The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of severe neurodegenerative diseases characterized by intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent wax-like lipid materials (CEROID; LIPOFUSCIN) in neurons. There are several subtypes based on mutations of the various genes, time of disease onset, and severity of the neurological defects such as progressive DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; and visual failure.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A pathway of fibers that originates in the lateral part of the ENTORHINAL CORTEX, perforates the SUBICULUM of the HIPPOCAMPUS, and runs into the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, where these fibers synapse with others that go to the DENTATE GYRUS where the pathway terminates. It is also known as the perforating fasciculus.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.

Modulation of long-term synaptic depression in visual cortex by acetylcholine and norepinephrine. (1/7650)

In a slice preparation of rat visual cortex, we discovered that paired-pulse stimulation (PPS) elicits a form of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) in the superficial layers when carbachol (CCh) or norepinephrine (NE) is applied concurrently. PPS by itself, or CCh and NE in the absence of synaptic stimulation, produced no lasting change. The LTD induced by PPS in the presence of NE or CCh is of comparable magnitude with that obtained with prolonged low-frequency stimulation (LFS) but requires far fewer stimulation pulses (40 vs 900). The cholinergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by atropine and pirenzepine, suggesting involvement of M1 receptors. The noradrenergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by urapidil and was mimicked by methoxamine, suggesting involvement of alpha1 receptors. beta receptor agonists and antagonists were without effect. Induction of LTD by PPS was inhibited by NMDA receptor blockers (completely in the case of NE; partially in the case of CCh), suggesting that one action of the modulators is to control the gain of NMDA receptor-dependent homosynaptic LTD in visual cortex. We propose that this is a mechanism by which cholinergic and noradrenergic inputs to the neocortex modulate naturally occurring receptive field plasticity.  (+info)

Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (2/7650)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

CRE-mediated gene transcription in neocortical neuronal plasticity during the developmental critical period. (3/7650)

Neuronal activity-dependent processes are believed to mediate the formation of synaptic connections during neocortical development, but the underlying intracellular mechanisms are not known. In the visual system, altering the pattern of visually driven neuronal activity by monocular deprivation induces cortical synaptic rearrangement during a postnatal developmental window, the critical period. Here, using transgenic mice carrying a CRE-lacZ reporter, we demonstrate that a calcium- and cAMP-regulated signaling pathway is activated following monocular deprivation. We find that monocular deprivation leads to an induction of CRE-mediated lacZ expression in the visual cortex preceding the onset of physiologic plasticity, and this induction is dramatically downregulated following the end of the critical period. These results suggest that CRE-dependent coordinate regulation of a network of genes may control physiologic plasticity during postnatal neocortical development.  (+info)

Impairment of neocortical long-term potentiation in mice deficient of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. (4/7650)

The role of the possible retrograde messenger nitric oxide (NO) in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) was studied in supragranular layers of somatosensory cortical slices obtained from adult mice. High-frequency stimulation produced a slowly rising, long-lasting (50 min) and significant (P < 0.001) increase in the extracellular synaptic response by 23%. The induction of LTP was independent from activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, but prevented by bath application of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), indicating that one or several of the different NO synthases (NOS) produced NO within the postsynaptic neuron. No LTP could be induced in knockout mice lacking the endothelial NOS (eNOS) isoform. These data suggest that eNOS is involved in an NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP in the rodent cerebral cortex.  (+info)

Selective induction of LTP and LTD by postsynaptic [Ca2+]i elevation. (5/7650)

Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), two prominent forms of synaptic plasticity at glutamatergic afferents to CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells, are both triggered by the elevation of postsynaptic intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). To understand how one signaling molecule can be responsible for triggering two opposing forms of synaptic modulation, different postsynaptic [Ca2+]i elevation patterns were generated by a new caged calcium compound nitrophenyl-ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid in CA1 pyramidal cells. We found that specific patterns of [Ca2+]i elevation selectively activate LTP or LTD. In particular, only LTP was triggered by a brief increase of [Ca2+]i with relatively high magnitude, which mimics the [Ca2+]i rise during electrical stimulation typically used to induce LTP. In contrast, a prolonged modest rise of [Ca2+]i reliably induced LTD. An important implication of the results is that both the amplitude and the duration of an intracellular chemical signal can carry significant biological information.  (+info)

Selective pruning of more active afferents when cat visual cortex is pharmacologically inhibited. (6/7650)

Activity-dependent competition is thought to guide the normal development of specific patterns of neural connections. Such competition generally favors more active inputs, making them larger and stronger, while less active inputs become smaller and weaker. We pharmacologically inhibited the activity of visual cortical cells and measured the three-dimensional structure of inputs serving the two eyes when one eye was occluded. The more active inputs serving the open eye actually became smaller than the deprived inputs from the occluded eye, which were similar to those in normal animals. These findings demonstrate in vivo that it is not the amount of afferent activity but the correlation between cortical and afferent activity that regulates the growth or retraction of these inputs.  (+info)

Expression of the rat homologue of the Drosophila fat tumour suppressor gene. (7/7650)

We have sequenced and defined the expression during rat embryogenesis of the protocadherin fat, the murine homologue of a Drosophila tumour suppressor gene. As previously described for human fat, the sequence encodes a large protocadherin with 34 cadherin repeats, five epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats containing a single laminin A-G domain and a putative transmembrane portion followed by a cytoplasmic sequence. This cytoplasmic sequence shows homology to the b-catenin binding regions of classical cadherin cytoplasmic tails and also ends with a PDZ domain-binding motif. In situ hybridization studies at E15 show that fat is predominately expressed in fetal epithelial cell layers and in the CNS, although expression is also seen in tongue musculature and condensing cartilage. Within the CNS, expression is seen in the germinal regions and in areas of developing cortex, and this neural expression pattern is also seen at later embryonic (E18) and postnatal stages. No labelling was seen in adult tissues except in the CNS, where the remnant of the germinal zones, as well as the dentate gyrus, continue to express fat.  (+info)

Synaptic plasticity: regulated translation in dendrites. (8/7650)

Synaptic activity can induce neurons to synthesize proteins important for cognition and brain development. Recent results suggest this activity-induced protein synthesis is partially mediated by regulated translation within neuronal dendrites.  (+info)

