has shown only subtle reductions in regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in some subcortical nuclei. To further explore the implications of the imaging changes, an analytic technique designed to determine functional neuronal connectivity between regions of interest (ROIs) was applied to the data on regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose to determine if and where in the brain reduction of functional neuronal connectivity occurred.. Glucose metabolism was measured by positron emission tomography in 17 older men (age, 68 +/- 8 years) with well-controlled, noncomplicated hypertension of at least 10 years duration and in 25 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. A significant correlation difference analysis was performed to determine which ROI pairs had reduced correlation coefficients ...
The production of ferret visual cortical neurons was studied using 3H- thymidine autoradiography. The genesis of cortical neurons begins on or slightly before embryonic day 20 (E20) of the 41 d gestational period, continues postnatally until 2 weeks after birth (P14), and follows an inside-out radial gradient with neurons for the deeper cortical layers being generated before those for the superficial layers. Layer I neurons are generated both early (E20-E30) and late (P1-P14) in the period of cortical neurogenesis and, thus, provide at least a partial exception to the inside-out gradient of cortical neurogenesis. Tangential gradients of cortical neurogenesis extend across areas 17 and 18 in both the anterior-to-posterior and lateral-to-medial directions. Neither of these gradients bears a meaningful relationship to the cortical representation of the visual field. Most infragranular and granular layer neurons are generated prenatally, while most supragranular layer neurons are produced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Glucocorticoids enhance the excitability of principal basolateral amygdala neurons. AU - Duvarci, Sevil. AU - Paré, Denis. PY - 2007/4/18. Y1 - 2007/4/18. N2 - A large body of pharmaco-behavioral data implicates the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) in the facilitation of memory consolidation by emotions. Overall, this evidence suggests that stress hormones released during emotional arousal increase the activity of BLA neurons. In turn, this increased BLA activity would facilitate synaptic plasticity elsewhere in the brain, to which the BLA projects. However, the direct effects of glucocorticoids on BLA neurons are incompletely understood. In the present study, we examined the direct effects of corticosterone (CORT) on principal neurons of the rat BLA in vitro using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. We found that application of a stress level of CORT for 20 min caused significant changes in the passive properties and responsiveness of BLA cells measured 1-2 h later. ...
Hello everyone, I have a question about neuronal cell cultures, and although I know we are a group who work primarily with tissues, sometimes these types of questions come to my lab and I am intrigued enough to try to find an answer. And I though I would consult with my fellow histonetters to see if any of you have any suggestions. An investigator who works with neuronal cell cultures has fixed them with 3.5% paraformaldehyde in 1xPBS solution with success, twice. Then the third time he saw blebbing on the cell membranes, and after consulting with our confocal microscopy expert, he changed to 4% paraformaldehyde (in, I believe, the same buffer) and had the same results. It turns out our expert has had the same problem with seemingly healthy cells that develop the blebbing upon fixation. My first instinct was that he needs to adjust the osmolarity of the solutions. Then I fell back to my electron microscopy experience and thought he may need to use a different fixative/buffering system, such as ...
Vagal projecting (VP) neurons were localized by intraneural injections of fluorescent dyes or cholera toxin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP) or by intraperitoneal injection of fluorescent dyes. Spinal projecting (SP) neurons were localized by injecting CT-HRP or contrasting dyes into the C4/C5 cord segments. No doubly labelled neurons were seen in the three nuclei known to project to both vagus nerve and spinal cord, viz., dorsal nucleus of the vagus (DNV), nucleus ambiguous complex (NAc) and the intermediate region (NI) between DNV and NAc. VP and SP neurons intermingled in the caudal parts of the NAc and DNV. In the middle part of the NAc, VP neurons congregated mostly dorsal to the SP neurons. In the rostral extremity of the NAc, SP neurons were rarely encountered. No SP neurons were seen in the rostral end of the DNV. In contradistinction to the few VP neurons in the NI, there were many SP neurons in this region. The ratios of VP to SP neurons in DNV were on the average 20 to 1 and ...
BioAssay record AID 349212 submitted by ChEMBL: Activity at RYR2 receptor in rat cerebellar granule neurons assessed activation of [45Ca2+] uptake at 20 uM after 10 mins.
In severe cases of sensorineural hearing loss where the numbers of auditory neurons are significantly depleted, stem cell-derived neurons may provide a potential source of replacement cells. The success of such a therapy relies upon producing a population of functional neurons from stem cells, to enable precise encoding of sound information to the brainstem. Using our established differentiation assay to produce sensory neurons from human stem cells, patch-clamp recordings indicated that all neurons examined generated action potentials and displayed both transient sodium and sustained potassium currents. Stem cell-derived neurons reliably entrained to stimuli up to 20 pulses per second (pps), with 50% entrainment at 50 pps. A comparison with cultured primary auditory neurons indicated similar firing precision during low-frequency stimuli, but significant differences after 50 pps due to differences in action potential latency and width. The firing properties of stem cell-derived neurons were also
The distribution of serotonin (5HT-ir), FMRF amide (FMRF a-ir), catch-relaxing-peptide (CARP-ir), dopamine (DA-ir), gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA-ir), and leucokinin (LK-ir) immunoreactive neurons were compared in the ganglia of Helix CNS. These neurons are not distributed randomly, but their location outlines distinct groups in the ganglia. In a few groups only DA-ir, GABA-ir and LK-ir neurons can be seen, whereas in the majority of groups FMRFa-ir, CARP-ir and 5HT-ir neurons are localized together. In the latter groups of immunoreactive neurons either FMRFa- and CARP- or 5HT- and FMRFa-immunoreactivities coexist in numerous neurons. Immunoreactive groups composed of DA-ir, GABA-ir and LK-ir neurons are localized exclusively in the areas of the origin of skin nerves, suggesting that these neurons are related to the processing of cutaneous afferent information. Other groups constituted by 5HT-ir, FMRFa-ir and CARP-ir neurons are localized first of all in ganglia the neurons of which innervate large
Recently some studies demonstrate that adult neuronal genome is a genetic mosaic but the role of this mosaicism and how is generated are not well known. The two main mechanisms that could result in the neuronal mosaic genome are somatic recombination and the LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition. Some evidences, alterations in central nervous system development found in knock-out (KO) mice for proteins related with DNA repair processes and L1 activation in neuronal precursors, suggest that neuronal genome mosaicism may be related with the generation of neuronal diversity during central nervous system development. However, if genome reorganization processes happen in the adult nervous system during neuronal plasticity events are not established. Recently, it has been reported that neuronal activity transiently provokes increase of neuronal DNA breaks in cerebral areas where long-term neuronal plasticity events takes place, in some case related with cognition. DNA breaks have been related with the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of message expression in single neurons of Alzheimers disease brain. AU - Callahan, L. M.. AU - Chow, N.. AU - Cheetham, J. E.. AU - Cox, Christopher. AU - Coleman, P. D.. PY - 1998/1. Y1 - 1998/1. N2 - Because many cell types and disease states exist in the sample of cells in even a very small region of Alzheimers disease (AD) brain tissue, optimal understanding of disease mechanisms requires study at the level of the single cell. Our Golgi studies of single neurons in the AD brain have revealed reduced dendritic extent in many but not all, brain regions. This reduced dendritic extent is interpreted as reduced capacity of neurons in AD to proliferate new dendritic material. Studies of message expression in single neurons reveal that neurons containing neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) show reduced expression of messages for proteins related to growth of neuronal processes and to synapses. Neighboring neurons free of NFTs express these messages at levels approximating the ...
In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time an ultrafast fully functional photonic spiking neuron. Our experimental setup constitutes a complete all-optical implementation of a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron, a computational primitive that provides a basis for general purpose analog optical computation. Unlike purely analog computational models, spiking operation eliminates noise accumulation and results in robust and efficient processing. Operating at gigahertz speed, which corresponds to at least 108 speed-up compared with biological neurons, the demonstrated neuron provides all functionality required by the spiking neuron model. The two demonstrated prototypes and a demonstrated feedback operation mode prove the feasibility and stability of our approach and show the obtained performance characteristics.. © 2011 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dyrk1A phosphorylates p53 and inhibits proliferation of embryonic neuronal cells. AU - Park, Joongkyu. AU - Oh, Yohan. AU - Yoo, Lang. AU - Jung, Min Su. AU - Song, Woo Joo. AU - Lee, Sang Hun. AU - Seo, Hyemyung. AU - Chung, Kwang Chul. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2010/10/8. Y1 - 2010/10/8. N2 - Down syndrome (DS) is associated with many neural defects, including reduced brain size and impaired neuronal proliferation, highly contributing to the mental retardation. Those typical characteristics of DS are closely associated with a specific gene group Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) on human chromosome 21. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired neuronal proliferation in DS and, more specifically, a regulatory role for dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y) phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A), a DSCR gene product, in embryonic neuronal cell proliferation. We found that Dyrk1A phosphorylates p53 at Ser-15 ...
Programmed cell death is a prominent feature of embryonic development and is essential in matching the number of neurons to the target tissues that are innervated. Although a decrease in neuronal number which coincides with peripheral synaptogenesis has been well documented in the avian ciliary ganglion, it has not been clear whether cell death also occurs earlier. We observed TUNEL-positive neurons as early as stage 24, with a large peak at stage 29. This cell death at stage 29 was followed by a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) decrease in total neuron number at stage 31. The total number of neurons was recovered by stage 33/34. This suggested that dying neurons were replaced by new neurons. This replacement process did not involve proliferation because bromodeoxyuridine applied at stages 29 and 31 was unable to label neurons harvested at stage 33/34. The peak of cell death at stage 29 was increased 2.3-fold by removal of the optic vesicle and was reduced by 50% when chCNTF was ...
