Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Dopaminergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Mice, Inbred C57BLInterneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Neurons, Efferent: Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Serotonergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is SEROTONIN.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.PC12 Cells: A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Neurotoxins: Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses: A group of severe neurodegenerative diseases characterized by intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent wax-like lipid materials (CEROID; LIPOFUSCIN) in neurons. There are several subtypes based on mutations of the various genes, time of disease onset, and severity of the neurological defects such as progressive DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; and visual failure.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Superior Cervical Ganglion: The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Neurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Nitrergic Neurons: Nerve cells where transmission is mediated by NITRIC OXIDE.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Adrenergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is EPINEPHRINE.Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Retinal Neurons: Nerve cells of the RETINA in the pathway of transmitting light signals to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include the outer layer of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS, the intermediate layer of RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS and AMACRINE CELLS, and the internal layer of RETINAL GANGLION CELLS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC Calcium Binding Protein G: A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.Trigeminal Ganglion: The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Myenteric Plexus: One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)Ganglia, Sympathetic: Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Calbindin 2: A calbindin protein that is differentially expressed in distinct populations of NEURONS throughout the vertebrate and invertebrate NERVOUS SYSTEM, and modulates intrinsic neuronal excitability and influences LONG-TERM POTENTIATION. It is also found in LUNG, TESTIS, OVARY, KIDNEY, and BREAST, and is expressed in many tumor types found in these tissues. It is often used as an immunohistochemical marker for MESOTHELIOMA.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Calbindins: Calcium-binding proteins that are found in DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES, INTESTINES, BRAIN, and other tissues where they bind, buffer and transport cytoplasmic calcium. Calbindins possess a variable number of EF-HAND MOTIFS which contain calcium-binding sites. Some isoforms are regulated by VITAMIN D.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Reticular Formation: A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Neostriatum: The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Ventral Tegmental Area: A region in the MESENCEPHALON which is dorsomedial to the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA and ventral to the RED NUCLEUS. The mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems originate here, including an important projection to the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS. Overactivity of the cells in this area has been suspected to contribute to the positive symptoms of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Raphe Nuclei: Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Ganglia, Sensory: Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
In neurons, concomitant increases in cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium are important for the synchronization of neuronal ... Berridge, M. (1998). "Neuronal calcium signaling". Neuron. 21 (1): 13-26. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80510-3. PMID 9697848. ... "a neuron within a neuron." The ER's structural characteristics, ability to act as a Ca2+ sink, and specific Ca2+ releasing ... In the neuron, the ER may serve in a network integrating numerous extracellular and intracellular signals in a binary membrane ...
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neuronal spike sorting[23]. *face recognition[24]. *modelling receptive fields of primary visual neurons[25] ...
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Arimura, Nariko; Kaibuchi, Kozo (December 22, 2005). "Key regulators in neuronal polarity". Neuron. Cambridge, MA: Cell Press. ... At a synapse, the plasma membrane of the signal-passing neuron (the presynaptic neuron) comes into close apposition with the ... Synapses are essential to neuronal function: neurons are cells that are specialized to pass signals to individual target cells ... the connection between the two neurons is strengthened when both neurons are active at the same time, as a result of the ...
ISBN 978-0-87893-695-3. "Introduction to Neurons and Neuronal Networks , Section 1, Intro Chapter , Neuroscience Online: An ... Malenka RC, Bear MF (Sep 2004). "LTP and LTD: an embarrassment of riches". Neuron. 44 (1): 5-21. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.09. ... Squire LR (Jan 2009). "The legacy of patient H.M. for neuroscience". Neuron. 61 (1): 6-9. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.12.023. PMC ... The spiking activity of neurons within the hippocampus is highly correlated with sharp wave activity. Most neurons decrease ...
... is essential for neuronal survival. Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and ... Parkinson's disease is characterized by inclusions of a protein called alpha-synuclien (Lewy bodies) in affected neurons that ...
... including but not limited to cortical chattering neurons, thalamacortical neurons, and pacemaker neurons. Pacemakers in general ... 2000). "Intrinsic Dynamics in Neuronal Networks. I. Theory". Journal of Neurophysiology. 88 (2): 808-27. CS1 maint: Multiple ... Parabolic bursting has been studied most extensively in the R15 neuron, which is one of six types of neurons of the Aplysia ... The theta model, or Ermentrout-Kopell canonical model, is a biological neuron model originally developed to model neurons in ...
doi:10.1016/0042-6989(86)90069-6. Masland, RH (2012). "The neuronal organization of the retina". Neuron. 76 (2): 266-280. doi: ... Neuron. 76 (2): 266-280. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.10.002. PMC 3714606 . PMID 23083731. Demb, JB; Singaer, JH (2015). " ... Retinal neurons include photoreceptor cells, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells. Depending on ... Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of ...
Blaesse P, Airaksinen MS, Rivera C, Kaila K (March 2009). "Cation-chloride cotransporters and neuronal function". Neuron. 61 (6 ... In fact, any disruption of the neuronal K+ gradient would indirectly affect KCC2 activity. Loss of KCC2 following neuronal ... is a neuron-specific chloride potassium symporter responsible for establishing the chloride ion gradient in neurons through the ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.03.003. PMID 19323993. Gauvain G, Chamma I, Chevy Q, Cabezas C, Irinopoulou T, Bodrug N, Carnaud M, ...
"Introduction to Neurons and Neuronal Networks". Neuroscience Online. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved ... With evidence showing that different memories excite different neurons or system of neurons in the brain the technique of ... were activated primarily over other neurons by fear memory expression. This indicated to them that these neurons were directly ... Due to the lack of understanding of the brain this technique of destroying neurons may have a much larger effect on the patient ...