Spike-timing dependent plasticity is a learning mechanism used extensively within neural modelling. The learning rule has been shown to allow a neuron to find the onset of a spatio-temporal pattern repeated among its afferents. In this thesis, the first question addressed is what does this neuron learn? With a spiking neuron model and linear prediction, evidence is adduced that the neuron learns two components: (1) the level of average background activity and (2) specific spike times of a pattern. Taking advantage of these findings, a network is developed that can train recognisers for longer spatio-temporal input signals using spike-timing dependent plasticity. Using a number of neurons that are mutually connected by plastic synapses and subject to a global winner-takes-all mechanism, chains of neurons can form where each neuron is selective to a different segment of a repeating input pattern, and the neurons are feedforwardly connected in such a way that both the correct stimulus and the ...
Supervisors: Ole Paulsen, Tanja Fuchsberger. Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a physiologically relevant form of Hebbian learning, in which near coincident pre- and postsynaptic firing induces synaptic plasticity: Long term potentiation (LTP) is induced when the presynaptic spike precedes postsynaptic firing, and long term depression (LTD) when postsynaptic firing precedes the presynaptic spike [1]. However, these plasticity rules are profoundly influenced by neuromodulators [2]. Reward, novelty or surprise are correlated with neuromodulatory signals, such as dopamine, acetylcholine or noradrenaline, which modulate memories and behavioural outcome. They regulate STDP through various mechanisms, as they can control the biophysical properties of dendrites, including the dynamics of spike backpropagation, and can influence the state of kinases and phosphatases implicated in synaptic plasticity (Seol et al., 2007). In our laboratory we recently demonstrated a retroactive effect of ...
Cortical neurons receive balanced excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents. Such a balance could be established and maintained in an experience-dependent manner by synaptic plasticity at inhibitory synapses. We show that this mechanism provides an explanation for the sparse firing patterns observed in response to natural stimuli and fits well with a recently observed interaction of excitatory and inhibitory receptive field plasticity. ... Our results suggest an essential role of inhibitory plasticity in the formation and maintenance of functional cortical circuitry ...
Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are generally assumed to be cellular correlates for learning and memory. Different types of LTP induction protocols differing in severity of stimulation can be distinguished in CA1 of the hippocampus. To better understand signaling mechanisms and involvement of neuromodulators such as dopamine in synaptic plasticity, less severe and more physiological low frequency induction protocols should be used. In the study which is reviewed here, critical determinants of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses were investigated. We found that dopamine via D1 receptor signaling, but not adrenergic signaling activated by the -adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, is important for successful expression of STDP at CA3-CA1 synapses. The dopamine effect on STDP is paralleled by changes in spike firing properties, thereby changing intrinsic excitability of postsynaptic CA1 neurons, and gating STDP,. Whereas β-adrenergic
To determine if classical conditioning produces general or specific modification of responses to acoustic conditioned stimuli (CS), frequency receptive fields (RF) of neurons in guinea pig auditory cortex were determined before and up to 24 h after fear conditioning. Highly specific RF plasticity ch …
The mammalian sensory neocortex exhibits experience-dependent plasticity such that neurons modify their response properties according to changes in sensory experience. The synaptic plasticity mechanism of long-term potentiation requiring calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase type II (CaMKII) could underlie experience-dependent plasticity. Plasticity in adult mice can be induced by changes in the patterns of tactile input to the barrel cortex. This response is strongly depressed in adult mice that lack the gene encoding α-CaMKII, although adolescent animals are unaffected. Thus, α-CaMKII is necessary either for the induction or for the expression of plasticity in adult mice.. ...
Structure-based virtual screening for selecting potential drug candidates is usually challenged by how numerous false positives in a molecule library are excluded when receptor plasticity is considered. In this study, based on the binding energy landscape theory, a hypothesis that a true inhibitor can bind to different conformations of the binding site favorably was put forth, and related strategies to defeat this challenge were devised; reducing false positives when receptor plasticity is considered. The receptor in the study is the influenza A nucleoprotein, whose oligomerization is a requirement for RNA binding. The structural flexibility of influenza A nucleoprotein was explored by molecular dynamics simulations. The resultant distinctive structures and the crystal structure were used as receptor models in docking exercises in which two binding sites, the tail-loop binding pocket and the RNA binding site, were targeted with the Otava PrimScreen1 diversity-molecule library using the GOLD software.
Synaptic plasticity directs development of the nervous system and is thought to underlie memory storage in adult animals. A great deal of our current understanding of the role of AMPA receptors in synaptic plasticity comes from studies on developing cortex and cell cultures. In the present study, we instead focus on plasticity in mature neurons in the neocortex of adult animals. We find that the glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit of the AMPA receptor is involved in experience-dependent plasticity in adult cortex in vivo and that it acts in addition to neuronal nitric oxide synthase (αNOS1), an enzyme that produces the rapid synaptic signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO). Potentiation of the spared whisker response, following single whisker experience, is ∼33% less in GluR1-null mutants than in wild types. We found that the remaining plasticity depended on αNOS1. Potentiation was reduced by ,42% in the single αNOS1-null mutants and completely abolished in GluR1/αNOS1 double-knock-out mice. ...
Background. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be the cellular correlate for the formation of memory traces in the brain. Recently, spike-timing dependent plasticity has gained increased interest as a plausible physiological mechanism for the activity-dependent modification of synaptic strength. It might be fundamental for circuit refinement, map plasticity and the explanation of higher brain functions. It is not clear if spike-timing dependent plasticity is a universal learning rule based on simple biophysical mechanisms. The molecular signalling pathways involved are quite diverse and apparently use-dependent. The fundamental question is what determines the molecular machinery at a synaptic contact that translates electrical activity into a change in synaptic strength.Specific Aims. (1) The influence of active dendritic properties, which can result in the generation of local dendritic spikes, on changes in synaptic strength will be studied. They will have an important impact on the local ...
The plasticity of inhibitory transmission is expected to play a key role in the modulation of neuronal excitability and network function. Over the last two decades, the investigation of the determinants of inhibitory synaptic plasticity has allowed distinguishing presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. While there has been a remarkable progress in the characterization of presynaptically-expressed plasticity of inhibition, the postsynaptic mechanisms of inhibitory long-term synaptic plasticity only begin to be unraveled. At postsynaptic level, the expression of inhibitory synaptic plasticity involves the rearrangement of the postsynaptic molecular components of the GABAergic synapse, including GABAA receptors, scaffold proteins and structural molecules. This implies a dynamic modulation of receptor intracellular trafficking and receptor surface lateral diffusion, along with regulation of the availability and distribution of scaffold proteins. This Review will focus on the mechanisms of the multifaceted
Neuroplasticity studies examining children with hemiparesis (CH) have focused predominantly on unilateral interventions. CH also have bimanual coordination impairments with bimanual interventions showing benefits. We explored neuroplasticity following hand-Arm bimanual intensive therapy (HABIT) of 60 hours in twelve CH (6 females, mean age 11 ± 3.6 y). Serial behavioral evaluations and MR imaging including diffusion tensor (DTI) and functional (fMRI) imaging were performed before, immediately after, and at 6-week follow-up. Manual skills were assessed repeatedly with the Assisting Hand Assessment, Childrens Hand Experience Questionnaire, and Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function. Beta values, indicating the level of activation, and lateralization index (LI), indicating the pattern of brain activation, were computed from fMRI. White matter integrity of major fibers was assessed using DTI. 11/12 children showed improvement after intervention in at least one measure, with 8/12 improving on two or ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Beta-amyloid (25-35) induced impairments of hippocampal synaptic plasticity are dependent on stimulation-protocol, genetic background, and aggregation state. AU - Gengler, Simon. AU - Gault, Victor. AU - Harriott, Peter. AU - Holscher, Christian. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. M3 - Article. VL - 179. SP - 621. EP - 632. JO - Experimental Brain Research. JF - Experimental Brain Research. SN - 0014-4819. ER - ...
Bacterial morphological plasticity refers to changes in the shape and size that bacterial cells undergo when they encounter stressful environments. Although bacteria have evolved complex molecular strategies to maintain their shape, many are able to alter their shape as a survival strategy in response to protist predators, antibiotics, the immune response, and other threats. Normally, bacteria have different shapes and sizes which include coccus, rod and helical/spiral (among others less common) and that allow for their classification. For instance, rod shapes may allow bacteria to attach more readily in environments with shear stress (e.g., in flowing water). Cocci may have access to small pores, creating more attachment sites per cell and hiding themselves from external shear forces. Spiral bacteria combine some of the characteristics cocci (small footprints) and of filaments (more surface area on which shear forces can act) and the ability to form an unbroken set of cells to build biofilms. ...
The ability to generate action potentials (spikes) in response to synaptic input determines whether a neuron participates in information processing. How a developing neuron becomes an active participant in a circuit or whether this process is activity dependent is not known, especially as spike-dependent plasticity mechanisms would not be available to non-spiking neurons. Here we use the optic tectum of awake Xenopus laevis tadpoles to determine how a neuron becomes able to generate sensory-driven spikes in vivo. At the onset of vision, many tectal neurons do not exhibit visual spiking behavior, despite being intrinsically excitable and receiving visuotopically organized synaptic inputs. However, a brief period of visual stimulation can drive these neurons to start generating stimulus-driven spikes. This conversion relies upon a selective increase in glutamatergic input and requires depolarizing GABAergic transmission and NMDA receptor activation. This permissive form of experience-dependent plasticity
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Our overarching interest is in the question of how experience and deprivation modify synaptic connections in the brain. Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity is the physical substrate of memory, sculpts connections during postnatal development to determine the capabilities and limitations of brain functions, is responsible for the reorganization of the brain after damage, and is vulnerable in numerous psychiatric and neurological diseases and contributes to their symptoms.. Historically, our major efforts to address this question have been focused on the visual cortex and hippocampus. The visual cortex is a site of robust experience-dependent synaptic plasticity, exemplified by the consequences of temporary monocular deprivation (MD) during childhood. MD sets in motion a stereotyped choreography of synaptic modification whereby the deprived-eye inputs to visual cortex rapidly lose strength and, with a delay, the open-eye inputs undergo a compensatory gain in strength. The behavioral ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurotrophins and synaptic plasticity. AU - Usrey, A Kimberley. AU - Katz, Lawrence C.. AU - Lo, Donald C.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Despite considerable evidence that neuronal activity influences the organization and function of circuits in the developing and adult brain, the molecular signals that translate activity into structural and functional changes in connections remain largely obscure. This review discusses the evidence implicating neurotrophins as molecular mediators of synaptic and morphological plasticity. Neurotrophins are attractive candidates for these roles because they and their receptors are expressed in areas of the brain that undergo plasticity, activity can regulate their levels and -secretion, and they regulate both synaptic transmission and neuronal growth. Although numerous experiments show demonstrable effects of neurotrophins on synaptic plasticity, the rules and mechanisms by which they exert their effects remain intriguingly elusive.. AB - Despite ...
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AD patients show after iTBS an impairment of LTP-like cortical plasticity forming a paradoxical LTD in comparison to HS. LTD-like cortical plasticity is similar between AD and HS. LTP-like cortical plasticity is not associated with age, but AD patients presenting with more altered LTP-like cortical plasticity have more-severe cognitive decline at 18 months. SAI is impaired in AD and shows a strong association with the individual age of subjects rather than with disease age of onset.. ...
A major hallmark of brain diseases is neuroinflammation. We are interested in how immune mediators affect synaptic plasticity. Particularly, our work focuses on better understanding how these factors influence intracellular calcium stores, i.e. the spine apparatus organelle, and how these changes alter the ability of neurons to express associative and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. We study the role of coagulation factors in this context and test whether these changes can be modified by rTMS.. Ben Shimon M*, Lenz M*, Ikenberg B, Becker D, Shavit Stein E, Chapmann J, Tanne D, Pick CG, Blatt I, Neufeld M, Vlachos A*, Maggio N*° (2015) Thrombin regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity: implications for health and disease. Front Cel Neurosci. 9: 151.. Becker D, Deller T, Vlachos A° (2015) Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor 1 and 2 mediate homeostatic synaptic plasticity of denervated mouse dentate granule cells. Sci Rep. 5: 12726.. Strehl A, Lenz M, Itsekson-Hayosh Z, Becker D, ...
The role of dopamine in plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in the striatum is central to our understanding of basal ganglia functions and dopamine-dependent reward mechanisms. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at these synapses are thought to be dependent on D1 and D2 dopamine receptors, respectively. However, the mechanisms of LTP and LTD in the striatum are controversial. Using brain slices from transgenic mice, Shen et al. show that LTP and LTD can occur in both D1- and D2-expressing neurons but with different molecular mechanisms. Dopaminergic modulation of plasticity is receptor and cell-type specific. The findings suggest that the control of bidirectional plasticity is not exerted through a monolithic mechanism, as previously asserted, but by cell-type-specific mechanisms depending on the subtype of dopamine receptor expressed.. W. Shen, M. Flajolet, P. Greengard, D. J. Surmeier, Dichotomous dopaminergic control of striatal synaptic plasticity. Science 321, ...