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Given that neurons operate by means of signal transmission and not on distinctive slow or fast timescales, Im assuming that you are looking for abstract models of neurons that are more realistic than the time-independent artificial representations most often used in neural networks, but correct me if Im wrong.. There are neuron models that attempt to mimic the biological processes of the neuron, and there are also abstract models of neurons that attempt to work in imperfect or specific conditions (i.e. in response to individual neurotransmitters, as demonstrated during synaptic transmission). These models usually take into account the action potentials (spikes) and refractory periods of real neurons, and thus these models are also known as spiking neuron models.. Here is one model of a spiking neuron, which attempts to imitate authentic spiking as observed in cortical neurons. This model incorporates Hodgkin-Huxley-type-dynamics with integrate-and-fire-type properties. ...
Translocator protein (TSPO) imaging can be used to detect neuroinflammation (including microglial activation) after acute cerebral infarction. However, longitudinal changes of TSPO binding after mild ischemia that induces selective neuronal loss (SNL) without acute infarction are not well understood. Here, we performed TSPO imaging with [18F]DPA-714 to determine the time course of neuroinflammation and SNL after mild focal ischemia. Mild focal ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 20 min. In MCAO rats without acute infarction investigated by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, in vitro ARG revealed a significant increase of [18F]DPA-714 binding in the ipsilateral striatum compared with that in the contralateral side at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after MCAO. Increased [18F]DPA-714 binding was observed in the cerebral cortex penumbra, reaching maximal values at 7 days after MCAO. Activation of striatal microglia and astrocytes was observed with immunohistochemistry
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aging and mammalian cerebral cortex. T2 - Monkeys to humans. AU - Morrison, John. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 12813209. AN - SCOPUS:0038647799. VL - 17. JO - Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. JF - Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders. SN - 0893-0341. IS - SUPPL. 2. ER - ...
The goal of this study was to understand the spontaneous neuronal activities and acoustic responses of neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AI), and the modulation of different divisions of the medial geniculate body (MGB) on different layers of the auditory cortex (AC) especially AI, through in vivo intracellular recordings and/or extracellular recordings in adult urethane-anesthetized guinea pigs. One hundred and eighty nine neurons/units in AC, distributed among all six cortical layers, were recorded intracellularly and/or extrcellularly. Thirty-one of forty intracellular recorded neurons (77.50 %) and one hundred and thirty of one hundred and forty nine extracellular recorded units (87.25%) showed excitatory responses to a noise burst stimulus applied to the contralateral ear of the animals. The extracellularly recorded neurons showed synchronized spikes with the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), action potential (AP) and/or rhythmic oscillation of the intracellularly recorded ...
In order for the axon to initiate an action potential, we know that the axon initial segment must be brought to threshold. So my question is as follows: Say we have the minimum charge input, X, necessary to depolarize the axon initial segment of Neuron 1. Now, we have Neuron 2, which has a larger soma. Will this same input X be sufficient to depolarize the axon initial segment of Neuron 2?. I am trying to explore how physical concepts like capacitance manifest in biological systems. Neuron 1s soma (approximated as a sphere) presumably has a lower capacitance than Neuron 2s soma (approximated as a sphere), due to the difference in cross sectional area of the somas. Therefore, I would assume that Neuron 2s axon initial segment requires greater input to depolarize than Neuron 1s axon initial segment.. Is this simplistic idealization of somas actually observed in experiments? ...
Expression of the neuronal marker NeuN and satellite glial cell markers GFAP and S-100 in primary rhesus DRG cultures. Primary rhesus DRG cultures showing a mat
Problem statement: It has been well documented that drugs of abuse such as cocaine can cause enhanced progression of HIV-Associated Neuropathological Disorders (HAND), the underlying mechanisms mediating these effects remain poorly understood. Approach: In present study, we explored the impact of cocaine exposure (I and 10 μM) on the dendritic beading in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Using the approach of transfection with green fluorescent protein, we observed significant dendritic swelling in hippocampal neurons exposed to 10 μM but not 1 μM of cocaine when compared with the saline treated group. Results: Cocaine exposure also resulted in decreased expression of the synaptic plasticity gene, Arc as evidenced by Western blotting. Intriguingly, cocaine exposure of primary neurons in the presence of the neurotoxin-HIV envelope protein gp 120, resulted in increased enhancement of neuronal beading as compared with exposure of neurons to either agent alone. Conclusion: Taken together these
from neuron import h Warning: no DISPLAY environment variable. --No graphics will be displayed. NEURON -- Release 7.4 (1370:16a7055d4a86) 2015-11-09 Duke, Yale, and the BlueBrain Project -- Copyright 1984-2015 See Traceback (most recent call last): File ,stdin,, line 1, in ,module, File /home/lmedina/.local/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/neuron/, line 479, in ,module, set_vec_as_numpy = nrn_dll_sym(nrnpy_set_vec_as_numpy) File /home/lmedina/.local/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/neuron/, line 394, in nrn_dll_sym dll = nrn_dll() File /home/lmedina/.local/lib64/python2.7/site-packages/neuron/, line 454, in nrn_dll raise Exception(unable to connect to the NEURON library) Exception: unable to connect to the NEURON library ,,, v=h.Vector() Traceback (most recent call last): File ,stdin,, line 1, in ,module, NameError: name h is not ...
In vitro whole-cell patch-clamp methods were used to examine the contribution of one component of intracollicular circuitry, the superficial gray layer, to the generation of bursts of action potentials that occur in the intermediate layer and that command head and eye movements in vivo. Applying a single brief (0.5 ms) pulse of current to the superficial layer of rat collicular slices evoked prolonged bursts of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the cells of the intermediate layer. The EPSCs were sufficient to elicit bursts of action potentials that lasted as long as 300 ms and resembled presaccadic command bursts. To examine the contribution of neurons within the superficial layer to the production of these bursts, we determined how superficial neurons respond to the same current pulses that evoke bursts in the intermediate layer. Recordings from 61 superficial layer cells revealed 19 neurons that produced multiple action potentials following stimulation. Nine of these 19 neurons were ...
Intrinsic neuronal excitability has been reported to change during normal aging. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a limbic forebrain structure, is involved in fear, stress and anxiety; behavioral features that exhibit age-dependent properties. To examine the effect of aging on intrinsic neuronal properties in BNST we compared patch clamp recordings from cohorts of female mice at two ages, 3-4 months (Young) and 29-30 months (Aged) focusing on 2 types of BNST neurons. Aged Type I neurons exhibited a hyperpolarized resting membrane potential (RMP) of circa -80 mV compared to circa -70 mV in the Young. A key finding in this study is a hyper-excitability of Type II neurons with age reflected in an increase in firing frequency in response to depolarizing current injections; activation of Type II neurons is believed to dampen anxiety like responses. Such age-related changes in intrinsic neurophysiological function are likely to modulate how the limbic system, acting via BNST, shapes ...
The consequences of ongoing neurogenesis have long been the subject of speculation. New neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus seem to be added throughout juvenile and adult life, suggesting that they do not replace neurons that die (36). Alternatively, work in the song-control system of birds has shown that neuronal replacement occurs in some nuclei, perhaps to play a role in song learning (37). Concerning olfaction, one possibility is that new interneurons are simply added to the bulbs, as they are in the hippocampus. Yet, although increases in the number of interneurons have been reported in the adult, substantial granule cell death has also been observed, suggesting that newly generated neurons may replace dying ones (38).. This ongoing recruitment of interneurons may also open new opportunities to investigate the cellular basis for olfactory processing and its functional plasticity. The presence of a pool of new neurons accompanied by the emergence of new synapses could play a role ...
Inhibitory neuronal activity is critical for the normal functioning of the brain, but is thought to go awry during neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Animal models have suggested both decreased and increased inhibition as possible initiators of epileptic activity, but it is not known if, or how, human inhibitory neurons shape seizures. Here, using large-scale recordings of neocortical single neurons in patients with secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures, we show that fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory activity first increases as a seizure spreads across the neocortex, impeding and altering the spatial flow of fast epileptic traveling waves. Unexpectedly, however, FS cells cease firing less than half-way through a seizure. We use biophysically-realistic computational models to show that this cessation is due to FS cells entering depolarization block as a result of extracellular potassium accumulation during the seizure and not because they are inhibited by other inhibitory subtypes. ...
The innate immune system plays a critical role in both the initial response to an invading pathogen, which frequently limits or contains pathogen replication and dissemination, and the induction of an effective adaptive immune response, which is most often the primary mechanism for pathogen clearance. The characteristics of the innate immune response are determined in part by the pathogen initiating the response but can also be influenced by the type of cell in which the response is generated. In this report, we examined the functional PRR-mediated pathways present in human neuronal cells and differentiated primary rat neurons, with a particular focus on those pathways previously identified as being important for antiviral innate immune responses in other cell types. We drew four main conclusions. First, human neuronal cells possess functional TLR3-, TLR4-, RIG-I-, and MDA5-mediated PRR pathways whose activity was maturation-dependent. Second, both extracellular and transfected poly(I-C) induced ...
Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. However, whether such pathways modulate feeding through direct synaptic control of AgRP neuron activity is unknown. Here, we show that nociceptin-expressing neurons in the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (aBNST) make direct GABAergic inputs onto AgRP neurons. We found that activation of these neurons inhibited AgRP neurons and feeding. The activity of these neurons increased upon food availability, and their ablation resulted in obesity. Furthermore, these neurons received afferent inputs from a range of upstream brain regions as well as hypothalamic nuclei. Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior ...
Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. However, whether such pathways modulate feeding through direct synaptic control of AgRP neuron activity is unknown. Here, we show that nociceptin-expressing neurons in the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (aBNST) make direct GABAergic inputs onto AgRP neurons. We found that activation of these neurons inhibited AgRP neurons and feeding. The activity of these neurons increased upon food availability, and their ablation resulted in obesity. Furthermore, these neurons received afferent inputs from a range of upstream brain regions as well as hypothalamic nuclei. Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior ...
