The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of severe neurodegenerative diseases characterized by intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent wax-like lipid materials (CEROID; LIPOFUSCIN) in neurons. There are several subtypes based on mutations of the various genes, time of disease onset, and severity of the neurological defects such as progressive DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; and visual failure.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.

Modulation of long-term synaptic depression in visual cortex by acetylcholine and norepinephrine. (1/7650)

In a slice preparation of rat visual cortex, we discovered that paired-pulse stimulation (PPS) elicits a form of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) in the superficial layers when carbachol (CCh) or norepinephrine (NE) is applied concurrently. PPS by itself, or CCh and NE in the absence of synaptic stimulation, produced no lasting change. The LTD induced by PPS in the presence of NE or CCh is of comparable magnitude with that obtained with prolonged low-frequency stimulation (LFS) but requires far fewer stimulation pulses (40 vs 900). The cholinergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by atropine and pirenzepine, suggesting involvement of M1 receptors. The noradrenergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by urapidil and was mimicked by methoxamine, suggesting involvement of alpha1 receptors. beta receptor agonists and antagonists were without effect. Induction of LTD by PPS was inhibited by NMDA receptor blockers (completely in the case of NE; partially in the case of CCh), suggesting that one action of the modulators is to control the gain of NMDA receptor-dependent homosynaptic LTD in visual cortex. We propose that this is a mechanism by which cholinergic and noradrenergic inputs to the neocortex modulate naturally occurring receptive field plasticity.  (+info)

Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (2/7650)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

CRE-mediated gene transcription in neocortical neuronal plasticity during the developmental critical period. (3/7650)

Neuronal activity-dependent processes are believed to mediate the formation of synaptic connections during neocortical development, but the underlying intracellular mechanisms are not known. In the visual system, altering the pattern of visually driven neuronal activity by monocular deprivation induces cortical synaptic rearrangement during a postnatal developmental window, the critical period. Here, using transgenic mice carrying a CRE-lacZ reporter, we demonstrate that a calcium- and cAMP-regulated signaling pathway is activated following monocular deprivation. We find that monocular deprivation leads to an induction of CRE-mediated lacZ expression in the visual cortex preceding the onset of physiologic plasticity, and this induction is dramatically downregulated following the end of the critical period. These results suggest that CRE-dependent coordinate regulation of a network of genes may control physiologic plasticity during postnatal neocortical development.  (+info)

Impairment of neocortical long-term potentiation in mice deficient of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. (4/7650)

The role of the possible retrograde messenger nitric oxide (NO) in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) was studied in supragranular layers of somatosensory cortical slices obtained from adult mice. High-frequency stimulation produced a slowly rising, long-lasting (50 min) and significant (P < 0.001) increase in the extracellular synaptic response by 23%. The induction of LTP was independent from activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, but prevented by bath application of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), indicating that one or several of the different NO synthases (NOS) produced NO within the postsynaptic neuron. No LTP could be induced in knockout mice lacking the endothelial NOS (eNOS) isoform. These data suggest that eNOS is involved in an NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP in the rodent cerebral cortex.  (+info)

Selective induction of LTP and LTD by postsynaptic [Ca2+]i elevation. (5/7650)

Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), two prominent forms of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic afferents to CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, are both triggered by the elevation of postsynaptic intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). To understand how one signaling molecule can be responsible for triggering two opposing forms of synaptic modulation, different postsynaptic [Ca2+]i elevation patterns were generated by a new caged calcium compound nitrophenyl-ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid in CA1 pyramidal cells. We found that specific patterns of [Ca2+]i elevation selectively activate LTP or LTD. In particular, only LTP was triggered by a brief increase of [Ca2+]i with relatively high magnitude, which mimics the [Ca2+]i rise during electrical stimulation typically used to induce LTP. In contrast, a prolonged modest rise of [Ca2+]i reliably induced LTD. An important implication of the results is that both the amplitude and the duration of an intracellular chemical signal can carry significant biological information.  (+info)

Selective pruning of more active afferents when cat visual cortex is pharmacologically inhibited. (6/7650)

Activity-dependent competition is thought to guide the normal development of specific patterns of neural connections. Such competition generally favors more active inputs, making them larger and stronger, while less active inputs become smaller and weaker. We pharmacologically inhibited the activity of visual cortical cells and measured the three-dimensional structure of inputs serving the two eyes when one eye was occluded. The more active inputs serving the open eye actually became smaller than the deprived inputs from the occluded eye, which were similar to those in normal animals. These findings demonstrate in vivo that it is not the amount of afferent activity but the correlation between cortical and afferent activity that regulates the growth or retraction of these inputs.  (+info)

Expression of the rat homologue of the Drosophila fat tumour suppressor gene. (7/7650)

We have sequenced and defined the expression during rat embryogenesis of the protocadherin fat, the murine homologue of a Drosophila tumour suppressor gene. As previously described for human fat, the sequence encodes a large protocadherin with 34 cadherin repeats, five epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats containing a single laminin A-G domain and a putative transmembrane portion followed by a cytoplasmic sequence. This cytoplasmic sequence shows homology to the b-catenin binding regions of classical cadherin cytoplasmic tails and also ends with a PDZ domain-binding motif. In situ hybridization studies at E15 show that fat is predominately expressed in fetal epithelial cell layers and in the CNS, although expression is also seen in tongue musculature and condensing cartilage. Within the CNS, expression is seen in the germinal regions and in areas of developing cortex, and this neural expression pattern is also seen at later embryonic (E18) and postnatal stages. No labelling was seen in adult tissues except in the CNS, where the remnant of the germinal zones, as well as the dentate gyrus, continue to express fat.  (+info)

Synaptic plasticity: regulated translation in dendrites. (8/7650)

Synaptic activity can induce neurons to synthesize proteins important for cognition and brain development. Recent results suggest this activity-induced protein synthesis is partially mediated by regulated translation within neuronal dendrites.  (+info)