The Haas Lab has developed specific visual stimulation protocols consisted of different periods of light ON and OFF stimuli to induce plasticity or metaplasticity in the optic tectum of awake Xenopus laevis tadpoles (Dunfield and Haas, 2009, 2010; Chen et al. 2012). Using these experience-driven neuronal plasticity induction stimuli and two-photon time-lapse imaging of mitochondrial movement and dendritic arbor growth, and calcium imaging of neuronal activity of individual neurons in the intact and awake developing brain, we are looking at mitochondria localization and size in LTD and LTP neurons. Other imaging and molecular techniques are also being used to underline the specific mitochondria proteins that regulate synaptic plasticity. ...
Synaptic Plasticity. Synaptic Plasticity. I. Synaptic Plasticity (Excitatory spine synapses) Changes in synaptic strength are important for formation of memory. Short Term Plasticity (paired-pulse facilitation, short-term potentiation, synaptic depression) Slideshow 6690266 by lev-levine
Challenges in the pain field include translation from animal models to identification of novel targets for drug development for humans and developing strategies that lead to improvements in patient care. Toward this goal, the symposium featured presentations that reviewed advances in the basic science and clinical arenas. Timothy Brennan, Ph.D., M.D. (Associate Professor of Anesthesia and Pharmacology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa), discussed the Peripheral and Central Plasticity in an Animal Model of Incisional Pain and Gary Strichartz, Ph.D. (Professor of Anesthesia, Pharmacology and Biophysics, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts), reviewed Pharmacological Studies on Preventing or Modulating the Plastic Changes in Experimental Models of Incisional Pain. Additional presentations on Clinical Evidence for Neural Plasticity in the Postoperative Period: Its Relevance and Modulation and Persistent Pain following Surgery: Neurobiological ...
The efficacy of synaptic transmission changes depending on the neuronal activity in the central nervous system. Such synaptic plasticity underlies experience-dependent refinement of information proces
The results described above emphasize the importance of ion channels at the AIS, and how their location, biophysical properties, and distribution can be modified by activity. However, how activity directly regulates these AIS properties, and whether the phenomenon of AIS plasticity occurs during normal brain function or only in response to large perturbations in neuronal activity or pathological conditions remains unclear. One strategy to begin to elucidate the mechanisms regulating AIS plasticity is to determine how the AIS is assembled during development and then maintained over an organisms lifetime.. How do ion channels become enriched at the AIS? As described above, the AIS is highly enriched in a variety of ion channels and each interacts with scaffolding proteins that link to the flexible actin/βIV spectrin-based submembranous cytoskeleton (Fig. 1D). Two scaffolding proteins have been identified at the AIS: ankG and PSD-93. PSD-93 binds to the KV1 channels found at the AIS, and ...
Learning is primarily mediated by activity-dependent modifications of synaptic strength within neuronal circuits. We discovered that place fields in hippocampal area CA1 are produced by a synaptic potentiation notably different from Hebbian plasticity. Place fields could be produced in vivo in a single trial by potentiation of input that arrived seconds before and after complex spiking. The potentiated synaptic input was not initially coincident with action potentials or depolarization. This rule, named behavioral time scale synaptic plasticity, abruptly modifies inputs that were neither causal nor close in time to postsynaptic activation. In slices, five pairings of subthreshold presynaptic activity and calcium (Ca(2+)) plateau potentials produced a large potentiation with an asymmetric seconds-long time course. This plasticity efficiently stores entire behavioral sequences within synaptic weights to produce predictive place cell activity.. ...
Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a strong candidate for an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent form of synaptic plasticity that could underlie the development of receptive field properties in sensory neocortices. Whilst inductio
This lecture 1/15 is part of the Computational Modeling of Neuronal Plasticity Course that aims to teach users how to build a mathematical model of a neuron, its inputs, and its neuronal plasticity mechanisms, by writing your own Python program. This lecture provides users with a brief video introduction to the concepts that serves as a companion to the lecture notes and solution figures.. Authors: Florence I. Kleberg and Prof. Jochen Triesch. ...
Arm-amputation involves two powerful drivers for brain plasticity-sensory deprivation and altered use. However, research has largely focused on sensory deprivation and maladaptive change. Here we show that adaptive patterns of limb usage after amputation drive cortical plasticity. We report that individuals with congenital or acquired limb-absence vary in whether they preferentially use their intact hand or residual arm in daily activities. Using fMRI, we show that the deprived sensorimotor cortex is employed by whichever limb individuals are over-using. Individuals from either group that rely more on their intact hands (and report less frequent residual arm usage) showed increased intact hand representation in the deprived cortex, and increased white matter fractional anisotropy underlying the deprived cortex, irrespective of the age at which deprivation occurred. Our results demonstrate how experience-driven plasticity in the human brain can transcend boundaries that have been thought to limit
Citation: Freire, R., Cheng, H. 2004. Experience-dependent changes in the hippocampus of domestic chicks: a model for spatial memory. European Journal of Neuroscience. 20(4):1065-1068. Interpretive Summary: In the modern broiler industry, chickens housed in large groups do not space themselves evenly but instead crowd in particular areas, which may affect chicken health and increase mortality. One contributing factor may be a deficit in spatial skills arising from the absence of essential environmental factors during routine rearing. The present study was to examine whether chick spatial skills can be improved by experimental training at an early age. Compared to control chicks, experience-induced changes in brain morphology reported here suggest that early experience leads to changes in the hippocampus that appear to be related to the development of spatial memory. Enhanced spatial memory in chickens may result in improving their well-being by increasing their distribution and their skills to ...
Transcription of synaptic plasticity-related genes in patients with somnipathy combined with type 2 diabetes, Yi Zhang, Rui Ma, Shaohong Zou, Gaiyu Tong, Gulibakeranmu Abula, Manna
The long-term goal of our research is to understand the neural circuit basis of learning and memory. In this project, we aim to understand how neural circuits p...
Neural Plasticity: (also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity) can be defined as the ability of the central nervous system (CNS) to adapt in res
In D2 MSNs (fig. S1), repeated pairing of a synaptic stimulation with a postsynaptic spike 5 ms later resulted in LTP of the synaptic response (Fig. 1D). In contrast, preceding synaptic stimulation (-10 ms) with a short burst of postsynaptic spikes induced LTD (Fig. 1E). There were no lasting alterations in synaptic strength with unpaired presynaptic or postsynaptic activity (fig. S1).. Previous studies of striatal LTD induced by conventional plasticity protocols have underscored the importance of D2 receptors (7, 8, 16). In D2 MSNs, timing-dependent LTD was disrupted by antagonizing D2 receptors with sulpiride (control n = 5; sulpiride n = 5; P , 0.05, Mann-Whitney rank sum test), suggesting a similar involvement of D2 receptors (Fig. 1F). Moreover, LTD was disrupted by antagonizing CB1 endocannabinoid (fig. S2) or mGluR5 glutamate receptors (fig. S3). The combination of presynaptic activity and activation of terminal CB1 receptors leads to a lasting reduction in glutamate release probability ...
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A cell-specific regulation of redox state thus balances plasticity and stability of cortical networks. Mistimed developmental trajectories of brain plasticity may underlie, in part, the pathophysiology of mental illness. Such prolonged developmental plasticity may, in turn, offer a therapeutic oppor …
The molecular mechanisms controlling the delivery and subsequent stabilization of AMPARs during synaptic plasticity are still poorly understood. Recent findings have suggested PSD-95 as candidate molecule in these processes (El-Husseini et al., 2000; Schnell et al., 2002; Beique, 2003). However, particularly in the light of findings from PSD-95 mutant mice that exhibit enhanced LTP (Migaud et al., 1998), it remained controversial whether and how PSD-95 participates in synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that PSD-95 controls AMPAR delivery during synaptic strengthening by LTP in vitro and during experience-driven synaptic plasticity in vivo. We use three criteria to establish this: First, expression of wt PSD-95 mimics, and second wt PSD-95 occludes AMPAR delivery during synaptic strengthening; third, dominant negative forms of PSD-95 block the incorporation of AMPAR during plasticity.. Several findings indicate that expression of PSD-95 mimics key aspects of LTP and experience-driven synaptic ...
Network structure determines the flow of electrical activity in every neural network and determines its functional and computational properties. Electrical activation of the neuron goes along with an intracellular increase in calcium which induces morphological alterations of the neuron on a slower time scale. Morphological changes, such as changes in dendritic spine and axonal bouton numbers as well as elongation, retraction and branching of axons and dendrites have direct impact on network connectivity (structural plasticity) even in the adult brain: As a consequence of morphological changes, synapses may break, new synapses can form and axonal branches can be re-routed. Rewired network connectivity, in turn, gives rise to an altered activity dynamic and may hold as a source for long term memory formation. Experimental data further support the notion that structural plasticity is not necessarily Hebbian-like but may serve as a neuronal mechanism to maintain electrical activity at a certain ...
Background and Purpose-This study was designed to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MOD) on functional recovery and cerebral plasticity during the first 2 weeks following cerebral ischemia. Methods-Rats were randomized as follows: Control (n=15), SHAM (n=9), MCAO (n=13), MCAO-D1 (n=7), MOD (n=13) and HIT (n=13). Incremental tests were performed at day 1 (D1) and 14 (D14) to identify the running speed associated with the lactate threshold (SLT) and the maximal speed (Smax). Functional tests were performed at D1, D7 and D14. Microglia form, cytokines, p75NTR, KCC2 and NKCC1 expression were made at D15. Results-HIT was more effective to improve the endurance performance than MOD and induced a fast recovery of the impaired forelimb grip force. The Iba-1 positive cells with amoeboid form and the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression were lower in HIT group, mainly in the ipsilesional hemisphere. A p75NTR overexpression ...
They say people don’t change, but author Sean Young’s upcoming book, “Stick With It,” examines the science behind doing just that—and making it stick. Over the past fifteen years, Young has worked with the brightest minds in science to identify the psychological processes that affect behavioral change, and according to his book, his methods have achieved a “300 percent increase in lasting change for both individuals and groups.” In other words, by making use of Young’s techniques, you are three times as likely to be able to make a change in your life and permanently stick with it. Why is this important? Just take a look at the way many people handle their health. Do they stick with their diets? Do they routinely take their needed medications? Do they exercise every week? How about finances? Or their relationship habits? Allowing these important areas of our lives to go unexamined and uncontrolled is the source of a vast amount of pain and loss, but by
Signalling pathways leading to post-synaptic plasticity have been examined in many types of experimental studies, but a unified picture on how multiple biochemical pathways collectively shape neocortical plasticity is missing. We built a biochemically detailed model of post-synaptic plasticity describing CaMKII, PKA, and PKC pathways and their contribution to synaptic potentiation or depression. We developed a statistical AMPA-receptor-tetramer model, which permits the estimation of the AMPA-receptor-mediated maximal synaptic conductance based on numbers of GluR1s and GluR2s predicted by the biochemical signalling model. We show that our model reproduces neuromodulator-gated spike-timing-dependent plasticity as observed in the visual cortex and can be fit to data from many cortical areas, uncovering the biochemical contributions of the pathways pinpointed by the underlying experimental studies. Our model explains the dependence of different forms of plasticity on the availability of different ...
When a cell has to endure lasting changes in its environment that require it to actively transport more molecules than normal through the cell membra...
The long-term goal of this project is to identify thalamocortical network mechanisms involved in consolidating experience-dependent plasticity in the visual sys...
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In the mammalian dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis continues throughout life. Accumulating evidence suggests a unique contribution of adult-generated neurons in DG synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-mediated learning and memory functions. However, the precise involvement of adult neurogenesis to disease-related cognitive deficits still remains unclear. Intellectual disabilities are the most striking clinical features of Down Syndrome (DS) and are characterized by learning deficits and memory impairment, particularly in hippocampus-related functions. Accordingly, the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS recapitulate many hippocampal cognitive deficits of the human syndrome, and also show decreased adult neurogenesis and impaired DG synaptic plasticity. To elucidate the contribution of faulty adult neurogenesis to DG synaptic plasticity deficits and memory impairment in DS we have treated adult Ts65Dn mice with lithium, a widely used mood stabilizer that also promotes neurogenesis. Results showed that chronic ...
Activity-dependent long-term changes in synaptic efficacy are thought to be important in learning, memory formation, neuronal development and pathological states of neuronal excitability in the CNS. For the past two decades, numerous studies have investigated long-term changes in synaptic efficacy at excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Although inhibitory synapses are essential for proper functioning of the neuronal network, attention has focused only recently on describing and characterizing plasticity at these types of synapse. Not surprisingly, different forms of plasticity at GABAergic, and the closely related glycinergic, synapses have been reported in several regions of the brain. Here we review these different forms of plasticity and focus on their possible roles in developing and adult neuronal networks.