Arcuate nucleus agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a central role in feeding and are under complex regulation by both homeostatic hormonal and nutrient signals and hypothalamic neuronal pathways. Feeding may also be influenced by environmental cues, sensory inputs, and other behaviors, implying the involvement of higher brain regions. However, whether such pathways modulate feeding through direct synaptic control of AgRP neuron activity is unknown. Here, we show that nociceptin-expressing neurons in the anterior bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (aBNST) make direct GABAergic inputs onto AgRP neurons. We found that activation of these neurons inhibited AgRP neurons and feeding. The activity of these neurons increased upon food availability, and their ablation resulted in obesity. Furthermore, these neurons received afferent inputs from a range of upstream brain regions as well as hypothalamic nuclei. Therefore, aBNST GABAergic nociceptin neurons may act as a gateway to feeding behavior ...
Single-neuron modeling[edit]. Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.02.001. PMID 15721245.. *^ Coggan JS, Bartol TM, Esquenazi E, et al. (2005). "Evidence for ectopic ... The interactions of neurons in a small network can be often reduced to simple models such as the Ising model. The statistical ... Lapicque introduced the integrate and fire model of the neuron in a seminal article published in 1907.[16] This model is still ...
Mirror/echo neurons and auditory-motor interactions[edit]. The mirror neuron system has an important role in neural models of ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.06.013. PMID 15996544.. *^ a b Buhusi, C. V.; Meck, W. H. (2005). "What makes us tick? Functional and ... 2003). "Audiovisual mirror neurons and action recognition. Exp". Brain Res. 153: 628-636. doi:10.1007/s00221-003-1603-5. PMID ... Some mirror neurons are activated both by the observation of goal-directed actions, and by the associated sounds produced ...
Dystrophies, myositis, and motor neuron conditions[edit]. Pathologic atrophy of muscles can occur with diseases of the motor ...
Upper motor neuron syndrome[edit]. BTX-A is now a common treatment for muscles affected by the upper motor neuron syndrome ( ... Once bound to the nerve terminal, the neuron takes up the toxin into a vesicle by receptor-mediated endocytosis.[50] As the ...
Types of neurons[edit]. The optic nerve, or more precisely, the photosensitive ganglion cells through the retinohypothalamic ... Those neurons are the preganglionic cells with axons that run in the oculomotor nerves to the ciliary ganglia. ... Pretectal nuclei: From the neuronal cell bodies in some of the pretectal nuclei, axons synapse on (connect to) neurons in the ... Edinger-Westphal nuclei: Parasympathetic neuronal axons in the oculomotor nerve synapse on ciliary ganglion neurons. ...
Golgi I neurons have long axons that can move signals over long distances, such as in Purkinje cells, whereas Golgi II neurons ... The shape of a neuron often directs the neuron's function by establishing its synaptic partnerships. However, there is also a ... Neuron *^ a b Peters, Alan; Palay, Sanford L.; Webster, Henry deF. (January 1991). The Fine Structure of the Nervous System: ... and electrochemical properties of neurons. Neurons can be found in different shapes and sizes and can be classified based upon ...
Upper motor neuron syndrome[edit]. BTX-A is now a common treatment for muscles affected by the upper motor neuron syndrome ( ... Once bound to the nerve terminal, the neuron takes up the toxin into a vesicle. As the vesicle moves farther into the cell, it ...
Mirror neurons[edit]. Mirror neurons are neurons that fire both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same ... "Neuron. 73 (4): 653-676. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.02.004. PMC 3625946. PMID 22365542.. ... Also, neurons within the same wrinkle have more opportunity for connectivity, while neurons in different wrinkles have less ... If a neuron has a certain response to a stimulus when the animal is not attending to the stimulus, then when the animal does ...
between two neurons i and j. If w. i. j. ,. 0. {\displaystyle w_{ij},0}. , the updating rule implies that: *when s. j. =. 1. {\ ... Neurons "attract or repel each other"[edit]. The weight between two units has a powerful impact upon the values of the neurons ... is a form of local field [4] at neuron i. This learning rule is local, since the synapses take into account only neurons at ... If the bits corresponding to neurons i and j are equal in pattern μ. {\displaystyle \mu }. , then the product ϵ. i. μ. ϵ. j. μ ...
Groups of neuroendocrine neurons include: *TIDA neurons, or tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurons, are neurons that regulate the ... NPY/AgRP neurons and POMC/CART neurons make up two groups of neurons in the arcuate nucleus that are centrally involved in the ... Kisspeptin/NKB neurons within the arcuate nucleus form synaptic inputs with TIDA neurons. These neurons express estrogen ... including neuroendocrine neurons, centrally projecting neurons, and astrocytes. The populations of neurons found in the arcuate ...
"Neuron. 81 (2): 321-332. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.11.018. PMC 3931000. PMID 24373884.. ... Cortical neuron development[edit]. Further information: Neurogenesis and Neuroepithelial cell. Cortical neurons are generated ... Neurons send excitatory fibers to neurons in the thalamus and also send collaterals to the thalamic reticular nucleus that ... Later born neurons migrate radially into the cortical plate past the deep layer neurons, and become the upper layers (two to ...
Mirror neurons[edit]. Main article: Mirror neurons. Mirror neurons are neurons in the brain that fire when another person is ... "Neuron. 65 (6): 845-51. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.03.003. PMC 3085837. PMID 20346759.. ... Research on mirror neurons, since their discovery in 1996,[34] suggests that they may have a role to play not only in action ... The neurons fire in imitation of the action being observed, causing the same muscles to act minutely in the observer as are ...
Neurons[edit]. A gap junction located in neurons is often referred to as an electrical synapse. The electrical synapse was ... Neurons within the retina show extensive coupling, both within populations of one cell type, and between different cell types.[ ... There has been some observation of weak neuron to glial cell coupling in the locus coeruleus, and in the cerebellum between ... Purkinje neurons and Bergmann glial cells. It appears that astrocytes are coupled by gap junctions, both to other astrocytes ...
... neurons. In fact, Kisspeptin appears to act directly on GnRH neurons (via GPR54) to stimulate the secretion of GnRH. ... it is hypothesized that there are two different types of GFP-GnRH neurons due to expression in some neurons but not others, ... neuron projection. • Q14325730. Biological process. • negative regulation of cell proliferation. • positive regulation of ... This event is thought to involve kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling, which leads to the eventual activation of GnRH neurons.[12] ...
Mirror neuron system[edit]. Main article: Mirror neuron. The mirror neuron system (MNS) consists of a network of brain areas ... leaving some areas of the brain with too many neurons and other areas with too few neurons.[65] Some research has reported an ... The connection between mirror neuron dysfunction and autism is tentative, and it remains to be seen how mirror neurons may be ... Lord C, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, Amaral DG (November 2000). "Autism spectrum disorders". Neuron. 28 (2): 355-63. doi:10.1016/ ...
Modelling the neurons in more detail[edit]. The artificial neuron model assumed by Kurzweil and used in many current artificial ... In addition the estimates do not account for glial cells which are at least as numerous as neurons, may outnumber neurons by as ... Each of the 1011 (one hundred billion) neurons has on average 7,000 synaptic connections to other neurons. It has been ... Williams RW, Herrup K (1988), "The control of neuron number", Annual Review of Neuroscience, 11: 423-53, doi:10.1146/ ...
BEAM Nv Neurons[edit]. The standard for BEAM-based neurons is a capacitor that has one lead as an input, and the other going ... The most basic component included in Nv Networks is the Nv Neuron. The purpose of an Nv Neuron is simply to take an input, do ... The neuron functions because when an input is received (positive power on the input line), it charges the capacitor. Once the ... An example of this can be seen in a simple BEAM walker robot utilizing a bicore network (2 neurons). The neural network is set ...
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process. • regulation of neuron differentiation. • neuron projection morphogenesis. • ... neurons). In fact, NGF is critical for the survival and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons, as they undergo ... Neuron survival[edit]. Binding interaction between NGF and the TrkA receptor facilitates receptor dimerization and tyrosine ... Sanes DH, Thomas AR, Harris WA (2011). "Naturally-occurring neuron death". Development of the Nervous System, Third Edition. ...
Often, "a neuron can receive contacts from up to 10,000 presynaptic neurons, and, in turn, any one neuron can contact up to ... Neurons and Neural Systems[edit]. GENESIS works by creating simulation environments for constructing models of neurons or ... a b c d e f (Introduction to Neurons and Neuronal Networks John H. Byrne, Ph.D., Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, The UT ... "Dendrites are the region where one neuron receives connections from other neurons. The cell body or soma contains the nucleus ...
Neuron loss[edit]. Traditionally believed to play a major role in neuron loss, NFTs are an early event in pathologies such as ... of this neuron loss.[10] Coupled with the longevity of neurons containing NFTs, it is likely that some other factor is ... This then prompts the early formation of NFTs, which reduce oxidative damage and prolong the function of the neuron.[2] While ... Kril J. J.; Patel S.; Harding A. J.; Halliday G. M. (2002). "Neuron loss from the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease exceeds ...
"Neuron. 92 (6): 1196-1203. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2016.11.001. PMC 5196021. PMID 27916458.. ... These neurons can be very abundant, for example Drosophila flies have 2,600 olfactory sensory neurons.[53] ... Receptor neuron[edit]. The binding of the ligand (odor molecule or odorant) to the receptor leads to an action potential in the ... Inside of these olfactory organs there are neurons called olfactory receptor neurons which, as the name implies, house ...
Type I neurons make up 90-95% of the neurons and innervate the inner hair cells. They have relatively large diameters, are ... Type II neurons make up the remaining 5-10% of the neurons and innervate the outer hair cells. They have relatively small ... The cochlear nerve (also auditory or acoustic neuron) is one of two parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve, a cranial nerve ... Types of neurons[edit]. In mammals, cochlear nerve fibers are classified as either type I or type II. ...