This property is called neuronal tuning. In the earlier visual areas, neurons have simpler tuning. For example, a neuron in V1 ... Early in time (40 ms and further) individual V1 neurons have strong tuning to a small set of stimuli. That is, the neuronal ... It contains many neurons selective for the motion of complex visual features (line ends, corners). Microstimulation of a neuron ... In the higher visual areas, neurons have complex tuning. For example, in the inferior temporal cortex (IT), a neuron may fire ...
"The neuronal organization of the retina". Neuron. 76 (2): 266-280. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.10.002. PMC 3714606 . PMID ... "The neuronal organization of the retina". Neuron. 76 (2): 266-280. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.10.002. PMC 3714606 . PMID ... Horizontal cells are the laterally interconnecting neurons having cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer of the retina of ... Retinal neurons include photoreceptor cells, horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells. ...
"Introduction to Neurons and Neuronal Networks , Section 1, Intro Chapter , Neuroscience Online: An Electronic Textbook for the ... Neuron. 65 (1): 7-19. PMC 2822727 . PMID 20152109. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2009.11.031.. ... "Neuron. 61 (1): 6-9. PMC 2649674 . PMID 19146808. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.12.023.. ... The spiking activity of neurons within the hippocampus is highly correlated with sharp wave activity. Most neurons decrease ...
... homophilic binding between neurons and heterophilic binding between neurons and leukocytes. It may be a critical component in ... 2000). "Neuronal adhesion molecule telencephalin induces rapid cell spreading of microglia". Brain Res. 849 (1-2): 58-66. doi: ... Kilgannon P, Turner T, Meyer J, Wisdom W, Gallatin WM (Jan 1999). "Mapping of the ICAM-5 (telencephalin) gene, a neuronal ... This protein is expressed on the surface of telencephalic neurons and displays two types of adhesion activity, ...
"Rb binding protein Che-1 interacts with Tau in cerebellar granule neurons. Modulation during neuronal apoptosis". Molecular and ...
The motor neurons of the different motor fibers, were the lower motor neurons - alpha motor neuron, beta motor neuron, and ... The Nissl bodies that produce the neuronal proteins are absent in the axonal region. Proteins needed for the growth of the axon ... In certain sensory neurons (pseudounipolar neurons), such as those for touch and warmth, the axons are called afferent nerve ... Sometimes the axon of a neuron may synapse onto dendrites of the same neuron, when it is known as an autapse. Most axons carry ...
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2007.03.009. PMC 2897592 . PMID 17408575. Luan, H; White, BH (Oct 2007). "Combinatorial methods for ... refined neuronal gene targeting". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 17 (5): 572-80. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2007.10.001. PMID ... Dymecki, SM; Kim, JC (Apr 5, 2007). "Molecular neuroanatomy's "Three Gs": a primer". Neuron. 54 (1): 17-34. ...
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"A New Mechanism for Neuronal Gain Control". 35 (4). Neuron. pp. 602-604. Klein, S. A., Carney, T., Barghout-Stein, L., & Tyler ... "NEURON - for empirically-based simulations of neurons and networks of neurons". McDougal RA, Morse TM, Carnevale T, Marenco L, ... is a simulation environment for modeling individual neurons and networks of neurons. The NEURON environment is a self-contained ... to a particular neuron. The response of the j {\displaystyle j} -th neuron is given by a sum of nonlinear, usually "sigmoidal" ...
Lai HC, Johnson JE (Apr 2008). "Neurogenesis or neuronal specification: phosphorylation strikes again!". Neuron. 58 (1): 3-5. ... and being recruited toward the neuronal promoters, causing neuronal differentiation. In the embryonic forebrain, Ngn1 is ... Along with supporting neuronal differentiation, when expressed in embryonic neural tissue, Ngn1 also acts to inhibit glial ... In mice that lack Ngn2, there are less motor neurons and ventral interneurons present, indicating that Ngn2 plays a role in ...
The levels of the receptor decrease as neurons mature. CXCR4 mutant mice have aberrant neuronal distribution. This has been ... of CXCR4 CXCR4 is present in newly generated neurons during embryogenesis and adult life where it plays a role in neuronal ...
Noise in neurons is due to intrinsic and extrinsic sources. It can disrupt activity and interfere with how well a neuron can ... Channel noise is the variability in neuronal responses that is generated by the random gating of voltage-gated ion channels ... Signals from neurons that integrate activity of various neurons, when taken together, can form a complete image stimulus. Noise ... During an epileptic seizure, tertiary bursts of action potential occur through the neurons in the brain. Neurons fire off ...
Neuronal sets may be sets of entire neurons or of neuronal parts. Our ability to think, react and remember relies on the ... it is a neuronal genus. There are also neuronal families and so on. For example, spiny neurons of the striatum of macaque are ... A particular kind of a group of neuron in a localized part of the brain in one animal species is called a neuronal species. ... Starting from objectively defined neurons, it became possible to constitute neuronal sets. «The theory of set underlies ...
Chklovskii DB (2004). "Synaptic connectivity and neuronal morphology: two sides of the same coin". Neuron. 43 (5): 609-17. doi: ... Single-neuron modeling[edit]. Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.02.001. PMID 15721245.. *^ Coggan JS, Bartol TM, Esquenazi E, et al. (2005). "Evidence for ectopic ... The interactions of neurons in a small network can be often reduced to simple models such as the Ising model. The statistical ...
Myoblast-derived neuronal cells form glutamatergic neurons in the mouse cerebellum.. Gopalakrishnan V1, Bie B, Sinnappah-Kang ... These results suggest that M-RV-GFP cells differentiate into glutamatergic neurons, an important neuronal subtype, in the ... M-RV-GFP(T) cells exhibit synaptic communication and express neuronal differentiation markers similar to native granule neurons ... However, the neuronal subtype of M-RV cells and whether they can establish synaptic communication in the brain have remained ...