Research Interests The future aint what it used to be - Yogi Berra It is precisely because the future is unpredictable that the mammalian brain has evolved the capacity to acquire new information through sensory experiences, store this information as memories, and rapidly retrieve this information to modify behavior. But how do novel sensory experiences embed themselves in the fabric of the brain to form memories? This question drives the research in my laboratory, which examines the cellular and synaptic mechanisms of experience-dependent plasticity in the neocortex. Specifically, I am interested in understanding i) where experience-dependent plasticity is initiated in the cortical circuitry; ii) how experience regulates the growth or retraction of synapses; iii) whether plasticity is restricted to only a subset of synaptic connections; iv) what distinguishes critical period plasticity from adult plasticity; v) how synaptic plasticity is altered in the aging and diseased brain. Techniques: To ...
Previous studies have reported primary auditory cortex plasticity following vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with a sound. Does this phenomenon extend to other fields in the auditory pathway? In this podcast, Editor-in-Chief Bill Yates talks with Dr. Michael S. Borland and Dr. Crystal Engineer (both from the University of Texas at Dallas) about their recent study, which is the first to to document both cortical and subcortical plasticity following VNS-sound pairing. Listen to learn about auditory plasticity, potential therapies for auditory processing disorders, and more! Listen Now. August 14, 2019. ...
The molecular basis for the decline in experience-dependent neural plasticity over age remains poorly understood. In visual cortex, the robust plasticity induced in juvenile mice by brief monocular deprivation during the critical period is abrogated by genetic deletion of Arc, an activity-dependent regulator of excitatory synaptic modification. Here, we report that augmenting Arc expression in adult mice prolongs juvenile-like plasticity in visual cortex, as assessed by recordings of ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in vivo. A distinguishing characteristic of juvenile OD plasticity is the weakening of deprived-eye responses, believed to be accounted for by the mechanisms of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD). Accordingly, we also found increased LTD in visual cortex of adult mice with augmented Arc expression and impaired LTD in visual cortex of juvenile mice that lack Arc or have been treated in vivo with a protein synthesis inhibitor. Further, we found that although activity-dependent ...
This new research might unite neurobiologists studying circadian rhythms with those studying developmental brain plasticity, Kobayashi notes. It could open inquiries into the role of circadian rhythm genes beyond the visual system, including brain regions that control cognition and social behaviors.. Specifically, the findings may have implications for disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. A number of genes associated with mental illness were expressed differently in the PV-cells of Clock-deficient versus control mice. The Hensch group and others have long proposed a link between neurodevelopmental disorders and timing defects in critical periods of brain plasticity. And finally, factors that influence circadian rhythms-sleep deprivation, seasonal changes limiting sunlight exposure, night shift work, etc.-have been linked to mood disorders.. By implicating circadian rhythm genes in the control of developmental brain plasticity, the new study may help bridge these ideas and suggests that ...
We used the rat visual cortex as a model system to examine the changes in protein synthesis during experience-induced synaptic plasticity. Dark-rearing rats from birth results in a relatively immature visual cortex that maintains the high de- gree of synaptic plasticity characteristic of the critical period (Kirkwood et al., 1995). Exposure of dark-reared rats to light results in a rapid, robust and coordinated burst of experience- driven synaptic plasticity that can be readily monitored at the biochemical and electrophysiological level (Quinlan et al., 1999). In previous work, we showed that visual experience evokes the polyadenylation of ␣-CaMKII mRNA in visual cortex and the elevation of ␣-CaMKII protein in synaptic fractions from this brain region. Moreover, this increase was a direct result of new synthesis because it was sensitive to the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (Wu et al., 1998). Here we show that the experience-induced increase of ␣-CaMKII pro- tein does not require new ...
The activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein Arc (also known as Arg3.1) is required for long-term memory formation and synaptic plasticity. Arc expression is robustly induced by activity, and Arc protein localizes to both active synapses and the nucleus. Whereas its synaptic function has been examined, it is not clear why or how Arc is localized to the nucleus. We found that murine Arc nuclear expression is regulated by synaptic activity in vivo and in vitro. We identified distinct regions of Arc that control its localization, including a nuclear localization signal, a nuclear retention domain and a nuclear export signal. Arc localization to the nucleus promotes an activity-induced increase in the expression of promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, which decreases GluA1 (also called Gria1) transcription and synaptic strength. We further show that Arc nuclear localization regulates homeostatic plasticity. Thus, Arc mediates the homeostatic response to increased activity by translocating to the ...
While stroke-related deaths have decreased in recent years, stroke is still the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Adequate rehabilitation is dependant upon plasticity, a multidimensional and adaptive process underlying recovery of function in both the human and rodent brain. The complexity of processes underlying plasticity in the central nervous system is still largely unknown, but manipulating this spontaneous state of the healing brain is of the utmost importance as it will allow maximum therapeutic effect. Characterization of lesion-induced local and remote rewiring, initial behavioral deficit and their long-term relationships to behavioral outcome are required to fill some of the gaps in our understanding of brain repair mechanisms after stroke. The experiments outlined in this dissertation take advantage of hypothesized neuroplasticity foundations of learning and memory, as well as an established model of forelimb motor cortex injury in rats in order to examine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adult cortical plasticity depends on an early postnatal critical period. AU - Greenhill, Stuart D.. AU - Juczewski, Konrad. AU - de Haan, Annelies M.. AU - Seaton, Gillian. AU - Fox, Kevin. AU - Hardingham, Neil R.. N1 - This is the authors version of the work. It is posted here by permission of the AAAS for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Science on Volume 349 Issue 6246 24 July 2015], DOI: 10.1126/science.aaa8481. PY - 2015/7/24. Y1 - 2015/7/24. N2 - Development of the cerebral cortex is influenced by sensory experience during distinct phases of postnatal development known as critical periods. Disruption of experience during a critical period produces neurons that lack specificity for particular stimulus features, such as location in the somatosensory system. Synaptic plasticity is the agent by which sensory experience affects cortical development. Here, we describe, in mice, a developmental critical period that affects plasticity ...
Postnatal sensory experience plays a significant role in the maturation and synaptic stabilization of sensory cortices, such as the primary auditory cortex (A1). Here, we examined the effects of patterned sound deprivation (by rearing in continuous white noise, WN) during early postnatal life on short- and long-term plasticity of adult male rats using an|i| in vivo|/i| preparation (urethane anesthesia). Relative to age-matched control animals reared under unaltered sound conditions, rats raised in WN (from postnatal day 5 to 50–60) showed greater levels of long-term potentiation (LTP) of field potentials in A1 induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). In contrast, analyses of short-term plasticity using paired-pulse stimulation (interstimulus intervals of 25–1000 ms) did not reveal any significant effects of WN rearing. However, LTP induction resulted in a significant enhancement of paired-pulse depression (PPD) for both rearing conditions|i|.
article{ef532af8-d218-4166-9ec2-b39930c591ef, abstract = {,p,Following stroke, complete cellular death in the ischemic brain area may ensue, with remaining brain areas undergoing tissue remodelling to various degrees. Experience-dependent brain plasticity exerted through an enriched environment (EE) promotes remodelling after central nervous system injury, such as stroke. Post-stroke tissue reorganization is modulated by growth inhibitory molecules differentially expressed within the ischemic hemisphere, like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans found in perineuronal nets (PNNs). PNNs in the neocortex predominantly enwrap parvalbumin-containing GABAergic (PV/GABA) neurons, important in sensori-information processing. Here, we investigate how extracellular matrix (ECM) proteases and their inhibitors may participate in the regulation of PNN integrity during stroke recovery. Rats were subjected to photothrombotic stroke in the motor cortex, and functional deficits were assessed at 7 days of recovery. ...
Resum: Although there is a decline in brain plasticity across lifespan, neurons in certain areas of the adult brain retain the ability to undergo synaptic, dendritic and spine remodeling in response to different stimuli. This neuronal structural plasticity seems to be the basis for many cognitive processes and it is crucial for adaptive responses to aversive experiences and recovery from brain damage and disease. Among the numerous candidate molecules that have been identified for mediating this neuronal remodeling, cell adhesion molecules and, specially, the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), are of particular interest. The addition of polysialic acid (PSA) to the NCAM is critical for the structural changes that underlie plasticity; not only because it prevents both homotypic and heterotypic NCAM bindings (anti-adhesive properties) but also because it interacts with a large number of molecules and signaling pathways that regulate synaptic strength. In consonance with this fact, PSA-NCAM ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity in Parkinsons disease. T2 - beyond motor deficits. AU - Calabresi, Paolo. AU - Galletti, Francesca. AU - Saggese, Emanuele. AU - Ghiglieri, Veronica. AU - Picconi, Barbara. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - The excitatory corticostriatal pathway, which plays a critical role in the building up and storage of adaptive motor behaviours, can undergo long-lasting, activity-dependent changes in the efficacy of synaptic transmission, named long-term potentiation (LTP) and long- term depression (LTD). Both forms of plasticity are thought to underlie motor learning and depend upon the concomitant activation of glutamatergic corticostriatal and dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathways. Accordingly, corticostriatal LTP and LTD are altered in Parkinsons Disease (PD) models. The dopamine (DA)/acetylcholine(Ach) synaptic unbalance could be responsible of some of the cognitive deficits described in PD patients. The impairment of DA/ACh-dependent cellular learning ...
Abstract. It is now accepted that immune molecules are not only present within the brain during pathology but they exert physiological functions in the healthy brain as well. Increasing evidence points to a neuro-modulatory role of cytokines and chemokines (CHEMOtactic cytoKINES) in basal transmission and plasticity processes where signaling between peri-synaptic astrocytes, microglia and neurons plays an important role. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms as to how cytokines, and in particular chemokines, participate in the molecular and cellular processes thought to subserve memory formation, plasticity processes and responsiveness to environmental stimuli remain to be clarified. Interestingly, in in vitro preparations, molecules like TNF-a, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2 and CCL3 are implicated in synaptic formation and scaling, in modulation of glutamatergic transmission, in plasticity and neurogenesis, in particular in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an extremely ...
The two fundamental forms of short-term plasticity, short-term depression and facilitation, coexist at most synapses, but little is known about their interaction. Here, we studied the interplay between short-term depression and facilitation at calyx of Held synapses. Stimulation at a low frequency of 10 or 20 Hz, which is in the range of the spontaneous activity of these auditory neurons in vivo, induced synaptic depression. Surprisingly, an instantaneous increase of the stimulation frequency to 100 or 200 Hz following the low-frequency train uncovered a robust facilitation of EPSCs relative to the predepressed amplitude level. This facilitation decayed rapidly (similar to 30 ms) and depended on presynaptic residual Ca2+, but it was not caused by Ca2+ current facilitation. To probe the release probability of the remaining readily releasable vesicles following the low-frequency train we made presynaptic Ca2+ uncaging experiments in the predepressed state of the synapse. We found that low-frequency
Author Summary Recent brain imaging and neurophysiological studies suggest that the striatum, the start of the basal ganglia circuit, plays a major role in value-based decision making and behavioral disorders such as drug addiction. The plasticity of synaptic input from the cerebral cortex to output neurons of the striatum, which are medium spiny neurons, depends on interactions between glutamate input from the cortex and dopaminergic input from the midbrain. It also links sensory and cognitive states in the cortex with reward-oriented action outputs. The mechanisms involved in molecular cascades that transmit glutamate and dopamine inputs to changes in postsynaptic glutamate receptors are very complex and it is difficult to intuitively understand the mechanism. Therefore, a biochemical network model was constructed, and computer simulations were performed. The model reproduced dopamine-dependent and calcium-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD) and potentiation (LTP) of corticostriatal synapses
Does severe acute pain provoke lasting changes in attentional and emotional mechanisms of pain-related processing? A longitudinal ...
Eventbrite - Lison Mage | Author, Coach, Speaker, Facilitator presents Conquer Overthinking And Make Lasting Changes - Thursday, August 5, 2021 at Hong Kong Online, Hong kong, HKI. Find event and ticket information.
Tinnitus is a phantom auditory sensation that reduces quality of life for millions of people worldwide, and for which there is no medical cure. Most cases of tinnitus are associated with hearing loss caused by ageing or noise exposure. Exposure to loud recreational sound is common among the young, and this group are at increasing risk of developing tinnitus.
The world was originally introduced to the concept of synaptic plasticity over 60 years ago, when Dr. Donald Hebb first clearly defined a physiological mechanism for learning and memory in his seminal work The Organization of Behavior. It took another 20 years for Bliss and Lomo to scientifically validate Hebbs postulate, and show that neurons could alter their ability to communicate with one another in a persistent manner. Together, these works started off what has grown to become the field of synaptic plasticity. The years following the initial discovery were exciting times for learning and memory young researchers like myself, and each discovery over the next 20 years seemed to push us closer to elucidating the biological mechanisms responsible for memory formation. This seemed particularly true in the mid-1980s when the NMDA receptor was being heralded as the key to learning and memory processes. However, more recently it has become obvious that the activation of membrane receptors is ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chapter 27 Neural Plasticity After Nerve Injury and Regeneration. AU - Navarro, Xavier. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Injuries to the peripheral nerves result in partial or total loss of motor, sensory, and autonomic functions in the denervated segments of the body due to the interruption of axons, degeneration of distal nerve fibers, and eventual death of axotomized neurons. Functional deficits caused by nerve injuries can be compensated by reinnervation of denervated targets by regenerating injured axons or by collateral branching of undamaged axons, and remodeling of nervous system circuitry related to the lost functions. Plasticity of central connections may compensate functionally for the lack of adequate target reinnervation; however, plasticity has limited effects on disturbed sensory localization or fine motor control after injuries, and may even result in maladaptive changes, such as neuropathic pain and hyperreflexia. After axotomy, neurons shift from a transmitter ...