"Neuron. 70 (5): 863-885. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.05.002. PMC 3939065. PMID 21658581.. ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.05.015. PMID 21658582.. *^ a b Sanders, Stephan J.; Ercan-Sencicek, A. Gulhan; Hus, Vanessa; Luo, Rui ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.04.009.. *^ De Rubeis, Silvia; He, Xin; Goldberg, Arthur P.; Poultney, Christopher S.; Samocha, ... Amygdala neurons[edit]. This theory hypothesizes that an early developmental failure involving the amygdala cascades on the ...
Magnocellular neurons: *Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin and arginine vasopressin AVP), the majority of ...
talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Neurons: c-e; clarify re whether 'axons frequently travel'). *(diff , hist) . . m Varicella vaccine‎; 01: ...
"The Life and Times of the 10% Neuromyth - Knowing Neurons". Knowing Neurons. 13 February 2018. Archived from the original on 15 ... neurons in the brain. The misunderstanding of the function of local neurons may have led to the ten percent myth.[12] The myth ... In debunking the ten percent myth, Knowing Neurons editor Gabrielle-Ann Torre writes that using one hundred percent of one's ... Although parts of the brain have broadly understood functions, many mysteries remain about how brain cells (i.e., neurons and ...
As SMN protein generally promotes the survival of motor neurons, mutations in SMN1 results in slow degeneration motor neurons ... The SMN protein is widely expressed in neurons and serves many functions within neurons including spliceosome construction, ... Neurodengenerative diseases of motor neurons can cause degeneration of motor neurons involved in voluntary muscle control such ... Neurodegenerative diseases of sensory neurons can cause degeneration of sensory neurons involved in transmitting sensory ...
... neurons.[37][38] Ghrelin-responsiveness of these neurons is both leptin- and insulin-sensitive.[39] Ghrelin reduces the ... Ghrelin also plays an important role in regulating reward cognition in dopamine neurons that link the ventral tegmental area to ... Ghrelin receptors are located on neurons in this circuit.[3][8] Hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is required for reward from ... releasing factor neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus following systemic injection of the GH secretagogue, GH-releasing peptide-6 ...
The stimulus-response model is a characterization of a statistical unit (such as a neuron). The model allows the prediction of ... "Neurons with hysteresis?". In Rodney Cotterill (ed.). Computer simulation in brain science. Cambridge University Press. pp. 74 ...
cAMP binds to, and activates cAMP-dependant protein kinase A (PKA), which is located intracellularly in the neuron. The PKA ... Voltage-gated dependent calcium channel, (VDCCs), are key in the depolarisation of neurons, and play a major role in promoting ... and potassium ions are pumped out of the neuron.[45] The activation of the potassium channel and subsequent deactivation of the ... belongs to a family of transcription factors and is positioned in the nucleus of the neuron. When the PKA is activated, it ...
"We have long considered the reorganization of the brains network of connections as solely the domain of neurons," said Ania ... The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the ... "These findings demonstrate that microglia are a dynamic and integral component of the complex machinery that allows neurons to ... The microglia "pulled up" the appropriate connections, physically disconnecting one neuron from another, while leaving other ...
Over time, we can become more cognitively efficient, using fewer neurons to do the same job. And the more often we fire up ... If I wanted to limber up my neurons, doing so online seemed a good idea -- it required no special game-playing equipment, for ... Yet, ironically, I can remember quite well the fact that as we age, some of the connections between our neurons begin to ...
... How Does a Neural Network Really Work? See the first in a three part series that explains machine learning through math ... This Artificial Neuron Can Talk to Real Brain... It works just like the real thing, but is just a smidgen bigger than… ... Scientists Find the Elusive Neurons Give Bats GPS Bats vector cells keep track of their angle and distance from a tar… ...
... and link asymmetrically to the firing retinal neuron. ... Certain retinal neurons fire specifically in response to ... The sites contact branches of the ganglion neuron (red dots in b) and thus deliver GABA to that neuron asymmetrically. ... This startling property is displayed by neurons in the cerebral cortex, and by certain neurons in the retina (ganglion cells) ... This neuron receives excitatory inputs all along its branches. But its outputs occur only near the tips6 (Fig. 1). This led ...
... and at the connection between the neuron and other neurons, or neurons and muscle cells, for example; these connections are ... Most neurons lack centrioles in their somas, which is the other reason why scientists believed for so long that adult neurons ... Although some of the neuron to neuron synapses occur at the perikaryon, the majority of them are found at the dendrites, which ... Neurons are designed to carry nerve impulses, basically waves of depolarization (see The Structure of the Muscles and Muscle ...
Data and computations related to neurons. Includes role of cells, defining criteria, morphology, location, electrophysiological ... Neurons From afferent sensory neurons to efferent motor neurons, find information about individual types of neuron identified ... Neurons. A neuron is a functional unit of the nervous system. There are roughly 100 billion nerve cells in the human brain that ... Properties of Neurons Explore structure characteristics, including cell body (soma), axon, dendrite and synapse properties, as ...
Watch Brain cell death caused by Mercury Killing neurons Autism ASD - Duration: 4:59. David Roscher 33,688 views ...
A command neuron is a single neuron (or small set of neurons) whose stimulation results in the evocation of an endogenous, ... neuron concept-believing that no neurons exist which can satisfy the strictures outlined in "The Command Neuron Concept". ... They suggested that for any neuron to qualify as a command neuron, its activity had to be both necessary and sufficient for the ... In 1978, Kupfermann and Weiss "The Command Neuron Concept" proposed a more rigorous definition of the command neuron than had ...
This page is part of a collection of pages on various topics of Software Automation in Neuroscience. Please direct questions and suggestions to the author Tyler Banks or Zhenru Chen at [email protected] ...
Spindle neurons, also called von Economo neurons (VENs), are a specific class of neurons that are characterized by a large ... Spindle neuron concentrations[edit]. ACC[edit]. The largest number of ACC spindle neurons are found in humans, fewer in the ... Neuronal volumes of ACC spindle neurons were larger in humans and bonobos (Pan paniscus) than the spindle neurons of the common ... Evrard HC, Forro T, Logothetis NK (May 2012). "Von Economo neurons in the anterior insula of the macaque monkey". Neuron. 74 (3 ...
Researchers elucidate new rules of connectivity of neurons in the neocortex As the adage goes "neurons that fire together, wire ... Studying sensory neurons could provide new insights to treat ALS Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have ... Maximal longevity in species can be better explained by number of neurons in the brain Scientists have thought that the main ... Study of gaze fixation in monkeys reveals role of dopamine neurons in response inhibition A University of Tsukuba-led study of ...
From Neurons to Networks is the third cloud film in the Let it Ripple: Mobile Films for Global Change series. All... ... "BRAIN POWER: From Neurons to Networks" is the third cloud film in the "Let it Ripple: Mobile Films for Global Change" series. ... Neurons and What They Do ~ An Animated Guide - Duration: 1:57. cosmiccontinuum 448,258 views ... Structure of a Neuron - Duration: 6:14. Smart Learning for All 487,608 views ...
Specialized cells called neurons allow you to think, feel, and move. Neurons arent only found in the brain. ... A human brain may contain as many as 100 billion neurons. Each neuron can connect to at least 1,000 other neurons, so a brain ... All animal brains are made up of neurons. A human brain has 100 billion neurons. Which animals brain has 1 billion neurons? ... Specialized cells called neurons allow you to think, feel, and move. Neurons arent only found in the brain. These tiny ...
Title: Active Neurons - Full Set Genre: Casual, Indie, Strategy. Developer: Nikolai Usachev. Publisher: USANIK STD. Languages: ...
The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein Kinase M molecule ... Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system ... Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system ... The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein Kinase M molecule ...
fann_get_total_neurons ( resource $ann. ) : int. Get the total number of neurons in the entire network. This number does also ... fann_get_total_neurons - Get the total number of neurons in the entire network ... Total number of neurons in the entire network, or FALSE. on error. ... include the bias neurons, so a 2-4-2 network has 2+4+2 +2(bias) = 10 neurons. ...
How Do Neurons Communicate?. The answer is surprisingly elusive--and the subject of intense debate ... But exactly how do neurons release these neurotransmitters and then ready themselves to send out another rapid-fire message? ...
Researchers measure baseline activity of single neurons Our brains are complicated webs of billions of neurons, constantly ... One of the grand quests in neuroscience is to build a precise map of the brain, charting all its neurons and the connections ... A map of brainstem circuitry reveals which neurons control fine motor skills Writing, driving a screw or throwing darts are ... New discovery of an interaction between sensory neurons and immune cells Pain is a protective mechanism, alerting us to danger ...
Neurons Poster created by nobeastsofierce. Order as shown, or change the print size or paper type & add custom framing. ... neuron. , neurons. , brain. , network. , cell. , cells. , electric. , synapse. , connection. , connect. , All Products: neuron ...
Brain Power: From Neurons to Networks (2012) 11min , Documentary, Short, Family , 4 November 2012 (USA) ...
... a researcher of natural sciences at Harvard has created neurons that light up as they fire. ... This brief spike in voltage travels down the neuron and then activates other neurons downstream. The genetically-altered ... A neuron has an active membrane around the whole cell and normally the inside of the cell is negatively-charged relative to the ... The genetically altered neurons use a gene from a Dead Sea microorganism that produces a protein that fluoresces when exposed ...
Active Neurons 2 is a game that trains the player in spatial logical thinking. Your main task in the game is to collect enough ... Active Neurons 2 is a game that trains the player in spatial logical thinking. Your main task in the game is to collect enough ... Active Neurons 2 is a game that trains the player in spatial logical thinking. Your main task in the game is to collect enough ...
But it does have neurons, which have a great deal in common with the neurons in more complex animals that make up the brain and ... As they predicted, the ultrasound activated the neuron and the worm turned. And they tested other neurons as well, confirming ... who said the ability to zero in on one neuron or a group of neurons without having to insert anything into the body was " ... How ultrasound can activate neurons and make a roundworm change course.Published On. Sept. 28, 2015. By. James Gorman ...