Neuronal Apoptosis Granule Neuron Cerebellar Granule Neuron Purkinje Cell Dendrite External Germinal Layer These keywords were ... Yan GM., Paul S.M. (1997) Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons as a Model of Neuronal Apoptosis. In: Poirier J. (eds) Apoptosis ... Yan G-M., Lin S.-Z, Gu J, Irwin R P, and Paul S. M. (1995b). Bihubin induces apoptosis of cerebellar neurons via activation of ... DMello S R., Gall C, Ciotti T, and Calissano P (1993) Induction of apoptosis in cerebellar granule neurons by low potassium ...
An Intrinsic Neuronal Oscillator Underlies Dopaminergic Neuron Bursting. Christopher A. Deister, Mark A. Teagarden, Charles J. ... An Intrinsic Neuronal Oscillator Underlies Dopaminergic Neuron Bursting. Christopher A. Deister, Mark A. Teagarden, Charles J. ... An Intrinsic Neuronal Oscillator Underlies Dopaminergic Neuron Bursting Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... An Intrinsic Neuronal Oscillator Underlies Dopaminergic Neuron Bursting. Christopher A. Deister, Mark A. Teagarden, Charles J. ...
Neurons Containing Hypocretin (Orexin) Project to Multiple Neuronal Systems. Christelle Peyron, Devin K. Tighe, Anthony N. van ... Neurons Containing Hypocretin (Orexin) Project to Multiple Neuronal Systems. Christelle Peyron, Devin K. Tighe, Anthony N. van ... Neurons Containing Hypocretin (Orexin) Project to Multiple Neuronal Systems Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Neurons Containing Hypocretin (Orexin) Project to Multiple Neuronal Systems. Christelle Peyron, Devin K. Tighe, Anthony N. van ...
... of ergodically forced pacemaker neurons. In particular, this allows to treat the forced leaky integrate-and-fire model, which ... The behaviour of neurons under the influence of periodic external input has been modelled very successfully by circle maps. The ... Neuronal coding of pacemaker neurons -- A random dynamical systems approach. T. Jäger 1, ... Neuronal coding of pacemaker neurons -- A random dynamical systems approach. Communications on Pure & Applied Analysis, 2011, ...
Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro. Cedric Bardy, Mark van den Hurk ... Correction for Bardy et al., Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro ... Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro ... Correction for Bardy et al., Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro ...
Neuronal deficits, not involving motor neurons, in mice lacking BDNF and/or NT4.. Conover JC1, Erickson JT, Katz DM, Bianchi LM ... Thus vestibular and trigeminal sensory neurons require BDNF but not NT4, whereas nodose-petrosal sensory neurons require both ... Motor neurons, whose numbers are drastically reduced in mice lacking TrkB, are not affected even in mice lacking both BDNF and ... Nerve growth factor and other neurotrophins signal to neurons through the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases. TrkB is ...
Currently, most human neuronal cultures are grown in media based on DMEM/F12 (4, 5, 7⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓-24), Neurobasal (25⇓⇓⇓⇓- ... Neuronal medium that supports basic synaptic functions and activity of human neurons in vitro. Cedric Bardy, Mark van den Hurk ... Therefore, we examined neuronal activity in media widely used to culture neurons. We found that classic basal media, as well as ... A) Human neurons derived from iPSCs or ESCs were plated directly on glass coverslips. The basic neuronal functions of single ...
... addresses the methodologies and fundamental concepts that are currently being used in the study of generic complex neuronal ... 1-3 Neurons and Synapses. The concept of the "neuron" was established over a century ago as the unitary component of neuronal ... Since then, neurons and synapses have been the major targets of neuroscience investigations. All neurons commonly have somata ... For these molecular mechanisms of neurons, numerous proteins, glycoproteins, and lipids, and their genes play essential roles. ...
... which are expressed in a neuron-specific and... ... transcriptome analysis because of the presence of neuron- ... Markers associated with neuron-specific Ube3a imprinting during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Because Ube3a imprinting occurs only in neurons, it has the potential to be a marker to assess the quality of neurons produced ... microtubule-associated protein expressed in migrating and differentiating neurons. Neuron 23:247-256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Substance P: evidence for diverse roles in neuronal function from cultured mouse spinal neurons ... Substance P: evidence for diverse roles in neuronal function from cultured mouse spinal neurons ... Substance P: evidence for diverse roles in neuronal function from cultured mouse spinal neurons ... Substance P: evidence for diverse roles in neuronal function from cultured mouse spinal neurons ...
ADNP-like immunohistochemical localization to the neuronal cytoplasm and neurites was shown in this study not only in the ... These results position ADNP in direct association with neuronal cell differentiation and maturation. ... we showed that ADNP expression and cytoplasm/nucleus distribution is unique in neuronal-differentiated cells compared to ...
Tangential migration of neuronal precursors of glutamatergic neurons in the adult mammalian brain.. [Gerald J Sun, Yi Zhou, ... mouse dentate gyrus and made the surprising discovery that proliferating neuronal precursors of glutamatergic granule neurons ... In a classic model of mammalian brain formation, precursors of principal glutamatergic neurons migrate radially along radial ... Together, these results provide insight into neuronal migration in the adult mammalian nervous system. ...
... with a special focus on neuronal migration in the vertebrate brain. ...
The Xenopus retinal ganglion cell as a model neuron to study the establishment of neuronal connectivity. Authors. *. Sarah ... Neurons receive inputs through their multiple branched dendrites and pass this information on to the next neuron via long axons ... The shape the neuron acquires is thus the key to its proper functioning in the neural circuit in which it participates. Both ... How a neuron acquires its unique shape, establishes and modifies appropriate synaptic connectivity, and the molecular signals ...