His recommendations for healthy life (brisk walking, entertaining sporting activities, etc.) can be found in many books. This is supposed to be a book on neuroplasticity. Unfortunately, you hardly find real recommendations on how we can handle problems by using neuroplasticity tools. Title of the book and chapters do not reflect the real subject ...
The trajectory of the somatic membrane potential of a cortical neuron exactly reflects the computations performed on its afferent inputs. However, the spikes of such a neuron are a very low-dimensional and discrete projection of this continually evolving signal. We explored the possibility that the neurons efferent synapses perform the critical computational step of estimating the membrane potential trajectory from the spikes. We found that short-term changes in synaptic efficacy can be interpreted as implementing an optimal estimator of this trajectory. Short-term depression arose when presynaptic spiking was sufficiently intense as to reduce the uncertainty associated with the estimate; short-term facilitation reflected structural features of the statistics of the presynaptic neuron such as up and down states. Our analysis provides a unifying account of a powerful, but puzzling, form of plasticity.. ...
Coupling the control of expression stochasticity (noise) to the ability of expression change (plasticity) can alter gene function and influence adaptation. A number of factors, such as transcription re-initiation, strong chromatin regulation or genome neighboring organization, underlie this coupling. However, these factors do not necessarily combine in equivalent ways and strengths in all genes. Can we identify then alternative architectures that modulate in distinct ways the linkage of noise and plasticity? Here we first show that strong chromatin regulation, commonly viewed as a source of coupling, can lead to plasticity without noise. The nature of this regulation is relevant too, with plastic but noiseless genes being subjected to general activators whereas plastic and noisy genes experience more specific repression. Contrarily, in genes exhibiting poor transcriptional control, it is translational efficiency what separates noise from plasticity, a pattern related to transcript length. This
GABAergic (GABA = gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurons from different brain regions contain high levels of parvalbumin, both in their soma and in their neurites. Parvalbumin is a slow Ca(2+) buffer that may affect the amplitude and time course of intracellular Ca(2+) transients in terminals after an action potential, and hence may regulate short-term synaptic plasticity. To test this possibility, we have applied paired-pulse stimulations (with 30- to 300-ms intervals) at GABAergic synapses between interneurons and Purkinje cells, both in wild-type (PV+/+) mice and in parvalbumin knockout (PV-/-) mice. We observed paired-pulse depression in PV+/+ mice, but paired-pulse facilitation in PV-/- mice. In paired recordings of connected interneuron-Purkinje cells, dialysis of the presynaptic interneuron with the slow Ca(2+) buffer EGTA (1 mM) rescues paired-pulse depression in PV-/- mice. These data show that parvalbumin potently modulates short-term synaptic plasticity. ...
This laboratory pilot study will explore the effects of varenicline tartrate on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like mechanisms of (1) the motor cortex and (2) the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and working memory in non-smoking patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls using a Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS) method. The present study will use this novel PAS method to evaluate the effects of five doses of varenicline (Champix) 0.5 mg BID treatment on neuroplasticity changes and working memory in 28 non-smokers with schizophrenia and 28 non-smoking controls in a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over design. The hypothesis is that varenicline will increase LTP-like facilitation of the DLPFC as compared with placebo in patients with schizophrenia, with less or a null effect in healthy controls. Likewise, it is hypothesized that varenicline will specifically improve working memory in patients with schizophrenia as compared with placebo and healthy controls. We Hypothesize ...
Valentina received her Ph.D. in Neuroscience from Tor Vergata University (Rome), where she explored the role of FMRP in the regulation of transport, translation and stability of dendritic mRNAs. Later she worked extensively on learning-dependent synaptic plasticity at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto.. Valentina ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Translating memories. T2 - The role of protein biosynthesis in synpatic plasticity. AU - Westmark, Cara J.. AU - Malter, James S.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - The 1990s, The Decade of the Brain, resulted in major scientific advances involving brain imaging, gene therapy, brain/robotic interfacing and the neurobiology and molecular biology of learning and memory. However, despite these critical insights, we still do not know exactly how thoughts or memories are formed or stored in the brain, which leaves much exciting research for the twenty-first and probably centuries to come. This review will elaborate on recent advances in the field of protein biosynthesis as related to synaptic plasticity. We will discuss the molecular players (RNA binding proteins and neuronal mRNAs), the signal transduction pathways that have been implicated in learning and memory and how localized translation of selected mRNAs is involved in synaptic plasticity. We will also discuss the pathology ...
Dopamine-dependent long-term depression at subthalamo-nigral synapses is lost in experimental parkinsonism.: Impairments of synaptic plasticity are a hallmark o
It is an open question how the multiple special and temporal scales involved in intracellular Ca2+ handling within the STDP models affect the plasticity outcomes predicted by these models. Hebbian or associative plasticity is triggered by postsynaptic Ca2+ influx which activates calmodulin and CaMKII. The influx of Ca2+ through voltage-dependent NMDA receptors and Ca2+ channels is regulated by Ca2+ -activated K+ channels (SK-channels) providing negative feedback regulation of postsynaptic [Ca2+]. Using 3-dimensional modelling of Ca2+ and calmodulin dynamics within dendritic spines we show that the non-linear relationship between Ca2+ influx and calmodulin activation endows SK-channels with the ability to gate calmodulin activation and therefore the induction of Hebbian synaptic plasticity. Since SK-channels are inhibited by several neuro-modulator receptors including acetylcholine and noradrenaline, the gating of synaptic plasticity by SK-channels could represent a common mechanism by which ...
We unravel how functional plasticity and redundancy are essential mechanisms underlying the ability to survive of metabolic networks. We perform an exhaustive computational screening of synthetic lethal reaction pairs in Escherichia coli in a minimal medium and we find that synthetic lethal pairs divide in two different groups depending on whether the synthetic lethal interaction works as a backup or as a parallel use mechanism, the first corresponding to essential plasticity and the second to essential redundancy. In E. coli, the analysis of pathways entanglement through essential redundancy supports the view that synthetic lethality affects preferentially a single function or pathway. In contrast, essential plasticity, the dominant class, tends to be inter-pathway but strongly localized and unveils Cell Envelope Biosynthesis as an essential backup for Membrane Lipid Metabolism. When comparing E. coli and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, we find that the metabolic networks of the two organisms exhibit a ...
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Maheu ME, Ressler KJ. Developmental pathway genes and neural plasticity underlying emotional learning and stress-related disorders. Learn Mem. 2017 09; 24(9):492-501 ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr Etienne Gaudrain.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Hearing Group Meetings series.. ...
Nitrogen (N) is central for plant growth, and metabolic plasticity can provide a strategy to respond to changing N availability. We showed that two local A. thaliana populations exhibited differential plasticity in the compounds of photorespiratory and starch degradation pathways in response to three N conditions. Association of metabolite levels with growth-related and fitness traits indicated that controlled plasticity in these pathways could contribute to local adaptation and play a role in plant evolution.
"Neuronal Plasticity Prize" (PDF). 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2021. "Feldberg Foundation for anglo-german scientific exchange - ... 1995 founder member of the Academia Europaea 1997 Neuronal Plasticity Prize (with Antonio Damasio and Michael Merzenich) 1997 ... These techniques made it possible to demonstrate the existence of the brain's dynamic neuronal plasticity, both in its ...
Metaplasticity is a term describing the likelihood that a given stimulus will induce neuronal plasticity, based on the previous ... Moreover, increases in neuronal excitability in a given neuronal ensemble may affect some dendrites more than others, thus ... Neuronal allocation is a phenomenon that accounts for how specific neurons in a network, and not others that receive similar ... Newly generated plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) can be captured by any tagged synapses, but untagged synapses are not ...
Neuronal specificity, plasticity, and patterns. Moscona, A. A. (Aron Arthur), 1922-2009,, Monroy, Alberto,, Hunt, R. Kevin. New ... The MAPs make-up of neurotubules is notably different from microtubules of non-neuronal cells. For example, type II MAPs are ... This action propels the soma of the neuron forward, which is an essential step in neuronal migration. In addition, mutations in ... LIS1 encodes an adaptor protein Lis1 that is responsible for stabilization of neurotubule during neuronal migration by ...
... also maintains neuronal excitability in a real-time manner through the coordinated plasticity of ... Homeostatic plasticity can be used to describe a process that maintains the stability of neuronal functions through a ... Homeostatic plasticity is also very important in the context of central pattern generators. In this context, neuronal ... Homeostatic plasticity is thought to balance Hebbian plasticity by modulating the activity of the synapse or the properties of ...
"Significant anisotropic neuronal refractory period plasticity". EPL (Europhysics Letters). 134 (6): 60007. arXiv:2109.02041. ... Furthermore, the relation between hyperpolarization and the neuronal refractory was questioned, as neuronal refractory periods ... The neuronal refractory period was shown to be dependent on the origin of the input signal to the neuron, as well as the ... Recent research has shown that neuronal refractory periods can exceed 20 milliseconds. ...
... involves modification of neuronal excitability in the axon, dendrites, and soma of an individual neuron ... Synaptic plasticity is the ability of a synapse between two neurons to change in strength over time. Synaptic plasticity is ... Debanne D, Inglebert Y, Russier M (February 2019). "Plasticity of intrinsic neuronal excitability" (PDF). Current Opinion in ... Synaptic plasticity plays a large role in learning and memory in the brain. Synaptic plasticity can occur through intrinsic ...
Single Neurons, Populations, Plasticity. Cambridge University Press. Latham, P. E., B. J. Richmond, P. G. Nelson, and S. ... 2000). "Intrinsic Dynamics in Neuronal Networks. I. Theory". Journal of Neurophysiology. 88 (2): 808-27. doi:10.1152/jn.2000.83 ... 2000). "Intrinsic Dynamics in Neuronal Networks. I. Theory". Journal of Neurophysiology. 88 (2): 808-27. doi:10.1152/jn.2000.83 ... 2000). "Intrinsic Dynamics in Neuronal Networks. I. Theory". Journal of Neurophysiology. 88 (2): 808-27. doi:10.1152/jn.2000.83 ...
Fleming, Angeleen; Rubinsztein, David C. (2020-10-01). "Autophagy in Neuronal Development and Plasticity". Trends in ... Neuronal cell types appeared to often vary continuously between each other. Previous attempts at neuronal classification by ... varying over various time scales in response to activity in cell type specific ways to allow for neuronal plasticity. Like ... If understanding how behavior is tied to the dynamics of the neuronal events is of interest it is possible to record in vivo as ...
Debanne, Dominique; Inglebert, Yanis; Russier, Michaël (2019). "Plasticity of intrinsic neuronal excitability" (PDF). Current ... In neuronal cells, an action potential begins with a rush of sodium ions into the cell through sodium channels, resulting in ... Goldin AL (2007). "Neuronal Channels and Receptors". In Waxman SG (ed.). Molecular Neurology. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic ... Activation of synaptic receptors initiates long-lasting changes in neuronal excitability. Thyroid, adrenal and other hormones ...
"Significant anisotropic neuronal refractory period plasticity". EPL (Europhysics Letters). 134 (6): 60007. arXiv:2109.02041. ... Recent research has shown that neuronal refractory periods can exceed 20 milliseconds where the relation between ... hyperpolarization and the neuronal refractory was questioned. Hyperpolarization is a change in membrane potential. ...
Turrigiano, G. G. (1999). "Homeostatic plasticity in neuronal networks: The more things change, the more they stay the same". ... Hebbian plasticity and homeostatic plasticity have a hand-in-glove relationship. Neurons use Hebbian plasticity mechanisms to ... Turrigiano, G. G.; Nelson, S. B. (2000). "Hebb and homeostasis in neuronal plasticity". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 10 (3 ... Since homeostatic plasticity normalizes the synaptic strengths of all neurons in a network, the overall neural network activity ...
Firing frequency is defined as the number of neuronal signals sent per second on one motoneuron. This frequency is measured in ... Motor unit plasticity can be measured in many ways, the most important of which being neural firing frequency, EMG amplitude, ... Motor unit plasticity is defined as the ability of motoneurons and their respective effector muscles to physically and ... Motor unit plasticity has implications for improved athletic performance and resistance to immobility as a result of age. ...
... computational studies of neuronal oscillations and synchronization; neural plasticity; nonlinear dynamical systems theory and ... interests are cognitive neuroscience of attention and consciousness with special emphasis on EEG and MEG studies of neuronal ...
GAP43 is called a "growth" or "plasticity" protein because it is expressed at high levels in neuronal growth cones during ... Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Neuronal Plasticity. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol. 446. pp. 85-106. ... an intrinsic determinant of neuronal development and plasticity". Trends in Neurosciences. 20 (2): 84-91. doi:10.1016/S0166- ... "Neuronal pathfinding is abnormal in mice lacking the neuronal growth cone protein GAP-43". Cell. 80 (3): 445-52. doi:10.1016/ ...
Since beta amyloid is a strong stimulant to CSPG production and CSPGs are inhibitory to neuronal growth and synaptic plasticity ... "Aggrecan Directs Extracellular Matrix-Mediated Neuronal Plasticity". Journal of Neuroscience. 38 (47): 10102-10113. doi:10.1523 ... Plasticity of intact areas in the brain stem and spinal cord also increases following spinal cord injury. The critical period ... Moreover, Golgi brought interest to the subject due to his opinion that the PNN was not a neuronal structure but rather a "kind ...
... and brain plasticity in clownfish. Rhodes research interests relate to neuronal plasticity. One interest includes understanding ... Currently, Rhodes has also established a marine biology laboratory to research brain plasticity in clownfish undergoing sex ...
