The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
One of three ossicles of the middle ear. It conducts sound vibrations from the MALLEUS to the STAPES.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Myelin-deficient mutants which are from the inbred Tabby-Jimpy strain.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
Cell surface receptors that bind somatomedins and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Studies have disclosed two types of receptors for this family of peptide hormones. The type I receptor is homologous to the insulin receptor and has tyrosine kinase activity. The type II receptor is identical to the mannose-6-phosphate receptor which is important in trafficking of lysosomal enzymes.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (1/5057)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

The cytoskeletal network controls c-Jun expression and glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity in an antagonistic and cell-type-specific manner. (2/5057)

The physical and functional link between adhesion molecules and the cytoskeletal network suggests that the cytoskeleton might mediate the transduction of cell-to-cell contact signals, which often regulate growth and differentiation in an antagonistic manner. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton in confluent cell cultures is reportedly sufficient to initiate DNA synthesis. Here we show that depolymerization of the cytoskeleton is also sufficient to repress differentiation-specific gene expression. Glutamine synthetase is a glia-specific differentiation marker gene whose expression in the retinal tissue is regulated by glucocorticoids and is ultimately dependent on glia-neuron cell contacts. Depolymerization of the actin or microtubule network in cells of the intact retina mimics the effects of cell separation, repressing glutamine synthetase induction by a mechanism that involves induction of c-Jun and inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity. Depolymerization of the cytoskeleton activates JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces c-Jun expression by a signaling pathway that depends on tyrosine kinase activity. Induction of c-Jun expression is restricted to Muller glial cells, the only cells in the tissue that express glutamine synthetase and maintain the ability to proliferate upon cell separation. Our results suggest that the cytoskeletal network might play a part in the transduction of cell contact signals to the nucleus.  (+info)

Cellular sites for dynorphin activation of kappa-opioid receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens shell. (3/5057)

The nucleus accumbens (Acb) is prominently involved in the aversive behavioral aspects of kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists, including its endogenous ligand dynorphin (Dyn). We examined the ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of KOR and immunogold labeling of Dyn to determine the major cellular sites for KOR activation in this region. Of 851 KOR-labeled structures sampled from a total area of 10,457 microm2, 63% were small axons and morphologically heterogenous axon terminals, 31% of which apposed Dyn-labeled terminals or also contained Dyn. Sixty-eight percent of the KOR-containing axon terminals formed punctate-symmetric or appositional contacts with unlabeled dendrites and spines, many of which received convergent input from terminals that formed asymmetric synapses. Excitatory-type terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with dendritic spines comprised 21% of the KOR-immunoreactive profiles. Dendritic spines within the neuropil were the major nonaxonal structures that contained KOR immunoreactivity. These spines also received excitatory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and were apposed by Dyn-containing terminals. These results provide ultrastructural evidence that in the Acb shell (AcbSh), KOR agonists play a primary role in regulating the presynaptic release of Dyn and other neuromodulators that influence the output of spiny neurons via changes in the presynaptic release of or the postsynaptic responses to excitatory amino acids. The cellular distribution of KOR complements those described previously for the reward-associated mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the Acb shell.  (+info)

Changes in the total number of neuroglia, mitotic cells and necrotic cells in the anterior limb of the mouse anterior commissure following hypoxic stress. (4/5057)

The effects of hypoxic stress (390 mmHg) on the total number of glia, cell division, and cell death in the anterior limb of the anterior commissure were studied. There was a significant (P less than 0-01) fall in the total number of glia following exposure to hypoxia at 390 mmHg for two days. No significant change was observed in the total number of glia between the hypoxic and recovery group one week after return to sea level (ca. 760 mmHg). No change was observed in the number of mitotic figures in the control, hypoxic or recovery groups, but significant falls were observed in the mean number of necrotic cells between both the control and hypoxic groups (P less than 0-05) and the hypoxic and recovery groups (P less than 0-012). The decrease in necrotic cells may be due to a large number of elderly and effete cells, which would normally have undergone degeneration over a period of weeks, dying rapidly after the onset of hypoxia, thus temporarily reducing the daily cell death rate.  (+info)

Disproportionate recruitment of CD8+ T cells into the central nervous system by professional antigen-presenting cells. (5/5057)

Inappropriate immune responses, thought to exacerbate or even to initiate several types of central nervous system (CNS) neuropathology, could arise from failures by either the CNS or the immune system. The extent that the inappropriate appearance of antigen-presenting cell (APC) function contributes to CNS inflammation and pathology is still under debate. Therefore, we characterized the response initiated when professional APCs (dendritic cells) presenting non-CNS antigens were injected into the CNS. These dendritic cells expressed numerous T-cell chemokines, but only in the presence of antigen did leukocytes accumulate in the ventricles, meninges, sub-arachnoid spaces, and injection site. Within the CNS parenchyma, the injected dendritic cells migrated preferentially into the white matter tracts, yet only a small percentage of the recruited leukocytes entered the CNS parenchyma, and then only in the white matter tracts. Although T-cell recruitment was antigen specific and thus mediated by CD4+ T cells in the models used here, CD8+ T cells accumulated in numbers equal to or greater than that of CD4+ T cells. Few of the recruited T cells expressed activation markers (CD25 and VLA-4), and those that did were primarily in the meninges, injection site, ventricles, and perivascular spaces but not in the parenchyma. These results indicate that 1) the CNS modulates the cellular composition and activation states of responding T-cell populations and that 2) myelin-restricted inflammation need not be initiated by a myelin-specific antigen.  (+info)