... simulate and analyse biological neuronal networks in NEURON Summary: Review Request: python-netpyne - Develop, simulate and ... parallel simulation and analysis of biological neuronal networks using the NEURON simulator. For more details, installation ...
... allows for the possibility of generating patient-derived neurons. A unique feature of these so-called induced neurons (iNs) is ... allows for the possibility of generating patient-derived neurons. A unique feature of these so-called induced neurons (iNs) is ... Furthermore, as disease-modeling studies using this direct neuronal reprogramming approach are becoming more widely adopted, it ... Furthermore, as disease-modeling studies using this direct neuronal reprogramming approach are becoming more widely adopted, it ...
... the neuron. Learn online and earn valuable credentials from top universities like Yale, Michigan, Stanford, ... ... Morphology of the neuronal cell & Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Neuron ... Synapse is where two neurons or two nerve cells, they connect to each other. ... Lets learn more about the basic unit of the nervous system: the neuron. ...
Morphology of the neuronal cell & Cellular and Molecular Biology of the Neuron ... In the CNS system, besides neurons, we also have glial cells. Glial cells are also called neuroglia cells, and cells are widely ... Lets learn more about the basic unit of the nervous system: the neuron. ... and how during disease or aging the neuronal connections deteriorate. Were trying to understand the molecular, cellular nature ...
... due to loss or gain of whole chromosomes giving rise to cellular diversity at the genomic level have been described in neurons ... Structural variation in the human genome is likely to be an important mechanism for neuronal diversity and brain disease. A ... of slide-based cytometry with molecular biological techniques that will contribute to the understanding of genetic neuronal ... Neuronal Aneuploidy in Health and Disease:A Cytomic Approach to Understand the Molecular Individuality of Neurons. Thomas ...
ORCID: 0000-0002-9040-0475 (2012): Resolution of Nested Neuronal Representations Can Be Exponential in the Number of Neurons. ... Collective computation is typically polynomial in the number of computational elements, such as transistors or neurons, whether ...
Explore neuronal toxicity screening via automated endpoint and live-cell assays using iPSCs & Molecular Devices instrumentation ... Since Calcein AM stains the neuronal extensions in addition to the cell bodies of live neurons, neuronal networks were analyzed ... Figure 2. Neurons treated with Antimycin A. Top: Images of control neurons and neurons treated with Antimycin A and stained ... iPSC-derived neurons were allowed to form neuronal networks in 96- or 384-well plates for 3-5 days and then were challenged ...
Nakayama, K., Kiyosue, K. and Taguchi, T. (2005). Diminished neuronal activity increases neuron-neuron connectivity underlying ... to study large ensembles of neurons at a resolution of single neuron recordings. While neuronal networks formed from ... Neuronal networks and synaptic plasticity: understanding complex system dynamics by interfacing neurons with silicon ... Long-term stimulation of neuronal cultures. Rat hippocampal neurons were isolated from newborn pups and plated at high density ...
On the Continuous Differentiability of Inter-Spike Intervals of Synaptically Connected Cortical Spiking Neurons in a Neuronal ... The dynamical behavior of individual neurons is represented by a class of discontinuous single-neuron models. We report here ... We derive conditions for continuous differentiability of inter-spike intervals (ISIs) of spiking neurons with respect to ... the partial derivative of the membrane potential of spiking neurons with respect to time is not equal to the partial derivative ...
... while during neuronal development mTORC1 responds to glutamate and neurotrophins to promote neuronal migration and dendritic ... while during neuronal development mTORC1 responds to glutamate and neurotrophins to promote neuronal migration and dendritic ... prevents amino acid-dependent mTORC1 activation in HEK293T cells and BDNF-dependent mTORC1 activation in hippocampal neurons. ... prevents amino acid-dependent mTORC1 activation in HEK293T cells and BDNF-dependent mTORC1 activation in hippocampal neurons. ...
  • However, when transplanted into newborn mice cerebella, a site of extensive postnatal neurogenesis, these cells expressed endogenous cerebellar granule precursors and neuron proteins, such as transient axonal glycoprotein-1, neurofilament, type-III β-tubulin, superior cervical ganglia-clone 10, glutamate receptor-2, and glutamate decarboxylase. (
  • Functional annotation of the presumed targets also revealed a group of 41 genes, heretofore not associated with Wnt pathway activity, that encode proteins involved in neuronal signal transmission. (
  • In the thalamus, β-catenin regulates the expression of a novel group of genes that encode proteins involved in neuronal excitation. (
  • To enter or exit the neuron, ions must pass through special proteins called ion channels that span the membrane. (
  • They identified site-specific SNO sites for more than half of these proteins and showed that disrupting the S-nitrosylation of several of these impaired the outgrowth of neuronal dendrites in culture, a process that is critical for brain development and neuronal function in vivo. (
  • Of these, 131 proteins have not previously been shown to be S-nitrosylated in any system, and 555 are previously unidentified targets of S-nitrosylation in neurons. (
  • Together, our findings characterize S-nitrosylated nuclear proteins in neurons and identify S-nitrosylation motifs that may be shared with other targets of NO signaling. (
  • Specific antibodies against the C-terminal peptides were used to show that forebrain neurons in culture express both GLT1a and GLT1b proteins. (
  • The soma houses the cell nucleus and most of the genomic expression and synthetic machinery that elaborates the proteins, lipids, and sugars that constitute the neuronal cytoplasm and membranes. (
  • Our work brings significant insight into the understanding of how neuronal communication is regulated, which is essential to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of information processing by neuronal circuits and the role of these proteins in the development of neurological diseases," explained Dr. Young. (
  • NCS-1 is a member of the neuronal calcium sensor family, a class of EF hand containing calcium-myristoyl-switch proteins. (
  • 1993). There is increasing evidence that apoptosis may also be triggered pathologically in the adult CNS and may mediate the nonphysiological death of neurons characteristic of various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (Barinaga, 1993), and that which occurs following ischemic, traumatic, or chemical injury of the CNS (Yoshitatsu et al. (