Benarroch EE (March 2007). "Neurosteroids: endogenous modulators of neuronal excitability and plasticity". Neurology. 68 (12): ... In addition to their actions on neuronal membrane receptors, some of these steroids may also exert effects on gene expression ... Melcangi RC, Celotti F, Martini L (March 1994). "Progesterone 5-alpha-reduction in neuronal and in different types of glial ... Some major known biological functions of neurosteroids include modulation of neural plasticity, learning and memory processes, ...
Lledo, Pierre-Marie; Alonso, Mariana; Grubb, Matthew S. (March 2006). "Adult neurogenesis and functional plasticity in neuronal ... Neuritic plaques, that target the outer regions of the cortex, consist of withering neuronal material from a protein, amyloid- ... Many of the contributing factors that may cause sarcopenia to include neuronal and hormonal changes, inadequate nutrition, and ... Mühlig-Versen, Andrea; Bowen, Catherine E.; Staudinger, Ursula M. (2012). "Personality plasticity in later adulthood: ...
This also increases the potential for neuronal plasticity. Generally, these antidepressants increase peripheral BDNF levels by ... Karpova NN (January 2014). "Role of BDNF epigenetics in activity-dependent neuronal plasticity". Neuropharmacology. 76 Pt C: ... which is involved in neuronal plasticity. In rats, it has been shown that individuals less susceptible to depressive behavior ... Because MeCP2 can no longer bind to the BDNF promoter and repress transcription, BDNF levels increase and neuronal development ...
Berlucchi, G.; Buchtel, H. A. (1 January 2009). "Neuronal plasticity: historical roots and evolution of meaning". Experimental ... and Ernesto Lugaro was later responsible for the association of neural plasticity with synaptic plasticity. It wasn't until ... "Plasticity" was made popular by Livingstons work in 1966. He challenged the consensus that the brain only develops during a ... This led him to believe that neural plasticity was possible, and the brain of an adult rhesus monkey was able to incorporate ...
NgR is implicated in neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Its relative importance in mediating myelin inhibition in vitro and ... such that adult plasticity in the mutant mice resembled normal visual plasticity in juvenile mice brains. This function of NgR ... McGee, A. W.; Yang, Y; Fischer, Q. S.; Daw, N. W.; Strittmatter, S. M. (2005). "Experience-driven plasticity of visual cortex ... While the entire pathway is not fully understood, the relationship between NgR and neuronal outgrowth has been fleshed out. NgR ...
Bading, H. (2000-09-01). "Transcription-dependent neuronal plasticity: the nuclear calcium hypothesis". European Journal of ...
Steriade, M. (2004). "Slow-wave sleep: serotonin, neuronal plasticity, and seizures". Archives Italienne de Biologie. 142 (4): ... may be helpful for recalibrating synapses for the next potentiation during wakefulness and for maintaining synaptic plasticity ...
Plasticity of a Neuronal Network". The Neuroscientist. 6 (3): 181-198. doi:10.1177/107385840000600309. ISSN 1073-8584. S2CID ...
... modulators of neuronal development and plasticity". Neuron. 59 (6): 914-31. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.08.021. PMC 2664743. PMID ... Neuronal CaMKK2's regulation of BDNF was recently implicated in progression of Glioblastoma. In the hypothalamus, CaMKK2 is ... October 2022). "Neuronal CaMKK2 promotes immunosuppression and checkpoint blockade resistance in glioblastoma". Nature ... which are necessary for initiating and maintaining the synaptic plasticity in CA1 pyramidal neurons - are the main structural ...
Gogolla co-first authored a paper in Neuron describing axonal plasticity mechanisms and the role of axonal plasticity in ... Neuronal and glial cell biology / New technologies. 17 (5): 516-524. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2007.09.002. ISSN 0959-4388. PMID ... Under the mentorship of Pico Caroni, Gogolla explored the regulatory mechanisms governing structural plasticity in the brain. ... Gogolla, Nadine; Galimberti, Ivan; Depaola, Vincenzo; Caroni, Pico (2006). "Long-term live imaging of neuronal circuits in ...
Neuronal plasticity, or the capability of the brain to adapt to new requirements, is a prime example of plasticity stressing ... Röder, B. (2006). Blindness: A source and case of neuronal plasticity. In P. Baltes, P. Reuter-Lorenz, & F. Rösler (Eds.), ... Plasticity is imperative to current research because the potential for intervention is derived from the notion of plasticity in ... In the end, neuronal changes to the limbic system and prefrontal cortex which are associated with puberty lead to the ...
Vo HT, Laszczyk AM, King GD (2018). "Klotho, the Key to Healthy Brain Aging?". Brain Plasticity. 3 (2): 183-194. doi:10.3233/ ... Neuronal Signaling. 5 (2): NS20200101. doi:10.1042/NS20200101. PMC 8204227. PMID 34194816. Kurt, Birgül; Kurtz, Armin (2015-03- ... 15). "Plasticity of renal endocrine function". American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative ...
Kaech S, Ludin B, Matus A (1996). "Cytoskeletal plasticity in cells expressing neuronal microtubule-associated proteins". ...
Karpova NN (January 2014). "Role of BDNF epigenetics in activity-dependent neuronal plasticity". Neuropharmacology. 76 Pt C: ... The gene early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) is an immediate early gene (IEG). EGR1 can rapidly be induced by neuronal ... Fernandes J, Arida RM, Gomez-Pinilla F (September 2017). "Physical exercise as an epigenetic modulator of brain plasticity and ... Duclot F, Kabbaj M (2017). "The Role of Early Growth Response 1 (EGR1) in Brain Plasticity and Neuropsychiatric Disorders". ...
... leading to altered neuronal plasticity, function, and subsequent behavior. Chromatin remodeling in rodent offspring and altered ... Epigenetic mechanisms as a result of early life stress may be responsible for neuronal and synaptic alterations in the brain. ... Li SC (November 2013). "Neuromodulation and developmental contextual influences on neural and cognitive plasticity across the ...
... is shown to regulate neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells, and neuronal ... a region of the brain with significant plasticity and continuous production of new neurons. miR-137 is also found to be ... "MicroRNA miR-137 regulates neuronal maturation by targeting ubiquitin ligase Mind Bomb-1". Stem Cells. 28 (6): 1060-70. doi: ...
The neuronal networks involved in respiratory function are located in the ventral respiratory column (VRC). From rostral to ... Plasticity of the mechanisms involved in respiratory behavior is modulated in part by the pre-Bötzinger complex. Disruption ... This single neuronal network can create multiple respiratory rhythmic patterns and is by itself both necessary and sufficient ... Neuronal discharge patterns are altered during the depressed synaptic inhibition, contributing to the reformation of the ...
Eckmann, J.P.; Moses, E.; Stetter, O.; Tlusty, T.; Zbinden, C. (2010). "Leaders of neuronal cultures in a quorum percolation ... synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation when talking about neural percolation. A key aspect of percolation is the ...
It has been used not only in the study of neuronal plasticity and information processing but also in drug and toxin effects on ... Nevertheless, plasticity in neuronal networks is a phenomenon that is well-established in the neuroscience community, and one ... Researchers can then thoroughly study learning and plasticity in a realistic context, where the neuronal networks are able to ... The long timelines associated with studying neuronal plasticity (usually on the scale of months) makes extending the lifespan ...
Like other glutamate receptors, mGluRs have been shown to be involved in synaptic plasticity and in neurotoxicity and ... Lea PM, Custer SJ, Vicini S, Faden AI (September 2002). "Neuronal and glial mGluR5 modulation prevents stretch-induced ... Archived 2007-09-15 at the Wayback Machine, University of Bristol Centre for Synaptic Plasticity (2003). Retrieved January 20, ... "Neuroprotective effects of group III mGluR in traumatic neuronal injury". Journal of Neurotrauma. 14 (12): 885-95. doi:10.1089/ ...
... , or short-term synaptic depression, is an activity-dependent form of short term synaptic plasticity that ... Therapeutic doses of fluoxetine have been shown to decrease these neuronal fatigue states by inhibiting vesicle release and ... The second form of plasticity disappears with maturation of PP-GCs, although the reversible low frequency depression remains ... synaptic fatigue and its recovery can cause interactions with other neuronal circuits and can affect the kinetics with other ...
Grober, Matthew S.; Bass, Andrew H. (1991). "Neuronal Correlates of Sex/Role Change in Labrid Fishes: LHRH-Like ... Godwin, John (2010). "Neuroendocrinology of sexual plasticity in teleost fishes". Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 31 (2): 203- ...
Cannabinoids produce a "marked depression of motor activity" via activation of neuronal cannabinoid receptors belonging to the ... Riedel G, Davies SN (2005). "Cannabinoid function in learning, memory and plasticity". Cannabinoids. Handbook of Experimental ...
There is some experimental evidence that RSK2 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity in neuronal cell types. Affected ...
It has been linked to neuronal plasticity through the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3 (NTRK3) gene. A NTRK3 3'UTR ...
A variety of hypotheses try to explain the mechanisms of DBS: Depolarization blockade: Electrical currents block the neuronal ... "Forniceal deep brain stimulation induces gene expression and splicing changes that promote neurogenesis and plasticity". eLife ... Synaptic inhibition: This causes an indirect regulation of the neuronal output by activating axon terminals with synaptic ...
A functional disruption of neuronal control at the neuromuscular level, which seems to be paralleled by a reduction in the ... Kischel, P; Stevens, L; Montel, V; Picquet, F; Mounier, Y (May 2001). "Plasticity of monkey triceps muscle fibers in ... Baldwin, KM (October 1996). "Effects of altered loading states on muscle plasticity: what have we learned from rodents?". ... Roy, RR; Baldwin, KM; Edgerton, VR (1991). "The plasticity of skeletal muscle: effects of neuromuscular activity". Exercise and ...
The complete neuronal wiring diagram of C.elegans - its connectome was achieved. Nothing approaching this level of detail is ... The muscle coordination learned while riding a bicycle is an example of a type of neural plasticity that may take place largely ... Until 1970, however, experimental evidence to support the synaptic plasticity hypothesis was lacking. In 1971 Tim Bliss and ... Computational neurogenetic modeling is concerned with the study and development of dynamic neuronal models for modeling brain ...
Many of the conspicuous features of aging reflect a decline in neuronal function. Accumulation of DNA damage with age in the ... These genes play central roles in synaptic plasticity, vesicular transport and mitochondrial function. In the brain, promoters ... concluded that DNA damage may reduce the expression of selectively vulnerable genes involved in learning, memory and neuronal ...
Zeng Y, Lv F, Li L, Yu H, Dong M, Fu Q (2012). "7,8-dihydroxyflavone rescues spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in ... improves spatial memory and increases thin spine density in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease-like neuronal loss". PLOS ONE. 9 ... 8-Dihydroxyflavone improves motor performance and enhances lower motor neuronal survival in a mouse model of amyotrophic ... 8-dihydroxyflavone reverses cognitive and synaptic plasticity deficits in a rat model of schizophrenia". Pharmacol. Biochem. ...
A Cognitive Training Program Based on Principles of Brain Plasticity: Results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity- ... Chronic usage of low-dose nicotine in animals has been found to increase the number of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine ... 15-49 Wan, C. Y., & Schlaug, G. (2010). Music making as a tool for promoting brain plasticity across the life span. The ... The changes are potentially long-lasting as meditation may have the ability to strengthen neuronal circuits as selective ...
... as reduction in PDE4B activity improves memory and long-term plasticity in mouse models, possibly supporting further ... "HIV-1 Tat protein down-regulates CREB transcription factor expression in PC12 neuronal cells through a phosphatidylinositol 3- ...
But already Arnold Gehlen had disputed that humans still have much instinct at their disposal; for him, plasticity and learning ... Lorenz believed that instincts are physiological processes and assumed they could be described as neuronal circuitry in the ...
... and their synaptic plasticity, which is essentially the neuron's ability to function. For instance, when focused on the motor ... thus modulating neuronal activity. Clinical trials have been used to determine any outstanding harmful effects. Although no ...
... neuronal and network plasticity and homeostasis, senescence, the etiology of diverse neurological diseases and neural ... The advancement of neuronal stem cell differentiation and glial fate decisions must be orchestrated timely to determine subtype ... Ballas N.; Mandel G. (2005). "The many faces of REST oversee epigenetic programming of neuronal genes". Current Opinion in ... In adults, cytokines and chemokines affect synaptic plasticity and other ongoing neural processes, which may change in aging ...
In a similar manner, one could consider the brain connectome, set of all neuronal connections, as one single entity, thus ... Allen M, Williams G (2011). "Consciousness, plasticity, and connectomics: the role of intersubjectivity in human cognition". ... Sporns O (July 2006). "Small-world connectivity, motif composition, and complexity of fractal neuronal connections". Bio ... "Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain". The Journal of ...
... the neuronal mass principle, the neural degeneracy principle, and the plasticity principle. BCIs are also proposed to be ... "Neuronal ensemble control of prosthetic devices by a human with tetraplegia". Nature. 442 (7099): 164-171. Bibcode:2006Natur. ... Due to the cortical plasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled by the brain ... Jacobs M, Premji A, Nelson AJ (16 May 2012). "Plasticity-inducing TMS protocols to investigate somatosensory control of hand ...
It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and so in learning. Zinc homeostasis also plays a critical role in the functional ... In addition to its role in enzymatic activity, it also plays a major role in cell signaling and modulation of neuronal activity ... Nakashima AS; Dyck RH (2009). "Zinc and cortical plasticity". Brain Res Rev. 59 (2): 347-73. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.10. ... In the brain, zinc is stored in specific synaptic vesicles by glutamatergic neurons and can modulate neuronal excitability. ...
It is likely that the growth in neuronal connections is largely due to an interaction with the environment, as there is not ... the role of individual differences in neural plasticity as an explanatory mechanism". Psychological Review. 109 (1): 116-136. ... As babies, our neuronal connections are completely undifferentiated. Neurons make connections with neighboring neurons, and ... This fits with the model of development of fluid intelligence before age of maturity because the neuronal connections are still ...
Kaplan, MS, "Plasticity After Brain Lesions: `Contemporary Concepts'" Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 69: 984 ... Kaplan, MS & DH Bell, "Neuronal Proliferation in the Nine Month Old Rodent; Radioautographic Study of Granule Cells in the ... Doctor Kaplan has recently begun a YouTube channel which offers patient interviews and insights to brain plasticity; kaplan ...
Neuronal Noise. Springer Series in Computational Neuroscience. Vol. 8. pp. 185-241. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-79020-6_6. ISBN 978-0 ... If weak signals cannot be enhanced with existing noise, synaptic plasticity is compromised, and memory and personality will be ... Channel noise is the variability in neuronal responses that is generated by the random gating of voltage-gated ion channels ... A diminished signal can be detrimental to a cell if neuronal maintenance is disrupted, or more importantly a necessary ...
