Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Nervous System Physiological Processes: Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Phosphopyruvate Hydratase: A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Rewarming: Application of heat to correct hypothermia, accidental or induced.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system, central and peripheral, or demonstration of neurologic function or dysfunction.S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit: A calcium-binding protein that is 92 AA long, contains 2 EF-hand domains, and is concentrated mainly in GLIAL CELLS. Elevation of S100B levels in brain tissue correlates with a role in neurological disorders.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Echoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Spinal NeoplasmsTomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Constriction: The act of constricting.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.JapanRandom Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Mice, Inbred C57BLRandomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)United StatesQuality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Patient Outcome AssessmentProportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Great BritainNeoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.EnglandQuality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Part II: maternal management and outcome". Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 44: 525-531. doi:10.1002/uog.13389. Verbeek Renate J ( ... 2011). "Fetal endoscopic myelomeningocele closure preserves segmental neurological function". Developmental Medicine. 54 (1): ... short-term clinical outcomes". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 189 (2): 482-487. doi:10.1067/S0002-9378(03)00295 ... children treated with open fetal repair have significantly improved outcomes compared to children whose defects are repaired ...
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes may be related immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), one of the underlying causes in ... However, pathophysiological outcomes usually arise from when a tumor arises. Paraneoplastic syndrome often occurs alongside ... Therapies to reduce or slow neurological degeneration. In this scenario, rapid diagnosis and treatment are critical for the ... Since these disorders are relatively rare, few doctors have seen or treated paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PNDs). ...
Outcome[edit]. The prognosis of a patient with acquired cortical blindness depends largely on the original cause of the ... This indicates that the lack of vision is neurological rather than ocular. It specifically indicates that the occipital cortex ... The development of cortical blindness into the milder cortical visual impairment is a more likely outcome.[2] Furthermore, some ... are both classified as subsets of neurological visual impairment (NVI). NVI and its three subtypes-cortical blindness, cortical ...
"Survival and neurological outcome in the elderly after in-hospital cardiac arrest". Resuscitation. 118: 101-106. doi:10.1016/j. ... provision by bystanders of conventional CPR with rescue breathing yielded a favorable neurological outcome at one month more ... Adults' Outcomes after CPR CPR in US Hospitals USA, CPR outside hospitals[13] ... outcome of patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation with 1-4 year follow-up. Progress in Brain Research. 177. pp. 73-88. ...
Roine RO, Somer H, Kaste M, Viinikka L, Karonen SL (July 1989). "Neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. ...
Panchal J, Marsh JL, Park TS, Kaufman B, Pilgram T, Huang SH (May 1999). "Sagittal craniosynostosis outcome assessment for two ... 9. Rolling Meadows IL: American Association of Neurological Surgeons. pp. 91-111. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/0615/p2863.html ... Olshan AF, Faustman EM (December 1989). "Nitrosatable drug exposure during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcome". Int J ... October 2010). "Long-term functional outcome in 167 patients with syndromic craniosynostosis; defining a syndrome-specific risk ...
In general, however, outcomes for people treated for PKU are good. Treated people may have no detectable physical, neurological ... Enns GM, Koch R, Brumm V, Blakely E, Suter R, Jurecki E (1 October 2010). "Suboptimal outcomes in patients with PKU treated ... Affected children who are detected at birth and treated are much less likely to develop neurological problems or have seizures ... and early neurological sequelae". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 69 (1): 89-95. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19970303)69: ...
Glioblastomas usually have poor outcomes while meningiomas usually have good outcomes. The average five-year survival rate for ... American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017. Nicolato, ... Outcome varies considerably depending on the type of tumor and how far it has spread at diagnosis. ... The toxicity and many side effects of the drugs, and the uncertain outcome of chemotherapy in brain tumors puts this treatment ...
Swash M (1998). Outcomes in neurological and neurosurgical disorders. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 172-173. ... Neurological examinations and tests to measure levels of serum electrolytes are performed. Not all seizures that occur after ... Park Ridge, Ill: American Association of Neurological Surgeons. pp. 127-132. ISBN 1-879284-00-6. Herman ST (2002). "Epilepsy ... and focal neurological deficits. PTA that lasts for longer than 24 hours after the injury is a risk factor for both early and ...