  • Cells exposed to neuron-derived α-synuclein showed signs of apoptosis, such as nuclear fragmentation and caspase 3 activation, both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • Enteric neuron death induced by GFR α 1 inactivation is not associated with the activation of common cell death executors, caspase-3 or -7, and lacks the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, such as chromatin compaction and mitochondrial pathology. (
  • During nervous system development, substantial numbers of immature neurons die by apoptosis. (
  • Our results indicate that Ultrabithorax and Abdominal-A are not necessary for specification of the CCAP-interneurons, but are absolutely required to prevent the death by apoptosis of the CCAP-efferent neurons. (
  • Recently, IRF6 was shown to be upregulated after TBI and could promote neuronal apoptosis under oxidative stress conditions. (
  • The results of TUNEL staining showed that IRF6 knockdown markedly reduced neuronal apoptosis, which was accompanied by decreased activity of caspase-3. (
  • Lin Y, Xu D, Li X, Liu C, Liu X, Huang S, Huang Y (2015) Upregulation of interferon regulatory factor 6 promotes neuronal apoptosis after traumatic brain injury in adult rats. (
  • Brief (5-min) exposure of neurons to glutamate (100 μ M ) increased delayed (24-h) necrosis and apoptosis by 3- and 1.8-fold, respectively. (
  • In this study, we define the expression and localization of TLR8 in mouse neurons and reveal the dissociable roles for TLR8 in neurite outgrowth and neuronal apoptosis. (
  • We measured the relative expression levels of these 10 gene markers and assessed the Ube3a imprinting status of 54 neuron samples differentiated under various in vitro conditions. (
  • The authors use an in vitro cell model of a single acutely isolated thalamic neuron in the NEURON simulation environment to address and discuss questions in an undergraduate course. (
  • This upregulation of pGSK-3β-Tyr(216) was also found in the R6/2 hippocampus in vivo and linked to the increased vulnerability of primary hippocampal neurons in vitro. (
  • Faden AI, O'Leary DM, Fan L, Bao W, Mullins PG, Movsesyan VA (2001) Selective blockade of the mGluR1 receptor reduces traumatic neuronal injury in vitro and improves outcome after brain trauma. (
  • Removal of nuclear β-catenin from thalamic neurons in vitro by introducing its negative regulator Axin2 reduced the expression of six of the nine genes. (
  • Neurons from the mammalian hippocampus, maintained in tissue slices in vitro, are significantly affected by fields of around 1-5 V m(-1). (
  • Mouse spinal neurons grown in tissue culture were used to examine the membrane mechanisms of action of the peptide substance P. Two functionally distinct actions were observed, one being a rapidly desensitizing excitation, and the other being a dose-dependent, reversible depression of excitatory responses to the putative amino acid neurotransmitter glutamate. (
  • This supports the notion that the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway may be an important factor in protecting neurons against glutamate neurotoxicity. (
  • Expression of a variant form of the glutamate transporter GLT1 in neuronal cultures and in neurons and astrocytes in the rat brain. (
  • To identify glutamate transporters expressed in forebrain neurons, we prepared a cDNA library from rat forebrain neuronal cultures, previously shown to transport glutamate with high affinity and capacity. (
  • However, when massive amounts of glutamate are released from synaptosomes into the extracellular space, it causes excitotoxicity or neuronal death. (
  • They also observed that administration of baicalein in rats prior to the intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid - a cyclic analog of glutamate - substantially attenuated kainic acid-induced neuronal cell death, c-Fos expression, and the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the hippocampus. (
  • Expression of GFP-tagged neuronal glutamate transporters in cerebellar Purkinje neurons. (
  • Consistent with these in vivo observations, neither caspase inhibition nor Bax deficiency blocks death of colon-derived enteric neurons induced by GDNF deprivation. (
  • One main class of interneuron expresses parvalbumin (PV+ neurons) and mediates feed-forward inhibition. (
  • Indeed, recent experimental evidence obtained in mouse model studies suggest that a disruption in the balance of excitation and inhibition ( E / I balance) underlies both the functional impairment of local neuronal circuits as well as that of large-scale networks in the amyloid-depositing brain. (
  • 2015) High Salt Intake Increases Blood Pressure via BDNF-Mediated Downregulation of KCC2 and Impaired Baroreflex Inhibition of Vasopressin Neurons. (
  • It has been estimated that up to 50% or more of vertebrate neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) die during embryonic development and/or early postnatal maturation via programmed cell death (Raff et al. (
  • Burgoyne R D and Cambray-Deakin M A (1988) The cellular neurobiology of neuronal development, the cerebellar granule cell. (
  • Direct neuronal reprogramming, by which a neuron is formed via direct conversion from a somatic cell without going through a pluripotent intermediate stage, allows for the possibility of generating patient-derived neurons. (
  • In particular: i) what constitutes an iN cell, ii) which stages of conversion offer the earliest/optimal time to assess features that are specific to neurons and/or a disorder and iii) whether generating subtype-specific iNs is critical to the disease-related features that iNs express. (
  • This note demonstrates neuronal toxicity screening via automated endpoint and live-cell assays using iPSCs and Molecular Devices instrumentation and software. (
  • Mechanistic (previously mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling plays a key role in many processes that are essential for normal cell growth and survival, including protein synthesis, transcription, cytoskeletal regulation, autophagy, and neuronal morphology. (
  • Inhibiting P2X7Rs, Panx1, Asc or caspase activity prevents inflammation-induced neuron cell death. (
  • In response to loss of retinal neurons, Müller glia partially dedifferentiate, re-express neuroepithelial markers and re-enter the cell cycle. (
  • 2. The planar patch clamp device for analyzing a neuron network according to claim 1, wherein the diameter of the cell plating section defined by the plurality of protrusions is a size that enables accommodating one to several cell bodies. (