Specific regional transcription of apolipoprotein E in human brain neurons. (6/5057)

In central nervous system injury and disease, apolipoprotein E (APOE, gene; apoE, protein) might be involved in neuronal injury and death indirectly through extracellular effects and/or more directly through intracellular effects on neuronal metabolism. Although intracellular effects could clearly be mediated by neuronal uptake of extracellular apoE, recent experiments in injury models in normal rodents and in mice transgenic for the human APOE gene suggest the additional possibility of intraneuronal synthesis. To examine whether APOE might be synthesized by human neurons, we performed in situ hybridization on paraffin-embedded and frozen brain sections from three nondemented controls and five Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using digoxigenin-labeled antisense and sense cRNA probes to human APOE. Using the antisense APOE probes, we found the expected strong hybridization signal in glial cells as well as a generally fainter signal in selected neurons in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In hippocampus, many APOE mRNA-containing neurons were observed in sectors CA1 to CA4 and the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. In these regions, APOE mRNA containing neurons could be observed adjacent to nonhybridizing neurons of the same cell class. APOE mRNA transcription in neurons is regionally specific. In cerebellar cortex, APOE mRNA was seen only in Bergmann glial cells and scattered astrocytes but not in Purkinje cells or granule cell neurons. ApoE immunocytochemical localization in semi-adjacent sections supported the selectivity of APOE transcription. These results demonstrate the expected result that APOE mRNA is transcribed and expressed in glial cells in human brain. The important new finding is that APOE mRNA is also transcribed and expressed in many neurons in frontal cortex and human hippocampus but not in neurons of cerebellar cortex from the same brains. This regionally specific human APOE gene expression suggests that synthesis of apoE might play a role in regional vulnerability of neurons in AD. These results also provide a direct anatomical context for hypotheses proposing a role for apoE isoforms on neuronal cytoskeletal stability and metabolism.  (+info)

A glial-neuronal signaling pathway revealed by mutations in a neurexin-related protein. (7/5057)

In the nervous system, glial cells greatly outnumber neurons but the full extent of their role in determining neural activity remains unknown. Here the axotactin (axo) gene of Drosophila was shown to encode a member of the neurexin protein superfamily secreted by glia and subsequently localized to axonal tracts. Null mutations of axo caused temperature-sensitive paralysis and a corresponding blockade of axonal conduction. Thus, the AXO protein appears to be a component of a glial-neuronal signaling mechanism that helps to determine the membrane electrical properties of target axons.  (+info)

Conversion of lacZ enhancer trap lines to GAL4 lines using targeted transposition in Drosophila melanogaster. (8/5057)

Since the development of the enhancer trap technique, many large libraries of nuclear localized lacZ P-element stocks have been generated. These lines can lend themselves to the molecular and biological characterization of new genes. However they are not as useful for the study of development of cellular morphologies. With the advent of the GAL4 expression system, enhancer traps have a far greater potential for utility in biological studies. Yet generation of GAL4 lines by standard random mobilization has been reported to have a low efficiency. To avoid this problem we have employed targeted transposition to generate glial-specific GAL4 lines for the study of glial cellular development. Targeted transposition is the precise exchange of one P element for another. We report the successful and complete replacement of two glial enhancer trap P[lacZ, ry+] elements with the P[GAL4, w+] element. The frequencies of transposition to the target loci were 1.3% and 0.4%. We have thus found it more efficient to generate GAL4 lines from preexisting P-element lines than to obtain tissue-specific expression of GAL4 by random P-element mobilization. It is likely that similar screens can be performed to convert many other P-element lines to the GAL4 system.  (+info)