Park Ridge, Ill: American Association of Neurological Surgeons. pp. 127-132. ISBN 1-879284-00-6. Swash M (1998). Outcomes in ... PTE has also been found to be associated with worse social and functional outcomes but not to worsen patients' rehabilitation ... People with PTE have follow-up visits, in which health care providers monitor neurological and neuropsychological function and ... Neuromethods: Animal Models of Neurological Disease. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. pp. 153-155. ISBN 0-89603-211-6. Menkes JH, ...
Glioblastomas usually have very poor outcomes, while meningiomas usually have good outcomes.[3] The average five-year survival ... American Association of Neurological Surgeons. Archived from the original on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2017.. ... The toxicity and many side effects of the drugs, and the uncertain outcome of chemotherapy in brain tumors puts this treatment ... Hodgson TS, Nielsen SM, Lesniak MS, Lukas RV (2016). "Neurological Management of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease". Neurologist ( ...
Mild developmental delay is characterized by motor and neurological development that is no greater than 2 standard deviations ... "Long-term outcome in aqueductal stenosis". Child's Nervous System. 11 (3): 180-5. doi:10.1007/BF00570262. PMID 7773981. " ... "Hydrocephalus Fact Sheet". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 16 ...
Involvement of the spine and skull base may cause a poor outcome from neurological complications. In many cases, the end result ...
Outcomes depend on the size of the aneurysm.[30] Small aneurysms (less than 7 mm) have a low risk of rupture and increase in ... Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Waters, Michael F.; Giza, Christopher C. (2005). Neurological differential diagnosis : a prioritized ... Generally, about two-thirds of patients have a poor outcome, death, or permanent disability.[12][31][32] ... The most significant factors in determining outcome are the Hunt and Hess grade, and age. Generally patients with Hunt and Hess ...
... is a key part of the clinical neurological exam for patients with a wide variety of neurological injuries. It is also used in ... 1991). "The outcome of severe closed head injury". J Neurosurg. 75: 28-36.. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link). ... Patient care and outcome[edit]. Numerous studies have shown the importance of pupil evaluation in the clinical setting, and ... 1990). "Neurobehavioral outcome 1 year after severe head injury. Experience of the Traumatic Coma Data Bank". J Neurosurg. 73 ( ...
... contributes to poor outcome.[23] Factors found on admission that are associated with poorer outcome include poorer neurological ... Short-term outcomes[edit]. SAH is often associated with a poor outcome.[64] The death rate (mortality) for SAH is between 40 ... "Psychosocial outcomes at three and nine months after good neurological recovery from aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: ... Long-term outcomes[edit]. Neurocognitive symptoms, such as fatigue, mood disturbances, and other related symptoms are common ...
Esses, S. I.; Morley, T. P. (1983). "Spinal arachnoiditis". The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien ... February 2011). "Pregnancy outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with thiopurines: cohort from the CESAME ... Nørgård, B.; L. Pedersen; K. Fonager; S. Rasmussen; H. Sørensen (March 2003). "Azathioprine, mercaptopurine and birth outcome: ...
CPP and neurological outcome". Acta Neurochirurica (Supplement). 81: 77-79. PMID 12168363. Skoglund, TS; Eriksson-Ritzen C; ... Age of greater than 50 years is associated with a poorer outcome after the surgery. Infections such as meningitis or brain ... Though the procedure is considered a last resort, some evidence suggests that it does improve outcomes by lowering intracranial ... found a net 65% favorable outcomes rate in pediatric patients for accidental trauma after craniectomy when followed for more ...
Strong evidence also exists for other negative outcomes from pesticide exposure including neurological problems, birth defects ... Evidence links pesticide exposure to worsened neurological outcomes. The United States Environmental Protection Agency finished ... McCauley LA, Anger WK, Keifer M, Langley R, Robson MG, Rohlman D (2006). "Studying health outcomes in farmworker populations ... Summaries of peer-reviewed research have examined the link between pesticide exposure and neurologic outcomes and cancer, ...