  • 3. The planar patch clamp device for analyzing a neuron network according to claim 1, wherein the plurality of cell plating sections defined by the plurality of protrusions are arranged on the plate. (
  • 4. The planar patch clamp device for analyzing a neuron network according to claim 1, one to several cell bodies are placed in the cell placing section, and another cell body is placed outside of the cell placing section. (
  • They express the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), which is known to signal cell death in some types of neurons via the activation of sphingomyelinase and the concomitant increase in the sphingolipid ceramide. (
  • In contrast, the role of p75NTR in neuronal survival is cell-type dependent. (
  • However, recent evidence suggests myelin-independent neuronal death in the murine model of KD, thus indicating defective GALC in neurons as an autonomous mechanism for neuronal cell death in KD. (
  • Behaviors cannot arise from the work of a single neuron The functional unit of the nervous system, a nerve cell that. (
  • The use of a neuronal cell line proved to be more successful and entails examining when the cell stops functioning. (
  • A neuron at rest is negatively charged: the inside of a cell is approximately 70 millivolts more negative than the outside (−70 mV, note that this number varies by neuron type and by species). (
  • In this report, we used human neuronal cell lines and primary rat neuronal cultures to examine PRR expression and function. (
  • Therapeutics that correct the E / I balance in early AD may prevent neuronal dysfunction, widespread cell loss and cognitive impairments associated with later stages of the disease. (
  • Two-photon imaging in combination with fluorescent calcium indicators allows functional analyses of neuronal activity in the intact mouse brain with single-cell and single-action potential accuracy [ 16 ]. (
  • Surprisingly, the results also showed that these metabolites are active at different points during the cell signaling process that ultimately leads to neuronal death. (
  • By combining this in vivo approach with single-cell transcriptomics in mice, we identify and functionally characterize neuron-specific primordial transcriptional programs as they dynamically unfold. (
  • A neuron consists of a cell body (perikaryon) and its processes, an axon and one or more dendrites. (
  • A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in an autonomic ganglion and whose axon terminates in a visceral effector (smooth or cardiac muscle or glands). (
  • A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in the central nervous system and whose axon terminates in a peripheral ganglion, synapsing with postganglionic neurons. (
  • A neuron whose cell body bears one process. (
  • Our findings provide the first evidence for the involvement of the BAF complex in the acquisition of terminal neuronal identity and constitute genetic proof by germline knockout that a BAF complex component can have cell-type-specific roles during development. (
  • Other cellular types are also present in the central nervous system (CNS), most particularly several types of glial elements, initially considered a glue type cell serving as a support matrix for the neuronal circuits. (
  • It is now known that these cell types are essential in the maintenance of the neuronal network, in neuronal migration during development and in the generation of myelin. (
  • Neurons are generically characterized by a central cell body or soma that comes in different shapes. (
  • the receiving or input pole generally consists of extensively branching tree-like extensions of the soma membrane known as dendrites (coined in 1889 by William His from dendros (Greek) meaning tree) which arise in vertebrate neurons directly from the cell body (the body is also a receiving site in most neurons). (
  • Using a new approach to analyze the transcriptomes of thousands of individual cell nuclei in postmortem brains, researchers identify multiple neuronal subtypes. (
  • Of the five excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) identified, two genes are expressed by neurons (EAAT3 and EAAT4) and give rise to transporters confined to neuronal cell bodies and dendrites. (
  • The ability of Ago2 to contribute to the generation of specific miRNAs provides an opportunity to relate physiological changes caused by Ago2 deficiency to expression changes of specific miRNAs in various cell types, including neurons. (
  • Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have developed a stem cell-based model in order to study the resilience and vulnerability of neurons in the neurodegenerative disease ALS. (
  • The voltage-gated tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na + current was recorded from X organ neurons in culture 24 h after plating using the whole-cell clamp configuration. (
  • A neuron, also known as a nerve cell, detects stimuli in its environment, integrates the information and then decides whether or not to transmit a signal to the next cell. (
  • The basic functional unit of the nervous system is the nerve cell, also called a neuron. (
  • A presynaptic neuron is a nerve cell that releases chemical messengers called neurotransmitters into the synapse, which is a gap at the end of a neuron. (
  • The development of stem cell-derived neuronal networks will promote experimental system development for drug screening, toxicological testing and disease modelling, providing that they mirror closely the functional competencies of their in vivo counterparts. (
  • The NT2 cell line is one of the best documented embryocarcinoma cell lines, and can be differentiated into neurons and astrocytes. (
  • We now show for the first time in a human stem cell derived co-culture model that these cultures are also metabolically competent and demonstrate a functional astrocyte neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS). (
  • Although an extensive study to elucidate the role of PI(4,5)P2 and PIP5 kinase has been focused on many cellular processes such as vesicle trafficking, cell movement and cytoskeletal assembly, a very few studies have been reported for their role in neuronal development. (
  • The designation 'NCS-1' came from the assumption that the protein was expressed only in neuronal cell types, which is not the case. (
  • The output of a network is determined by the integrated activity of individual neurons, yet the activity-dependent changes at a single synapse are themselves driven by the complexity of the network itself. (
  • So the changes observed at a single synapse are actually the sum of a great number of inputs, and the change in efficacy of that synapse can likewise alter an equally larger number of target neurons. (
  • Despite the mechanistic knowledge gained through studies in invertebrate systems, little is known about the factors that control DLK activity in mammalian neurons. (