Neuroglia cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of cultured neuroglia cells (blue). These cells are found in nervous tissue and support nerve fibres both structurally and metabolically. They have numerous long processes (green) which attach them to other neuroglia cells (as seen here), and also to nerve cells. Neuroglia cells make up around half the mass of the central nervous system. Magnification: x1500 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image P360/0222
Two classes of glial cells are found in the embryonic Drosophila CNS, midline glial cells and lateral glial cells. Midline glial development is triggered by EGF-receptor signalling, whereas lateral glial development is controlled by the gcm gene. Subsequent glial cell differentiation depends partly on the pointed gene. Here we describe a novel component required for all CNS glia development. The tramtrack gene encodes two zinc-finger proteins, one of which, ttkp69, is expressed in all non-neuronal CNS cells. We show that ttkp69 is downstream of gcm and can repress neuronal differentiation. Double mutant analysis and coexpression experiments indicate that glial cell differentiation may depend on a dual process, requiring the activation of glial differentiation by pointed and the concomitant repression of neuronal development by tramtrack.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of the postnatal radial glial scaffold for the development of the dentate gyrus as revealed by reelin signaling mutant mice. AU - Brunne, Bianka. AU - Franco, Santos. AU - Bouché, Elisabeth. AU - Herz, Joachim. AU - Howell, Brian W.. AU - Pahle, Jasmine. AU - Müller, Ulrich. AU - May, Petra. AU - Frotscher, Michael. AU - Bock, Hans H.. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - During dentate gyrus development, the early embryonic radial glial scaffold is replaced by a secondary glial scaffold around birth. In contrast to neocortical and early dentate gyrus radial glial cells, these postnatal glial cells are severely altered with regard to position and morphology in reeler mice lacking the secreted protein Reelin. In this study, we focus on the functional impact of these defects. Most radial glial cells throughout the nervous system serve as scaffolds for migrating neurons and precursor cells for both neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Precursor cell function has been demonstrated for ...
One of the numerous functions of glial cells in Drosophila is the ensheathment of neurons to isolate them from the potassium-rich haemolymph, thereby establishing the blood-brain barrier. Peripheral nerves of flies are surrounded by three distinct glial cell types. Although all embryonic peripheral glia (ePG) have been identified on a single-cell level, their contribution to the three glial sheaths is not known. We used the Flybow system to label and identify each individual ePG in the living embryo and followed them into third instar larva. We demonstrate that all ePG persist until the end of larval development and some even to adulthood. We uncover the origin of all three glial sheaths and describe the larval differentiation of each peripheral glial cell in detail. Interestingly, just one ePG (ePG2) exhibits mitotic activity during larval stages, giving rise to up to 30 glial cells along a single peripheral nerve tract forming the outermost perineurial layer. The unique mitotic ability of ePG2 ...
The radial glial cells serve as neural progenitors and as a migratory guide for newborn neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. wall structure. Apical limitation of crucial polarity complexes [CDC42 β-catenin (CTNNB1) N-cadherin (CDH2) myosin IIB (MYOIIB) aPKCζ LGL PAR3 pericentrin PROM1] can LY2940680 be dropped. Furthermore the radial glial scaffold in null cortex can be jeopardized with discontinuous non-radial procedures apparent throughout the cerebral wall and deformed bulbous unbranched end-feet at the basal ends. Further the density of radial processes within the cerebral cortex is reduced. These deficits in radial glial development culminate in aberrant positioning of neurons and disrupted cortical MAPK9 lamination. Genetic rescue experiments demonstrate surprisingly that phosphorylation of MARCKS by PKC is not essential for the role of MARCKS in radial glial cell development. By contrast the myristoylation domain of MARCKS needed for membrane association is essential for MARCKS ...
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear ...
Neuroglia: | | | |Glia| | | | | ||| ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Neuroglial cells constitute a separate class of cells in the nervous system; they have been studied intensively since their original description by Virchow in 1846. As a rule anatomists find no difficulty in recognizing them by their staining properties, their shape and configuration as well as by their characteristic location between and around neurons. Electron microscopy has in recent years added much important subcellular detail and has shown how intermingled neurons and glial cells are, being separated from each other by narrow clefts 100 to 200 Å wide (figures 1 A, B and 5, plates 1, 2 and 4). These studies have not changed the well-established grouping of mammalian glial cells into two main classes, the oligodendrocytes and the astrocytes. It is customary to state that glial cells outnumber neurons by 10 to 1 in the vertebrate nervous sytem. They are, however, smaller and according to some rough estimates they make up as much as 50% of the volume of mammalian brains. That glial cells ...
Tanycytes are special ependymal cells found in the third ventricle of the brain, and on the floor of the fourth ventricle and have processes extending deep into the hypothalamus. It is possible that their function is to transfer chemical signals from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to the central nervous system (CNS). The term tanycyte comes from the Greek word tanus which means elongated. Tanycytes share some features with radial glia cells and astrocytes. Their form and location have led some authors to regard them as radial glia cells that remain in the hypothalamus throughout life. This has led some to believe that these cells share the same lineage. Even so, tanycytes also display certain characteristics that distinguish them from radial glia cells. Tanycytes in rats begin to develop in the last two days of gestation and continue on until they reach their full differentiation in the first month of life. Radial glia cells on the other hand, are a key component of the embryonic brain. Tanycytes ...
The objective of this study was to begin to examine the cellular and biophysical effects on human retinal glial cells of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which is endogenous to the retina and likely to play a role in retinal pathobiology. Experiments were performed on cultured glial cells derived from the adult postmortem retina. A proliferative response to bFGF established a sensitivity of the retinal glia to this growth factor. The possibility that bFGF alters calcium currents was assessed using the whole-cell recording configuration of the patch-clamp technique to analyze inward currents carried by barium. Two types of voltage-gated calcium channels could be expressed by the glial cells. One, similar to the T-type current described in various kinds of cells, had a low threshold of activation, a transient response, and an insensitivity to the dihydropyridine nifedipine. The other type of inward current, which closely resembles the L-type calcium current found in other cells, had a high ...