Typically a cat with dry FIP will show ocular or neurological signs. For example, the cat may develop difficulty in standing up ... Loss of vision is another possible outcome of the disease. Diagnosis of effusive FIP has become more straightforward in recent ...
Roine RO, Somer H, Kaste M, Viinikka L, Karonen SL (1989). "Neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. ...
Neurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2003. Print. Cohen, Laurent, Anna J. Wilson, Véronique ... Gerstmann syndrome and similar symptom combinations are outcomes, not diseases. Treatment, therefore, is dedicated to the ... Acalculia is distinguished from dyscalculia in that acalculia is acquired late in life due to neurological injury such as ... underlying neurological abnormality. Cognitive rehabilitation may be useful for the symptoms that interfere with activities of ...
NMDA receptor antibodies predict adverse neurological outcome after cardiac surgery in high-risk patients. Stroke. 2006 Jun;37( ... Anti-glutamate receptor antibodies are also detected in various non-immunological neurological diseases such as stroke and ...
As of 2015 hypothermia had shown no improvements in neurological outcomes or in mortality in neurosurgery. Deep hypothermic ... Prehospital hypothermia for cardiac arrest victims may improve neurological outcome and survival to discharge". EMS magazine. ... "Neurological outcomes at 18 months of age after moderate hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: Synthesis ... Xiao, G.; Guo, Q.; Shu, M.; Xie, X.; Deng, J.; Zhu, Y.; Wan, C. (2012). "Safety profile and outcome of mild therapeutic ...
1998). "Analysis of neurological sequelae from radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations: How location affects outcome". Int ... However, any type of intervention may also carry a risk of creating a neurological deficit.[citation needed] Preventive ... However, most symptoms resolved, and the long-term rate of neurological symptoms was 3.8%. Embolization is performed by ... This system was designed to assess the patient's risk of neurological deficit after open surgical resection (surgical morbidity ...
Patients older than 64 years were more likely to have an adverse outcome and prolonged hospital stay. Women were 0.3 times less ... and neurological deficits (5.6%) were the most common complications reported. The analyses of the study show that complications ... Patil, CG; Lad, SP; Harsh, GR; Laws ER, Jr; Boakye, M (2007). "National trends, complications, and outcomes following ... "Outcome of using the histological pseudocapsule as a surgical capsule in Cushing disease". Journal of Neurosurgery. 111: 531-9 ...
The neurological outcome of radiotherapy versus surgery in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression presenting with ... We compared the neurological outcomes between radiotherapy and surgery in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression ... The neurological outcome of radiotherapy versus surgery in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression presenting with ... The neurological outcome of radiotherapy versus surgery in patients with metastatic spinal cord compression presenting with ...
Neurological Outcome Research Group, ; CARE Investigators of the Duke Heart Center. Cardiothoracic Anesthesia Research ... There were no differences in neurologic or neurocognitive outcomes between normothermic and hypothermic groups in multivariable ...
Normoglycemia and Neurological Outcome. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Outcome Measures Hide All Outcome Measures 1. Primary: Karnovsky Performance Status Scale of Functional Impairment [ Time Frame ...
Funding Outcomes for NINDS R01 Applications FY17 Each fiscal year (FY), NINDS establishes a payline for all percentiled RPGs (e ... Training and Career Development Outcome Data. In May of 2012, NINDS completed an examination of several outcome and demographic ... Funding Outcomes for NINDS R01 Applications FY17. Each fiscal year (FY), NINDS establishes a payline for all percentiled RPGs ( ... Funding Outcomes for NINDS R01 Applications FY16. Each fiscal year (FY), NINDS establishes a payline for all percentiled RPGs ( ...