Spike-timing dependent plasticity is a learning mechanism used extensively within neural modelling. The learning rule has been shown to allow a neuron to find the onset of a spatio-temporal pattern repeated among its afferents. In this thesis, the first question addressed is what does this neuron learn? With a spiking neuron model and linear prediction, evidence is adduced that the neuron learns two components: (1) the level of average background activity and (2) specific spike times of a pattern. Taking advantage of these findings, a network is developed that can train recognisers for longer spatio-temporal input signals using spike-timing dependent plasticity. Using a number of neurons that are mutually connected by plastic synapses and subject to a global winner-takes-all mechanism, chains of neurons can form where each neuron is selective to a different segment of a repeating input pattern, and the neurons are feedforwardly connected in such a way that both the correct stimulus and the ...
Supervisors: Ole Paulsen, Tanja Fuchsberger. Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a physiologically relevant form of Hebbian learning, in which near coincident pre- and postsynaptic firing induces synaptic plasticity: Long term potentiation (LTP) is induced when the presynaptic spike precedes postsynaptic firing, and long term depression (LTD) when postsynaptic firing precedes the presynaptic spike [1]. However, these plasticity rules are profoundly influenced by neuromodulators [2]. Reward, novelty or surprise are correlated with neuromodulatory signals, such as dopamine, acetylcholine or noradrenaline, which modulate memories and behavioural outcome. They regulate STDP through various mechanisms, as they can control the biophysical properties of dendrites, including the dynamics of spike backpropagation, and can influence the state of kinases and phosphatases implicated in synaptic plasticity (Seol et al., 2007). In our laboratory we recently demonstrated a retroactive effect of ...
Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are generally assumed to be cellular correlates for learning and memory. Different types of LTP induction protocols differing in severity of stimulation can be distinguished in CA1 of the hippocampus. To better understand signaling mechanisms and involvement of neuromodulators such as dopamine in synaptic plasticity, less severe and more physiological low frequency induction protocols should be used. In the study which is reviewed here, critical determinants of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses were investigated. We found that dopamine via D1 receptor signaling, but not adrenergic signaling activated by the -adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, is important for successful expression of STDP at CA3-CA1 synapses. The dopamine effect on STDP is paralleled by changes in spike firing properties, thereby changing intrinsic excitability of postsynaptic CA1 neurons, and gating STDP,. Whereas β-adrenergic
The mammalian sensory neocortex exhibits experience-dependent plasticity such that neurons modify their response properties according to changes in sensory experience. The synaptic plasticity mechanism of long-term potentiation requiring calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase type II (CaMKII) could underlie experience-dependent plasticity. Plasticity in adult mice can be induced by changes in the patterns of tactile input to the barrel cortex. This response is strongly depressed in adult mice that lack the gene encoding α-CaMKII, although adolescent animals are unaffected. Thus, α-CaMKII is necessary either for the induction or for the expression of plasticity in adult mice.. ...
Structure-based virtual screening for selecting potential drug candidates is usually challenged by how numerous false positives in a molecule library are excluded when receptor plasticity is considered. In this study, based on the binding energy landscape theory, a hypothesis that a true inhibitor can bind to different conformations of the binding site favorably was put forth, and related strategies to defeat this challenge were devised; reducing false positives when receptor plasticity is considered. The receptor in the study is the influenza A nucleoprotein, whose oligomerization is a requirement for RNA binding. The structural flexibility of influenza A nucleoprotein was explored by molecular dynamics simulations. The resultant distinctive structures and the crystal structure were used as receptor models in docking exercises in which two binding sites, the tail-loop binding pocket and the RNA binding site, were targeted with the Otava PrimScreen1 diversity-molecule library using the GOLD software.
Synaptic plasticity directs development of the nervous system and is thought to underlie memory storage in adult animals. A great deal of our current understanding of the role of AMPA receptors in synaptic plasticity comes from studies on developing cortex and cell cultures. In the present study, we instead focus on plasticity in mature neurons in the neocortex of adult animals. We find that the glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit of the AMPA receptor is involved in experience-dependent plasticity in adult cortex in vivo and that it acts in addition to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (αNOS1), an enzyme that produces the rapid synaptic signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). Potentiation of the spared whisker response, following single whisker experience, is ∼33% less in GluR1-null mutants than in wild types. We found that the remaining plasticity depended on αNOS1. Potentiation was reduced by ,42% in the single αNOS1-null mutants and completely abolished in GluR1/αNOS1 double-knock-out mice. ...
Background. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be the cellular correlate for the formation of memory traces in the brain. Recently, spike-timing dependent plasticity has gained increased interest as a plausible physiological mechanism for the activity-dependent modification of synaptic strength. It might be fundamental for circuit refinement, map plasticity and the explanation of higher brain functions. It is not clear if spike-timing dependent plasticity is a universal learning rule based on simple biophysical mechanisms. The molecular signalling pathways involved are quite diverse and apparently use-dependent. The fundamental question is what determines the molecular machinery at a synaptic contact that translates electrical activity into a change in synaptic strength.Specific Aims. (1) The influence of active dendritic properties, which can result in the generation of local dendritic spikes, on changes in synaptic strength will be studied. They will have an important impact on the local ...
The plasticity of inhibitory transmission is expected to play a key role in the modulation of neuronal excitability and network function. Over the last two decades, the investigation of the determinants of inhibitory synaptic plasticity has allowed distinguishing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. While there has been a remarkable progress in the characterization of presynaptically-expressed plasticity of inhibition, the postsynaptic mechanisms of inhibitory long-term synaptic plasticity only begin to be unraveled. At postsynaptic level, the expression of inhibitory synaptic plasticity involves the rearrangement of the postsynaptic molecular components of the GABAergic synapse, including GABAA receptors, scaffold proteins and structural molecules. This implies a dynamic modulation of receptor intracellular trafficking and receptor surface lateral diffusion, along with regulation of the availability and distribution of scaffold proteins. This Review will focus on the mechanisms of the multifaceted
Neuroplasticity studies examining children with hemiparesis (CH) have focused predominantly on unilateral interventions. CH also have bimanual coordination impairments with bimanual interventions showing benefits. We explored neuroplasticity following hand-Arm bimanual intensive therapy (HABIT) of 60 hours in twelve CH (6 females, mean age 11 ± 3.6 y). Serial behavioral evaluations and MR imaging including diffusion tensor (DTI) and functional (fMRI) imaging were performed before, immediately after, and at 6-week follow-up. Manual skills were assessed repeatedly with the Assisting Hand Assessment, Childrens Hand Experience Questionnaire, and Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function. Beta values, indicating the level of activation, and lateralization index (LI), indicating the pattern of brain activation, were computed from fMRI. White matter integrity of major fibers was assessed using DTI. 11/12 children showed improvement after intervention in at least one measure, with 8/12 improving on two or ...
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Bacterial morphological plasticity refers to changes in the shape and size that bacterial cells undergo when they encounter stressful environments. Although bacteria have evolved complex molecular strategies to maintain their shape, many are able to alter their shape as a survival strategy in response to protist predators, antibiotics, the immune response, and other threats. Normally, bacteria have different shapes and sizes which include coccus, rod and helical/spiral (among others less common) and that allow for their classification. For instance, rod shapes may allow bacteria to attach more readily in environments with shear stress (e.g., in flowing water). Cocci may have access to small pores, creating more attachment sites per cell and hiding themselves from external shear forces. Spiral bacteria combine some of the characteristics cocci (small footprints) and of filaments (more surface area on which shear forces can act) and the ability to form an unbroken set of cells to build biofilms. ...
The ability to generate action potentials (spikes) in response to synaptic input determines whether a neuron participates in information processing. How a developing neuron becomes an active participant in a circuit or whether this process is activity dependent is not known, especially as spike-dependent plasticity mechanisms would not be available to non-spiking neurons. Here we use the optic tectum of awake Xenopus laevis tadpoles to determine how a neuron becomes able to generate sensory-driven spikes in vivo. At the onset of vision, many tectal neurons do not exhibit visual spiking behavior, despite being intrinsically excitable and receiving visuotopically organized synaptic inputs. However, a brief period of visual stimulation can drive these neurons to start generating stimulus-driven spikes. This conversion relies upon a selective increase in glutamatergic input and requires depolarizing GABAergic transmission and NMDA receptor activation. This permissive form of experience-dependent plasticity
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Our overarching interest is in the question of how experience and deprivation modify synaptic connections in the brain. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity is the physical substrate of memory, sculpts connections during postnatal development to determine the capabilities and limitations of brain functions, is responsible for the reorganization of the brain after damage, and is vulnerable in numerous psychiatric and neurological diseases and contributes to their symptoms.. Historically, our major efforts to address this question have been focused on the visual cortex and hippocampus. The visual cortex is a site of robust experience-dependent synaptic plasticity, exemplified by the consequences of temporary monocular deprivation (MD) during childhood. MD sets in motion a stereotyped choreography of synaptic modification whereby the deprived-eye inputs to visual cortex rapidly lose strength and, with a delay, the open-eye inputs undergo a compensatory gain in strength. The behavioral ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurotrophins and synaptic plasticity. AU - Usrey, A Kimberley. AU - Katz, Lawrence C.. AU - Lo, Donald C.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Despite considerable evidence that neuronal activity influences the organization and function of circuits in the developing and adult brain, the molecular signals that translate activity into structural and functional changes in connections remain largely obscure. This review discusses the evidence implicating neurotrophins as molecular mediators of synaptic and morphological plasticity. Neurotrophins are attractive candidates for these roles because they and their receptors are expressed in areas of the brain that undergo plasticity, activity can regulate their levels and -secretion, and they regulate both synaptic transmission and neuronal growth. Although numerous experiments show demonstrable effects of neurotrophins on synaptic plasticity, the rules and mechanisms by which they exert their effects remain intriguingly elusive.. AB - Despite ...
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AD patients show after iTBS an impairment of LTP-like cortical plasticity forming a paradoxical LTD in comparison to HS. LTD-like cortical plasticity is similar between AD and HS. LTP-like cortical plasticity is not associated with age, but AD patients presenting with more altered LTP-like cortical plasticity have more-severe cognitive decline at 18 months. SAI is impaired in AD and shows a strong association with the individual age of subjects rather than with disease age of onset.. ...
A major hallmark of brain diseases is neuroinflammation. We are interested in how immune mediators affect synaptic plasticity. Particularly, our work focuses on better understanding how these factors influence intracellular calcium stores, i.e. the spine apparatus organelle, and how these changes alter the ability of neurons to express associative and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. We study the role of coagulation factors in this context and test whether these changes can be modified by rTMS.. Ben Shimon M*, Lenz M*, Ikenberg B, Becker D, Shavit Stein E, Chapmann J, Tanne D, Pick CG, Blatt I, Neufeld M, Vlachos A*, Maggio N*° (2015) Thrombin regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity: implications for health and disease. Front Cel Neurosci. 9: 151.. Becker D, Deller T, Vlachos A° (2015) Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor 1 and 2 mediate homeostatic synaptic plasticity of denervated mouse dentate granule cells. Sci Rep. 5: 12726.. Strehl A, Lenz M, Itsekson-Hayosh Z, Becker D, ...
The role of dopamine in plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the striatum is central to our understanding of basal ganglia functions and dopamine-dependent reward mechanisms. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at these synapses are thought to be dependent on D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, respectively. However, the mechanisms of LTP and LTD in the striatum are controversial. Using brain slices from transgenic mice, Shen et al. show that LTP and LTD can occur in both D1- and D2-expressing neurons but with different molecular mechanisms. Dopaminergic modulation of plasticity is receptor and cell-type specific. The findings suggest that the control of bidirectional plasticity is not exerted through a monolithic mechanism, as previously asserted, but by cell-type-specific mechanisms depending on the subtype of dopamine receptor expressed.. W. Shen, M. Flajolet, P. Greengard, D. J. Surmeier, Dichotomous dopaminergic control of striatal synaptic plasticity. Science 321, ...
The Haas Lab has developed specific visual stimulation protocols consisted of different periods of light ON and OFF stimuli to induce plasticity or metaplasticity in the optic tectum of awake Xenopus laevis tadpoles (Dunfield and Haas, 2009, 2010; Chen et al. 2012). Using these experience-driven neuronal plasticity induction stimuli and two-photon time-lapse imaging of mitochondrial movement and dendritic arbor growth, and calcium imaging of neuronal activity of individual neurons in the intact and awake developing brain, we are looking at mitochondria localization and size in LTD and LTP neurons. Other imaging and molecular techniques are also being used to underline the specific mitochondria proteins that regulate synaptic plasticity. ...
Synaptic Plasticity. Synaptic Plasticity. I. Synaptic Plasticity (Excitatory spine synapses) Changes in synaptic strength are important for formation of memory. Short Term Plasticity (paired-pulse facilitation, short-term potentiation, synaptic depression) Slideshow 6690266 by lev-levine
Challenges in the pain field include translation from animal models to identification of novel targets for drug development for humans and developing strategies that lead to improvements in patient care. Toward this goal, the symposium featured presentations that reviewed advances in the basic science and clinical arenas. Timothy Brennan, Ph.D., M.D. (Associate Professor of Anesthesia and Pharmacology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa), discussed the Peripheral and Central Plasticity in an Animal Model of Incisional Pain and Gary Strichartz, Ph.D. (Professor of Anesthesia, Pharmacology and Biophysics, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts), reviewed Pharmacological Studies on Preventing or Modulating the Plastic Changes in Experimental Models of Incisional Pain. Additional presentations on Clinical Evidence for Neural Plasticity in the Postoperative Period: Its Relevance and Modulation and Persistent Pain following Surgery: Neurobiological ...
The efficacy of synaptic transmission changes depending on the neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Such synaptic plasticity underlies experience-dependent refinement of information proces
The results described above emphasize the importance of ion channels at the AIS, and how their location, biophysical properties, and distribution can be modified by activity. However, how activity directly regulates these AIS properties, and whether the phenomenon of AIS plasticity occurs during normal brain function or only in response to large perturbations in neuronal activity or pathological conditions remains unclear. One strategy to begin to elucidate the mechanisms regulating AIS plasticity is to determine how the AIS is assembled during development and then maintained over an organisms lifetime.. How do ion channels become enriched at the AIS? As described above, the AIS is highly enriched in a variety of ion channels and each interacts with scaffolding proteins that link to the flexible actin/βIV spectrin-based submembranous cytoskeleton (Fig. 1D). Two scaffolding proteins have been identified at the AIS: ankG and PSD-93. PSD-93 binds to the KV1 channels found at the AIS, and ...