Tonegawa's lab discovered that dendritic neuronal spines in the temporal cortex are a likely target for treatment of Fragile X ... "The Essential Role of Hippocampal CA1 NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Spatial Memory". Cell. 87 (7): 1327-1338. ... cellular and neuronal basis of memory formation and retrieval. Tonegawa was born in Nagoya, Japan and attended Hibiya High ... and the NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity (1996) in memory formation. ...
Conti F, Melone M, De Biasi S, Minelli A, Brecha NC, Ducati A (June 1998). "Neuronal and glial localization of GAT-1, a high- ... and plasticity of GABA transporters". Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 8: 161. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00161. PMC 4060055. ... to translocate GABA across CNS neuronal membranes. The stoichiometry for GABA Transporter 1 is 2 Na+: 1 Cl−: 1 GABA. The ...
The work, which appears in the journal Cell, focuses on the regulation of "neuronal plasticity"-changes in neuronal structure- ... They also identified the protein that drives these rhythms in neuronal plasticity: Rho1. Moreover, they found that plasticity ... "Neuronal plasticity underpins learning and memory, but it is very challenging to tie changes in specific neurons to alterations ... This unusual type of neuronal plasticity suggests that the function of s-LNvs changes dramatically over the day: from mainly ...
Chakrabarty, Arnab (2013): Role of sensory input in structural plasticity of dendrites in adult neuronal networks. Dissertation ... Role of sensory input in structural plasticity of dendrites in adult neuronal networks ... Role of sensory input in structural plasticity of dendrites in adult neuronal networks ...
Imaging sensory transmission and neuronal plasticity in primary sensory neurons with genetically-encoded voltage indicator, ... Imaging sensory transmission and neuronal plasticity in primary sensory neurons with genetically-encoded voltage indicator, ... Imaging sensory transmission and neuronal plasticity in primary sensory neurons with genetically-encoded voltage indicator, ... Imaging sensory transmission and neuronal plasticity in primary sensory neurons with genetically-encoded voltage indicator, ...
Neural Plasticity , Trending. Neural Plasticity: (also known as brain plasticity and neural plasticity) can be defined as the ... Neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity in Parkinsons disease: beyond motor deficits,.... TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuronal networks ... Synaptic Plasticity. Synaptic Plasticity. I. Synaptic Plasticity (Excitatory spine synapses) Changes in synaptic strength are ... The plasticity of inhibitory transmission is expected to play a key role in the modulation of neuronal excitability and network ...
Activity-dependent regulation of neuronal plasticity and self repair. Creators Name:. Kempermann, G. and van Praag, H. and Gage ... Neuronal Plasticity, Stem Cell Transplantation, Stem Cells, Tissue Transplantation, Animals. Source:. Progress in Brain ... Brain plasticity has many substrates, ranging from synapses to neurites and entire cells. The production of new neurons is part ... At least in the hippocampus, physical activity stimulates neurogenesis by acting on the proliferation of neuronal stem cells. ...
To investigate the function of TET3 in adult postmitotic neurons, we crossed Tet3 floxed mice with a neuronal Cre-expressing ... The threat of programmed DNA damage to neuronal genome integrity and plasticity *Keith W. Caldecott ... The neuronal PAS domain protein 4 (Npas4) is required for new and reactivated fear memories. PloS ONE. 2011;6:e23760. ... FF helped with neuronal morphology analysis. MRB helped with RNA-Seq data. NS organized and wrote the manuscript; WR ...
Neuronal plasticity. Michael Meaney won the 2012 Fondation IPSEN International Prize in Neuronal Plasticity. The judges found ...
Very little is known about how synaptic signals impact promoter methylation in neuronal nuclei. In this study we show that ... Neuronal Plasticity * Neurons / metabolism * Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / genetics * Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate / ... Very little is known about how synaptic signals impact promoter methylation in neuronal nuclei. In this study we show that ... In turn, the underlying molecular pathway is triggered by the induction of synaptic plasticity and in response to object ...
Proteomics of the Synapse - A Quantitative Approach to Neuronal Plasticity. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics ... Axon lengths often exceed the dimension of the neuronal cell body by several orders of magnitude. These extreme axonal lengths ... However, research on protein dynamics underlying core mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in brain lag far behind. In this review ... These elaborate mechanisms are required for neuronal development and maintenance of the nervous system. Neurons can fine-tune ...
Mechanisms of synaptic growth and plasticity (2016) - open-H2020 observatory. ... plasticity events network neuron ral dendrite modify neurons dysfunction physiological 75 understand structures form traffic ... neuronal genes defects contributes regulate synapse counterparts disease subject acquire functional symptoms disrupted divided ... Neuronal Trafficking project word cloud. Explore the words cloud of the Neuronal Trafficking project. It provides you a very ...
Neuronal Plasticity. Recovery. Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Transplantation. Additional relevant MeSH terms:. Layout table for MeSH ... Increasing brain plasticity after stroke represents an important alternative strategy. Cell therapy provides a functional ...
Neuronal-Glial Plasticity and Reproduction?. Frederick Levy, PhD, INRA-CNRS-Universite de Tours-Haras Nationaux, Nouzilly, ... Neuroendocrine Plasticity and the Maternal Brain?. Kelly G. Lambert, PhD, Dept. Psychology, RandolphMacon College, Ashland, VA ...
Management Plasticity: Neuronal Networking as the Organizing Principle for Enterprise Architecture to Unfold Human Potential ... We introduce the concept of management plasticity, where adaptive leaders guide adaptive organizations in the form of a neural ...
Neutrophil Plasticity in Infection and Inflammation Neutrophils make up 40-60% of all white blood cells. They arrive as the ... Analyzing the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory drugs in brain development, neuronal activity and long-term outcomes ...
"Neuronal activity-dependent DNA repair in plasticity and aging" February 21, 2022 ...
He moved to the University of Lausanne in Switzerland in 1999 where he researched the plasticity of neuronal connectivity in ... His research interests are brain ultrastructure, neuronal plasticity and 3D electron microscopy. ... establishing the Bio Electron Microscopy Facility and has continued his research interests in brain plasticity and 3D electron ...
Gene-environment interactions, neuronal dysfunction and pathological plasticity in Huntingtons disease. Clin Exp Pharmacol ... Huntingtin and its role in neuronal degeneration. Neuroscientist. 2004 Oct;10(5):467-75. doi: 10.1177/1073858404266777. ...
Stress and neuronal plasticity . Organizational Psychology . Interpersonal and organizational interactions. exchange ... input-specific synaptic plasticity . Glutamatergic processes underlying hippocampus-dependent neuroplasticity . Cellular ...
We studied the ability of a neuronal firing pattern underlying spindles in vivo to induce synaptic plasticity in neocortical ... their role in synaptic plasticity is essentially unknown. ... rhythm-regulation and plasticity. *V. Crunelli, L. Magor, +5 ... Neuronal Plasticity in Thalamocortical Networks during Sleep and Waking Oscillations. *M. Steriade, I. Timofeev ... We studied the ability of a neuronal firing pattern underlying spindles in vivo to induce synaptic plasticity in neocortical ...
Neuronal Plasticity and Nerve Cell Protection in Disease. Our research is characterized by a multi-level approach to the study ... our group investigates different aspects of neuronal plasticity and nerve cell protection, at the molecular, cellular and ...
... but whether Nav1.2 deletion in mice affects neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and/or disease- ... but whether Nav1.2 deletion in mice affects neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and/or disease- ... Here, we report that mice heterozygous for the Scn2a gene (Scn2a+/- mice) show decreased neuronal excitability and suppressed ... Here we report that mice heterozygous for the Scn2a gene (Scn2a+/- mice) show decreased neuronal excitability and suppressed ...
Introduction: Levels of organization; Review of basic neuronal elements and signaling; Single neuron plasticity and computation ... Major topics include: 1) Single neuron physiology and plasticity 2) Information processing by sensory and motor circuits 3) ...
Group of neuroprotection and neuronal plasticity in basal ganglia disorders. Directed by Dr. Jordi Alberch ... Development of molecules that modulate neuronal plasticity in the basal ganglia for treatment in movement disorders ... Group of kinases and phosphatases in neuronal function and dysfunction. Directed by Dr. Esther Pérez-Navarro ... The study of the mechanisms that modulate connectivity and neuronal network dynamics in the basal ganglia by optogenetics and ...
Modulating cytokines to reduce neuronal inflammation shows promise that has thus far eluded patients with Alzheimers disease. ... which limits functional plasticity after neuronal injury[6,7]; and (3) inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis.[8] Within this ... that may lead to neuronal death and dysfunction by a variety of mechanisms, including (1) enhancement of glutamate-induced ...
Changing Clocks and Changing Seasons: Scientists Find Role For Neuronal Plasticity. A team of scientists has linked changes in ...
Hunting brain cancer cells: Neuronal and tumorigenic boundaries of glioblastoma plasticity. Understanding how cancer cells ...
2008) Calmodulin-kinases: modulators of neuronal development and plasticity. Neuron 59:914-931, doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.08. ... 2003) Synaptic transmission and plasticity in the absence of ampa glutamate receptor glur2 and glur3. Neuron 39:163-176, doi: ... 1999) Importance of AMPA receptors for hippocampal synaptic plasticity but not for spatial learning. Science 284:1805-1811, doi ... This form of synaptic plasticity has been shown to depend on a different AMPAR subunit: GluA2 (Gainey et al., 2009; Goold and ...
Neuronal Plasticity. 1. 2020. 1423. 0.110. Why? Protein Kinases. 1. 2019. 1678. 0.110. Why? ...
  • Spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is a physiologically relevant form of Hebbian learning , in which near coincident pre- and postsynaptic firing induces synaptic plasticity: Long term potentiation (LTP) is induced when the presynaptic spike precedes postsynaptic firing, and long term depression (LTD) when postsynaptic firing precedes the presynaptic spike [1]. (
  • The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secretory growth factor that promotes neuronal proliferation and survival, synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation in the central nervous system. (
  • They regulate STDP through various mechanisms, as they can control the biophysical properties of dendrites , including the dynamics of spike backpropagation, and can influence the state of kinases and phosphatases implicated in synaptic plasticity (Seol et al. (
  • To better understand signaling mechanisms and involvement of neuromodulators such as dopamine in synaptic plasticity, less severe and more physiological low frequency induction protocols should be used. (
  • My long-term goal is to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that govern synaptic growth and plasticity, and how dysfunction in these pathways contributes to disease. (
  • My strategy is to use the relatively simple nervous system of Drosophila to uncover novel cellular and molecular mechanisms that control synaptic development and plasticity, in order to understand how membrane traffic is regulated to form and modify neuronal structures. (
  • Investigating the mechanisms and consequences of learning at the level of neuronal circuits is technically much more demanding, and we are only beginning to understand this important topic. (
  • The contributing articles cover essential concepts and hypotheses underlying memory formation ranging from synaptic mechanisms of plasticity in neuronal microcircuits to circuit reorganizations in response to physiological and pathological influences. (
  • One of the central mechanisms responsible for opening the sensitive period is the maturation of inhibitory innervation, which may also involve plasticity of inhibitory inputs. (
  • Focusing on motor learning in the rat, J. Francis and W. Song discuss plasticity mechanisms on the behavioral, neurophysiological, and synaptic levels. (
  • Relating molecular plasticity with behavioral changes, these results shed new light on circuit mechanisms of motor learning. (
  • Our research group is interested in the molecular mechanisms influencing experience-driven activation and equilibration of neuronal circuits in the mouse brain. (
  • These PIs continue their 25 year collaboration on the molecular and cellular mechanisms of homeostatic plasticity in the rodent neocortex. (
  • The labs collaborated on neuronal mechanisms of thermosensory adaptation with Van Hooser applying advanced data analysis techniques to data collected in the Sengupta lab. (
  • Mechanisms of Cortical Plasticity after Neuronal Injury. (
  • This unit addresses the fundamental mechanisms of neuronal excitability, signal generation and propagation, synaptic transmission, post synaptic mechanisms of signal integration, and neural plasticity. (
  • Neuronal plasticity underpins learning and memory, but it is very challenging to tie changes in specific neurons to alterations in animal behavior," explains Justin Blau, the paper's senior author and a professor in NYU's Department of Biology and at NYU Abu Dhabi. (
  • In our research, we've discovered how plasticity of a very small number of neurons helps run the biological clock and aids transitions to different seasons. (
  • The mammalian sensory neocortex exhibits experience-dependent plasticity such that neurons modify their response properties according to changes in sensory experience. (
  • The production of new neurons is part of plasticity even in the adult and old brain, but under normal conditions neurogenesis only occurs in two privileged regions of the adult brain: hippocampus and olfactory system. (
  • To investigate the function of TET3 in adult postmitotic neurons, we crossed Tet3 floxed mice with a neuronal Cre-expressing mouse line, Camk2a-CreERT2 , obtaining a Tet3 conditional KO (cKO) mouse line. (
  • The new Neuronal Plasticity Laboratory integrates in the CIPF a new electrophysiology platform, an advanced technique that allows the study of the electrical properties of cells and biological tissues, in this case, applied to measurements of the electrical activity of neurons. (
  • Neurons are the most morphologically diverse cell type whose morphology determines many functional aspects of a neuronal network. (
  • He moved to the University of Lausanne in Switzerland in 1999 where he researched the plasticity of neuronal connectivity in the adult brain, developing correlative light and electron microscopy methods for the analysis of in vivo imaged neurons. (
  • Like many other cell types, individual neurons within neuronal circuits use genetically encoded molecular networks to make complex decisions. (
  • We now use these tools, as well as the new types of tools we are currently generating, in neurons to deconstruct and reconstruct the protein networks within neuronal circuits. (
  • Increasing evidence supports the idea that DNA methylation is dynamically regulated in post mitotic neurons with crucial functions in memory and synaptic plasticity. (
  • Spike-timing dependent plasticity is a learning mechanism used extensively within neural modelling. (
  • Feng J, Fouse S, Fan G. Epigenetic regulation of neural gene expression and neuronal function. (
  • We introduce the concept of management plasticity, where adaptive leaders guide adaptive organizations in the form of a neural network analogous to the human brain. (
  • Neural Plasticity , 2012 , 805830. (