Biomarkers And Neurological Outcome in Neonates (BANON). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... who will suffer from early abnormal neonatal neurological outcome, in a population at risk. ... Primary Outcome Measures : *Validation of diagnostic algorithm [ Time Frame: 10 days ]. The best combinations of biomarkers ... Who Required Resuscitation or Are Suspected to be at Risk for Perinatal Brain Injury and Long-term Adverse Neurological Outcome ...
Improvement of neurological performance was achieved in 56.8% of all patients, with the highest improvement rate seen in ... In this study we analyzed the impact of surgical resection on the neurological status in addition to overall survival in 206 BM ... Notably, the neurological benefits were independent from RPA class. In conclusion, surgical resection leads to significant ... Considering the low mortality and morbidity rates, resection should be considered as a valid option to increase neurological ...
Gait analysis as a method for assessing neurological outcome in a mouse model of stroke.. Hetze S1, Römer C, Teufelhart C, ... Ameliorating stroke induced neurological deficits is one of the most important goals of stroke therapy. In order to improve ... One of the main obstacles in experimental stroke research is measuring long-term outcome, in particular in mouse models of ... In conclusion, gait analysis is a promising tool to assess mid- to long-term outcome in experimental stroke research. ...
Behavioral Outcomes Center in Cleveland, Ohio provides measurable, significant performance analysis to support a commitment to ... Neurological & Behavioral Outcomes Center. Neurological & Behavioral Outcomes Center Maintains Commitment to Continuous ... The mission of the Neurological & Behavioral Outcomes Center (NOC) at University Hospitals Neurological Institute in Cleveland ... The Neurological & Behavioral Outcomes Center (NOC) is designed to generate new research and to help investigators shape their ...
... Lindgren, Cecilia Umeå universitet, ... Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) evaluated outcome.. RESULTS: Seventy-nine CSF-lactate samples were analysed. CSF-lactate ,2.1 mmol/ ... The aim of this study was to evaluate if CSF-lactate was associated with; impaired cerebral circulation, outcome, sex, age, ... Cerebral aneurysms, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cerebrovascular circulation, Critical care outcomes, Endovascular procedures, Lactic ...
The two populations were discharged with similar functional outcome. No significant differences were found with regard to the ... At discharge, traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord lesion patients achieved similar results with regard to neurological and ... others outcomes. In clinically stable patients, spinal cord injury etiology does not seem to affect the rehabilitative ... To compare the rehabilitation outcomes of non-traumatic and traumatic spinal cord injury patients. Spinal cord unit of a ...
This study aimed to describe the neurological and developmental sequelae of severe neo ... 22524536 - Neonatal outcome of the pregnancies associated with placental villous thrombosis - thro.... 22312176 - Relationship ... At ages 18-32 months, the childrens neurological, motor and developmental status were assessed, and blood groups of the NJ and ... Severe NJ in term infants (of mainly non-haemolytic origin) was associated with a high prevalence of neurological and ...
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival to hospital discharge and neurological status at discharge from an acute care hospital compared ... To compare the survival and neurological outcomes of pediatric patients treated with bag-valve-mask ventilation (BVM) with ... Effect of out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation on survival and neurological outcome: a controlled clinical trial. ... or in the rate of achieving a good neurological outcome (BVM, 92/404 [23%] vs ETI, 85/416 [20%]) (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.62-1.22). ...
... producing readings that correlate with survival and neurological outcomes. ... In the study, the reliability of the presence of the light reflex as a predictor of survival and neurological outcome was ... It also showed that a continued presence of the light reflex predicted a favorable neurological outcome if the heart could be ... producing readings that correlate with survival and neurological outcomes. The study was published in the October issue of the ...
Impact of Early Optimization of Brain Oxygenation on Neurological Outcome After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury ... Impact of Early Optimization of Brain Oxygenation on Neurological Outcome After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Are you eligible ... Neuropsychiatric co-morbidities that could interfere with 6 and 12-months assessment outcomes. ...