This chapter focuses on the role of neurogenic astroglial cells in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent findings have elucidated a more complex role for astroglial cells in the development of CNS structures across many species. Mitotically active radial glial cells line the ventricular system throughout the developing CNS and have been shown to generate neocortical neurons in rodents. Precursor cells in the ventricular zone (VZ) can divide symmetrically or asymmetrically, and evidence indicates that both types of divisions coexist throughout the entire period of cortical neurogenesis. ...
Glial cell function is indispensible for the functional and structural integration of the nervous system. Glial cells are now known to regulate diverse functions in the nervous system, including migration of neural cells during development, generation of structural matrix to embed neurons, tuning and timing neuronal excitability, ensuring fast impulse conduction, biochemical and electrical insulation, domain specialization on axons, maintaining the homeostasis by actively clearing the metabolites and cell debris. Not surprisingly, uncoupling of glial cell function compromises the functional integration in almost all neurological disorders. Thus a better understanding of glial cell function and attempts to regenerate glial cells will promote functional recovery of patients with such disorders. This research topic aims at compiling research articles and reviews that will improve our understanding of glial cell function in the pathology and physiology of the nervous system. Contributions may include, but
Definition of radial glial cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is radial glial cell? Meaning of radial glial cell as a finance term. What does radial glial cell mean in finance?
Not all brains are made the same: new views on brain scaling in evolution. Brain Behav Evol 78:22-36 Higgins MR, Gibson NJ, Eckholdt PA, Nighorn A, Copenhaver PF, Nardi J, et al. 2002. Different isoforms of fasciclin II are expressed by a subset of developing olfactory receptor neurons and by olfactory-nerve glial cells during formation of glomeruli in the moth Manduca sexta. Dev Biol 244:134-154. Hijazi A, Masson W, Augé B, Waltzer L, Haenlin M, Roch F. 2009. Boudin is required for septate junction organisation in Drosophila and codes for a diff usible protein of the Ly6 superfamily. GABA and glutamate immunoreactivity in tentacles of the sea anemone Phymactis papillosa (LESSON 1830). J Morphol 271:845-852. Doherty J, Logan MA, Taşdemir OE, Freeman MR. 2009. Ensheathing glia function as phagocytes in the adult Drosophila brain. J Neurosci 29:4768-4781. Einheber S. 1997. The axonal membrane protein Caspr, a homologue of neurexin IV, is a component of the septate-like paranodal junctions that ...
Neuronal survival and functions require bidirectional communication between neurons and glia that involves a large variety of growth factors. Neurotrophic factors are operationally defined as proteins that regulate neuron survival and differentiation. They can be synthesized by nonneuronal target cells, neurons, and glial cells. This chapter focuses on neurotrophic factors secreted from macroglial cells, that is, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and their effects on neuronal differentiation and survival in the intact and lesioned brain and peripheral nervous system. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium increases in retinal glial cells evoked by light-induced neuronal activity. AU - Newman, Eric A.. PY - 2005/6/8. Y1 - 2005/6/8. N2 - Electrical stimulation of neurons in brain slices evokes increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+ in neighboring astrocytes. The present study tests whether similar neuron-to-glial signaling occurs in the isolated rat retina in response to light stimulation. Results demonstrate that Müller cells, the principal retinal glial cells, generate transient increases in Ca2+ under constant illumination. A flickering light stimulus increases the occurrence of these Ca2+ transients. Antidromic activation of ganglion cell axons also increases the generation of Müller cell Ca 2+ transients. The increases in Ca2+ transients evoked by light and antidromic stimulation are blocked by the purinergic antagonist suramin and by TTX. The addition of adenosine greatly potentiates the response to light, with light ON evoking large Ca2+ increases in Müller cells. Suramin, ...
Glial cells are the most abundant cell type in our brains, yet we understand very little about their development and function. An accumulating body of work over the last decade has revealed that glia are critical regulators of nervous system development, function, and health. Based on morphological and molecular criteria, glia in Drosophila melanogaster are very similar to their mammalian counterparts, suggesting that a detailed investigation of fly glia has the potential to add greatly to our understanding of fundamental aspects of glial cell biology. In this article, we provide an overview of the subtypes of glial cells found in Drosophila and discuss our current understanding of their functions, the development of a subset of well-defined glial lineages, and the molecular-genetic tools available for manipulating glial subtypes in vivo.. ...
A study performed in November 2010 and published March 2011, was done by a team of scientists from the University of Rochester and University of Colorado School of Medicine. They did an experiment to attempt to repair trauma to the Central Nervous System of an adult rat by replacing the glial cells. When the glial cells were injected into the injury of the adult rats spinal cord, astrocytes were generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein (Bone morphogenetic protein is important because it is considered to create tissue architecture throughout the body). So, with the bone protein and human glial cells combined, they promoted significant recovery of conscious foot placement, axonal growth, and obvious increases in neuronal survival in the spinal cord laminae. On the other hand, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by being in contact with ciliary neurotrophic factors, failed to promote neuronal survival and support of axonal ...
Home , Papers , Differences Between TNF-alpha Receptors Type 1 and Type 2 in the Modulation of Spinal Glial Cell Activation and Mechanical Allodynia in a Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Model. ...
Glial cells are central components of all neurogenic niches in the embryonic as well as in the adult central nervous system. While neural stem cells (NSCs) themselves exhibit glial features the behavior of NSCs is also strongly influenced by niche glial cells. Recently, studies have begun to uncover a large variety of glial cell-extrinsic as well as intrinsic factors that play crucial roles in the control of NSCs and the regulation of the cellular output from the neurogenic niches. In this review, we focus on mechanisms underlying the formation of adult NSCs by embryonic radial glia cells, discuss the influence of niche glia cells on adult NSCs and examine how the neurogenic potential of glial cells is controlled ...