Neuron Culture. Tag archives for sheep. "Good dogs and good sheep": Sheep art explained again, this time by the shepherds. ... Ozzy! Ozzy! Ozzy! - Neuron Cultures Top 5 in June. You just never know whatll catch fire. Then again, maybe I should have ... I am now cultivating Neuron Culture at Wired Science Blogs.. Main link… ...
... is a simulation environment for modeling individual neurons and networks of neurons. ... module help neuron. To use NEURON, include a command like this in your batch script or interactive session to load the neuron ... module load neuron. Be sure you also load any other modules needed, as listed by the module help neuron. command. ... To see what versions of NEURON are available type. module avail neuron. To see what other modules are needed, what commands are ...
Makeblock Neuron Explorer Kit gives kids the power to create almost anything using a series of programmable electronic blocks. ... Makeblock Neuron. Neuron App is the companion app of Makeblock Neuron® electronic modules. You can invent with electronic ... Please fix this problem as soon as possible! By the way, the other software (neuron app) is great too. More(Read full review) ... Please fix this problem as soon as possible! By the way, the other software (neuron app) is great too. More(Read full review) ...
Thus dopamine neurons label environmental stimuli with appe- Despite their importance, rewards do not influence the brain ... Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. is called rewards, which elicit and reinforce approach behav-J. Neurophysiol. 80 ... dopamine neuron predictive reward signal phasic activation approach behav-j cognitive need approach behavior reward determines ... Thus dopamine neurons label environmental stimuli with appe- Despite their importance, rewards do not influence the brain ...
Neural codes accommodate this trade-off in their design, and it has been presumed that from neuron to neuron and region to ... and those neurons might wire into different circuits. In either case, it has been assumed, the neurons present are using neural ... neurons in the cingulate cortex employ a richer neural code than neurons in the amygdala. Not only is the code simpler in the ... Neurons can either fire or remain silent, and the combination of the two over time gives rise to a neural code, like dots and ...
A new study confirms the diametric model of mental illness where mirror neurons are concerned, contradicting expectations and ... Deficits in mirror neuron activity have also been found in autism, in line with the parallel finding that autistics have ... In people as in monkeys, it seems that seeing someone else perform an act is reflected in the mirror neurons of the cortex. ... One of the most important findings of modern brain research was the discovery of mirror neurons. First observed in monkeys, ...
Researchers believe that large cells called nucleus gigantocellularis neurons, pictured here, modulate blood flow by releasing ... Giant neurons in the brain may play similarly giant role in awareness and cognition. Rockefeller University ... Researchers believe that large cells called nucleus gigantocellularis neurons, pictured here, modulate blood flow by releasing ... 23275-giant-neurons-in-the-brain-may-play-similarly-giant-role-in-awareness-and-cognition/. Related Journal Article. http://dx. ...
  • Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have shown that mutations in specific genes that destroy motor neurons and thereby cause the devastating effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-- also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease -- also attack sensory neurons. (
  • The discovery of spindle neurons in diverse whale species [3] [4] has led to the suggestion that they are "a possible obligatory neuronal adaptation in very large brains, permitting fast information processing and transfer along highly specific projections and that evolved in relation to emerging social behaviors. (
  • Neuronal volumes of ACC spindle neurons were larger in humans and bonobos ( Pan paniscus ) than the spindle neurons of the common chimpanzee , gorilla , and orangutan . (
  • This image shows a two-dimensional culture of subject-derived cortical neurons stained for neuronal markers MAP2 (red) and Tuj1 (green). (
  • In mammalian primary neuronal cultures, where genetic manipulations are especially difficult, RNAi might be developed into a highly efficacious tool to study the roles of specific genes in neuron development and functioning. (
  • This chapter considers neurons from a cellular perspective, focusing on those aspects of cellular existence that are unique in neurons or that figure importantly in neuronal function. (
  • Scientists working in „connectomics", a research field occupied with the reconstruction of neuronal networks in the brain, are aiming at completely mapping of the millions or billions of neurons found in mammalian brains. (
  • Cortex neurons have been used in understanding the mechanism of neuronal plasticity. (
  • Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway essential for neuronal survival, but little is known about the dynamics of autophagic organelles in neurons. (
  • The researchers, including Alison Barth of Carnegie Mellon University, put a fluorescent label on a gene linked to neuronal activity in mice, causing the neuron to light up when activated. (
  • Acetylcholinergic neurons (AchNs) in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN) are involved in mental development, and disruption of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can lead to epilepsy. (
  • You will then become intimately acquainted with the operational principles of neuronal "life-ware" (synapses, neurons and the networks that they form) and consequently, on how neurons behave as computational microchips and how they plastically and constantly change - a process that underlies learning and memory. (
  • And neuronal progenitor cells have been discovered in adult human brains, although it was not known whether these stem cells normally divide into neurons. (
  • From afferent sensory neurons to efferent motor neurons, find information about individual types of neuron identified in the nervous system. (
  • Command neurons receive a convergence of integrative and sensory input and output to a multifarious group of pattern generating efferent cells. (
  • Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system of Aplysia. (
  • The warning message is carried to the spinal cord by specialized sensory neurons, which are intertwined with other sensory and motor neurons in peripheral nerves. (
  • Many sensory neurons are bipolar neurons. (
  • Neurons allow the brain and body to communicate by relaying sensory information and motor commands as electric signals. (
  • Peripheral neurons can be categorized broadly as motor, sensory, or autonomic. (
  • The research team was able to identify in mice a specific class of skin sensory neurons that responds to massage-like stroking of the skin. (
  • Some sensory neurons are relatively non-discriminatory. (
  • group of sensory neurons and two groups of motor neurons with a set of ganglia between them. (
  • Illustration showing sensory neuron and its axon with myelin sheath. (
  • This concept came to epitomize the general neurobiological principle that complex information can be encoded on the level of individual neurons. (
  • NEURON is a simulation environment for modeling individual neurons and networks of neurons. (
  • At the cellular level, Neurons, Networks, and Motor Behavior describes the computational characteristics of individual neurons and how these characteristics are modified by neuromodulators. (
  • however, because they couldn't see the individual neurons, they couldn't confirm it. (
  • We have long considered the reorganization of the brain's network of connections as solely the domain of neurons," said Ania Majewska, Ph.D. , an associate professor in the Department of Neuroscience at the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) and senior author of the study. (
  • One of the grand quests in neuroscience is to build a precise map of the brain, charting all its neurons and the connections between them. (
  • Ten years ago this month, Nature Neuroscience published the first paper showing that a light-sensitive protein from algae worked-and worked well-at turning on rat neurons. (
  • These stem cell-derived neurons can grow nerve fibers between the brain's cerebral cortex and the spinal cord, so this study confirms the use of stem cells for therapeutic goals," the research team's leader, James Weimann, said in a news release from the Society for Neuroscience. (
  • It's not an accident they call the study of the biological basis of thought neuroscience, because it all comes from the neurons. (
  • Iacoboni, a UCLA neurologist & neuroscientist, is a leading authority on "mirror neurons," a recently discovered phenomenon that some experts predict will transform neuroscience similarly to the way the discovery of DNA transformed biology. (
  • It has long been a dogma of neuroscience that the human brain is born with all the neurons it will ever have, and that those neurons must endure for a lifetime. (
  • Knowing Neurons is a neuroscience education website created in 2012 by PhD graduate students at the University of Southern California (USC) and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). (
  • In 2016, several Knowing Neurons team members were recognized for their contributions to science education through the website with the Society for Neuroscience Next Generation Award. (
  • Knowing Neurons" is listed as an educator resource by, a neuroscience website maintained by the Kavli Foundation, the Gatsby Charitable Foundation, and the Society for Neuroscience. (
  • Knowing Neurons was founded by former editor-in-chief Dr. Kate Fehlhaber while she was a neuroscience PhD student at UCLA researching visual processing in the retina using electrophysiology. (
  • Knowing Neurons frequently features content by guest contributors, many of whom are neuroscience PhD students or postdoctoral researchers. (
  • In 2016, Knowing Neurons team members Kate Fehlhaber, Joel Frohlich, and Jooyeun Lee received the Society for Neuroscience Next Generation Award for their contributions to public neuroscience communication, outreach, and education through Knowing Neurons. (
  • Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. (
  • On either side of the cell body are the parts of the neuron that make it famous: the dendrite and the axon. (
  • Explore structure characteristics, including cell body (soma), axon, dendrite and synapse properties, as well as electrophysiological characteristics of a neuron. (
  • Spindle neurons , also called von Economo neurons ( VENs ), are a specific class of neurons that are characterized by a large spindle -shaped soma (or body), gradually tapering into a single apical axon (the ramification that transmits signals) in one direction, with only a single dendrite (the ramification that receives signals) facing opposite. (
  • bipolar neuron A neuron that has two processes, an axon and a dendron, extending in different directions from its cell body. (
  • Besides the axon, neurons have other branches called dendrites that are usually shorter than axons and are unmyelinated. (
  • In a spinal cord cross-section, the axon pathways appear as "white matter" (myelin sheaths make the axons white) surrounding the "gray matter" of the neuron cell bodies. (
  • A neuron consists of a cell body containing the nucleus, a single axon which sends messages by conveying electrical signals to other neurons, and a host of dendrites which deliver incoming signals. (
  • The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information. (
  • These findings demonstrate that microglia are a dynamic and integral component of the complex machinery that allows neurons to reorganize their connections in the healthy mature brain," said Grayson Sipe, a graduate student in Majewska's lab and co-author of the study. (
  • If I wanted to limber up my neurons, doing so online seemed a good idea -- it required no special game-playing equipment, for example -- so I set out to test a few brain-training sites. (