... as well as normal neurological functioning. The journal will consider basic, translational, and clinical research, including ... Influence of Fever and Hospital-Acquired Infection on the Incidence of Delayed Neurological Deficit and Poor Outcome after ... Anke-Maria Klein, Kaitlen Howell, Andreas Straube, Thomas Pfefferkorn, and Andreas Bender, "Rehabilitation outcome of patients ... Association with Cerebral Vasospasm and Clinical Outcome," World Neurosurgery, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar ...
Depletion of Ly6G/Gr-1 Leukocytes after Spinal Cord Injury in Mice Alters Wound Healing and Worsens Neurological Outcome. David ... A, B, Anti-Ly6G/Gr-1 treatment worsens neurological outcome after SCI. Neutrophil depletion (open squares) worsened functional ... Depletion of Ly6G/Gr-1 Leukocytes after Spinal Cord Injury in Mice Alters Wound Healing and Worsens Neurological Outcome ... Unexpectedly, the anti-Ly6G/Gr-1-treated mice displayed worsened neurological outcome after SCI and wound healing events were ...
The study was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Department of Defense. ... Study finds worsening outcomes in service members five years after mild blast-induced concussion Study finds worsening outcomes ... "This is one of the first studies to connect the dots from injury to longer-term outcomes and it shows that even mild ... Mac Donalds team studied five-year outcomes in 50 service members who experienced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in Iraq ...
An open study was conducted with the aim of reporting long-term clinical outcome of endovascular treatment for chronic ... Venous angioplasty in multiple sclerosis: neurological outcome at two years in a cohort of relapsing-remitting patients Funct ... An open study was conducted with the aim of reporting long-term clinical outcome of endovascular treatment for chronic ... 1 Department of Neurological Science, Bellaria Hospital, Bologna, Italy. [email protected] ...
... neurological status and assess them as possible predictors of long-term neurological outcome. ... Acute cervical traumatic spinal cord injury: MR imaging findings correlated with neurological outcome. Radiology 2007;24(3):820 ... neurological outcome. RESULTS: Patients with a complete motor and sensory SCI (Frankel A) had higher frequencies of ... correlate with the patients neurological status and if they are predictive of outcome at long-term follow-up. MATERIALS AND ...
This study aimed to investigate the pattern, etiology, and outcome of neurological disorders in children , 5 years and adults ... related neurological disorders (10, 2.8%). Other focal/systemic infections with neurological manifestations were diagnosed in ... Clinical presentations and etiologies of neurological disorders were very diverse in this rural Central African setting and ... Severe headache (199, 56.7%), gait/walking disorders (97, 27.6%), epileptic seizure (87, 24.8%), and focal neurological deficit ...
Impact of Changes in Resuscitation Practice on Survival and Neurological Outcome after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resulting ... Impact of Changes in Resuscitation Practice on Survival and Neurological Outcome after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resulting ... Impact of Changes in Resuscitation Practice on Survival and Neurological Outcome after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resulting ... Impact of Changes in Resuscitation Practice on Survival and Neurological Outcome after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resulting ...
Domains of outcomes in spinal cord injury for clinical trials to improve neurological function.(Report) by Journal of ... APA style: Domains of outcomes in spinal cord injury for clinical trials to improve neurological function.. (n.d.) >The Free ... MLA style: "Domains of outcomes in spinal cord injury for clinical trials to improve neurological function.." The Free Library ... Neurological and functional outcomes in spinal cord injury: Review and recommendations. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 2005;10(4 ...
... between lactate or lactate clearance and neurological outcomes and their usefulness for prediction of neurological outcomes.,i ... Results from our analysis indicated that patients with good neurological outcomes tended to have a lower lactate level on ... Lactate was a more robust surrogate marker than lactate clearance to predict neurological outcomes after CA. ... Lactate levels on admission and all time points up to 48h were associated with neurological outcomes after CA, whereas the ...
McNamara Lecture Explores Neurological and Psychosocial Outcomes in CHD. Apr 04, 2016 ACC Scientific Session Newspaper. Share ... YOU ARE HERE: Home , Latest in Cardiology , McNamara Lecture Explores Neurological and Psychosocial Outcomes in CHD ... Newburgers talk, "Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in CHD: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?" will take place from 12:30 ... The neurodevelopmental outcomes associated with congenital heart disease (CHD) will be discussed today in the Dan G. McNamara ...