  • Oligodendrocyte-mediated Myelin Plasticity and its role in Neural Synchronization. (
  • Tottering mutants shared numerous abnormalities with rocker, including upward deviation of the eyes at rest, increased vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) phase lead at low stimulus frequencies, reduced VOR gain at high stimulus frequencies, reduced gain of the horizontal and vertical optokinetic reflex, reduced time constants of the neural integrator, and reduced plasticity of the VOR as assessed in a cross-axis training paradigm. (
  • Our lab is interested in elucidating the relationship between behavior and the underlying neuronal circuit structure and neural population dynamics. (
  • The work, which appears in the journal Cell , focuses on the regulation of "neuronal plasticity"-changes in neuronal structure-and its function in the brain. (
  • The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, Laboratory of Genetics, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA Plasticity is an essential characteristic of the brain: it is part of how the brain functions and is continuous while the brain interacts with the outer world. (
  • Brain plasticity has many substrates, ranging from synapses to neurites and entire cells. (
  • In a broader context neuronal stem cells can likely be found throughout the brain. (
  • Therefore, novel approaches to neuroregeneration will, when most effective, make use of the activity-related effects on neuronal stem cells in the adult brain to activate these stem cells in a targeted manner to enhance brain function. (
  • Increasing brain plasticity after stroke represents an important alternative strategy. (
  • His research interests are brain ultrastructure, neuronal plasticity and 3D electron microscopy. (
  • In 2006 Graham joined the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, establishing the Bio Electron Microscopy Facility and has continued his research interests in brain plasticity and 3D electron microscopy. (
  • 3) disruption of brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling is associated with altered synaptic plasticity and neurodevelopment. (
  • Circuit plasticity in sensorimotor areas has become a major interest since the recent introduction of brain-machine interfaces. (
  • The purpose of the present work is to compile the advances in understanding of plasticity after brain lesion, mainly related with exofocal areas to a core lesion. (
  • Neuronal activity dependent molecular signaling processes are central for brain development and plasticity. (
  • Convolvulus pluricaulis extract can modulate synaptic plasticity in rat brain hippocampus. (
  • 2015. Neighborhood matters: divergent patterns of stress-induced plasticity across the brain. . (
  • Identifying functional connectivity between neuronal elements is an essential first step toward understanding how the brain orchestrates information processing at the single-cell and population levels to carry out biological computations. (
  • Indeed a role for leptin in neuronal development has been suggested as leptin-deficient rodents display abnormal brain development and leptin actively participates in the development of the hypothalamus. (
  • But how do the processes of the mind emerge from the neuronal activity of the brain? (
  • But there is no guarantee that the Blue Brain will ever reach human-level neuronal complexity. (
  • Improving zinc levels may improve mood by increasing brain plasticity, balancing excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission and reducing inflammatory cytokines. (
  • These long-lasting effects indicate that a single treatment with an ultra-low dose of THC can modify brain plasticity and induce long-term behavioral and developmental effects in the brain. (
  • Neuronal activity promotes oligodendrogenesis and adaptive myelination in the mammalian brain. (
  • Chakrabarty, Arnab (2013): Role of sensory input in structural plasticity of dendrites in adult neuronal networks. (
  • Major topics include: 1) Single neuron physiology and plasticity 2) Information processing by sensory and motor circuits 3) Modern techniques and devices in neuroscience 4) Neuropathologies, such as epilepsy, aging, and others. (
  • The cholinergic system is implicated in gating cortical plasticity during associative learning and sensory map plasticity. (
  • Multisensory integration (MSI) can be seen at neuronal level, when the combination of stimulus from two or more sensory modalities leads to either facilitation or suppression of neuronal responses. (
  • Using point process theory to model population activity, we demonstrate the robustness of the approach in tracking a broad spectrum of neuronal interaction, from synchrony to rate co-modulation, by systematically varying the length of the firing history interval and the strength of the connecting synapses that govern the discharge pattern of each neuron. (
  • These include genes involved in regulating transcription, neuron structure, and synaptic plasticity. (
  • In the study which is reviewed here, critical determinants of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses were investigated. (
  • These results suggest that Nav1.2 regulates hippocampal neuronal excitability, excitatory synaptic drive, LTP, and spatial learning and memory in mice. (
  • In the hippocampus, leptin is a potential cognitive enhancer as genetically obese rodents with dysfunctional leptin receptors display impairments in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. (
  • Here, we review the data that leptin influences hippocampal synaptic plasticity via enhancing NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor function. (
  • Taking advantage of these findings, a network is developed that can train recognisers for longer spatio-temporal input signals using spike-timing dependent plasticity. (
  • Dopamine regulates intrinsic excitability thereby gating successful induction of spike timing-dependent plasticity. (
  • M. B. Verhoog and H. D. Mansvelder review how cholinergic modulation acting via presynaptic ionotropic receptors may create brief time windows for synaptic modulation during spike-timing-dependent plasticity. (
  • This results in deficits in promoter methylation of activity-dependent genes, as well as synaptic plasticity and memory formation. (
  • Collectively, the data show that plasticity-relevant signals from GluN2A-containing NMDARs control activity-dependent DNA-methylation involved in memory formation. (
  • Defects in synaptic morphology and in activity-dependent plasticity are a hallmark of several neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders. (
  • We also demonstrate how activity-dependent plasticity can be tracked and quantified in multiple network topologies built to mimic distinct behavioral contexts. (
  • DNA methylation and histone acetylation work in concert to regulate memory formation and synaptic plasticity. (
  • Very little is known about how synaptic signals impact promoter methylation in neuronal nuclei. (
  • ModelDB: Inhibitory plasticity balances excitation and inhibition (Vogels et al. (
  • When spindles are nested in slow oscillation upstates, maximum Pyr activity appears to concur with strong perisomatic inhibition of Pyr cells via PV-Ins and low dendritic inhibition via SOM-Ins (i.e., conditions that might optimize synaptic plasticity within local cortical circuits). (
  • However, GABAergic inhibition in the cortex plays a major role in development and ocular dominance plasticity as reviewed by Heimel et al. (
  • Plasticity and regulation of GABAergic inhibition. (
  • 2019. Differential Inhibition of Neuronal Sodium Channel Subtypes by the General Anesthetic Isoflurane. . (
  • We show that this mechanism provides an explanation for the sparse firing patterns observed in response to natural stimuli and fits well with a recently observed interaction of excitatory and inhibitory receptive field plasticity. (
  • Here, we report that mice heterozygous for the Scn2a gene ( Scn2a +/- mice) show decreased neuronal excitability and suppressed excitatory synaptic transmission in the presence of network activity in the hippocampus. (
  • Neuronal circuits are assembled by intricately interconnected excitatory and inhibitory units. (
  • The lion's share of research into plasticity has focused on excitatory synapses. (
  • The new group is researching in the field of neuronal plasticity and more effective treatments against cognitive deficits caused by Alzheimer's. (
  • Alzheimer's disease is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the progressive degeneration of neuronal populations and the simultaneous loss of memory and cognitive functions. (
  • Bidirectional perisomatic inhibitory plasticity of a Fos neuronal network. (
  • Micropatterned substrates for the growth of functional neuronal networks of defined geometry. (
  • These labs are focusing on a gene, Rem2, that is required for normal synapse formation, dendritic branching, and functional plasticity. (
  • This letter suggests a new approach to identify functional connectivity between neuronal elements from their simultaneously recorded spike trains. (
  • Gene ontology analysis supports the hypothesis that pair-bond formation involves transcriptional regulation, and changes in neuronal structure. (
  • Such a balance could be established and maintained in an experience-dependent manner by synaptic plasticity at inhibitory synapses . (
  • The many forms and functions of long-term plasticity at GABAergic synapses are reviewed by A. Maffei. (
  • Connectivity patterns in neuronal networks of experimentally defined geometry. (
  • Electron microscopy (EM) is still the best technique for producing data from which one can unambiguously determine the complete synaptic connectivity of neuronal assemblies. (
  • Nav1.2 also regulates synaptic integration and plasticity by promoting back-propagation of action potentials to dendrites, but whether Nav1.2 deletion in mice affects neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and/or disease-related animal behaviors remains largely unclear. (
  • Mice carrying mutations of the gene encoding the ion pore of the P/Q calcium channel (Cacna1a) are an instance in which cerebellar dysfunction may be attributable to altered electrophysiology and thus provide an opportunity to study how neuronal intrinsic properties dictate signal processing in the ocular motor system. (
  • Neuronal morphology generates high-frequency firing resonance. (
  • These cortical circuits are organized by specific connections between their neuronal members. (
  • The Dagliyan laboratory focuses on specific molecular events happening at these different time scales, starting from the immediate modifications at the synapse, such as actin-modifying protein signaling, to longer time scale molecular events such as protein modifications that mediate transcription initiation, elongation, and RNA splicing, which are key processes for the behaviorally induced plasticity of neuronal circuits. (
  • The Dagliyan Lab is interested in the molecular logic and design principles governing the function of protein networks in neuronal circuits. (
  • Intense stimulation or persistent injury can cause plasticity of the central nociceptive circuits, synaptic plasticity and increased neuronal responsiveness in central pain pathways after painful insults is known as central sensitisation. (
  • Multiterabyte electron microscopy image volumes containing the neuronal circuits of interest are generated using high-throughput electron microscopy of serial thin sections. (
  • How does electrical activity in neuronal circuits give rise to intelligent behavior? (
  • At least in the hippocampus, physical activity stimulates neurogenesis by acting on the proliferation of neuronal stem cells. (
  • Kumar Adarsh, Tamta Mamta, Hemlata, Maurya Ram C.. Neuronal Remodeling and Dendritic Spines: A Review. (
  • Synaptic plasticity primarilytakes place in dendritic spines and enriched environment have positive effect while socialisolation have negative effect on synapse formation. (
  • These PIs collaborate on the roles of microRNAs in neuronal identity and plasticity in flies and mice. (
  • We studied the ability of a neuronal firing pattern underlying spindles in vivo to induce synaptic plasticity in neocortical pyramidal cells in vitro. (
  • They are working to understand the role of transcriptional regulators in homeostatic plasticity. (
  • Our main objectives in this line of research are to determine the role of these chromatin-modifying enzymes in neuronal plasticity, to dissect the developmental and adult components of the syndromes, and to describe the epigenetic and transcriptional alterations that underlie IDDs through state-of-the-art genomic screens in order to identify novel therapeutic targets. (
  • The Turrigiano and Paradis collaborate to design RNAi probes to knock down elements of signaling pathways involved in homeostatic plasticity, and to test potential protein-protein interactions using biochemical approaches. (
  • Neurotrophins are key regulatory components of neuronal plasticity and responsiveness and control the expression of neuroregulatory peptides, such as substance P (SP), which are associated with abnormal airway responses including bronchoconstriction and hyperresponsiveness. (
  • Zn modulates neuronal plasticity and synaptic activity in both neonatal and adult stages. (
  • They provide an overview of the anatomy of histaminergic systems, histamine metabolism, receptors, and turnover and introduce the involvement of histamine in synaptic plasticity. (
  • BDNF is a member of a large family of growth factors called neurotrophins, which regulate proliferation, differentiation, survival and death of neuronal and glial cells ( Chao, 2003 ). (
  • Here, we used soma-targeted ASAP4.4-Kv, a novel GEVI, to dissect the temporal dynamics of noxious and non-noxious neuronal signals during mechanical, thermal, or chemical stimulation in DRG of live mice. (
  • CIH also exacerbated memory and synaptic plasticity deficits in P301S mice. (
  • Animal models have been crucial to understand MSI and neuronal crossmodal facilitation and depression have been observed in mice, cats, ferrets and non-human primates. (
  • Targeting autism, schizophrenia as well as Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegeneration and utilizing a multidisciplinary approach, our group investigates different aspects of neuronal plasticity and nerve cell protection, at the molecular, cellular and system level. (
  • In turn, the underlying molecular pathway is triggered by the induction of synaptic plasticity and in response to object location learning. (
  • A large body of research over the last decades has drastically increased our understanding of the molecular and cellular processes underlying learning, most notably through a detailed investigation of synaptic plasticity. (
  • By focusing on experience-driven neuronal circuit responses at the molecular level, we aim to develop new therapeutic approaches for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders. (
  • Identifying magnetic stimulation induced electroencephalographic signatures of different neuronal elements in primary motor cortex. (
  • The sequential occurrence of reactivation at the time of SWRs followed by neuronal plasticity-promoting spindles is a possible mechanism to explain NREM sleep-dependent consolidation of memories. (
  • The Zn ion is essential for neuronal signaling and is mainly distributed within presynaptic vesicles. (
  • A new study has identified a novel signaling system controlling neuronal plasticity. (
  • Despite their proposed function in learning and memory, their role in synaptic plasticity is essentially unknown. (
  • Through our research we explored how the disruption of normal neuronal functions affects metabolic activity and may move the body to an altered state away from homeostasis, which could contribute to the drug seeking behaviors exhibited by people with substance use disorders. (
  • Neuronal Plasticity Laboratory and Electrophysiology Technology Platform. (
  • Neuronal Expression of Glucosylceramide Synthase in Central Nervous System Regulates Body Weight and Energy Homeostasis. (
  • In this collaboration, Katz and Van Hooser's labs brought in vivo physiological recordings and imaging techniques to the study of homeostatic plasticity in living animals. (
  • This unusual type of neuronal plasticity suggests that the function of s-LNvs changes dramatically over the day: from mainly sending signals at dawn to mainly receiving signals at dusk. (