Learning is primarily mediated by activity-dependent modifications of synaptic strength within neuronal circuits. We discovered that place fields in hippocampal area CA1 are produced by a synaptic potentiation notably different from Hebbian plasticity. Place fields could be produced in vivo in a single trial by potentiation of input that arrived seconds before and after complex spiking. The potentiated synaptic input was not initially coincident with action potentials or depolarization. This rule, named behavioral time scale synaptic plasticity, abruptly modifies inputs that were neither causal nor close in time to postsynaptic activation. In slices, five pairings of subthreshold presynaptic activity and calcium (Ca(2+)) plateau potentials produced a large potentiation with an asymmetric seconds-long time course. This plasticity efficiently stores entire behavioral sequences within synaptic weights to produce predictive place cell activity.. ...
Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a strong candidate for an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent form of synaptic plasticity that could underlie the development of receptive field properties in sensory neocortices. Whilst inductio
Arm-amputation involves two powerful drivers for brain plasticity-sensory deprivation and altered use. However, research has largely focused on sensory deprivation and maladaptive change. Here we show that adaptive patterns of limb usage after amputation drive cortical plasticity. We report that individuals with congenital or acquired limb-absence vary in whether they preferentially use their intact hand or residual arm in daily activities. Using fMRI, we show that the deprived sensorimotor cortex is employed by whichever limb individuals are over-using. Individuals from either group that rely more on their intact hands (and report less frequent residual arm usage) showed increased intact hand representation in the deprived cortex, and increased white matter fractional anisotropy underlying the deprived cortex, irrespective of the age at which deprivation occurred. Our results demonstrate how experience-driven plasticity in the human brain can transcend boundaries that have been thought to limit
Citation: Freire, R., Cheng, H. 2004. Experience-dependent changes in the hippocampus of domestic chicks: a model for spatial memory. European Journal of Neuroscience. 20(4):1065-1068. Interpretive Summary: In the modern broiler industry, chickens housed in large groups do not space themselves evenly but instead crowd in particular areas, which may affect chicken health and increase mortality. One contributing factor may be a deficit in spatial skills arising from the absence of essential environmental factors during routine rearing. The present study was to examine whether chick spatial skills can be improved by experimental training at an early age. Compared to control chicks, experience-induced changes in brain morphology reported here suggest that early experience leads to changes in the hippocampus that appear to be related to the development of spatial memory. Enhanced spatial memory in chickens may result in improving their well-being by increasing their distribution and their skills to ...
Transcription of synaptic plasticity-related genes in patients with somnipathy combined with type 2 diabetes, Yi Zhang, Rui Ma, Shaohong Zou, Gaiyu Tong, Gulibakeranmu Abula, Manna
The long-term goal of our research is to understand the neural circuit basis of learning and memory. In this project, we aim to understand how neural circuits p...
Neural Plasticity: (also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity) can be defined as the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt in res
In D2 MSNs (fig. S1), repeated pairing of a synaptic stimulation with a postsynaptic spike 5 ms later resulted in LTP of the synaptic response (Fig. 1D). In contrast, preceding synaptic stimulation (-10 ms) with a short burst of postsynaptic spikes induced LTD (Fig. 1E). There were no lasting alterations in synaptic strength with unpaired presynaptic or postsynaptic activity (fig. S1).. Previous studies of striatal LTD induced by conventional plasticity protocols have underscored the importance of D2 receptors (7, 8, 16). In D2 MSNs, timing-dependent LTD was disrupted by antagonizing D2 receptors with sulpiride (control n = 5; sulpiride n = 5; P , 0.05, Mann-Whitney rank sum test), suggesting a similar involvement of D2 receptors (Fig. 1F). Moreover, LTD was disrupted by antagonizing CB1 endocannabinoid (fig. S2) or mGluR5 glutamate receptors (fig. S3). The combination of presynaptic activity and activation of terminal CB1 receptors leads to a lasting reduction in glutamate release probability ...
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A cell-specific regulation of redox state thus balances plasticity and stability of cortical networks. Mistimed developmental trajectories of brain plasticity may underlie, in part, the pathophysiology of mental illness. Such prolonged developmental plasticity may, in turn, offer a therapeutic oppor …
The molecular mechanisms controlling the delivery and subsequent stabilization of AMPARs during synaptic plasticity are still poorly understood. Recent findings have suggested PSD-95 as candidate molecule in these processes (El-Husseini et al., 2000; Schnell et al., 2002; Beique, 2003). However, particularly in the light of findings from PSD-95 mutant mice that exhibit enhanced LTP (Migaud et al., 1998), it remained controversial whether and how PSD-95 participates in synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that PSD-95 controls AMPAR delivery during synaptic strengthening by LTP in vitro and during experience-driven synaptic plasticity in vivo. We use three criteria to establish this: First, expression of wt PSD-95 mimics, and second wt PSD-95 occludes AMPAR delivery during synaptic strengthening; third, dominant negative forms of PSD-95 block the incorporation of AMPAR during plasticity.. Several findings indicate that expression of PSD-95 mimics key aspects of LTP and experience-driven synaptic ...
Network structure determines the flow of electrical activity in every neural network and determines its functional and computational properties. Electrical activation of the neuron goes along with an intracellular increase in calcium which induces morphological alterations of the neuron on a slower time scale. Morphological changes, such as changes in dendritic spine and axonal bouton numbers as well as elongation, retraction and branching of axons and dendrites have direct impact on network connectivity (structural plasticity) even in the adult brain: As a consequence of morphological changes, synapses may break, new synapses can form and axonal branches can be re-routed. Rewired network connectivity, in turn, gives rise to an altered activity dynamic and may hold as a source for long term memory formation. Experimental data further support the notion that structural plasticity is not necessarily Hebbian-like but may serve as a neuronal mechanism to maintain electrical activity at a certain ...
When a cell has to endure lasting changes in its environment that require it to actively transport more molecules than normal through the cell membra...
The long-term goal of this project is to identify thalamocortical network mechanisms involved in consolidating experience-dependent plasticity in the visual sys...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Brain plasticity is profoundly impacted by ones living environment. The hippocampus, involved in learning and memory, is highly susceptible to plasticity. Raising rodents in an
In the neocortex, synaptic inhibition shapes all forms of spontaneous and sensory evoked activity. Importantly, inhibitory transmission is highly plastic, but the functional role of inhibitory synaptic plasticity is unknown. In the mouse barrel cortex, activation of layer (L) 2/3 pyramidal neurons (PNs) elicits strong feedforward inhibition (FFI) onto L5 PNs. We find that FFI involving parvalbumin (PV)-expressing cells is strongly potentiated by postsynaptic PN burst firing. FFI plasticity modifies the PN excitation-to-inhibition (E/I) ratio, strongly modulates PN gain, and alters information transfer across cortical layers. Moreover, our LTPi-inducing protocol modifies firing of L5 PNs and alters the temporal association of PN spikes to γ-oscillations both in vitro and in vivo. All of these effects are captured by unbalancing the E/I ratio in a feedforward inhibition circuit model. Altogether, our results indicate that activity-dependent modulation of perisomatic inhibitory strength ...
Exercise is beneficial to the brain, as it increases brain plasticity. Our brains neurons can keep changing with experience, learning and memory through a process called brain plasticity.
Memory is a highly complex cognitive function that involves interactions between numerous brain structures, proteins and signalling molecules. Indeed, experience-dependent changes in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons are thought to underlie information storage in the brain. Thus, understanding the highly elastic nature - or the plasticity - of synapses is critical to uncovering how the brain converts our individual experiences into lasting memories. To this end, modulatory neurotransmitter systems play a central role in shaping synaptic processes involved in the encoding and retention of information within neural circuits. A fundamental problem remains, though, in understanding how extrinsic factors recruit, mimic or even hijack these endogenous regulatory signals to affect the development of brain systems critical to cognitive and mnemonic function. The primary focus of my research is in determining how the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortices integrate signals from ...
The Jay Baraban Laboratory studies key aspects of neuronal plasticity induced by environmental stimuli, including drugs. The ability of the microRNA system to regulate protein translation in the vicinity of synapses indicates it is well positioned to play a central role in regulating synaptic plasticity. Accordingly, we are studying how this system regulates synaptic function. In particular, we have identified the translin/trax RNAse complex as a key regulator of microRNA processing and are using genetically engineered mice that lack this complex to understand its role in neuronal function. For example, these mice display defects in responsiveness to cocaine and in certain forms of synaptic plasticity. We use a combination of behavioral and molecular approaches to conduct studies aimed at understanding how the microRNA system regulates these processes.. Research Areas: synaptic plasticity, neuronal plasticity, drugs, RNA ...
The team is working on changes in the neurobiological substrate during learning and memory processes, including in pathological conditions. The underlying hypothesis is that durable memory traces proceed from the marking of specific neural networks. These synaptic plasticity mechanisms result from molecular and structural changes that largely remain to be identified and integrated at the behavioral level.. In mice, we developed a new olfactory test, the tubular olfactory maze where we test the effect of molecules or genetic manipulations on different memory subcategories. We observed specific structural changes in the dorsal and apical dendrite density of CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, specifically amplified by a 5-HT4 receptor agonist known for his promnesic effect. We are currently using this test in a model of Alzheimers disease (5XFAD transgenic mice).. With the same aim of creating animal models to study memory, we developed a deferred task paradigm in mice that highlights ...
In the mammalian dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis continues throughout life. Accumulating evidence suggests a unique contribution of adult-generated neurons in DG synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-mediated learning and memory functions. However, the precise involvement of adult neurogenesis to disease-related cognitive deficits still remains unclear. Intellectual disabilities are the most striking clinical features of Down Syndrome (DS) and are characterized by learning deficits and memory impairment, particularly in hippocampus-related functions. Accordingly, the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS recapitulate many hippocampal cognitive deficits of the human syndrome, and also show decreased adult neurogenesis and impaired DG synaptic plasticity. To elucidate the contribution of faulty adult neurogenesis to DG synaptic plasticity deficits and memory impairment in DS we have treated adult Ts65Dn mice with lithium, a widely used mood stabilizer that also promotes neurogenesis. Results showed that chronic ...
Activity-dependent long-term changes in synaptic efficacy are thought to be important in learning, memory formation, neuronal development and pathological states of neuronal excitability in the CNS. For the past two decades, numerous studies have investigated long-term changes in synaptic efficacy at excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Although inhibitory synapses are essential for proper functioning of the neuronal network, attention has focused only recently on describing and characterizing plasticity at these types of synapse. Not surprisingly, different forms of plasticity at GABAergic, and the closely related glycinergic, synapses have been reported in several regions of the brain. Here we review these different forms of plasticity and focus on their possible roles in developing and adult neuronal networks.
Research Interests The future aint what it used to be - Yogi Berra It is precisely because the future is unpredictable that the mammalian brain has evolved the capacity to acquire new information through sensory experiences, store this information as memories, and rapidly retrieve this information to modify behavior. But how do novel sensory experiences embed themselves in the fabric of the brain to form memories? This question drives the research in my laboratory, which examines the cellular and synaptic mechanisms of experience-dependent plasticity in the neocortex. Specifically, I am interested in understanding i) where experience-dependent plasticity is initiated in the cortical circuitry; ii) how experience regulates the growth or retraction of synapses; iii) whether plasticity is restricted to only a subset of synaptic connections; iv) what distinguishes critical period plasticity from adult plasticity; v) how synaptic plasticity is altered in the aging and diseased brain. Techniques: To ...
Previous studies have reported primary auditory cortex plasticity following vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with a sound. Does this phenomenon extend to other fields in the auditory pathway? In this podcast, Editor-in-Chief Bill Yates talks with Dr. Michael S. Borland and Dr. Crystal Engineer (both from the University of Texas at Dallas) about their recent study, which is the first to to document both cortical and subcortical plasticity following VNS-sound pairing. Listen to learn about auditory plasticity, potential therapies for auditory processing disorders, and more! Listen Now. August 14, 2019. ...
The molecular basis for the decline in experience-dependent neural plasticity over age remains poorly understood. In visual cortex, the robust plasticity induced in juvenile mice by brief monocular deprivation during the critical period is abrogated by genetic deletion of Arc, an activity-dependent regulator of excitatory synaptic modification. Here, we report that augmenting Arc expression in adult mice prolongs juvenile-like plasticity in visual cortex, as assessed by recordings of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in vivo. A distinguishing characteristic of juvenile OD plasticity is the weakening of deprived-eye responses, believed to be accounted for by the mechanisms of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD). Accordingly, we also found increased LTD in visual cortex of adult mice with augmented Arc expression and impaired LTD in visual cortex of juvenile mice that lack Arc or have been treated in vivo with a protein synthesis inhibitor. Further, we found that although activity-dependent ...
This new research might unite neurobiologists studying circadian rhythms with those studying developmental brain plasticity, Kobayashi notes. It could open inquiries into the role of circadian rhythm genes beyond the visual system, including brain regions that control cognition and social behaviors.. Specifically, the findings may have implications for disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. A number of genes associated with mental illness were expressed differently in the PV-cells of Clock-deficient versus control mice. The Hensch group and others have long proposed a link between neurodevelopmental disorders and timing defects in critical periods of brain plasticity. And finally, factors that influence circadian rhythms-sleep deprivation, seasonal changes limiting sunlight exposure, night shift work, etc.-have been linked to mood disorders.. By implicating circadian rhythm genes in the control of developmental brain plasticity, the new study may help bridge these ideas and suggests that ...
We used the rat visual cortex as a model system to examine the changes in protein synthesis during experience-induced synaptic plasticity. Dark-rearing rats from birth results in a relatively immature visual cortex that maintains the high de- gree of synaptic plasticity characteristic of the critical period (Kirkwood et al., 1995). Exposure of dark-reared rats to light results in a rapid, robust and coordinated burst of experience- driven synaptic plasticity that can be readily monitored at the biochemical and electrophysiological level (Quinlan et al., 1999). In previous work, we showed that visual experience evokes the polyadenylation of ␣-CaMKII mRNA in visual cortex and the elevation of ␣-CaMKII protein in synaptic fractions from this brain region. Moreover, this increase was a direct result of new synthesis because it was sensitive to the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (Wu et al., 1998). Here we show that the experience-induced increase of ␣-CaMKII pro- tein does not require new ...