... for Transforming Clinical Outcomes in Neurological Rehabilitation to the Neuroscience Grand Rounds at Royal University Hospi ... for Transforming Clinical Outcomes in Neurological Rehabilitation ABM NeuroMovement® Practitioner Dan Ouellette presents Anat ... Anat Baniel Method®: NeuroMovement® for Transforming Clinical Outcomes in Neurological Rehabilitation (Part 1 of 2). In part 1 ... Anat Baniel Method®: NeuroMovement® for Transforming Clinical Outcomes in Neurological Rehabilitation (Part 2 of 2). In part 2 ...
  • Methods: We report a longitudinal study of the neurological outcomes (as measured by neurological examination, Glascow Coma Scale, and Modified Mini-Mental State Examination) for 55 subjects with WNV neuroinvasive disease (confirmed by positive CSF IgM) assessed on day 7, at discharge, and on days 14, 30, and 90. (utdallas.edu)
  • The NOC team is devoted to studying outcomes for patients with neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions, and since its inception, NOC has developed a reputation for novel methodologies and for health promotion approaches that have the potential to advance health outcomes for patients and families. (uhhospitals.org)
  • NOC is developing a reputation for novel methodologies and for health promotion approaches that have the potential to advance health outcomes for patients and families. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Objectives To evaluate the existing evidence for associations between coffee consumption and multiple health outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • Results The umbrella review identified 201 meta-analyses of observational research with 67 unique health outcomes and 17 meta-analyses of interventional research with nine unique outcomes. (bmj.com)
  • Coffee consumption was more often associated with benefit than harm for a range of health outcomes across exposures including high versus low, any versus none, and one extra cup a day. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion Coffee consumption seems generally safe within usual levels of intake, with summary estimates indicating largest risk reduction for various health outcomes at three to four cups a day, and more likely to benefit health than harm. (bmj.com)
  • It can lead to post-stroke pneumonia, which causes 30% of stroke-related deaths, a longer hospital stay and poorer health outcomes. (ed.gov)
  • All of these 36 patients (100%) had a favourable neurological outcome (CPC 1-2). (smw.ch)
  • A better knowledge of the incidence, causes and consequences of non-neurological complications in patients with severe TBI would help in their prevention, treatment and prognosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • With full knowledge that our elderly population of patients was at high risk for these untoward neurological events, we adopted a comprehensive operative and perfusion strategy in an attempt to attenuate the incidence of these complications. (ebscohost.com)
  • 1) Two-way continuous queues,an ambispective cohort study3 namely: forward-looking queue method (2017-2027) and Retrospective queue method (2007-2017) were used to understand the effect of epigenetic modification on bone mineral density, bone metabolic Biochemical Index, imaging index and fracture incidence of patients with neurological diseases in outpatients and wards, and to provide basis for further study. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The NOC was established in 2009 and is a collaborative effort between University Hospitals Neurological Institute and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Working with investigators from University Hospitals Neurological Institute (NI), Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) School of Medicine and the CWRU School of Nursing, as well as from a variety of other local, regional and national research groups, NOC researchers have lead and/or collaborated on projects intended to advance care in neuroscience. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Absence of a pupillary light reflex for more than five minutes was correlated with an unfavorable outcome, and no patients without a light reflex or in whom the light reflex was deteriorating survived the code. (cnbc.com)
  • 5.5 mm predicted a poor outcome, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.717 (95% confidence interval, 0.534-0.860, p = 0.02), 70% sensitivity, and 69.2% specificity. (springer.com)
  • A recent study has reported the following factors related to poor outcome with PCAS: (1) myoclonic status within 24 h of resuscitation or during three-day observation, (2) loss of light reflex or corneal reflex and (3) no motor response or extension in response to pain. (bmj.com)
  • Elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) episodes are associated with poor outcome and should be prevented. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Raised intracranial pressure levels increases the risk for secondary brain ischemia and is highly correlated with poor outcome, which highlights the importance of aggressive ICP-directed treatment. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • This study sought to investigate the ability of NSE to predict poor outcome in patients remaining unconscious at day three after OHCA. (lu.se)