  • This Artificial Neuron Can Talk to Real Brain. (
  • This startling property is displayed by neurons in the cerebral cortex, and by certain neurons in the retina (ganglion cells) that relay visual information to lower brain centres concerned with eye movements. (
  • Allman's team proposes that spindle neurons help channel neural signals from deep within the cortex to relatively distant parts of the brain. (
  • BRAIN POWER: From Neurons to Networks" is the third cloud film in the "Let it Ripple: Mobile Films for Global Change" series. (
  • Neurons aren't only found in the brain. (
  • A human brain may have as many as ________ connections between neurons. (
  • A human brain may contain as many as 100 billion neurons. (
  • Each neuron can connect to at least 1,000 other neurons, so a brain may have as many as 100 trillion connections! (
  • A human brain has 100 billion neurons. (
  • Which animal's brain has 1 billion neurons? (
  • A frog brain has about 16 million neurons. (
  • In a scientific first that could help us better understand how signals travel in the brain , a researcher of natural sciences at Harvard has created neurons that light up as they fire. (
  • In order to create the snazzy neurons, the team cultured brain cells in the lab and then infected them with a genetically altered virus that contained the protein-producing gene. (
  • But it does have neurons, which have a great deal in common with the neurons in more complex animals that make up the brain and nervous system. (
  • Scientists have a complete wiring diagram of the worm's 302 neurons and all of their connections - a connectome of the sort that some investigators of the human brain imagine someday achieving for the 85 billion or more neurons inside our skulls. (
  • Thus dopamine neurons label environmental stimuli with appe- Despite their importance, rewards do not influence the brain titive value, predict and detect rewards and signal alerting and motivating events. (
  • It also may hold for the 'neural code', the basic electrical vocabulary of the neurons in the brain. (
  • Moreover, a comparison of human and monkey brains has revealed that in both of the studied brain regions, the code used by human neurons is more rich. (
  • The researchers found that areas of the brain collectively known as the "mirror neuron system" showed more activity when a dancer saw movements he had been trained perform than when he observed movements he hadn't been trained to perform. (
  • Earlier studies with monkeys revealed that brain cells called mirror neurons respond both when we do something, like pick up an object, and when we simply watch someone else do it. (
  • Mirror neurons are motor neurons in the brain that serve to allow us to imitate or repeat the external actions of others. (
  • Kuffler SW, Nicholls JG (1976) From Neuron to Brain . (
  • Scientists are now working on tools to image hundreds or thousands of neurons at a time at the millisecond time scale of the brain. (
  • Jan. 20, 2010 -- TUESDAY, Jan. 19 (HealthDay News) -- Transplanted neurons grown from embryonic stem cells were able to form proper brain connections in newborn mice, U.S. scientists report. (
  • The transplanted neurons grew into the appropriate brain structures and avoided inappropriate areas, the researchers reported. (
  • Then explore how the neurons are connected together, how they're wired up, how they form different subparts of the brain, like the hypothalamus and the frontal lobe. (
  • Now, there's a lot of stuff in the brain, a lot of chemical stuff, a lot of different parts, but where the action is, the part that does the thinking, the part that is the focus of most of our research, is the neurons. (
  • Stanford researchers were able to simultaneously monitor activity in every nerve cell of a zebrafish's brain and determine which types of neurons were tied to alertness. (
  • Specialized neurons in the spinal cord form neural tracts that speed messages to and from the brain. (
  • Astrocytes, the most common neuroglia in the brain, surround capillaries, maintain a barrier between the bloodstream and the neurons, and actively control what gets through that barrier. (
  • Some neurotransmitters are more prominent in certain parts of the nervous system because they specialize in carrying messages within the brain, or between neurons and muscular tissue or other types of tissue. (
  • A newly-developed, highly accurate representation of the way in which neurons behave when performing movements such as reaching could not only enhance understanding of the complex dynamics at work in the brain, but aid in the development of robotic limbs which are capable of more complex and natural movements. (
  • When we reach for the much-needed cup of coffee, the neurons spring into action, sending a series of signals from the brain to the hand. (
  • Better models of how neurons behave will not only aid in our understanding of the brain, but could also be used to design prosthetic limbs controlled via electrodes implanted in the brain. (
  • As the disease progresses, tau-a malformed protein that forms snarls and tangles inside neurons-shows up in more and more brain areas. (
  • Brain Teaser: Ready to stimulate those neurons in your temporal lobes? (
  • Well into our 70s, we con-tin-ue to devel-op new cells in an area of the brain respon-si-ble for new mem-o-ries and explo-ration of new envi-ron-ments, sci-en-tists report. (
  • Theoretical biophysicist William Bialek discusses the BRAIN Initiative and how his team plans to study neuron activity. (
  • It's second nature, thanks in part to brain cells called "mirror neurons. (
  • the brain and neurons, there could be no such thing as awareness. (
  • You see, Iacoboni studies a system in the brain that is called the "mirror neuron system," which activates when we perform certain actions, think about certain actions or watch others make an action. (
  • If I see someone crying, then I know exactly what they are going through because my mirror neurons are firing in my brain as if I am actually smiling or crying. (
  • The population of highly active neurons has been found within the part of the brain believed to be responsible for functions like conscious thought , language and spatial reasoning, the researchers said. (
  • First the team confirmed that most of the activated neurons actually expressed this gene, meaning the label was a good indicator of brain-cell activity. (
  • Specific molecules in the immediate environment of these stem cells determine their fate: They may remain dormant, renew themselves, or differentiate into one of two types of specialized brain cells, astrocytes or neurons. (
  • But new research, shared recently at the Annual North American Menopause Society Conference , shows the direction of VMS therapy is turning toward new nonhormonal drug treatments targeting neurons in the brain. (
  • the brain, neurons, to compensate for injury and disease and to adjust their activities in response to new situations or to changes in their environment. (
  • You will become intimately acquainted with the beauty and variety of neurons - the elementary building block/microchips of the brain. (
  • we next show that the membrane behaves like an electrical (resistance-capacitance) RC circuit and highlight the notion of "membrane time constant" and, consequently, the ability of neurons to summate (in time) successive (synaptic) inputs ("electrical memory") - a fundamental mechanism utilized by the brain. (
  • Most interestingly, there are two types of synapses in the brain - "excitatory" and "inhibitory" - we will discuss how these two opposing signals interact in the receiving ``neuron. (
  • Neurons are cells that make up our brain and spinal cord allowing us to process our surroundings. (
  • In the 1960's, scientists had the first indication that neurons might be generated in an adult rodent brain but it wasn't until the 1990's that scientists discovered the neural stem cells and the generation of neurons in the adult rodent brain. (
  • Scientists injected the marker into live mice and, after their death, studied the mice to see if there were any new neurons formed in the brain. (
  • Are there "dark" neurons in the brain left over from a "Jurassic Park" past? (
  • Researchers at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) have uncovered a process used to encode memories in the synapse layer connecting neurons of the human brain. (
  • The molecular signals prompt the creation of neurons in different brain areas. (
  • Special series featured on Knowing Neurons include the weekly 52 Brain Facts infographics than ran from 2015 to 2016 and the series Weird Animal Brains on comparative neurobiology that debuted in 2016. (
  • Knowing Neurons has also produced several YouTube videos, including interviews with people with synesthesia and an animated video This Is Your Brain on Music narrated by actor Bob Turton. (
  • Special series of infographics produced by Knowing Neurons include 52 Brain Facts and Weird Animal Brains. (
  • Alpha provides information about structural and electrophysiological characteristics of individual types of neurons. (
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Types of Neurons in minutes with SmartDraw. (
  • Illustration showing three types of neurons. (
  • Although some of the neuron to neuron synapses occur at the perikaryon, the majority of them are found at the dendrites, which account for 80 to 90 percent of the surface area of your garden variety neuron. (
  • Our brains are complicated webs of billions of neurons, constantly transmitting information across synapses, and this communication underlies our every thought and movement. (
  • Neurotransmitters travel across synapses to the other neurons or to target cells, stimulating or inhibiting signals and responses. (
  • These signals are transmitted across synapses - the junctions between neurons. (
  • And these Internet of Things (IoT) neurons could send their local information to other neurons just like the synapses in our brains. (
  • Welcome to synapses, neurons and brains! (
  • They observed that the microglia targeted the synaptic cleft - the business end of the connection that transmits signals between neurons. (
  • Neurons connect through long, spidery branches, carrying signals that control all your thoughts and behaviors. (
  • A single neuron can launch as many as 1,000 electrochemical signals per second! (
  • Signals can travel from neuron to neuron faster than race cars. (
  • The genetically altered neurons use a gene from a Dead Sea microorganism that produces a protein that fluoresces when exposed to the electrical signal in a neuron, allowing researchers to visually trace how signals are transmitted through cells. (
  • Now, we will be able to study how the signal spreads, whether it moves through all neurons at the same speed, and even how signals change if the cells are undergoing something akin to learning. (
  • So, what you see is the dendrites, and dendrites receive signals from other neurons. (
  • The new theory was inspired by recent experiments carried out at Stanford University, which had uncovered some key aspects of the signals that neurons emit before, during and after the movement. (
  • The neurobiologists were able to measure these signals at various contact points of the neuron. (
  • Nerve cells, called neurons, send signals in the body that travel through impulses to reach their destinations. (
  • Binocular neurons receive inputs from both the right and left eyes and integrate the signals together to create a perception of depth. (
  • Active Neurons 2 is a game that trains the player in spatial logical thinking. (
  • Now, a team of researchers has devised a way to identify and observe these highly active neurons, and they published their work in the Dec. 22 issue of the journal Neuron. (
  • Then, they isolated the active neurons from the inactive ones using imaging techniques and recorded their activity. (
  • These active neurons resembled the active members of a social network , like that on the website Facebook, Barth said. (
  • Command decisions are increasingly seen as being governed by networks of interacting and redundant cells, not simply by single neurons. (