While stroke-related deaths have decreased in recent years, stroke is still the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Adequate rehabilitation is dependant upon plasticity, a multidimensional and adaptive process underlying recovery of function in both the human and rodent brain. The complexity of processes underlying plasticity in the central nervous system is still largely unknown, but manipulating this spontaneous state of the healing brain is of the utmost importance as it will allow maximum therapeutic effect. Characterization of lesion-induced local and remote rewiring, initial behavioral deficit and their long-term relationships to behavioral outcome are required to fill some of the gaps in our understanding of brain repair mechanisms after stroke. The experiments outlined in this dissertation take advantage of hypothesized neuroplasticity foundations of learning and memory, as well as an established model of forelimb motor cortex injury in rats in order to examine ...
TITLE stochastic release probability COMMENT Milstein 2015. When this point process receives a spike, it requests a random number from a random number generator and compares it to an internal release probability variable P to decide if a single vesicle should be released at this synapse. The release probability is then updated to follow specified dynamics of facilitation and depression. In order to make use of this event, additional synaptic mechanisms must be connected to this point process via a NetCon object. Dynamics based on: Implementation of the model of short-term facilitation and depression described in Varela, J.A., Sen, K., Gibson, J., Fost, J., Abbott, L.R., and Nelson, S.B. A quantitative description of short-term plasticity at excitatory synapses in layer 2/3 of rat primary visual cortex Journal of Neuroscience 17:7926-7940, 1997 ENDCOMMENT NEURON { POINT_PROCESS Pr RANGE P, P0, random, f, tau_F, d1, tau_D1, F, D1, tlast THREADSAFE POINTER randObjPtr } PARAMETER { : the (1) is ...
article{ef532af8-d218-4166-9ec2-b39930c591ef, abstract = {,p,Following stroke, complete cellular death in the ischemic brain area may ensue, with remaining brain areas undergoing tissue remodelling to various degrees. Experience-dependent brain plasticity exerted through an enriched environment (EE) promotes remodelling after central nervous system injury, such as stroke. Post-stroke tissue reorganization is modulated by growth inhibitory molecules differentially expressed within the ischemic hemisphere, like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans found in perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs in the neocortex predominantly enwrap parvalbumin-containing GABAergic (PV/GABA) neurons, important in sensori-information processing. Here, we investigate how extracellular matrix (ECM) proteases and their inhibitors may participate in the regulation of PNN integrity during stroke recovery. Rats were subjected to photothrombotic stroke in the motor cortex, and functional deficits were assessed at 7 days of recovery. ...
Resum: Although there is a decline in brain plasticity across lifespan, neurons in certain areas of the adult brain retain the ability to undergo synaptic, dendritic and spine remodeling in response to different stimuli. This neuronal structural plasticity seems to be the basis for many cognitive processes and it is crucial for adaptive responses to aversive experiences and recovery from brain damage and disease. Among the numerous candidate molecules that have been identified for mediating this neuronal remodeling, cell adhesion molecules and, specially, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), are of particular interest. The addition of polysialic acid (PSA) to the NCAM is critical for the structural changes that underlie plasticity; not only because it prevents both homotypic and heterotypic NCAM bindings (anti-adhesive properties) but also because it interacts with a large number of molecules and signaling pathways that regulate synaptic strength. In consonance with this fact, PSA-NCAM ...
Abstract. It is now accepted that immune molecules are not only present within the brain during pathology but they exert physiological functions in the healthy brain as well. Increasing evidence points to a neuro-modulatory role of cytokines and chemokines (CHEMOtactic cytoKINES) in basal transmission and plasticity processes where signaling between peri-synaptic astrocytes, microglia and neurons plays an important role. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms as to how cytokines, and in particular chemokines, participate in the molecular and cellular processes thought to subserve memory formation, plasticity processes and responsiveness to environmental stimuli remain to be clarified. Interestingly, in in vitro preparations, molecules like TNF-a, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2 and CCL3 are implicated in synaptic formation and scaling, in modulation of glutamatergic transmission, in plasticity and neurogenesis, in particular in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an extremely ...
Author Summary Recent brain imaging and neurophysiological studies suggest that the striatum, the start of the basal ganglia circuit, plays a major role in value-based decision making and behavioral disorders such as drug addiction. The plasticity of synaptic input from the cerebral cortex to output neurons of the striatum, which are medium spiny neurons, depends on interactions between glutamate input from the cortex and dopaminergic input from the midbrain. It also links sensory and cognitive states in the cortex with reward-oriented action outputs. The mechanisms involved in molecular cascades that transmit glutamate and dopamine inputs to changes in postsynaptic glutamate receptors are very complex and it is difficult to intuitively understand the mechanism. Therefore, a biochemical network model was constructed, and computer simulations were performed. The model reproduced dopamine-dependent and calcium-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD) and potentiation (LTP) of corticostriatal synapses
Does severe acute pain provoke lasting changes in attentional and emotional mechanisms of pain-related processing? A longitudinal ...
Tinnitus is a phantom auditory sensation that reduces quality of life for millions of people worldwide, and for which there is no medical cure. Most cases of tinnitus are associated with hearing loss caused by ageing or noise exposure. Exposure to loud recreational sound is common among the young, and this group are at increasing risk of developing tinnitus.
The world was originally introduced to the concept of synaptic plasticity over 60 years ago, when Dr. Donald Hebb first clearly defined a physiological mechanism for learning and memory in his seminal work The Organization of Behavior. It took another 20 years for Bliss and Lomo to scientifically validate Hebbs postulate, and show that neurons could alter their ability to communicate with one another in a persistent manner. Together, these works started off what has grown to become the field of synaptic plasticity. The years following the initial discovery were exciting times for learning and memory young researchers like myself, and each discovery over the next 20 years seemed to push us closer to elucidating the biological mechanisms responsible for memory formation. This seemed particularly true in the mid-1980s when the NMDA receptor was being heralded as the key to learning and memory processes. However, more recently it has become obvious that the activation of membrane receptors is ...
The neuronal phosphoprotein B-50/GAP-43 has been implicated in neuritogenesis during developmental stages of the nervous system and in regenerative processes and neuronal plasticity in the adult. The protein appears to be a member of a family of acidic substrates of protein kinase C (PKC) that bind …
His recommendations for healthy life (brisk walking, entertaining sporting activities, etc.) can be found in many books. This is supposed to be a book on neuroplasticity. Unfortunately, you hardly find real recommendations on how we can handle problems by using neuroplasticity tools. Title of the book and chapters do not reflect the real subject ...
The trajectory of the somatic membrane potential of a cortical neuron exactly reflects the computations performed on its afferent inputs. However, the spikes of such a neuron are a very low-dimensional and discrete projection of this continually evolving signal. We explored the possibility that the neurons efferent synapses perform the critical computational step of estimating the membrane potential trajectory from the spikes. We found that short-term changes in synaptic efficacy can be interpreted as implementing an optimal estimator of this trajectory. Short-term depression arose when presynaptic spiking was sufficiently intense as to reduce the uncertainty associated with the estimate; short-term facilitation reflected structural features of the statistics of the presynaptic neuron such as up and down states. Our analysis provides a unifying account of a powerful, but puzzling, form of plasticity.. ...
GABAergic (GABA = gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurons from different brain regions contain high levels of parvalbumin, both in their soma and in their neurites. Parvalbumin is a slow Ca(2+) buffer that may affect the amplitude and time course of intracellular Ca(2+) transients in terminals after an action potential, and hence may regulate short-term synaptic plasticity. To test this possibility, we have applied paired-pulse stimulations (with 30- to 300-ms intervals) at GABAergic synapses between interneurons and Purkinje cells, both in wild-type (PV+/+) mice and in parvalbumin knockout (PV-/-) mice. We observed paired-pulse depression in PV+/+ mice, but paired-pulse facilitation in PV-/- mice. In paired recordings of connected interneuron-Purkinje cells, dialysis of the presynaptic interneuron with the slow Ca(2+) buffer EGTA (1 mM) rescues paired-pulse depression in PV-/- mice. These data show that parvalbumin potently modulates short-term synaptic plasticity. ...
This laboratory pilot study will explore the effects of varenicline tartrate on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like mechanisms of (1) the motor cortex and (2) the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and working memory in non-smoking patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls using a Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS) method. The present study will use this novel PAS method to evaluate the effects of five doses of varenicline (Champix) 0.5 mg BID treatment on neuroplasticity changes and working memory in 28 non-smokers with schizophrenia and 28 non-smoking controls in a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over design. The hypothesis is that varenicline will increase LTP-like facilitation of the DLPFC as compared with placebo in patients with schizophrenia, with less or a null effect in healthy controls. Likewise, it is hypothesized that varenicline will specifically improve working memory in patients with schizophrenia as compared with placebo and healthy controls. We Hypothesize ...
Valentina received her Ph.D. in Neuroscience from Tor Vergata University (Rome), where she explored the role of FMRP in the regulation of transport, translation and stability of dendritic mRNAs. Later she worked extensively on learning-dependent synaptic plasticity at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto.. Valentina ...
Here, we present a simplified, biophysically inspired network model that incorporates multiple plasticity processes and explains linking of information at three different levels: (a) learning of a single associative memory (b) rescuing of a weak memory when paired with a strong one and (c) linking of multiple memories across time. By dissecting synaptic from intrinsic plasticity and neuron-wide from dendritically restricted protein capture, the model reveals a simple, unifying principle: Linked memories share synaptic clusters within the dendrites of overlapping populations of neurons ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Translating memories. T2 - The role of protein biosynthesis in synpatic plasticity. AU - Westmark, Cara J.. AU - Malter, James S.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - The 1990s, The Decade of the Brain, resulted in major scientific advances involving brain imaging, gene therapy, brain/robotic interfacing and the neurobiology and molecular biology of learning and memory. However, despite these critical insights, we still do not know exactly how thoughts or memories are formed or stored in the brain, which leaves much exciting research for the twenty-first and probably centuries to come. This review will elaborate on recent advances in the field of protein biosynthesis as related to synaptic plasticity. We will discuss the molecular players (RNA binding proteins and neuronal mRNAs), the signal transduction pathways that have been implicated in learning and memory and how localized translation of selected mRNAs is involved in synaptic plasticity. We will also discuss the pathology ...
Dopamine-dependent long-term depression at subthalamo-nigral synapses is lost in experimental parkinsonism.: Impairments of synaptic plasticity are a hallmark o
It is an open question how the multiple special and temporal scales involved in intracellular Ca2+ handling within the STDP models affect the plasticity outcomes predicted by these models. Hebbian or associative plasticity is triggered by postsynaptic Ca2+ influx which activates calmodulin and CaMKII. The influx of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent NMDA receptors and Ca2+ channels is regulated by Ca2+ -activated K+ channels (SK-channels) providing negative feedback regulation of postsynaptic [Ca2+]. Using 3-dimensional modelling of Ca2+ and calmodulin dynamics within dendritic spines we show that the non-linear relationship between Ca2+ influx and calmodulin activation endows SK-channels with the ability to gate calmodulin activation and therefore the induction of Hebbian synaptic plasticity. Since SK-channels are inhibited by several neuro-modulator receptors including acetylcholine and noradrenaline, the gating of synaptic plasticity by SK-channels could represent a common mechanism by which ...
DataMed is a prototype biomedical data search engine. Its goal is to discover data sets across data repositories or data aggregators. In the future it will allow searching outside these boundaries. DataMed supports the NIH-endorsed FAIR principles of Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability and Reusability of datasets with current functionality assisting in finding datasets and providing access information about them.
ST7103 Theory Of Elasticity And Plasticity Important Questions Bank Reg 2013. Noteskik.com Provides Important Questions Banks for all departments. We are Collected From Various Places To Provide Our Service for the Students. Questions Bank provided here are the Expected Important questions Bank for 1th Semester Department of structural Engineering for that are possible to appear in the upcoming exams & make use of the below questions and prepare for your exams.. We have provided ST7103 Theory Of Elasticity And Plasticity Important Questions Bank Reg 2013 2015-16. Here ST7103 Theory Of Elasticity And Plasticity Important Questions Bank Reg 2013 are posted and Students can download the Questions and make use of it. Anna University 1th Semester ST7103 Theory Of Elasticity And Plasticity Important Questions Bank Reg 2013 are provided Below.. ...
Maheu ME, Ressler KJ. Developmental pathway genes and neural plasticity underlying emotional learning and stress-related disorders. Learn Mem. 2017 09; 24(9):492-501 ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr Etienne Gaudrain.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Hearing Group Meetings series.. ...
Nitrogen (N) is central for plant growth, and metabolic plasticity can provide a strategy to respond to changing N availability. We showed that two local A. thaliana populations exhibited differential plasticity in the compounds of photorespiratory and starch degradation pathways in response to three N conditions. Association of metabolite levels with growth-related and fitness traits indicated that controlled plasticity in these pathways could contribute to local adaptation and play a role in plant evolution.
Perception of pain is a subjective experience that includes both sensory and emotionnal components. This emotional component of pain is capable of significantly altering the pain sensation but its processing remains distinct from the sensation of a noxious stimulus. The processing of the sensory component of pain primarily occurs in the somatosensory cortex, while the processing of the emotional component occurs in amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. The conscious experience of a noxious stimulus induces glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex, which parallels the aversive behavior of the organism apart from the sensation of the stimuli. In particular, this pain induced synaptic plasticity involves mechanisms such as the enhancement of glutamate release, enhancement of glutamate receptor-mediated responses, synaptic trafficking of AMPA receptors, and structural changes in the syanpases1. Modifications of the synpases in the areas responsible for emotional ...
This is an alteration in neuronal structure or function due to activation of the neurons. Spinothalamic Tract Neurons, Role of Nitric Oxide