  • In these patients, a single NSE measurement at 48 hours predicted poor outcome with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.83. (lu.se)
  • The aim of the study is to validate the application of combinations of several laboratory parameters in early postnatal blood samples, for identification of infants, who will suffer from early abnormal neonatal neurological outcome, in a population at risk. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Unit Learning Outcomes express learning achievement in terms of what a student should know, understand and be able to do on completion of a unit. (edu.au)
  • The unit learning outcomes and graduate attributes are also the basis of evaluating prior learning. (edu.au)
  • The study demonstrated MR imaging to be a useful tool in prognosticating a patient's potential for neurological recovery. (scielo.org.za)
  • In a study by Miyanji et al 8 both quantitative and qualitative MRI parameters were combined for the prediction of the patient's neurological recovery. (scielo.org.za)
  • He was so inspired by the work and the outcomes that he saw with his daughter that he decided to study and become an ABM NeuroMovement ® Practitioner. (anatbanielmethod.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the effects of neurological improvement after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats by a novel therapeutic strategy with FGF-2 gene-transferred MSCs by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vector. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study adds important long-term evidence that stenting may achieve similar outcomes as endarterectomy for patients with significant carotid artery stenosis. (cns.org)
  • The aim of this study was to review the current published literature for these two agents and report on permanent neurological injuries and cure rate. (bmj.com)
  • Study design: There were 140 children with pNF ages 8-17 years who completed the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (including domains anxiety, depressive symptom, psychosocial stress experiences, fatigue, pain interference, meaning and purpose, positive affect, peer relationships, physical function-mobility) and Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders measurement system (stigma) via an online platform. (northwestern.edu)
  • The objectives of this study were to explore whether the four Quebec Task Force categories (QTFC) based on the location of pain and on neurological signs have different characteristics at the time of care seeking, whether these QTFC are associated with outcome, and if so whether there is an obvious ranking of the four QTFC on the severity of outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this prospective cohort study, registered at ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01768494) on January 2013, 1432 medical and 464 neurological patients (total n = 1896) were included consecutively between February and October 2013. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions Our study showed no association between early post-arrest hyperoxia and unfavourable neurological outcome. (morressier.com)
  • The impact of hyperoxia on neurological long-term outcome needs further study. (morressier.com)
  • Determination of strongest study designs is outcome dependent. (medscape.com)
  • The study found that osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS,OP) with neurological disorders is very common, the risk of fracture of patients increased. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2 There were also strict rules regarding radiological clearance as per criteria given by NEXUS (National Emergency X-ray Utilization study).3 But the improvement in outcome is not been yet established. (ispub.com)
  • Each patient developed their initial neurological symptoms (headache, mental slowness, incoordination) about 24-48 hours after the likely precipitant, which in each case was a single dose of a corticosteroid. (mja.com.au)
  • Adverse neurological events, both focal (Type I) and non-focal (Type II), have been appreciated in postoperative on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients for many years. (ebscohost.com)
  • Advanced age is a significant risk factor for adverse neurological events following CABG surgery. (ebscohost.com)
  • In assessing the SWAP scoring model's performance, the specificity for unfavorable outcomes associated with a SWAP score of 4 was 97.14% (95% CI, 91.62%-100%) in the derivation cohort and 100% in the validation cohort. (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • Specifically, we hypothesized that a shorter duration of EMSs' CPR would reduce the likelihood of epinephrine administration and be more likely to result in favorable outcomes, whereas a longer duration of EMSs' CPR would increase the likelihood of epinephrine administration and be more likely to result in unfavorable outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The neurodevelopmental outcomes associated with congenital heart disease (CHD) will be discussed today in the Dan G. McNamara Lecture. (acc.org)
  • Newburger's talk, "Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in CHD: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going? (acc.org)