MS Research Highlights In 2014 That Offer New Leads In Stopping MS, Restoring Function Lost, And En/About-the-Society/News/MS-Research-Highlights-In-2014-That-Offer-New-Lead … read morePosted At: National MS Society. ...
Figure 3 Astrocyte They regulate the external chemical environment of neurons by removing excess ions, the notable one being potassium, and recycling neurotransmitters released during synaptic transmission. The current theory suggests that astrocytes may be the predominant building-blocks of the blood-brain barrier. Astrocytes may regulate vasoconstriction and vasodilation by producing substances such as arachidonic acid, whose metabolites are vasoactive. Astrocytes signal each other using calcium. The gap junctions (also known as electrical synapses) between astrocytes allow the messenger molecule IP3 to diffuse from one astrocyte to another. IP3 activates calcium channels on cellular organelles, releasing calcium into the cytoplasm. This calcium may stimulate the production of more IP3. The net effect is a calcium wave that propagates from cell to cell. Extracellular release of ATP, and consequent activation of purinergic receptors on other astrocytes, may also mediate calcium waves in some ...
Müller glial cultures have made a significant contribution for understanding retinal pathophysiology, especially in the context of retinal degenerative diseases. Primary Müller glial cultures have several advantages, largely due to their phenotypic and functional similarity to Müller glia in vivo. There are, however, several disadvantages in using primary cultures, including limited availability, and inconsistency in experimental results, perhaps due to purity, heterogeneity across different batches, and phenotypic instability across multiple passages.14 The use of a stabilized cell line can overcome these drawbacks, although it is recommended that key results obtained from cell lines are further validated using primary cells and in vivo models. Various Müller glial cell lines, derived from rodents14-17 or humans18 have been reported. Although they all express Müller glial markers, each cell line has its own characteristics and is used to study different functions of Müller glia. For ...
Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Glial Cell Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cerebrospinal fluid, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species ...
Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BIP) are severe mental disorders with a considerable disease burden worldwide due to early age of onset, chronicity, and lack of efficient treatments or prevention strategies. Whilst our current knowledge is that SCZ and BIP are highly heritable and share common pathophysiological mechanisms associated with cellular signaling, neurotransmission, energy metabolism, and neuroinflammation, the development of novel therapies has been hampered by the unavailability of appropriate models to identify novel targetable pathomechanisms. Recent data suggest that neuron-glia interactions are disturbed in SCZ and BIP, and are modulated by estrogen (E2). However, most of the knowledge we have so far on the neuromodulatory effects of E2 came from studies on animal models and human cell lines, and may not accurately reflect many processes occurring exclusively in the human brain. Thus, here we highlight the advantages of using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models ...
Cells are to tissues as organs are to 1 ORGAN SYSTEM 2 CELLS 3 GENES 4 ORGANELLES IS THE ANSWER 1 ORGAN SYSTEM Which of statements about cells is not true? 1. One or more cells make up all living organisms 2 cells carry on the asked by GAspar on October 3, 2011 ...
Digital Repository of Scientific Institutes (RCIN) was established and is being developed mainly as an outcome of two projects acquired and jointly accomplished by a group of Polish scientific institutes.
The Function of Glia Cells in the Central Nervous System. Glia cells are also known as neuroglia or glial cells, are non-neuronal cells that are found both in the central nervous systems (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Glia cells offer a supporting role to neurons and do not take part in the production of electrical impulses. The main functions of glial cells include the formation of myelin, maintaining homeostasis, and offering support and protection to neurons. The functions of glial cells are depicted from its different types, which include astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells located in PNS (de Castro et al., 2015). Astrocytes control the floor of the blood in the brain, normalizes communication amongst neurons, and sustain fluid composition around neurons. Astrocytes also offer assistance to neurons during development by locating their destination and creating blood barriers in the brain. This is essential as it helps protect the brain from toxic substances. ...
For many years neurons have been considered the main act within the cerebral cortex, responsible for our thoughts, emotions, and movements. Of interest is the fact that neurons only account for about 10% of human brain cells. Glial cells that account for the other 90% of brain cells have typically been thought to carry a supportive role to the neurons.. An article in Forbes Magazine (July 13, 2009), however, suggests glial cells may be even more important than neurons for treating neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and stroke. Recent understanding of the brain now indicates glial cells with neurons play a critical role in brain development and brain function.. Medications on the market today do not work on glial cells. Ben Barnes, Chairman of the Neurobiology Department at Stanford University Medical School posits that one type of glial cells, the astrocytes, trigger the initial steps of destruction in brain diseases. As such, Dr. Barnes believes that by creating ...
Glial cells regulate multiple aspects of synaptogenesis. In the absence of Schwann cells, a peripheral glial cell, motor neurons initially innervate muscle but then degenerate. Here, using a genetic approach, we show that neural activity-regulated negative factors produced by muscle drive neurodegeneration in Schwann cell-deficient mice. We find that thrombin, the hepatic serine protease central to the hemostatic coagulation cascade, is one such negative factor. Trancriptomic analysis shows that expression of the antithrombins serpin C1 and D1 is significantly reduced in Schwann cell-deficient mice. In the absence of peripheral neuromuscular activity, neurodegeneration is completely blocked, and expression of prothrombin in muscle is markedly reduced. In the absence of muscle-derived prothrombin, neurodegeneration is also markedly reduced. Together, these results suggest that Schwann cells regulate NMJs by opposing the effects of activity-regulated, muscle-derived negative factors and provide ...