  • Understanding gene expression in the brain requires allele-specific transcriptome analysis because of the presence of neuron-specific imprinted genes, which are expressed in a neuron-specific and parent-of-origin-specific manner. (
  • Neurons cultured from homozygous COX-2 gene disrupted mice were resistant to hypoxia compared to those of heterozygotes. (
  • We recently showed that β-catenin accumulates specifically in thalamic neurons where it activates Cacna1g gene expression. (
  • Astrocytes consume the FAs stored in lipid droplets via mitochondrial β-oxidation in response to neuronal activity and turn on a detoxification gene expression program. (
  • Therefore, the coordinated activities of DAF-16 , ZFP-1 , and endogenous RNAi contribute to gene regulation during development to ensure proper neuronal positioning. (
  • Nerve injury induces changes in gene transcription in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. (
  • Neurons modulate gene expression in response to extrinsic signals to enable brain development, cognition, and learning and to process stimuli that regulate systemic physiological functions. (
  • In the cerebral cortex, S-nitrosylation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is required for gene transcription during neuronal development, but few other nuclear targets of S-nitrosylation have been identified to date. (
  • Loss of a previously uncloned gene, ham-3 , affects migration and serotonin antibody staining of the hermaphrodite-specific neuron (HSN) pair. (
  • For example, a gene therapy vector called helper dependent adenoviral vector, which has a larger carrying capacity than more traditional vectors, allowed them to deliver the relatively large genes encoding the calcium channels into a native intact neuronal circuit. (
  • Cocaine is a highly addictive drug that exerts its effects by increasing the levels of released dopamine in the striatum, followed by stable changes in gene transcription, mRNA translation, and metabolism within medium spiny neurons in the striatum. (
  • Here, we show that nPE1 and nPE2, even though they are mammalian novelties with no homologous counterpart in other vertebrates, nevertheless can drive gene expression specifically to POMC neurons in the hypothalamus of larval and adult transgenic zebrafish. (
  • Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) also known as frequenin homolog (Drosophila) (freq) is a protein that is encoded by the FREQ gene in humans. (
  • Here we report using in vivo models of experimental colitis that inflammation causes enteric neuron death by activating a neuronal signaling complex comprised of P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs), pannexin-1 (Panx1) channels, Asc and caspases. (
  • 1998). Trk receptors play a critical role in promoting the survival of many PNS neurons via activation of their tyrosine kinase domains. (
  • A number of anesthetics work by targeting GABA receptors, causing those neurons to inactivate or shut down. (
  • Sensory neurons have receptors specific to the kind of information being transmitted by the environment (mechanoreceptors sense vibrations and sound and inertia, for instance) chemoreceptors, like on your tongue, sense the chemical makeup of the surface of your tongue. (
  • Immunocytochemistry and Western blot techniques were employed to examine the changes of the expressions of N-methyl-D-asparate receptors 2B(NR2B) and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95) in cultured neurons in the presence and absence of gp120 in the culture media. (
  • Dopaminergic neurons of the ventral midbrain fire high-frequency bursts when animals are presented with unexpected rewards, or stimuli that predict reward. (
  • Parkinson's disease primarily is defined as a movement disorder associated with degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system ( 6 ). (
  • Dopaminergic neurotoxicity by 6-OHDA and MPP+: differential requirement for neuronal cyclooxygenase activity. (
  • Mature dopaminergic neuronal cultures display haplotype differences in expression, with H1 expressing 22% higher levels of MAPT transcripts than H2 and H2 expressing 2-fold greater exon 3+ transcripts than H1. (
  • Furthermore, knocking down adult tau protein variants alters axonal transport velocities in mature iPSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal cultures. (
  • This chapter describes the procedure for the derivation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from hESCs. (
  • Thus, ligand-dependent p75NTR regulation of the ceramide pathway mediates survival in certain neurons and may repre- sent an important target for neuroprotective drugs in degener- ative diseases involving p75NTR-expressing neurons, such as Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Therefore, we were intrigued by the possibility that RNAi may also contribute to the regulation of IIS during embryogenesis to influence neuronal migration. (
  • However, relatively little is known about the induction and regulation of neuronal PRR signaling. (
  • Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has emerged as a critical factor in several pathways involved in hippocampal neuronal maintenance and function. (
  • This stage-dependent overactivation of GSK-3β in HD-affected hippocampal neurons and astrocytes therefore points to GSK-3β as being a critical factor in the pathological development of this condition. (
  • Remarkably, hyperactivity of hippocampal neurons precedes amyloid plaque formation, suggesting that hyperactivity is one of the earliest dysfunctions in the pathophysiological cascade initiated by abnormal Aβ accumulation. (
  • Additionally we demonstrate that in response to increased neuronal activity and under hypoglycaemic conditions, co-cultures modulate glycogen turnover and increase lactate production. (
  • We conclude that activation of neuronal Panx1 underlies neuron death and subsequent development of the abnormal gut motility in IBD. (
  • Diverse neuron classes make up striatal microcircuit activity, consisting in the sequential activation of neuronal ensembles. (
  • Constitutively elevated extracellular ATP during inflammation contributes to cytotoxicity by chronically activating P2X7Rs 10 - 12 , triggering neuronal death 10 , 13 - 15 . (
  • Structural variation in the human genome is likely to be an important mechanism for neuronal diversity and brain disease. (
  • We identified a disease and stage-dependent upregulation of GSK-3β mRNA and protein levels in the HD hippocampus, with the active isoform pGSK-3β-Tyr(216) being strongly expressed in dentate gyrus (DG) neurons and astrocytes at a time when phosphorylation of Tau at the AT8 epitope was also present in these same neurons. (