Description:. In neuronal systems, development and learning occur through some form of Hebbs postulate - neurons that fire together, wire together. That is, modifications in synaptic strength and transmission efficiency are driven by correlations between pre and post synaptic neuronal firing activity. This leads to fascinating dynamical model systems in which the parameters of the model themselves depend on the solutions temporal activity. In this short course, we will survey the mathematical theories of synaptic plasticity that are currently used to model Hebbian learning in neuronal networks. We will explore correlation plasticity based upon mean firing rates, as well as that based upon spike-timing-dependent-plasticity (STDP) based upon the spikes times of pre- and post- synaptic neurons. We will develop learning rules for updating synapses between excitatory neurons, as well as synapses from inhibitory neurons (where pre-synaptic spiking is not relevant). We will also discuss STDP when ...
Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are one member of a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors that play a pivotal role in synaptic plasticity processes associated with learning and have become attractive therapeutic targets for diseases such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and neuropathic pain. NYX-2925 ((2S, 3R)-3-hydroxy-2-((R)-5-isobutyryl-1-oxo-2,5-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-2-yl)butanamide) is one member of a spiro--lactam-based chemical platform that mimics some of the dipyrrolidine structural features of rapastinel (formerly GLYX-13: threonine-proline-proline-threonine) and is distinct from known NMDAR agonists or antagonists such as D-cycloserine, ketamine, MK-801, kynurenic acid or ifenprodil ...
This article is part one of a series of articles on the neural plasticity model of fibromyalgia theory, assessment, and treatment. It presents the basis for understanding fibromyalgia theories.
Welcome to N for neuroplasticity on the Blogging A-Z April Challenge. My theme for the challenge is: A Few of My Favourite Things and while neuroplasticity might seem left-field, I really want you to follow me on this journey because the power of neuroplasticity has radically changed my life and understanding how it works, can…
Mouse Study Shows l-serine May Restore Synaptic Plasticity and Memory. Researchers conclude that l-serine is available should be rigorously tested in humans.
Single Neurons, Populations, Plasticity. Cambridge University Press. Latham, P. E., B. J. Richmond, P. G. Nelson, and S. ... 2000). "Intrinsic Dynamics in Neuronal Networks. I. Theory". Journal of Neurophysiology. 88 (2): 808-27. CS1 maint: Multiple ... 2000). "Intrinsic Dynamics in Neuronal Networks. I. Theory". Journal of Neurophysiology. 88 (2): 808-27. CS1 maint: Multiple ... 2000). "Intrinsic Dynamics in Neuronal Networks. I. Theory". Journal of Neurophysiology. 88 (2): 808-27. CS1 maint: Multiple ...
Turrigiano, G. G. (1999). "Homeostatic plasticity in neuronal networks: The more things change, the more they stay the same". ... Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic plasticity have a hand-in-glove relationship. Neurons use Hebbian plasticity mechanisms to ... Turrigiano, G. G.; Nelson, S. B. (2000). "Hebb and homeostasis in neuronal plasticity". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 10 (3 ... Since homeostatic plasticity normalizes the synaptic strengths of all neurons in a network, the overall neural network activity ...
... computational studies of neuronal oscillations and synchronization; neural plasticity; nonlinear dynamical systems theory and ... interests are cognitive neuroscience of attention and consciousness with special emphasis on EEG and MEG studies of neuronal ...
... is that there are no memory neuronal elements, but the sensory afferent neuronal elements that are tuned to properties of the ... "Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition". Trends Neurosci. 30 (12): 653-61. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2007.09.003. PMID 17981345. ... a population of sensory afferent neuronal elements that respond to sound, and; ii) a separate population of memory neuronal ... Ulanovsky, N. (2004). "Neuronal adaptation in cat auditory cortex" (pdf). Jääskeläinen IP, Ahveninen J, Belliveau JW, Raij T, ...
... and brain plasticity in clownfish. Rhodes research interests relate to neuronal plasticity. One interest includes understanding ... Currently, Rhodes has also established a marine biology laboratory to research brain plasticity in clownfish undergoing sex ...
Benarroch EE (March 2007). "Neurosteroids: endogenous modulators of neuronal excitability and plasticity". Neurology. 68 (12): ... In addition to their actions on neuronal membrane receptors, some of these steroids may also exert effects on gene expression ... Melcangi RC, Celotti F, Martini L (March 1994). "Progesterone 5-alpha-reduction in neuronal and in different types of glial ... Some major known biological functions of neurosteroids include modulation of neural plasticity, learning and memory processes, ...
Lledo, P.-M., Alonso, M. and Grubb, M. S. (2006). Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal circuits. Nature ... Neuritic plaques, that target the outer regions of the cortex, consist of withering neuronal material from a protein, amyloid- ... Many of the contributing factors that may cause sarcopenia include neuronal and hormonal changes, inadequate nutrition, and ... Mühlig-Versen, A., Bowen, C. E., & Staudinger, U. M. (2012). Personality plasticity in later adulthood: Contextual and personal ...
"Role of BDNF epigenetics in activity-dependent neuronal plasticity". Neuropharmacology. 76 Pt C: 709-18. doi:10.1016/j. ... This also increases the potential for neuronal plasticity. Generally, these antidepressants increase peripheral BDNF levels by ... neuronal plasticity. In rats, it has been shown that individuals less susceptible to depressive behavior have increased binding ... Because MeCP2 can no longer bind to the BDNF promoter and repress transcription, BDNF levels increase and neuronal development ...
NgR is implicated in neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Its relative importance in mediating myelin inhibition in vitro and ... such that adult plasticity in the mutant mice resembled normal visual plasticity in juvenile mice brains. This function of NgR ... McGee, A. W.; Yang, Y; Fischer, Q. S.; Daw, N. W.; Strittmatter, S. M. (2005). "Experience-driven plasticity of visual cortex ... While the entire pathway is not fully understood, the relationship between NgR and neuronal outgrowth has been fleshed out. NgR ...
Bading, H. (2000-09-01). "Transcription-dependent neuronal plasticity: the nuclear calcium hypothesis". European Journal of ...
Neuronal plasticity, or the capability of the brain to adapt to new requirements, is a prime example of plasticity stressing ... Röder, B. (2006). Blindness: A source and case of neuronal plasticity. In P. Baltes, P. Reuter-Lorenz, & F. Rösler (Eds.), ... Plasticity is imperative to current research because the potential for intervention is derived from the notion of plasticity in ... In the end, neuronal changes to the limbic system and prefrontal cortex which are associated with puberty lead to the ...
The current through HCN channels, designated If or Ih, plays a key role in the control of cardiac and neuronal rhythmicity and ... This complexity is believed to affect neural plasticity. Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel Luthi A, McCormick DA. 1998. ... H-current: properties of a neuronal and network pacemaker. Vol. 21. pp 9-12. Kaupp UB, Seifert R. Molecular diversity of ...
"Mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics in neurodegeneration and neuronal plasticity". Neurobiology of Disease. 90: 3-19. doi: ... Boushel R, Lundby C, Qvortrup K, Sahlin K (October 2014). "Mitochondrial plasticity with exercise training and extreme ...
Mocchetti I (2005). "Exogenous gangliosides, neuronal plasticity and repair, and the neurotrophins". Cell Mol Life Sci. 62 (19- ... March 12, 2013). "Neuronal Expression of Glucosylceramide Synthase in Central Nervous System Regulates Body Weight and Energy ... and very low concentrations of a specific ganglioside can induce differentiation of cultured neuronal tumor cells. One NANA ("M ... where inadequate ganglioside expression in mediobasal hypothalamic neurons deregulates neuronal leptin and insulin signaling. " ...
In 2000, Shatz and colleagues identified Class I MHC molecules as important in neuronal plasticity, a surprising new role for ... Shatz, Carla J (2009). "MHC Class I: An Unexpected Role in Neuronal Plasticity". Neuron. 64 (1): 40-5. doi:10.1016/j.neuron. ... Goddard, C. A; Butts, D. A; Shatz, C. J (2007). "Regulation of CNS synapses by neuronal MHC class I". Proceedings of the ... Kanold, Patrick O; Kim, Yoon A; Grandpre, Tadzia; Shatz, Carla J (2009). "Co-regulation of ocular dominance plasticity and NMDA ...
... has important physiological properties and impacts neuronal plasticity and repair mechanisms, and the release of ... Sphingolipidoses Structures of GM1, GM2, GM3 gangliosides Mocchetti I (2005). "Exogenous gangliosides, neuronal plasticity and ...
Mattson MP (November 2008). "Glutamate and neurotrophic factors in neuronal plasticity and disease". Annals of the New York ... Stimulus-mediated neuronal excitation can lead to NMDA receptor activation, triggering a calcium influx. Through a protein ... Penzes P, Johnson RC, Sattler R, Zhang X, Huganir RL, Kambampati V, Mains RE, Eipper BA (January 2001). "The neuronal Rho-GEF ... The latter also decreases reelin expression in neuronal culture. The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member ...
Eccles JC, Ito M, Szentágothai J (1967). The Cerebellum as a Neuronal Machine. Springer-Verlag. The Cerebellum as a Neuronal ... Plasticity: The synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells, and the synapses between mossy fibers and deep nuclear ... Each part of the cortex consists of the same small set of neuronal elements, laid out in a highly stereotyped geometry. At an ... ISBN 0-03-910284-X. Shi Z, Zhang Y, Meek J, Qiao J, Han VZ (2008). "The neuronal organization of a unique cerebellar ...
Hopp, J.Johanna; Fuchs, Albert F (2004). "The characteristics and neuronal substrate of saccadic eye movement plasticity". ... These saccades are generated by a neuronal mechanism that bypasses time-consuming circuits and activates the eye muscles more ...
GAP43 has been termed a 'growth' or 'plasticity' protein because it is expressed at high levels in neuronal growth cones during ... an intrinsic determinant of neuronal development and plasticity". Trends in Neurosciences. 20 (2): 84-91. doi:10.1016/S0166- ... "Neuronal pathfinding is abnormal in mice lacking the neuronal growth cone protein GAP-43". Cell. 80 (3): 445-52. doi:10.1016/ ... Pp46 was concentrated in neuronal growth cones and was thus postulated to play an important role in brain development. In the ...
"Endocytosis of synaptic ADAM10 in neuronal plasticity and Alzheimer's disease". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 123: 2523- ... The presence of the product of this gene in neuronal synapses in conjunction with protein AP2 has been seen in increased ...
Several studies suggest it has a role in neuronal plasticity. EGR-1 has also been found to regulate the expression of VAMP2 (a ... "A gene for Neuronal Plasticity in the Mammalian Brain: Zif286/Egr1/NGFI-A/Krox-24/TIS-8/ZENK?". Progress in Neurobiology. 74: ... It has a distinct pattern of expression in the brain, and its induction has been shown to be associated with neuronal activity ...
SGK has been to shown to facilitate the expression of long-term potentiation in hippocampal neurons and neuronal plasticity. ... The hydration state of the brain is critical to neuronal function. One way hydration modifies cerebral function is by ... neuronal excitability, and renal sodium excretion. SGK1 has been shown to regulate the following ion channels: Epithelial Na+ ... Synaptic transmission and hippocampal plasticity are both affected by kainate receptors. A lack of SGK may reduce glutamate ...
Importantly, these FMRP-binding mRNAs play significant roles in neuronal plasticity. FMRP translational control has been shown ... A mouse model of fragile X mental retardation implicated the involvement of FMRP in synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity ... Huber KM, Gallagher SM, Warren ST, Bear MF (2002). "Altered synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of fragile X mental ... A role for mGluR in synaptic plasticity is further evidenced by the observation of dendritic spine elongation following mGluR ...
This disrupted lamination again implicated cdk5 in neuronal migration and plasticity. Cdk5 is also involved in the regulation ... CDK5 was originally named NCLK (Neuronal CDC2-Like Kinase) due to its similar phosphorylation motif. CDK5 in combination with ... Paglini G, Cáceres A (March 2001). "The role of the Cdk5--p35 kinase in neuronal development". European Journal of Biochemistry ... Rashid T, Banerjee M, Nikolic M (December 2001). "Phosphorylation of Pak1 by the p35/Cdk5 kinase affects neuronal morphology". ...
In conjunction, LTD and LTP are factors affecting neuronal synaptic plasticity. LTD is thought to result mainly from a decrease ... Long-term depression can be described as either homosynaptic plasticity or heterosynaptic plasticity. Homosynaptic LTD is ... Abraham WC, Bear MF (April 1996). "Metaplasticity: the plasticity of synaptic plasticity". Trends Neurosci. 19 (4): 126-30. doi ... Spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) Neural Facilitation (Short-term plasticity) Neuroplasticity Postsynaptic potential ...
Impey S, Obrietan K, Storm DR (1999). "Making new connections: role of ERK/MAP kinase signaling in neuronal plasticity". Neuron ... The 3' UTR of the mRNA contains a cis-acting element required for the localization of Arc to neuronal dendrites, as well as ... Extracellular signaling to neuronal dendrites activates postsynaptic sites to increase Arc levels through a wide variety of ... Activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein is a plasticity protein that in humans is ecoded by the ARC gene. It was ...
... neuronal plasticity is a key element. Increasing evidence points to various mental health disorders as a neurophysiological ... problem which inhibits neuronal plasticity. This is called the neurogenic hypothesis of depression. It promises to explain ... Duman, R.S. (2004). "Depression: a case of neuronal life and death?". Biological Psychiatry. 56 (3): 140-5. doi:10.1016/j. ... Most operate on the same principle, which is modulation of monoamines (neurotransmitters) in the neuronal synapse. Some drugs ...
Kwon, C. H.; Zhu, X.; Zhang, J.; Baker, S. J. (2003). "mTor is required for hypertrophy of Pten-deficient neuronal soma in vivo ... Frankland, P.W.; O'Brien, C.; Ohno, M.; Kirkwood, A.; Silva, A.J. (2001). "Alpha-CaMKII-dependent plasticity in the cortex is ... Murphy, G.G.; Fedorov, N.B.; Giese, K.P.; Ohno, M.; Friedman, E.; Chen, R.; Silva, A.J. (2004). "Increased neuronal ... Frankland, P.W.; O'Brien, C.; Ohno, M.; Kirkwood, A.; Silva, A.J. (2001). "Alpha-CaMKII-dependent plasticity in the cortex is ...
December 2004). "Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 2 increases neuronal cGMP, synaptic plasticity and memory performance". ... "Hydrolysis of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-stimulated cAMP and cGMP by PDE4 and PDE2 phosphodiesterases in primary neuronal ...
... leading to altered neuronal plasticity, function, and subsequent behavior. Chromatin remodeling in rodent offspring and altered ... Epigenetic mechanisms as a result of early life stress may be responsible for neuronal and synaptic alterations in the brain. ... Li SC (November 2013). "Neuromodulation and developmental contextual influences on neural and cognitive plasticity across the ...
A functional disruption of neuronal control at the neuromuscular level, which seems to be paralleled by a reduction in the ... Kischel, P; Stevens, L; Montel, V; Picquet, F; Mounier, Y (May 2001). "Plasticity of monkey triceps muscle fibers in ... Baldwin, KM (October 1996). "Effects of altered loading states on muscle plasticity: what have we learned from rodents?". ... Roy, RR; Baldwin, KM; Edgerton, VR (1991). "The plasticity of skeletal muscle: effects of neuromuscular activity". Exercise and ...
The neuronal networks involved in respiratory function are located in the ventral respiratory column (VRC). From rostral to ... Plasticity of the mechanisms involved in respiratory behavior is modulated in part by the pre-Bötzinger complex. Disruption ... This single neuronal network can create multiple respiratory rhythmic patterns and is by itself both necessary and sufficient ... Neuronal discharge patterns are altered during the depressed synaptic inhibition, contributing to the reformation of the ...
... synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation when talking about neural percolation. A key aspect of percolation is the ... "Leaders of neuronal cultures in a quorum percolation model". Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience. 4. doi:10.3389/fncom. ...
It has been used not only in the study of neuronal plasticity and information processing but also in drug and toxin effects on ... Nevertheless, plasticity in neuronal networks is a phenomenon that is well-established in the neuroscience community, and one ... Researchers can then thoroughly study learning and plasticity in a realistic context, where the neuronal networks are able to ... The long timelines associated with studying neuronal plasticity (usually on the scale of months) makes extending the lifespan ...
Like other glutamate receptors, mGluRs have been shown to be involved in synaptic plasticity and in neurotoxicity and ... Lea PM, Custer SJ, Vicini S, Faden AI (September 2002). "Neuronal and glial mGluR5 modulation prevents stretch-induced ... Archived 2007-09-15 at the Wayback Machine., University of Bristol Centre for Synaptic Plasticity (2003). Retrieved January 20 ... "Neuroprotective effects of group III mGluR in traumatic neuronal injury". Journal of Neurotrauma. 14 (12): 885-95. doi:10.1089/ ...
... , or short-term synaptic depression, is an activity-dependent form of short term synaptic plasticity that ... Therapeutic doses of fluoxetine have been shown to decrease these neuronal fatigue states by inhibiting vesicle release and ... The second form of plasticity disappears with maturation of PP-GCs, although the reversible low frequency depression remains ... synaptic fatigue and its recovery can cause interactions with other neuronal circuits and can affect the kinetics with other ...