Nature Neuroscience has a nice special focus on glia and disease. The featured reviews and perspective articles discuss multiple aspects of neuron-glia interactions and their role in disease. The reason why I am highlighting this collection here is that I have the feeling that this field could potentially be a nice playground for systems biology.. For example, Rossi and colleagues (2007) review the various metabolic processes affected during brain ischemia. Several of the examples discussed illustrate very well how the extent of brain damage is determined by the concurrent dynamics of both harmful and protective processes engaging complex interactions between neurons and astrocytes. A critical determinant for ischemic damage is the catastrophic loss of ATP levels caused by deficient glucose and oxygen delivery. Astrocytes have glycogen stores that can normally be converted to lactate which is exported to neurons to provide energy during phases of high activity. In absence of oxygen however, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuron-glia synapses in the brain. AU - Bergles, Dwight E. AU - Jabs, Ronald. AU - Steinhäuser, Christian. PY - 2010/5. Y1 - 2010/5. N2 - The ability to investigate the electrophysiological properties of individual cells in acute brain tissue led to the discovery that many glial cells have the capacity to respond rapidly to neuronal activity. In particular, a distinct class of neuroglial cells known as NG2 cells, which exhibit many of the properties that have been described for glial subtypes such as complex cells, polydendrocytes, synantocytes and GluR cells, express ionotropic receptors for glutamate and GABA. In both gray and white matter, NG2 cells form direct synaptic junctions with axons, which enable transient activation of these receptors. Electrophysiological analyses have shown that these neuron-glia synapses exhibit all the hallmarks of classical neuron-neuron synapses, including rapid activation, quantized responses, facilitation and depression, and presynaptic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrophysiology of retinal glial cells. AU - Newman, Eric A.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024274410&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024274410&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0278-4327(88)90024-7. DO - 10.1016/0278-4327(88)90024-7. M3 - Review article. AN - SCOPUS:0024274410. VL - 8. SP - 153. EP - 171. JO - Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. JF - Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. SN - 1350-9462. IS - C. ER - ...
Neuroglial or glial cells, make up one of the two major cellular components of nervous tissue (the other being neurons). Nervous tissue is composed of almost 10 times as many glial cells as neurons. They primarily provide structural and metabolic support for neurons, some aid in communication between neurons and assist in neurological development, while others respond to damage and pathogens. Glial cells are divided into two major classes of cell types: microglia and macroglia. The microglia are primarily phagocytes, they are mobilized by minor pathological changes and can eliminate invading microorganisms, promote tissue repair, and remove debris. Macroglia are separated into four classes: ogliodendrocytes, Schawnn cells, astrocytes, and ependymal cells. Schwann cells and ogliodendrocytes form the myelin sheath around neuron axons. This sheath insulates the electrical impulse that travels down the axon, but also increases the speed of the electrical propagation by keeping unmylinated spaces ...
Measurements of neuron-specific (neurotypic) and glia-specific (gliotypic) proteins were used to characterize the toxic effects of triethyltin (TET) on the developing central nervous system. Six proteins, each of which is associated with specific aspects of neuronal and glial development, were evaluated as follows: 1) neurofilament-200, an intermediate filament protein of the neuronal cytoskeleton; 2) synapsin I, a synapse specific, synaptic vesicle localized protein; 3) p38, another synaptic-vesicle localized protein; 4) myelin basic protein, a protein unique to myelin-forming oligodendroglia; 5) glial fibrillary acidic protein, the intermediate filament protein of astrocytes; and 6) beta-tubulin, a constituent primarily of neuronal microtubules. The amount of each protein in homogenates of hippocampus, forebrain and cerebellum, brain regions with different developmental profiles, was determined by radioimmunoassay. After a single administration on postnatal day 5, TET (3 or 6 mg/kg i.p.) ...
The goal of my research is to understand how inflammation in the nervous system (neuroinflammation) leads to long-term changes in neural circuitry. Within this context, we focus on the regulation of neural networks by glial cells, with particular interests in clarifying the role of glial cells in nervous system physiology and elucidating how glial changes during neuroinflammation contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. We are addressing this issue by exploring how neuron-glia interactions in the enteric nervous system (ENS) regulate gut physiology and pathophysiology. The ENS is particularly well suited for this kind of work because neuron-glia interactions in the gut can be studied in situ using preparations with intact synaptic pathways or in vivo in animal models. Further, the synaptic pathways of enteric neural networks are well defined and the output of ENS activity can be clearly assessed with functional assays. Our experiments will allow us to understand the fundamental rules that ...
Located in discrete regions of the adult mammalian CNS, neural stems cells are specialized types of glia. M?ller glia are the principal glial cell of he vertebr...
Five novel cDNA clones were isolated and identified from a differentiated glial subtractive library. They were shown to be specific to the nervous system by Northern blotting analysis. In situ hybridisation (ISH) studies were carried out on cultured glial cells to determine if any of the clones were expressed by specific glial cell types. Oligodendrocytes were identified by the monoclonal antibody O4 and astrocytes were identified with an anti-GFAP monoclonal antibody. Clone OL0755, one of the novel brain specific clones identified, was chosen for further investigation. Two cDNA clones, believed to be full length, were obtained by hybridisation screening of a rat cDNA library. Clone OL0755-A is 2.7 kb and encodes a protein of approximately 60 kD. Clone OL0755-B is 2 kb in size and encodes a protein of approximately 50 kD. Sequence analysis showed these clones to be two alternatively spliced forms of a common gene. An antibody (Ab755) raised against a 23 amino acid N-terminus peptide common to ...
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Video created by University of Michigan for the course Sleep: Neurobiology, Medicine, and Society. Unit 4 closes out the Neurobiology section with a lecture from Chiara Cirelli, Ph.D. on Molecular Biology and the Genetics of Sleep. PLEASE NOTE: ...