  • In addition, the increased expression of GSK-3β in the astrocytes of R6/2 mice appeared to be the main driver of Tau phosphorylation and caspase3 activation-induced neuronal death, at least in part via an exacerbated production of major proinflammatory mediators. (
  • Metabolic coordination between neurons and astrocytes is critical for the health of the brain. (
  • Together, our findings reveal that FA metabolism between neurons and astrocytes is coupled in an activity-dependent manner to protect neurons from FA toxicity. (
  • In this review, I focus on the synergistic interplay of the cytoskeletal motors and spatiotemporal sites of force transmission in various nuclear migration models, with a special focus on neuronal migration in the vertebrate brain. (
  • Genetic suppression of N-cadherin function interferes with basal migration of retinal progenitors and subsequent regeneration of HuC/D + inner retinal neurons. (
  • We previously showed that S-nitrosylation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) during this period results in dissociation of HDAC2 from chromatin, promoting histone acetylation and expression of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent genes that are critical for neuronal migration ( 4 , 8 ). (
  • Our theoretical results are supported by showing fulfillment of these conditions for a class of known bidimensional spiking neuron models. (
  • Here we describe recent breakthroughs in the area of various bionic hybrids whereby neuronal networks have been successfully interfaced with silicon devices to monitor the output of synaptically connected neurons. (
  • We derive conditions for continuous differentiability of inter-spike intervals (ISIs) of spiking neurons with respect to parameters (decision variables) of an external stimulating input current that drives a recurrent network of synaptically connected neurons. (
  • Because enteric neurons are rapidly lost when inflammation is initiated and this occurs prior to immune function 16 , we tested the hypothesis that direct activation of signaling cascades by enteric neuronal P2X7Rs mediates their death during inflammation. (
  • These advances have not yet, however, resolved the attributes of network plasticity, nor have they elucidated the cellular basis of any given behavior - owing primarily to our inability to monitor direct cellular activity at the level of larger neuronal ensembles. (
  • measured the activity in the class IV neurons in two different ways. (
  • First, the levels of calcium ions in the neurons, which play a key role in neurons' activity, were imaged using a calcium-sensitive biosensor. (
  • Second, electrodes were used to directly on the class IV neurons to record changes in their electrical activity. (
  • The experiments showed that class IV neurons responded to heat by producing a characteristic burst of electrical activity followed by a pause, and that this pattern of electrical activity was accompanied by a large rise in the calcium signal. (
  • In contrast, the same neurons did not show this 'burst and pause' pattern of activity when the fruit fly larvae were exposed to ultraviolet/blue light. (
  • Further work is now needed to explain how these two different patterns of activity in one set of neurons is translated by the fruit fly's brain into different patterns of behavior. (
  • ModelDB: Thalamic neuron: Modeling rhythmic neuronal activity (Meuth et al. (
  • Thalamic neuron: Modeling rhythmic neuronal activity (Meuth et al. (
  • To determine whether COX-2 activity within the neuron itself exacerbates hypoxic neuronal injury, neuron-enriched cultures were subjected to anoxia. (
  • This implies that the transcriptional activity of β-catenin is necessary for the proper excitability of thalamic neurons, may influence activity in the thalamocortical circuit, and may contribute to thalamic pathologies. (
  • However, neuron-astrocyte coupling of lipid metabolism, particularly in response to neural activity, remains largely uncharacterized. (
  • Moreover, we have demonstrated that the insulin/ IGF-1 -PI3K-signaling pathway regulates the activity of the DAF-16 /FOXO transcription factor in the hypodermis to nonautonomously promote the anterior migrations of the hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs) during embryogenesis of C. elegans . (
  • Conversely, in the absence of nerve injury, mimicking this increase reduces the Kcna2 promoter activity, diminishes Kcna2 expression, decreases Kv current, increases excitability in DRG neurons and leads to spinal cord central sensitization and neuropathic pain symptoms. (
  • The activity of neurons in the brain and the code used by these neurons is described by mathematical neuron models at different levels of detail. (
  • c-Fos expression is considered as a marker for neuronal activity. (
  • After neuronal insult, specific sites throughout the length of DLK underwent phosphorylation by c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), which have been shown to be downstream targets of DLK pathway activity. (
  • In Caenorhabditis elegans, DLK activity after injury is also regulated via heterodimerization with a shorter DLK isoform that restricts DLK activation to damaged regions of the neuron ( Yan and Jin, 2012 ). (
  • Increased levels of released dopamine alter the activity of the dopamine 1 and dopamine 2 receptor (Drd1 and Drd2) expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum ( Girault and Greengard, 2004 ). (
  • Effects of weak electric fields on the activity of neurons and neuronal networks. (
  • Specifically, they show that the surge in water intake that precedes the sleep-period in mice relies on the activity of suprachiasmatic nucleus vasopressin (VP) neurons that project to thirst neurons in the OVLT, where VP is released as an excitatory neurotransmitter. (
  • We previously found that myoblasts can be converted to a physiologically active neuronal phenotype by transferring a single recombinant transcription factor, REST-VP16, which directly activates target genes of the transcriptional repressor, REST. (
  • Our findings suggest that although activation of REST-target genes can reprogram myoblasts to assume a general neuronal phenotype, the subtype specificity may then be directed by the brain microenvironment. (
  • In this report we analyse the role of the Bithorax-complex genes - Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A and Abdominal-B - in sculpting the pattern of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP)-expressing neurons. (
  • As such, therapeutic targeting of this pathway may help ameliorate neuronal dysfunction in HD. (
  • Our evidence indicates that such TLR8-mediated neuronal responses do not involve the canonical TLR-NF-κB signaling pathway. (
  • Two-photon microscopy was used to examine fusion protein expression in Purkinje neurons in acute cerebellar slices. (