Cannabinoids produce a "marked depression of motor activity" via activation of neuronal cannabinoid receptors belonging to the ... Riedel, G.; Davies, S. N. (2005). "Cannabinoid Function in Learning, Memory and Plasticity". Handbook of Experimental ... Riedel, G.; Davies, S. N. (2005). "Cannabinoid Function in Learning, Memory and Plasticity". Handbook of Experimental ... system and neuronal cultures. Cannabidiol was significantly more protective than either vitamin E or vitamin C. The cannabinoid ...
It has been linked to neuronal plasticity through the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3 (NTRK3) gene. A NTRK3 3'UTR ...
The complete neuronal wiring diagram of C.elegans - its connectome was achieved. Nothing approaching this level of detail is ... The muscle coordination learned while riding a bicycle is an example of a type of neural plasticity that may take place largely ... Until 1970, however, experimental evidence to support the synaptic plasticity hypothesis was lacking. In 1971 Tim Bliss and ... Computational neurogenetic modeling is concerned with the study and development of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain ...
Many of the conspicuous features of aging reflect a decline in neuronal function. Accumulation of DNA damage with age in the ... These genes play central roles in synaptic plasticity, vesicular transport and mitochondrial function. In the brain, promoters ... concluded that DNA damage may reduce the expression of selectively vulnerable genes involved in learning, memory and neuronal ...
A Cognitive Training Program Based on Principles of Brain Plasticity: Results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity- ... Chronic usage of low-dose nicotine in animals has been found to increase the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine ... 15-49 Wan, C. Y., & Schlaug, G. (2010). Music making as a tool for promoting brain plasticity across the life span. The ... Xiong, G.L. and Doraiswamy, M. (2009). "Does Meditation Enhance Cognition and Brain Plasticity?" Annals of the New York Academy ...
... as reduction in PDE4B activity improves memory and long-term plasticity in mouse models, possibly supporting further ... "HIV-1 Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3- ...
... and their synaptic plasticity, which is essentially the neuron's ability to function. For instance, when focused on the motor ... thus modulating neuronal activity. Clinical trials have been used to determine any outstanding harmful effects. Although no ...
... neuronal and network plasticity and homeostasis, senescence, the etiology of diverse neurological diseases and neural ... The advancement of neuronal stem cell differentiation and glial fate decisions must be orchestrated timely to determine subtype ... Ballas N.; Mandel G. (2005). "The many faces of REST oversee epigenetic programming of neuronal genes". Current Opinion in ... In adults, cytokines and chemokines affect synaptic plasticity and other ongoing neural processes, which may change in aging ...
In a similar manner, one could consider the brain connectome, set of all neuronal connections, as one single entity, thus ... Allen M, Williams G (2011). "Consciousness, plasticity, and connectomics: the role of intersubjectivity in human cognition". ... Sporns, O (2006). "Small-world connectivity, motif composition, and complexity of fractal neuronal connections". Bio Systems. ... "Structural Properties of the Caenorhabditis elegans Neuronal Network". PLoS Computational Biology. 7 (2): e1001066. Bibcode: ...
It is likely that the growth in neuronal connections is largely due to an interaction with the environment, as there is not ... Garlick, D. (2002). "neural plasticity". Psychological Review. 109 (1): 116-136. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.109.1.116. Grimshaw, ... As babies, our neuronal connections are completely undifferentiated. Neurons make connections with neighboring neurons, and ... This fits with the model of development of fluid intelligence before age of maturity because the neuronal connections are still ...
In both cases, the protein is vital for normal neuronal pattern development. Semaphorin-3A is secreted by neurons and ... selectively induced in terminal Schwann cells of a subset of neuromuscular synapses that display limited anatomical plasticity ... Guidance cues, such as Sema3A, induce the collapse and paralysis of neuronal growth cones during development of the nervous ... Sema3A, and the other class 3 semaphorins, contributes to the failure of neuronal regeneration after CNS injury by regulating ...
Kaplan, MS, "Plasticity After Brain Lesions: `Contemporary Concepts'" Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 69: 984 ... Kaplan, MS & DH Bell, "Neuronal Proliferation in the Nine Month Old Rodent; Radioautographic Study of Granule Cells in the ...
Channel noise is the variability in neuronal responses that is generated by the random gating of voltage-gated ion channels ... If weak signals cannot be enhanced with existing noise, synaptic plasticity is compromised, and memory and personality will be ... A diminished signal can be detrimental to a cell if neuronal maintenance is disrupted, or more importantly a necessary ... Next, it would be necessary to understand how external noise interacts with internal neuronal properties more fully to coincide ...
Tonegawa's lab discovered that dendritic neuronal spines in the temporal cortex are a likely target for treatment of Fragile X ... The essential role of hippocampal CA1 NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity in spatial memory. Cell, 87(7), 1327-1338. ... cellular and neuronal basis of memory formation and retrieval. Tonegawa was born in Nagoya, Japan and attended Hibiya High ...
... and plasticity in hippocampal neuronal cells". The FASEB Journal. 26 (10): 3980-92. doi:10.1096/fj.12-205757. PMID 22713523. Li ... 2012). "Homocysteinylation of neuronal proteins contributes to folate deficiency-associated alterations of differentiation, ...
2) ... It deaminates primary and secondary amines that are free in the neuronal cytoplasm but not those bound in storage ... Sabelli, HC; Mosnaim, AD; Vazquez, AJ; Giardina, WJ; Borison, RL; Pedemonte, WA (1976). "Biochemical plasticity of synaptic ... TAAR1 activity appears to depress monoamine transport and limit dopaminergic and serotonergic neuronal firing rates via ...
This expression contributes to increased neuronal survival and helps protect against neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. The ... Specifically, lower estrogen levels lead to decreased dendritic spines and improper signaling, inhibiting plasticity of the ...
"Controlling Neuronal Activity." American Journal of Psychiatry 165:562, May 2008 doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08030444 Zhang, et ... plasticity in neuroscience, and biological diseases in all aspects, in addition, biology focuses and analyzes behavior and all ... Powerful millisecond timescale neuronal inhibition is instigated upon stimulation by the appropriate frequency of light ... Neuronal activity in rat barrel cortex underlying texture discrimination. PLoS Biol, 5(11), e305. Ocampo, T., Knight, K., ...
... in postmitotic-differentiating neurons of the developmental nervous system and neuronal structures associated with plasticity ... a family of activity-regulated ligands expressed differentially in the nervous system to promote neurite growth and neuronal ...
Since different neuronal cell types are neatly organized into layers in the hippocampus, it has frequently been used as a model ... The form of neural plasticity known as long-term potentiation (LTP) was first discovered to occur in the hippocampus and has ... Neuronal loss also occurs as a result of impaired neurogenesis. Another factor that contributes to a smaller hippocampal volume ... Matsumura N, Nishijo H, Tamura R, Eifuku S, Endo S, Ono T (Mar 1999). "Spatial- and task-dependent neuronal responses during ...
Vogel T, Ahrens S, Büttner N, Krieglstein K (2010). "Transforming growth factor beta promotes neuronal cell fate of mouse ... "Rac activation and inactivation control plasticity of tumor cell movement". Cell. 135 (3): 510-23. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.09. ... "Nedd9/Hef1/Cas-L mediates the effects of environmental pollutants on cell migration and plasticity". Oncogene. 28 (41): 3642-51 ...
... which contributes to neuronal cell death. Inhibition of ASIC1a by psalmotoxin significantly decreased ischemic neuronal cell ... "The acid-activated ion channel ASIC contributes to synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory". Neuron. 34 (3): 463-77. doi: ...
2006 Neuronal Plasticity Prize, IPSEN Foundation, 2004 Marta Philipson Award in Pediatrics, Philipson Foundation for Research, ... Current work in Zoghbi's lab strives to determine specific neuronal populations that contribute to phenotypes observed in MECP2 ...
Activity-dependent plasticity of neuronal excitability a role for short-term modulation of voltage-gated ion channels in ... CHAPTER 2 Homeostatic scaling of neuronal excitability by synaptic modulation of somatic hyperpolarization-activated Ih ...
The work, which appears in the journal Cell, focuses on the regulation of neuronal plasticity--changes in neuronal structure ... They also identified the protein that drives these rhythms in neuronal plasticity: Rho1. Moreover, they found that plasticity ... Changing clocks and changing seasons: Scientists find role for neuronal plasticity News Jul 31, 2015 ... Neuronal plasticity underpins learning and memory, but it is very challenging to tie changes in specific neurons to alterations ...
... regulators of brain plasticity and protectors against neuronal damage. by Cordian Beyer et al. ... Steroids in the brain: regulators of brain plasticity and protectors against neuronal damage.. *. Cordian Beyer, Gabriele M ... article{Beyer2012SteroidsIT, title={Steroids in the brain: regulators of brain plasticity and protectors against neuronal ... Estradiol rapidly modulates synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons: Involvement of kinase networks.. *Yoshitaka Hasegawa, ...
Experience-dependent plasticity acts via GluR1 and a novel neuronal nitric oxide synthase-dependent synaptic mechanism in adult ... Experience-dependent plasticity acts via GluR1 and a novel neuronal nitric oxide synthase-dependent synaptic mechanism in adult ... Synaptic plasticity in the layer IV to II/III pathway in vitro mirrored the results in vivo, in that LTP was present in GluR1/ ... Synaptic plasticity directs development of the nervous system and is thought to underlie memory storage in adult animals. A ...
The chromatin landscape of neuronal plasticity.. Herre M1, Korb E2. ... Here, we review recent advances in chromatin regulation that contribute to synaptic plasticity and drive adaptive behaviors ... Examining the links between neuronal activity, transcriptional output, and synaptic function offers unique insights into how ...
... ranging from the basic neuronal machinery that implements synaptic and neuronal plasticity - i.e. elementary building blocks of ... Neuronal Plasticity, Learning, and Memory. Who we are as human individuals is determined to a large degree by the sum-total of ... Our multidisciplinary, multi-level experimental approach to neuronal plasticity, learning and memory encompasses a spectrum of ... systems that encode and store memory - to the concerted activity of neuronal circuits that encode and maintain experience- ...
Calmodulin-kinases: modulators of neuronal development and plasticity.. Wayman GA1, Lee YS, Tokumitsu H, Silva AJ, Soderling TR ... Neuronal Activity. Continued dendritic arborization (total length ,1000 μm) via neuronal activity requires Ca2+ influx through ... Neuronal activity, via Ca2+ influx through the NMDAR, can activate both CaMKII and CaMKK/CaMKI. (Left side) CaMKII is complexed ... Downstream targets of CaMKIα in this system remain to be identified-potential candidates are discussed in the text (Neuronal ...
TMS-induced neuronal plasticity enables targeted remodeling of visual cortical maps. Vladislav Kozyrev, Robert Staadt, Ulf T. ... TMS-induced neuronal plasticity enables targeted remodeling of visual cortical maps. Vladislav Kozyrev, Robert Staadt, Ulf T. ... TMS-induced neuronal plasticity enables targeted remodeling of visual cortical maps Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... TMS-induced neuronal plasticity enables targeted remodeling of visual cortical maps. Vladislav Kozyrev, Robert Staadt, Ulf T. ...
Neural Plasticity publishes research and review articles from the entire range of relevant disciplines, including basic ... Open Access journal that publishes articles related to all aspects of neural plasticity, with special emphasis on its ... GABAergic Neuronal Precursor Grafting: Implications in Brain Regeneration and Plasticity. Manuel Alvarez Dolado1 and Vania ... To receive news and publication updates for Neural Plasticity, enter your email address in the box below. ...
... have shown that synaptic levels of the protein clathrin are a determinant factor for synaptic plasticity of neurons. ... The vesicular cycle must adapt to constant changes in neuronal activity, and thus is a determinant of neuronal plasticity. The ... researchers-discover-that-synaptic-levels-of-clathrin-protein-are-important-for-neuronal-plasticity ... Synaptic levels of clathrin protein are important for neuronal plasticity. IDIBELL-Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute ...
... suggesting that it might be involved in neuronal plasticity [10].. *Persistent neuronal plasticity, including that observed at ... Methamphetamine-induced deficits of brain monoaminergic neuronal markers: distal axotomy or neuronal plasticity. Guilarte, T.R ... Methamphetamine-induced deficits of brain monoaminergic neuronal markers: distal axotomy or neuronal plasticity [38]. ... Apolipoprotein E and neuronal plasticity following experimental de-afferentation and in Alzheimers disease. Danik, M., Poirier ...
Neural Plasticity publishes research and review articles from the entire range of relevant disciplines, including basic ... Open Access journal that publishes articles related to all aspects of neural plasticity, with special emphasis on its ... Morphogenetic Plasticity of Neuronal Elements in Cerebellar Glomeruli during Deafferentation-Induced Synaptic Reorganization. ... József Hámori, Robert L. Jakab, and József Takács, "Morphogenetic Plasticity of Neuronal Elements in Cerebellar Glomeruli ...
... Neurobiol Dis. 2016 Jun;90:3-19. doi: ... Accordingly, inactivation of the main actors of mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics is associated with defects in neuronal ... we present the central actors of mitochondrial fusion and fission and review the role of mitochondrial dynamics in neuronal ... development, plasticity and functioning, both ex vivo and in vivo. Here, ...
INFLAMMATION AND NEURONAL PLASTICITY: A LINK BETWEEN CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND DEPRESSION PATHOGENESIS in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online ... INFLAMMATION AND NEURONAL PLASTICITY: A LINK BETWEEN CHILDHOOD TRAUMA AND DEPRESSION PATHOGENESIS. Frontiers in Cellular ...
... ranging from changes in gene expression and epigenetic processes to aberrant synaptic plasticity to volumetric changes in ... ranging from changes in gene expression and epigenetic processes to aberrant synaptic plasticity to volumetric changes in ... ranging from changes in gene expression and epigenetic processes to aberrant synaptic plasticity to volumetric changes in ...
Synapse- and Stimulus-Specific Local Translation During Long-Term Neuronal Plasticity. By Dan Ohtan Wang, Sang Mok Kim, Yali ... Synapse- and Stimulus-Specific Local Translation During Long-Term Neuronal Plasticity. By Dan Ohtan Wang, Sang Mok Kim, Yali ... Synapse- and Stimulus-Specific Local Translation During Long-Term Neuronal Plasticity Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... To directly visualize translation at the level of individual synapses during long-term, learning-related neuronal plasticity, ...
Neuronal Activity and Adenylyl Cyclase in Environment-Dependent Plasticity of Axonal Outgrowth in Drosophila. Yi Zhong and Chun ... Neuronal Activity and Adenylyl Cyclase in Environment-Dependent Plasticity of Axonal Outgrowth in Drosophila ... Neuronal Activity and Adenylyl Cyclase in Environment-Dependent Plasticity of Axonal Outgrowth in Drosophila ... Neuronal Activity and Adenylyl Cyclase in Environment-Dependent Plasticity of Axonal Outgrowth in Drosophila ...
... J Neurochem ... to be the result of a cellular stress response that stimulates the production of proteins that enhance neuronal plasticity and ... The profound influences of the quantity and timing of food intake on neuronal function and vulnerability to disease have ... Moreover, DR can stimulate the production of new neurons from stem cells (neurogenesis) and can enhance synaptic plasticity, ...
A Novel Role for Protein Synthesis in Long-Term Neuronal Plasticity: Maintaining Reduced Postburst Afterhyperpolarization. ... We suggest that, much like synaptic plasticity, activity-induced long-lasting modulation of intrinsic neuronal excitability ... A Novel Role for Protein Synthesis in Long-Term Neuronal Plasticity: Maintaining Reduced Postburst Afterhyperpolarization ... A Novel Role for Protein Synthesis in Long-Term Neuronal Plasticity: Maintaining Reduced Postburst Afterhyperpolarization ...
Chan-Palay V. (1977) The Dynamic Nature of Neuron Connections: Neuronal Plasticity and Spontaneous Degeneration in the Normal ... The Dynamic Nature of Neuron Connections: Neuronal Plasticity and Spontaneous Degeneration in the Normal Cerebellum. ... A systematic analysis of this type begins with the definition of the most obvious neuronal elements-the perikarya of all ...
Rodent models of social stress and neuronal plasticity: relevance to depressive-like disorders.. Title. Rodent models of social ... Moderate to severe social stress appears to stimulate plasticity and neuronal growth in regions of the amygdala, whereas the ... Rodent models of social stress and neuronal plasticity: relevance to depressive-like disorders.. ... Rodent models of social stress and neuronal plasticity: relevance to depressive-like disorders. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity pathways, according to their ... Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of long-term neuronal synaptic plasticity pathways; according to their ...