  • Critics believe that the less restrictive category of "command-like" neurons would repair the flaws in the overly strict Kupfermann and Weiss definition while more accurately classifying the role of single neurons in command decisions. (
  • They were then able to choose and genetically modify single neurons and activate them with ultrasound. (
  • The scientists found that while small aggregates of SOD1 can drive the neurological disease, it is possible that larger aggregates may actually help to protect neurons. (
  • MIT researchers led by Susan Lindquist, a biology professor and member of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, have developed a way to protect neurons from degeneration and death in animal studies of Parkinson's disease. (
  • Some of the cortical neurons are responsible for muscle control and are the ones lost or damaged in people with spinal cord injuries and ALS. (
  • In laboratory dishes, the researchers grew stem cells that were precursors to cortical neurons until the cells displayed many of the characteristics of mature neurons. (
  • The new neurons were then transplanted into the cortex of newborn mice, specifically into regions that control vision, touch and movement. (
  • We provide protocols for preparing low-density dissociated-cell cultures of hippocampal neurons from embryonic rats or mice. (
  • Data were obtained by in-vivo imaging of the specific neurons in the spinal cord while the mice were stroked with a paintbrush. (
  • Researchers looked at this phenomenon in lab mice and found that stroking stimulates a very specific set of neurons that have to do with hair. (
  • Scientists from the German Cancer Research Center have discovered in mice that significantly more neurons are generated in the brains of older animals if a signaling molecule called Dickkopf-1 is turned off. (
  • Martin-Villalba's team discovered that stem cells in the hippocampus of Dickkopf knockout mice renew themselves more often and generate significantly more young neurons. (
  • The difference was particularly obvious in two-year old mice: In the knockout mice of this age, the researchers counted 80 percent more young neurons than in control animals of the same age. (
  • Moreover, the newly formed cells in the adult Dickkopf-1 mutant mice matured into potent neurons with multiple branches. (
  • Now, is it possible that the young neurons in Dickkopf-deficient mice improve the animals' cognitive performance? (
  • In other species, such as mice and marmoset monkeys, new neuron growth has been found in adults. (
  • This marker successfully showed that the mice had created new neurons in the hippocampus (associated with memory and pattern formation) and the olfactory bulb (associated with the sense of smell). (
  • [7] The appearance of spindle neurons in distantly related clades suggests that they represent convergent evolution -specifically, as an adaptation to accommodate the increasing size of these distantly-related animals' brains. (
  • Spindle neurons are relatively large cells that may allow rapid communication across the relatively large brains of great apes , elephants , and cetaceans . (
  • Recently, primitive forms of spindle neurons have also been discovered in macaque monkey brains [11] and raccoons. (
  • All animal brains are made up of neurons. (
  • Reports of old brains' decrepi-tude have been great-ly exag-ger-at-ed, sci-en-tists report-ed on Mon-day, unveil-ing results that con-tra-dict a much-dis-cussed 2018 study and instead sup-port the idea that human gray mat-ter is capa-ble of gen-er-at-ing new neu-rons up to the ninth decade of life. (
  • The results of a study of five adult brains showed the creation of new neurons in a part of the hippocampus called the dentate gyrus. (
  • The discovery of mirror neurons clearly shows that this isn't the case, and instead, we are wired to feel empathy. (
  • Dissecting the hippocampus and plating hippocampal neurons takes 2-3 h. (
  • The ability to obtain new memories in adulthood may depend on neurogenesis -- the generation of new neurons in the hippocampus -- to clear out old memories that have been. (
  • Its performance relies on new neurons being continually formed in the hippocampus over the entire lifetime. (
  • Neural stem cells in the hippocampus are responsible for continuous supply of new neurons. (
  • Neurons in the hippocampus and cerebellum, for example, differentiate through the first several years of childhood. (
  • 2 These new neurons were only seen to occur in the dentate gyrus portion of the hippocampus. (
  • The remainder of the hippocampus did not show generation of new neurons (neurogenesis). (
  • It's going to be a viable technique," said William Tyler, a neuroscientist at Arizona State University, who said the ability to zero in on one neuron or a group of neurons without having to insert anything into the body was "unparalleled. (
  • There's no way to stimulate the same group of neurons consistently, experiment to experiment, animal to animal. (
  • Here we will describe only the passive (vs. active) electrical properties of neurons. (
  • A neuron is a functional unit of the nervous system. (
  • Peters A, Palay SL, Webster DeF (1976) The Fine Structure of the Nervous System: The Neurons and Supporting Cells . (
  • Association neurons, usually smaller than motor neurons, are linked with other parts of the nervous system by way of the neuropile. (
  • The most complex workings of the nervous system depend on messages sent through neurons. (
  • Together with their support cells, neuroglia, neurons make up all nervous system tissue. (
  • The red lines represent the preganglionic neurons and as you can see in Figure 2, these motor neurons mostly sit in the central nervous system - see how the red lines stem from the spinal cord. (
  • Neurons are the nerve cells that make up the central nervous system. (
  • Martin-Villalba, who heads a research department at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), and her team are trying to find the molecular causes for this decrease in new neuron production (neurogenesis). (
  • In the late 1990's scientists studying neurogenesis, the creation of new neurons, were using a special chemical to mark the neurons. (
  • In the human body, the longest neuron stretches from the spinal cord all the way to the toes. (
  • The antiepileptic drug ezogabine reduced pathologic excitability of cortical and spinal motor neuron cells that are early signs of clinical dysfunction in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), according to a study conducted by the Neurological Clinical Research Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital. (
  • In the PPN analysis, the total number of neurons and the number of AchNs were reduced in WS/LGS and WS cases, while DRPLA cases showed a decrease in the number and percentage of AchNs. (
  • The researchers found that neurons in the motor cortex might not be wired together with nearly as much randomness as had been previously thought. (
  • In the early 1990's, researchers found that neurons in the premotor cortex of macaque monkeys selectively fire when performing an action and observing the action executed by others (Pellegrino et al, 1992). (
  • How are networks of neurons connected to make functional circuits? (
  • In 1999, neuroscientist Prof. John Allman and colleagues at the California Institute of Technology first published a report [12] on spindle neurons found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of hominids, but not in any other species. (
  • Pyramidal neuron located in the cerebral cortex of the hedgehog. (
  • Neurons located in the cerebral cortex of the hamster. (
  • But a closer look at what exactly the neurons in the human cingulate cortex and amygdala are saying has revealed that they employ strikingly different neural codes. (
  • But at a minimum, the authors have shown the following: in both humans and rhesus monkeys, neurons in the cingulate cortex employ a richer neural code than neurons in the amygdala. (
  • First observed in monkeys, these are neurons in the motor cortex which fire to produce an action but which are also seen to fire at a much lower level when the subject observes the action carried out by another actor. (
  • In people as in monkeys, it seems that seeing someone else perform an act is reflected in the mirror neurons of the cortex. (
  • While an action such as reaching for a cup of coffee may seem straightforward, the millions of neurons in the brain's motor cortex must work together to prepare and execute the movement before the coffee ever reaches our lips. (
  • The behaviour of neurons in the motor cortex can be likened to a mousetrap or a spring-loaded box, in which the springs are waiting to be released and are let go once the lid is opened or the mouse takes the bait. (
  • Cortex neurons have been found to play a major role in these degenerative and developmental disorders. (
  • When neurons are lost due to stroke, for example, a group of new cortex neurons will begin to perform the functions of the original group. (
  • Ferrari, P.F., Gallese, V., Rizzolatti, G. and Fogassi, L. (2003) Mirror Neurons Responding to the Observation of Ingestive and Communicative Mouth Actions in the Monkey Ventral Premotor Cortex. (
  • Binocular neurons, in the sense of being activated by stimuli in either eye, are first found in the visual cortex in layer 4. (
  • Binocular neurons appear in the striate cortex (V1), the prestriate cortex (V2), the ventral extrastriate area (V4), the dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT), medial superior temporal area, caudal intraparietal area, and a collection of areas in the anterior inferior temporal cortex. (
  • Neurons in the prestriate cortex (V2) are more sensitive to different disparities than those in the striate cortex (V1). (
  • Binocular neurons in the striate cortex (V1) are only sensitive to absolute disparity, where in other visual cortical areas they are sensitive to relative disparity. (
  • In the prestriate cortex (V2) and ventral extrastriate area (V4), binocular neurons respond most readily to a centre-surround stimulus. (
  • clarification needed] On one hand, the anticorrelated response of the binocular neurons in the striate cortex (V1), the prestriate cortex (V2), dorsal extrastriate area (V5/MT), and medial superior temporal area, all show similar responses. (
  • Empathy is another type of mirroring, and has been linked with mirror neuron activity. (
  • Deficits in mirror neuron activity have also been found in autism , in line with the parallel finding that autistics have deficits in empathy. (
  • According to the new study, "subjects with active psychosis were found to have greater … mirror neuron activity, which correlated to greater psychotic symptoms. (
  • The authors point out that this finding translates to nearly 20 percent greater mirror neuron activity in actively psychotic subjects compared to healthy participants, and that this degree of mirror neuron activity was directly correlated with the severity of their psychotic symptoms, despite the fact that many of them were taking anti-psychotic medications at the time. (
  • for instance, mu wave suppression in electroencephalography recordings is considered as an evidence of mirror neuron activity. (
  • Professor Earl Miller discusses the hypothesis that an entire network of neurons are required to perceptually identify a single object. (
  • In this approach, a network of neurons is connected one-by-one. (
  • Could data propagate over a network of neurons, instead of from one neuron to another? (
  • That went one of two ways: activate one neuron at a time or activate millions of neurons at a time. (
  • A University of Tsukuba-led study of gaze fixation in monkeys and their refusal to redirect the gaze onto a target in return for a reward reveals that dopamine neurons are key to inhibiting preplanned actions. (
  • Mirror neurons were first discovered in 1990s in the premotor area (F5) of macaque monkeys. (
  • IBM announced a breakthrough with artificial neurons to detect patterns and correlations, to speed up cognitive computing for faster processing of big data. (