Our research goal is to identify the receptors and intracellular signaling pathways mediating the effects of extracellular Tfam as well as microparticles originating from different types of brain cells under different conditions. This information is critical not only for our understanding of the mechanisms governing homeostasis of the central nervous system, but it could also lead to identification of novel molecular targets that could be used to manipulate the functional responses of glial cells. An increasing body of evidence indicates that glial cell activation is part of a series of physiological events, but it can also contribute to various central nervous system pathologies, such as stroke, trauma and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimers disease. Therefore, an additional focus of our laboratory is identification of novel drugs and natural compounds that could be used to modify glial functions. In the past, we have performed studies with bioactive compounds extracted from ...
Gliomas are a major form of intracranial tumours. They are tumours originating in the neuroglia, i.e. the non-mesenchymal stromal tissue of the central nervous system (CNS). The neuroglial component...
The brain is made up of discrete cellular elements. There are two types of cell which make up the brain - neurons and glia. There are between 1011 and 1012 nerve cells in the human brain and each cell Can have up to 103, or 104 connections to other cells. It is these connections and the interactions of the nerve cells which enable learning, remembering, abstraction and much more. The function of glial cells (neuroglia) is not fully understood, but is thought to be a supporting function to the neuron. They do not appear to be involved directly in information processing. They are more numerous than neurons and fill up the space between them, providing a structural framework for neurons, especially during brain development. The neuron has been studied in far more depth and most of the rest of this paper will consider these cells and how they are combined into the nervous system ...
Neuroglia are nervous tissue cells that do not conduct nerve impulses like neurons, but provide a support function for nervous system components.
2. 2. ... diseases of the nervous system.ppt; jeopardy review NS.ppt; Study Material for Test: Nervous and Endocrine Systems. Autonomic Nervous System. Please call your childs Doctor with any questions. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. slides and have students slide the part of the nervous system â ¦ Your presentation should include: The main function(s) of the body system The main organs (or cell types) of this system and the function of each part (MS-LS1-3. b. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. It covers the cells of the Nervous System, structural classification of neurons as well as neuroglia or glial cells. In this section of the lesson I explain to students that the nervous system is divided into two main subsystems, CNS (central nervous system) and PNS (peripheral nervous system). Powerpoint presentations on a range of nerve topics. Includes information on CNS and PNS, voluntary and involuntary ...
Journal of Diabetes Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, management, and prevention of diabetes, as well as associated complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy.
Accumulation of glia, gliosis, in various neurological disorders is not a static scar, but actively involved in pathogenesis of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, where glial cells produce both inflammatory and neurotrophic factors. These factors may play a role in neuronal damage, but.... Full description. ...
Recent histological studies reveal the presence of activated microglia and reactive astrocytes around A-beta plaques in brains from patients with AD. The chronic activation of microglia secretes cytokines and some reactive substances that exacerbate A-beta pathology. So neuroglia is an important part in the pathogenesis of AD. Curcumin has a lipophilic property and can pass through all cell membranes and thus exerts its intracellular effects. Curcumin has anti-proliferative actions on microglia. A minimal dose of curcumin affects neuroglial proliferation and differentiation. Its inhibition of microglial proliferation and differentiation were studied and researched by the University of Southern California Los Angeles (UCLA). Researchers[12] using doses of 4, 5, 10, 15, 20 microM concentration of curcumin in C-6 rat glioma 2B-clone cells, a mixed colony of both neuroglial cells in a six- day trial, showed that curcumin dose dependently stops the proliferation of neuroglial cells, by differentiate ...
Repairing trauma to the central nervous system by replacement of glial support cells is an increasingly attractive therapeutic strategy. We have focused on the less-studied replacement of astrocytes, the major support cell in the central nervous system, by generating astrocytes from embryonic human glial precursor cells using two different astrocyte differentiation inducing factors. The resulting astrocytes differed in expression of multiple proteins thought to either promote or inhibit central nervous system homeostasis and regeneration. When transplanted into acute transection injuries of the adult rat spinal cord, astrocytes generated by exposing human glial precursor cells to bone morphogenetic protein promoted significant recovery of volitional foot placement, axonal growth and notably robust increases in neuronal survival in multiple spinal cord laminae. In marked contrast, human glial precursor cells and astrocytes generated from these cells by exposure to ciliary neurotrophic factor both failed
In the astrocyte lineage, Meteorin expression appears to be restricted to relatively immature cell populations. Meteorin expression is gradually lost in GLAST‐expressing astrocytes located in the postnatal cerebral parenchyma (Figure 2K and L), and is not detected in two major types of astrocytes in the adult cerebrum, fibrous astrocytes and protoplasmic astrocytes (Miller and Raff, 1984) (Supplementary Figure 3G). In the developing cerebellum, Meteorin is expressed in the VZ and GLAST‐positive migrating glial precursors. Among three subclasses of astrocytes in the adult cerebellar cortex, bushy protoplasmic astrocytes, smooth protoplasmic astrocytes, and Bergmann glia (Palay and Chan‐Palay, 1974), Meteorin expression is restricted to Bergmann glia (Figure 2M and N) (Supplementary Figure 3H and I). Expression of Meteorin in Bergmann glia may be regulated by neurons that interact with Bergmann glia. For instance, dendritic spines of Purkinje cells were completely enwrapped by Bergmann glial ...
Glial cells can be grouped into two main types. One type facilitates communication and eliminates waste and the other produces myelin, which is a protective fatty tissue found around the axons of the neurons. While still in utero, our glial cells are created out of a type of pluripotent stem cell known as glial progenitor cells. Pluripotent stem cells are special because they are is genetically modified to turn into any other kind of cell. The point when schizophrenia is caused is when glial progenitor cells fail. The researchers didnt indicate in the press release what might cause the glial progenitor cells to be faulty and create dysfunctional glial cells.. What they did report though is that they created a mouse model and implanted human glial cells into the animals brains. The glial cells had formed from the progenitor cells of humans diagnosed with childhood-onset schizophrenia. ...