Shamma receives NIH grant to study spectro-temporal plasticity in the brains neuronal networks. Professor Shihab Shamma (ECE/ ... This kind of plasticity would likely involve a selective functional reshaping of the underlying cortical circuitry to sculpt ... They will extend studies of task-related plasticity in the auditory cortex to a variety of new tasks involving speech stimuli, ... lead to progress in understanding the interactions within an extended neuronal network that give rise to adaptive plasticity. ...
Understanding the signal filtering properties of this short-term plasticity (STP) is a challenge and requires theoretical ...
... to control neuronal development and plasticity. In spite of this important role, very little is known about additional proteins ... a useful starting point to investigate genes that interact with AP-1 in vivo to regulate neuronal development and plasticity. ... Screen in Drosophila Identifies Neuronal Roles of GSK-3β/shaggy as a Regulator of AP-1-Dependent Developmental Plasticity ... Overexpression Screen in Drosophila Identifies Neuronal Roles of GSK-3β/shaggy as a Regulator of AP-1-Dependent Developmental ...
Review Article: Phenotypic Plasticity of the Brain Neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity: understanding complex system ... Review Article: Phenotypic Plasticity of the Brain Neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity: understanding complex system ... Review Article: Phenotypic Plasticity of the Brain Neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity: understanding complex system ... Neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity: understanding complex system dynamics by interfacing neurons with silicon ...
Neuronal plasticity of human Whartons jelly mesenchymal stromal cells to the dopaminergic cell type compared with human bone ... Thus the focus of this study was to estimate the neuronal plasticity of WJ MSC to the dopaminergic (DA) cell type in comparison ... and the neuronal plasticity of human WJ MSC is comparable with that of BM MSC. ... For neuronal differentiation, MSC were exposed to developmentally relevant cues for midbrain DA neurons: sonic hedgehog (SHH) ...
Plasticity and stability in neuronal output via changes in intrinsic excitability: its whats inside that counts ... Plasticity and stability in neuronal output via changes in intrinsic excitability: its whats inside that counts ... Plasticity and stability in neuronal output via changes in intrinsic excitability: its whats inside that counts ... Plasticity and stability in neuronal output via changes in intrinsic excitability: its whats inside that counts ...
Disease-associated mutations in Niemann-Pick type C1 alter ER calcium signaling and neuronal plasticity. Scott A. Tiscione, ... Disease-associated mutations in Niemann-Pick type C1 alter ER calcium signaling and neuronal plasticity ...
Neuronal plasticity and dendritic spines: effect of environmental enrichment on intact and postischemic rat brain.. Johansson, ... physiopathology, *Neuronal Plasticity, Rats, Inbred SHR, Support, Non-U.S. Govt. in Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and ... Neuronal Plasticity,Rats,Inbred SHR,Support,Non-U.S. Govt}, language = {eng}, number = {1}, pages = {89--96}, publisher = { ... Neuronal plasticity and dendritic spines: effect of environmental enrichment on intact and postischemic rat brain.}, url = { ...
HIP/PAP prevents excitotoxic neuronal death and promotes plasticity Author(s) Haldipur, P. Dupuis, N. Degos, V. Moniaux, N. ... HIP/PAP prevents excitotoxic neuronal death and promotes plasticity. Haldipur, P, Dupuis, N, Degos, V, Moniaux, N, Chhor, V, ... HIP/PAP prevents excitotoxic neuronal death and promotes plasticity, Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, vol. 1, ... HIP/PAP prevented the formation of cortical and white matter lesions and reduced neuronal death and glial activation following ...
... and functional plasticities that occur within the dopamine brain reward system, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral ... July Newsletter: Rho-family GTPases, Neuronal Plasticity, and Depression. * By Cytoskeleton Inc. ... Dysfunctional neurophysiology and plasticity in these nuclei likely contribute to some of the symptoms of MDD, specifically ... D1R-expressing (but not D2R) accumbal neurons also display reduced dendritic arborization (morphological plasticity), an ...
... synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis and how that in ... Neuronal Plasticity and Brain Function : This book reviews ... Sleep, Neuronal Plasticity and Brain Function De Ruth M. Benca, Peter Meerlo, Ted Abel ... synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis and how that in turn is linked to learning and memory processes. In addition, readers will ... synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis and how that in turn is linked to learning and memory processes. In addition, readers will ...
  • Neuronal plasticity underpins learning and memory, but it is very challenging to tie changes in specific neurons to alterations in animal behavior,' explains Justin Blau, the paper's senior author and a professor in the New York University (NYU) Department of Biology and at NYU Abu Dhabi. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In our research, we've discovered how plasticity of a very small number of neurons helps run the biological clock and aids transitions to different seasons. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Estradiol rapidly modulates synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons: Involvement of kinase networks. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These combined experiments strongly suggest that synaptic plasticity and more specifically Long Term Potentiation (LTP) triggers a rapid and sustained loss of cholesterol in neurons. (europa.eu)
  • Neuroplasticity, or neural plasticity, allows neurons to regenerate both anatomically as well as functionally, and to form new synaptic connections. (cognifit.com)
  • Revisiting the neural circuit and re-establishing neuronal transmission between the implicated neurons at each new attempt enhances the efficiency of synaptic transmission. (cognifit.com)
  • Whereas synaptic plasticity is achieved through enhancing communication at the synaptic site between existing neurons, neurogenesis refers to the birth and proliferation of new neurons in the brain. (cognifit.com)
  • The term "neuroplasticity" was first used by Polish neuroscientist Jerzy Konorski in 1948 to describe observed changes in neuronal structure (neurons are the cells that make up our brains), although it wasn't widely used until the 1960s. (positivepsychology.com)
  • How a developing neuron becomes an active participant in a circuit or whether this process is activity dependent is not known, especially as spike-dependent plasticity mechanisms would not be available to non-spiking neurons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • I. Synaptic Plasticity (Excitatory spine synapses) Changes in synaptic strength are important for formation of memory. (slideserve.com)
  • Thus, understanding the highly elastic nature - or the ' plasticity ' - of synapses is critical to uncovering how the brain converts our individual experiences into lasting memories. (aston.ac.uk)
  • In this framework, the ultrastructural changes of the inhibitory synapses during plasticity have been poorly investigated. (edu.sa)
  • Here we show that adaptive patterns of limb usage after amputation drive cortical plasticity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The work, which appears in the journal Cell , focuses on the regulation of 'neuronal plasticity'--changes in neuronal structure--and its function in the brain. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Regional Specificity of GABAergic Regulation of Cross-Modal Plasticity in Mouse Visual Cortex after Unilateral Enucleation. (technologynetworks.com)
  • We discovered that place fields in hippocampal area CA1 are produced by a synaptic potentiation notably different from Hebbian plasticity. (janelia.org)
  • This permissive form of experience-dependent plasticity enables a neuron to start contributing to circuit function. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Sensory-Evoked Spiking Behavior Emerges via an Experience-Dependent Plasticity Mechanism. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Forebrain-specific loss of synaptic GABAA receptors results in altered neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity in mice. (edu.sa)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms underlying glutamatergic synaptic plasticity have been extensively investigated and described, those responsible for inhibitory synaptic plasticity are only beginning to be unveiled. (edu.sa)
  • However, the idea goes back even farther (Demarin, Morović, & Béne, 2014)-the "father of neuroscience," Santiago Ramón y Cajal, talked about "neuronal plasticity" in the early 1900s (Fuchs & Flügge, 2014). (positivepsychology.com)
  • Steroids in the brain: regulators of brain plasticity and protectors against neuronal damage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Beyer2012SteroidsIT, title={Steroids in the brain: regulators of brain plasticity and protectors against neuronal damage. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Brain plasticity refers to the capacity of the nervous system to change its structure and its function over a lifetime, in reaction to environmental diversity. (cognifit.com)
  • Brain plasticity, or neuroplasticity, is the ability for the brain to recover and restructure itself. (cognifit.com)
  • Researchers show that brain plasticity activated and strengthens applying this clinical intervention exercise program. (cognifit.com)
  • For a very long time the notion of continued neuronal birth in the adult brain was considered heretic. (cognifit.com)
  • And yet, you would expect more plasticity in younger animals, because the brain undergoes major transformations during adolescence. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Arm-amputation involves two powerful drivers for brain plasticity-sensory deprivation and altered use. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Our results demonstrate how experience-driven plasticity in the human brain can transcend boundaries that have been thought to limit reorganisation after sensory deprivation in adults. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we tested whether NMDA receptor activation during synaptic plasticity would also be able to regulate cholesterol levels. (europa.eu)
  • Learning is primarily mediated by activity-dependent modifications of synaptic strength within neuronal circuits. (janelia.org)
  • Both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic contacts display activity dependent dynamic changes in their efficacy that are globally termed synaptic plasticity. (edu.sa)
  • The KU Leuven researchers discovered that cross-modal plasticity is age-dependent in an unexpected way: "In adult mice both the remaining eye and the whiskers compensate for the lack of vision in one eye. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In adult mice, indiplon suppressed cross-modal plasticity: the lack of vision in one eye was compensated by the remaining eye, but not by the whiskers. (technologynetworks.com)
  • This plasticity efficiently stores entire behavioral sequences within synaptic weights to produce predictive place cell activity. (janelia.org)
  • This unusual type of neuronal plasticity suggests that the function of s-LNvs changes dramatically over the day: from mainly sending signals at dawn to mainly receiving signals at dusk. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Examining the links between neuronal activity, transcriptional output, and synaptic function offers unique insights into how neurons adapt to changing environments and form memories. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we review recent advances in chromatin regulation that contribute to synaptic plasticity and drive adaptive behaviors through dynamic and precise regulation of transcription output in neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers of the group of cellular and molecular neurobiology of the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and the University of Barcelona, led by researcher Artur Llobet, have shown that synaptic levels of the protein clathrin are a determinant factor for synaptic plasticity of neurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • Moreover, DR can stimulate the production of new neurons from stem cells (neurogenesis) and can enhance synaptic plasticity, which may increase the ability of the brain to resist aging and restore function following injury. (nih.gov)
  • Learning-induced reduction in the postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP), which results with enhanced neuronal excitability and decreased spike frequency adaptation, is apparent in hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Intense synaptic activation induces AHP reduction and enhanced neuronal excitability in hippocampal pyramidal neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • While there has been extensive research to define the cellular and molecular basis of synaptic plasticity, at the level of either pairs of neurons or smaller networks, analysis of larger neuronal ensembles has proved technically challenging. (biologists.org)
  • Here we describe recent breakthroughs in the area of various bionic hybrids whereby neuronal networks have been successfully interfaced with silicon devices to monitor the output of synaptically connected neurons. (biologists.org)
  • This form of synaptic plasticity has been the main focus of neuroscience research over the past decade and has provided greater insights into both cellular and molecular mechanisms by which synapses between subsets of neurons can be altered. (biologists.org)
  • The network plasticity can be considered as the sum of individually summated synaptic changes that occur in groups of functionally related neurons. (biologists.org)
  • For neuronal differentiation, MSC were exposed to developmentally relevant cues for midbrain DA neurons: sonic hedgehog (SHH) and fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), along with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). (nih.gov)
  • We are only beginning to understand how neural networks strike a balance between altering individual neurons in the name of plasticity, while maintaining long-term stability in neural system function. (biologists.org)
  • Because of their fundamental role in generating neuronal output, it is not surprising that alterations in the properties, spatial distribution, or abundance of these ion channels can result in considerable plasticity for neurons and the networks to which they belong. (biologists.org)
  • D1R-expressing (but not D2R) accumbal neurons also display reduced dendritic arborization (morphological plasticity), an important parameter in excitatory neurotransmission for the MSNs as dendritic spines are the primary site of excitatory synapses 8,10-12,19,20 . (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Neuronal plasticity underpins learning and memory, but it is very challenging to tie changes in specific neurons to alterations in animal behavior,' explains Justin Blau, the paper's senior author and a professor in the New York University (NYU) Department of Biology and at NYU Abu Dhabi. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In our research, we've discovered how plasticity of a very small number of neurons helps run the biological clock and aids transitions to different seasons. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Estradiol rapidly modulates synaptic plasticity of hippocampal neurons: Involvement of kinase networks. (semanticscholar.org)
  • show that homeostatic synaptic plasticity, the mechanism responsible for optimization of neuronal network activity, was abolished in human neurons generated from fragile X patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • For proper neuronal network formation excitatory and inhibitory neurons as well as glia need to co-develop. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Bioengineered Neuronal Organoids (BENOs) comprise interconnected excitatory and inhibitory neurons with supportive astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • These findings further our knowledge about the regulation of neuronal plasticity by astrocytes outside the neuron, as well as the regulation of plasticity from within the nuclei of the neurons themselves. (umaryland.edu)
  • The instructive aspect of this registration is that it is actively maintained by plasticity mechanisms: When the visual field of owls is chronically shifted by prisms, neurons in ICX and OT develop a shift in their auditory receptive fields that corresponds to the visual field displacement ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Plasticity is the ability for the nervous system, more specifically neurons, and their synapses to modify their function and morphology due to experiences, which in turn correlate with changes in behavior. (ric.edu)
  • Although there is a decline in brain plasticity across lifespan, neurons in certain areas of the adult brain retain the ability to undergo synaptic, dendritic and spine remodeling in response to different stimuli. (uv.es)
  • Moreover, recent evidences indicate that changes in the structure and connectivity of neurons in the mPFC may also underlie the pathogenesis of these diseases and that pharmacological treatments may revert these changes by enhancing the plasticity of neuronal connections. (uv.es)
  • Although most of the studies on neuronal structural plasticity have been focused on principal neurons, there is abundant evidence that, in these psychiatric and neurological disorders, interneurons and cortical inhibitory networks show abnormalities. (uv.es)
  • We are currently investigating whether Rac is an important molecule involved post-developmentally in synaptic plasticity in the adult mice, playing a role in the neuro-anatomical and cyto-architectural changes of neurons and in the activation of signal transduction pathways associated with LTP and hippocampal learning and memory. (uh.edu)