  • In a blog post on the new discovery, IBM research scientist Manuel Le Gallo said IBM has developed artificial neurons that can be used to detect patterns and discover correlations in big data, with power budgets and at densities comparable to those seen in biology. (
  • Le Gallo said the artificial neurons are built to mimic what a biological neuron does, though they won't have the exact same functionality. (
  • Artificial neurons and processing elements for artificial neurons are disclosed. (
  • However, scientists are now beginning to appreciate that, in addition to serving as the brain's first line of defense, these cells also have a nurturing side, particularly as it relates to the connections between neurons. (
  • The researchers also pinpointed one of the key molecular mechanisms in this process and observed that when a single receptor - called P2Y12 - was turned off the microglia ceased removing the connections between neurons. (
  • But millions of new connections between neurons form with every new experience and everything you learn. (
  • Here's a diagram that depicts a typical neuron. (
  • A typical neuron consists of a cell body, or soma, that has many branches called dendrites . (
  • Yet these findings provided little clue to directional selectivity, because both starburst and ganglion cells branch out symmetrically from their centres, and a stimulus swept across a starburst neuron evokes the same response in all directions 9 . (
  • Neurons are designed to carry nerve impulses, basically waves of depolarization (see The Structure of the Muscles and Muscle Cells "You've Got Potential"), along the length of the cell, which is made up of cytoplasmic extensions called dendrites and axons . (
  • Autophagy is particularly important in neurons, which are terminally differentiated cells that must last the lifetime of the organism. (
  • Specialized cells called neurons allow you to think, feel, and move. (
  • Failures in a quality control system that protects protein-building fidelity in cells can lead to motor neuron degeneration and related diseases, according to a new study from an international team co-directed by Scripps Research molecular biologist Claudio Joazeiro, PhD. (
  • Researchers believe that large cells called nucleus gigantocellularis neurons, pictured here, modulate blood flow by releasing nitric oxide. (
  • It was known that these neurons fire when we perform an action, but it came as a surprise that the same cells also fired when we only saw that action being performed. (
  • In ALS, motor neurons - which are the nerve cells that control voluntary muscle movement - will gradually deteriorate. (
  • In a previous study, the team found that fibrous aggregates made of just three SOD1 proteins - referred to as "trimers" - can destroy motor neuron-like cells. (
  • Hence, in analogy to vertebrate hair cells, the mechanosensory neurons of the fly serve dual, transducing, and actuating roles, documenting a striking functional parallel between the vertebrate cochlea and the ears of Drosophila . (
  • Metabolic interactions between neurons and glial cells can occur in at least two different ways, 1) transfer of a metabolite from a cell type, competent in producing this specific intermediate, to another cell type, which does not have the metabolic machinery to do so, and 2) release of messengers from one cell type which regulate the metabolic activity in a different cell type. (
  • However, for reasons that are unclear, neurons seemed more resistant to RNAi than other cell types, perhaps because of differences related to the RNA transport across the cell membrane or the RNAi pathway in these cells. (
  • Nevertheless, neurons are cells, and some of their most important functional properties arise from their cellular characteristics and from cell-cell interactions that are not directly related to signaling activities. (
  • This kills neurons and destroys their connections to neighbouring cells. (
  • The CNS contains specific neurons called interneurons that transmit impulses between other nerve cells. (
  • They asked whether the neuron is a separate "independent" unit (like other cells in other tissues) or whether it is part of a continuum? (
  • Unlike other body cells, neurons don't undergo mitosis (cell splitting). (
  • Instead, neural stem cells can generate new specialized neurons by differentiating into neuroblasts that, upon migration to a specific area, can turn into a neuron. (
  • These disparity selective cells, also known as binocular neurons, were again found in the awake behaving macaque monkey in 1985. (
  • Dr. Joel Frohlich, currently a postdoc at UCLA and blogger for Psychology Today, took over as editor-in-chief of Knowing Neurons in 2017, followed by Alexa Erdogan in 2019. (
  • Thus, a circuit diagram made up of mouse, monkey, or human neurons might be expected to perform the same computation. (
  • The researchers then added these metabolites to human neurons. (
  • Over time, we can become more cognitively efficient, using fewer neurons to do the same job. (
  • These specialized functions have often been attributed to anatomy: one region might have greater or fewer neurons than the other, and those neurons might wire into different circuits. (
  • The first time I learned that scientists could control neurons with light, I definitely did not keep my cool. (
  • Before optogenetics, neuroscientists largely relied on iplanting electrodes to control neurons. (
  • It has six layers and contains between 10 and 14 billion neurons. (
  • How ultrasound can activate neurons and make a roundworm change course. (
  • Francis Crick speculated about the 'way-out' idea of using light to activate neurons back decades ago. (
  • You can read the full study, titled Optical recording of action potentials in mammalian neurons using a microbial rhodopsin here. (
  • Dendrite s are thought to form receiving surfaces for synaptic input from other neurons. (
  • When cultured according to this protocol, hippocampal neurons become appropriately polarized, develop extensive axonal and dendritic arbors and form numerous, functional synaptic connections with one another. (
  • At the cellular level, this tissue consists of neurons and neuroglia. (
  • Neuroglia support the neurons and other structures that supply and surround nervous tissue. (
  • Northwestern University scientists have identified the first compound that eliminates the ongoing degeneration of upper motor neurons that become diseased and are a key contributor to ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), a swift and fatal neurodegenerative disease that paralyzes its victims. (
  • A recent study in Science Advances by researchers at Karolinska Institutet and Max Planck Institute, shows that neurons can counteract degeneration and promote survival by adapting their metabolism. (
  • Most neurons lack centrioles in their somas, which is the other reason why scientists believed for so long that adult neurons didn't divide. (
  • A team of scientists at IBM Research in Zurich has developed technology that imitates the way neurons spike, such as when a person touches something sharp or very hot. (
  • And other scientists had put other opsins into neurons, but it never worked very well. (
  • In the past decade, scientists have optimized that first opsin and found new ones that can inhibit neurons or respond to different colors of light. (
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried have now shown for the first time that contact points between specific neuron types are clustered in groups on the target neuron. (
  • Scientists have identified a molecule which could be key to understanding the cause of motor neurone disease (MND) and other neurodegenerative disorders. (
  • The disease's characteristic tremors and muscle rigidity are caused by damage to and the death of neurons that use the neurotransmitter dopamine to communicate with neighboring neurons. (
  • The bubbles also protect the neurons that produce dopamine from damage that can occur if too much dopamine leaks out. (
  • Gitler and Lindquist suggest that as a result, neurons in Parkinson's patients are unprotected from their own dopamine, which thus becomes toxic. (
  • Fifty years of command neurons: the neurobiology of escape behavior in the crayfish. (
  • I found that because of the innate responses of humans' mirror neurons, we are wired to be empathetic and good. (
  • The same researchers then began to investigate for evidence of a similar mirror-neuron network in humans. (
  • 1 After more than a decade of trying to determine if humans produce new neurons, one Swedish research group has finally come up with a novel method using above ground nuclear testing data. (
  • Other neurons tend to have many dendrites, and the polar-shaped morphology of spindle neurons is unique. (
  • The auditory sense organ, Johnston's organ, is located in the second segment of the antenna (Fig. 1 A ). The organ houses several hundred stretch-sensitive chordotonal sensilla, each comprising two to three primary neurons with ciliated dendrites ( 15 , 19 , 20 ). (
  • Structural features of a motor neuron include the cell body, nerve fibres, and dendrites. (
  • There are both constitutive and stress-induced pathways for autophagy in neurons, which catalyze the turnover of aged or damaged mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, other cellular organelles, and aggregated proteins. (
  • Dr Belinda Cupid, of the MND Association, said: "We know from recent research that signs of motor neurone damage, on a cellular level, in models of MND occur very much earlier than the symptoms appear, so any new knowledge of how healthy motor neurones and muscles interact will give us new clues about what might be going wrong in those people affected by this cruel disease. (
  • In lab tests on a patch of mouse skin, these neurons didn't respond to a single stimulus. (
  • This is called a pyramidal neuron based on its shape. (
  • Micrograph showing a spindle neuron of the cingulate . (
  • Knowing Neurons has been partnered with digital magazine Aeon since 2016. (
  • The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein Kinase M molecule. (
  • The genetically-altered protein sits in the membrane of the neurons and light up as the pulse passes through them. (
  • This particular protein called channelrhodopsin-2, isolated from green algae, is an ion channel that opens in response to blue light, creating a current much like a neuron firing. (
  • The slightly longer version is that you find a gene unique to the neurons you want to stimulate, and use genetic tools to basically hitch the light-sensitive protein into those neurons and those neurons alone. (
  • The terminal branches then release neurotransmitters, which have an excitatory or inhibitory effect on their target (other neurons, glands, organs). (
  • The kappa agonists have an inhibitory effect on the KNDy neuron complex, blocking the overdrive effect that occurs with low estrogen. (
  • Most content on Knowing Neurons is in the form of articles, infographics, book reviews, and interviews with prominent neuroscientists. (
  • Certain retinal neurons fire specifically in response to stimuli moving in one direction. (
  • This brief spike in voltage travels down the neuron and then activates other neurons downstream . (
  • This apparently occurs when branches of an upstream nerve cell respond asymmetrically, and link asymmetrically to the firing retinal neuron. (
  • Here we review the core components of the pathway for autophagosome biogenesis, as well as the cell biology of bulk and selective autophagy in neurons. (
  • A neuron has an active membrane around the whole cell and normally the inside of the cell is negatively-charged relative to the outside. (
  • Nonlinearity and spontaneous oscillations have recently been documented for the auditory system of mosquitoes ( 11 ), putting forward the question of whether the auditory mechanosensory neurons that mediate hearing in insects mechanically assist audition in a hair cell-like way ( 12 - 15 ). (
  • Neurons release neurotransmitters, chemicals that jump the message to the next neuron or body cell. (
  • The cell membrane of a neuron is selectively permeable to potassium ions, meaning that ion channels that will only allow potassium ions to exit or enter the cell freely. (