  • In neuroscience, homeostatic plasticity refers to the capacity of neurons to regulate their own excitability relative to network activity, a compensatory adjustment that occurs over the timescale of days. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic plasticity can be used to term a process that maintains the stability of neuronal functions through a coordinated plasticity among subcellular compartments, such as the synapses versus the neurons and the cell bodies versus the axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although multiple neurons can receive a stimulus, only a subset of the neurons will induce the necessary plasticity for memory encoding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The selection of this subset of neurons is termed neuronal allocation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuronal allocation is a phenomenon that accounts for how specific neurons in a network, and not others that receive similar input, are committed to storing a specific memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, we have deleted Brg1 specifically in neurons and discovered that Brg1 is required for synapse development and MEF2-mediated activity-induced gene expression and synapse plasticity. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • They are highly 'plastic', changing the way they transmit information between neurons in response to specific patterns of neuronal activity. (iit.it)
  • Here, we demonstrate that mRNA encoding a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) family, RGS2, is rapidly induced in neurons of the hippocampus, cortex, and striatum in response to stimuli that evoke plasticity. (unthsc.edu)
  • This `homeostatic plasticity' has more recently been implicated as a mechanism of stabilizing neuronal function. (biologists.org)
  • It is these three aspects of plasticity in neuronal excitability in mature nervous systems that will be discussed in this review: long-term potentiation and depression of intrinsic excitability, homeostatic plasticity of neuronal excitability, and changes in excitability following perturbation of afferent input. (biologists.org)
  • We can now probe the role of TNFα and homeostatic plasticity in the nervous system. (mcgill.ca)
  • Removing TNFα signaling interferes with the ocular dominance plasticity observed in the visual cortex following monocular deprivation, suggesting a role for homeostatic plasticity in this process. (mcgill.ca)
  • TNFα-dependent homeostatic plasticity defines an intrinsic neuronal function for a pro-inflammatory signaling molecule and suggests that immune signaling molecules serve novel functions in the normal functioning of the nervous system. (mcgill.ca)
  • Synaptic scaling has been proposed as a potential mechanism of homeostatic plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic plasticity is thought to balance Hebbian plasticity by modulating the activity of the synapse or the properties of ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic plasticity in neocortical circuits has been studied in depth by Gina G. Turrigiano and Sacha Nelson of Brandeis University, who first observed compensatory changes in excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) after chronic activity manipulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeostatic plasticity also maintains neuronal excitability in a real-time manner through the coordinated plasticity of threshold and refractory period at voltage-gated sodium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • As postdoctoral fellow, he specialized in synaptic physiology in the laboratory of Dr. Yukiko Goda at the MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology (University College London), where he uncovered the role of cell adhesion in homeostatic plasticity. (iit.it)
  • In neuropsychiatric disorders like depression structural remodeling involves apoptosis, reduced neurogenesis, and structural remodeling of neuronal dendrites which most likely reflects the latter. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Here we review key findings from animal models of psychosocial stress that have been used to gain insights into the relation between stress-related behavioral disorders like depression and structural plasticity. (ncbs.res.in)
  • Such structural changes underlying long-term plasticity are more permanent, require longer time periods to develop and are contingent upon de novo protein synthesis. (biologists.org)
  • These data implicate RhoB in cofilin regulation and dendritic and spine morphology, highlighting its importance in synaptic plasticity at a structural and functional level. (gla.ac.uk)
  • These data demonstrate structural plasticity of the MPS and suggest its potential role in early steps of axon degeneration. (elifesciences.org)
  • In contrast, α2δ2 pharmacological blockade through gabapentin administration promoted corticospinal structural plasticity and regeneration in adulthood. (jci.org)
  • The similarity of structural and functional properties to the fetal brain may allow for the application of BENOs in studies of neuronal plasticity and modeling of disease. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • By quantifying neuronal architecture, we observed that s-LNv structural plasticity changes the amount of axonal material in addition to cycles of fasciculation and defasciculation. (nyu.edu)
  • This neuronal structural plasticity seems to be the basis for many cognitive processes and it is crucial for adaptive responses to aversive experiences and recovery from brain damage and disease. (uv.es)
  • In consonance with this fact, PSA-NCAM expression, which is very high during brain development, is only retained in adult brain regions that display a high degree of neuronal structural plasticity. (uv.es)
  • The neuronal cytoskeleton is exquisitely regulated to balance long-term structural maintenance with the ability to make and break connections and repair damage. (sfn.org)
  • Neuronal circuits in the mammalian visual cortex maintain certain dynamic mechanisms of structural and functional modification in the early postnatal period as well as in adulthood. (plos.org)
  • The goal of this project is to provide mechanistic insights on how the interplay between integrins and glutamate receptors alters neuronal circuits in autism and depression, and to develop treatments for 'opening a window' of persistent structural normalization of neural circuitries in these pathologies. (iit.it)
  • The results show both marine compounds do not cause neurotoxic effects and, in addition, they promote structural neuronal plasticity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Ocular dominance plasticity is a model of activity-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex that has been extensively used to investigate the mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity. (umaryland.edu)
  • I used in vivo electrophysiology as well as microscopy and biochemistry techniques to identify novel players in activity-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex. (umaryland.edu)
  • Tanaka S, Tani T, Ribot J, O'Hashi K, Imamura K (2009) A Postnatal Critical Period for Orientation Plasticity in the Cat Visual Cortex. (plos.org)
  • In this study, we used these technical improvements to determine the critical period for orientation plasticity in cat primary visual cortex. (plos.org)
  • We produced T1 knockout mice (KO), which show extensive axon regeneration following spinal cord injury, as well as the loss of onset of ocular dominance plasticity. (ovid.com)
  • T1KO loses the opening of ocular dominance plasticity. (ovid.com)
  • My results reveal that the astrocyte-secreted, trans-synaptic bridging protein hevin, as well as three nuclear transcription factors CREB, SRF and MEF2, are indispensable to ocular dominance plasticity. (umaryland.edu)
  • Additionally, I found that the activation of CREB via phosphorylation at serine 142 and 143 is required for ocular dominance plasticity. (umaryland.edu)
  • Our multidisciplinary, multi-level experimental approach to neuronal plasticity, learning and memory encompasses a spectrum of cutting-edge methods, ranging from state-of-the-art molecular biology and electrophysiology in animal models to sophisticated psychophysics and behavior, modeling, and the most advanced behavioral protocols and functional neuroimaging of the behaving human brain. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • The role of the small GTPases-linked genes could provide a connection between the mechanism and the neuronal microstructural deficits observed in these cognitive disorders. (uh.edu)
  • LTP in VLPO-lesioned animals was partially restored by adenosine antagonists, suggesting that adenosine accumulation in VLPO-lesioned animals could account for some of the observed synaptic plasticity deficits. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, Sulf1-specific deficits were shown for synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, associated with a reduced spine density. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Thus, our laboratory is investigating Rac-dependent regulation of neuronal morphology in syndromes presenting impaired cognition. (uh.edu)
  • The one-year, $320K grant is titled, "Spectro-Temporal Plasticity in Primary Auditory Cortex. (umd.edu)
  • Since some forms of spinocerebellar ataxia are associated with mutations in human Puratrophin-1, our data support the idea that defective neuronal plasticity underlies loss of motor control and leads to neurodegeneration,' notes Blau. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The receptor trafficking induced by TNFα underlies homeostatic synaptic plasticity. (mcgill.ca)
  • This plasticity underlies every event of learning and memory that is crucial to our daily lives. (umaryland.edu)
  • Since spinocerebellar ataxia is associated with mutations in human Puratrophin-1, our data support the idea that defective actin-related plasticity underlies this ataxia. (nyu.edu)
  • Research in Cho group focuses on a wide range of projects from molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in the brain to pathological aspects of the central nervous system (CNS) including Alzheimer's disease. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • It provides an extensive overview of the latest insights in the role of sleep in regulating gene expression, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis and how that in turn is linked to learning and memory processes. (youscribe.com)
  • The monosynaptic connection formed between SNs and MNs, a central component of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia , can be reconstituted in culture, where well-characterized stimuli elicit forms of plasticity that have direct correlates in the behavior of the animal. (sciencemag.org)
  • The exact form of this plasticity depends on the behavioral context, and the spectrotemporal features of the salient acoustic stimuli. (umd.edu)
  • They will extend studies of task-related plasticity in the auditory cortex to a variety of new tasks involving speech stimuli, new behavioral paradigms (contrasting discrimination versus recognition). (umd.edu)
  • They will also test the idea that top-down influences from frontal areas contribute to the induction of rapid adaptive plasticity in the auditory cortex during auditory tasks, reflecting both the nature of the stimuli and goals of the tasks. (umd.edu)
  • Unlike other lncRNAs, the induction of eRNA is rapid and transient, and tightly regulated by external stimuli such as neuronal activity. (postech.ac.kr)
  • In particular, an answer to the question of how the relatively unspecific nature of TMS stimulation leads to specific neuronal reorganization, as well as a detailed picture of TMS-triggered reorganization of functional brain modules, is missing. (pnas.org)
  • Our study," adds the researcher "questions this dogma because we found that in periods of intense neuronal stimulation, but within physiological levels, presynaptic levels of clathrin decrease reversibly. (eurekalert.org)
  • The current experimental studies of my group (Experimental Cortical Plasticity) are concerned with the cellular mechanisms of the modulatory action of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). (ruhr-uni-bochum.de)
  • Preliminary studies from simultaneous neuronal recordings of single units and local field potentials in the auditory and frontal cortex have already led to exciting new insights, and may lead to progress in understanding the interactions within an extended neuronal network that give rise to adaptive plasticity. (umd.edu)
  • Whole-cell recording from a hippocampal slice Neuroinflammation is a hallmark of almost every neurological disorder, from acute head injury and stroke to most neurodegenerative diseases, and is thought to be a major contributor to the disruption of neuronal function and cell death.However, it remains unclear how the inflammation, driven by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, is contributing to the damage. (mcgill.ca)
  • These results from T1KO mice suggest important roles for extracellular CS in the brain regarding neuronal plasticity and axon regeneration. (ovid.com)
  • Michael Meaney won the 2012 Fondation IPSEN International Prize in Neuronal Plasticity. (douglas.qc.ca)
  • In this form of plasticity, either the amount of neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic terminal or its receptor function in the postsynaptic cell is modulated. (biologists.org)
  • We are interested in exploring other role for this form of plasticity in nervous system function. (mcgill.ca)
  • First, all of the machinery required for translation is present in neuronal processes, including polyribosomes ( 11 , 12 ), translation factors ( 13 ), and a select population of mRNAs ( 14 - 18 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Long-lasting learning-related synaptic plasticity requires transcription for its persistence ( 1 - 3 ) and yet can occur in a synapse-specific manner ( 4 - 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Is developmental plasticity influenced both by genes and experience? (brainscape.com)
  • Moreover, the study revealed that the FSIN membrane potential could modulate the expression of the plasticity. (maxplanckflorida.org)
  • All neuronal and endocrine stimulants were able to modulate but not induce defences, indicating a pathway of interlinked steps. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • On one hand, we study the effects of rTMS on sensory processing itself and the relationship to changes in cortical protein expression, on the other hand, we further test how rTMS can modulate plasticity of the sensory system. (ruhr-uni-bochum.de)
  • Here, we present the central actors of mitochondrial fusion and fission and review the role of mitochondrial dynamics in neuronal physiology and pathophysiology. (nih.gov)
  • This book discusses a particular aspect of brain function, that of storage and retrieval of memory of past experience, in terms of neuronal plasticity. (springer.com)
  • Although axonal impairment has long been known to be devastating for brain function in disease, until recently it was thought that axons showed minimal plasticity in healthy brains. (sfn.org)
  • This symposium will highlight recent advances in mechanisms controlling axonal function, how these mechanisms are plastic, and how axonal plasticity impacts brain function. (sfn.org)
  • However, we do not know how this richness influences brain function and synaptic plasticity. (iit.it)
  • The inhibition of homeostatic synaptic plasticity was mediated by inhibition of retinoic acid signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • Simultaneously, TNFα also regulates neuronal inhibition, by causing an endocytosis of the GABA-A receptor, the principle mediator of fast inhibition in the brain. (mcgill.ca)
  • The neuronal MPS contains molecules homologous to the components of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton ( Bennett and Baines, 2001 ) but adopts a different ultrastructural organization. (elifesciences.org)
  • As postdoctoral fellow, he joined the laboratory of Dr. Yukiko Goda at the MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology (University College London), where he studied the relationship between synaptic structure and function, uncovering the role of cell adhesion molecules in homeostatic synaptic plasticity. (iit.it)
  • Long-term neuronal plasticity is known to be dependent on rapid de novo synthesis of mRNA and protein, and recent studies provide insight into the molecules involved in this response. (unthsc.edu)
  • Long-term synaptic plasticity is impaired in rats with lesions of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Study investigators have sought to determine the role of clathrin in synaptic plasticity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Second, studies using protein synthesis inhibitors indicate a central role for local translation during long-lasting synaptic plasticity ( 5 , 19 , 20 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • They will explore plasticity in higher-order auditory cortical fields, and investigate the possible role of top-down signals from frontal cortex in modulating adaptive plasticity in the auditory cortex. (umd.edu)
  • D2R agonist-induced increases in GAD67 and SYN neuropil expression were blocked when PSA was previously removed, indicating a role for PSA-NCAM in this plasticity. (uv.es)
  • Also, these induce the growth of the neuronal tree, an aspect of great interest in Alzheimer's disease, where atrophy and dysfunction play a more relevant role in the appearance of symptoms than in neuronal death", notes Albert Giralt. (eurekalert.org)
  • Findings suggest that early life working memory training regulates shifts in neuronal morphology following neonatal brain injury. (ric.edu)
  • Indeed, Sano and colleagues in the Silva lab showed that CREB also regulates neuronal memory allocation in the amygdala. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human LilrB2 is a Beta-Amyloid Receptor and its Murine Homolog PirB Regulates Synaptic Plasticity in an Alzheimer's Model , Kim, T et al. (prezi.com)
  • during foetal stage, infancy, childhood and adolescence (but it still has plasticity in adulthood). (brainscape.com)