huckebein encodes a predicted zinc finger transcription factor which is transiently expressed in a subset of Drosophila central nervous system precursors (neuroblasts (NBs)). We used DiI cell lineage tracing and cell fate markers to investigate the role of huckebein in the NB 1-1 and NB 2-2 cell lin …
1. Any one of the minute protoplasmic masses that make up organized tissue, consisting of a nucleus which is surrounded by cytoplasm which contains the various organelles and is enclosed in the cell or plasma membrane. A cell is the fundamental, structural, and functional unit of living organisms. 2. A small, more or less closed space. neuroglial cells - The cells of the supportive tissue of the central nervous system (neuroglia); these non-neural cells are of three kinds: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes (collectively termed macroglia) and microglia. reticular cells - The cells forming the reticular fibers of connective tissue; those forming the framework of lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen are part of the reticuloendothelial system and under appropriate stimulation may differentiate into macrophages. stem cell - 1. Any precursor cell. 2. A blood cell progenitor, or mother cell, having the capacity for both replication and differentiation, and giving rise to various morphologically recognizable
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral neuroglial death induced by cisplatin administration in newborn rats. AU - Sugimoto, Tomosada. AU - Takeyama, Akihiro. AU - Fujita, Masako. AU - Ichikawa, Hiroyuki. AU - Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko. PY - 2001/1/22. Y1 - 2001/1/22. N2 - To determine the target of cytotoxicity of cisplatin (CDDP), we injected newborn rats with 2mg/kg CDDP and examined the trigeminal ganglion for possible cell death. A nick translation method for DNA fragmentation revealed CDDP-induced glial cell death. DNA fragmentation was detected in both Schwann cells and satellite cells. Satellite cell death was observed as early as 0.5 day after injection, most frequent at 1-3 days and subsided thereafter. The incidence of neuronal death was very low and comparable to that observed in vehicle control rats. CDDP has selective toxicity to peripheral glial cells, though the damage did not culminate in cell death in adults. The glial toxicity may contribute to clinical symptoms of CDDP neuropathy.. AB - To ...
Nervous tissue is the main part of the nervous system - the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. These control the body functions. It is made up of neurons, which transmit impulses, and the neuroglia cells. Neuroglia cells help and provide food for the neurons .A neuron is the longest cell of our body. ...
One h after receiving a single pulse of [3H]thymidine, spinal cords from jimpy and control animals were examined for labeled cells and for cells in mitosis. Although the number of labeled cells was significantly higher in jimpy spinal cords at 14 and
Our previous studies show that manganese (Mn) exposure inhibits aconitase, an enzyme regulating the proteins responsible for cellular iron (Fe) equilibrium. This study was performed to investigate whether Mn intoxication leads to an altered cellular Fe homeostasis in cultured neuronal or neuroglial …
Introduction Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell type. in C57BL/6 mice TNFSF11 astroglial cells in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using reverse-transcription polymerase BMS-911543 BMS-911543 chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results We provide for the first time evidence that astrocytes can express IL-19 mRNA following LPS stimulation. Furthermore we have found the expression of IL-19 mRNA in the cortex of adult C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of LPS. Discussion This finding will contribute to current knowledge on the function and behavior of cells and mediators during inflammatory conditions in BMS-911543 the brain. Keywords: IL-19 Mice Astroglial Cells brain Cortex Lipopolysaccharide 1 Introduction Glial cells play an important role in controlling of CNS inflammation. Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell type in the brain (Kim Hong & BMS-911543 Ro 2011 BMS-911543 Astrocytes are multifunctional glial cells that regulate extracellular ion and ...
Schreiner, B. Glial cell functions in CNS homeostasis and local immune regulation Zur. 2015, University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine. ...
A response to Leprince: The role of Bergmann glial cells in cerebellar development. Cancer & Metabolism 2013, 1:14. We recently demonstrated that developmentally regulated aerobic glycolysis is integral to the normal process of postnatal neurogenesis and becomes co-opted in medulloblastoma. In our work, we concluded that Hexokinase 2 (Hk2), which we found to be required for Shh-induced aerobic glycolysis, was expressed specifically by cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (CGNPs). We observed altered migration of CGNPs in hGFAP-cre;Hk2f/f mice and attributed this aspect of the phenotype to premature differentiation of CGNPs caused by loss of aerobic glycolysis. In response to our work, LePrince draws attention to the role of Bergmann glia in cerebellar development.. LePrince raises the important point that cerebellar granule neurons (CGNPs) do not develop in isolation but rather interact critically with the Bergmann glia. The Bergmann glia establish a radial scaffold on which the CGNPs migrate ...
Down syndrome (DS) occurs with triplication of human chromosome 21 and is associated with deviations in cortical development evidenced by simplified gyral appearance and reduced cortical surface area. Radial glia are neuronal and glial progenitors that also create a scaffolding structure essential for migrating neurons to reach cortical targets and therefore play a critical role in cortical development. The aim of this study was to characterise radial glial expression pattern and morphology in the frontal lobe of the developing human fetal brain with DS and age-matched controls. Secondly, we investigated whether microstructural information from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could reflect histological findings from human brain tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded human post-mortem brain tissue from nine fetuses and neonates with DS (15-39 gestational weeks (GW)) and nine euploid age-matched brains (18-39 GW). Radial glia markers CRYAB, HOPX, SOX2, GFAP and
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Increased 3H-thymidine incorporation during acute exposure was observed, but a significant increase in cell numbers in continuously exposed cultures was not observed. DNA synthesis: sham-exposed and radiofrequency (RF)-exposed cultures of primary rat glial cells showed no significant differences. C6 glioma cells exposed to radiofrequency at 5.9 µW/g SAR exhibited small significant (20-40%) increases in 38% of 3H-thymidine incorporation experiments. Growth curves of sham and RF-exposed cultures showed no differences in either normal or transformed glial cells. Cell doubling times of C6 cells also demonstrated no significant differences that could be attributed to altered DNA synthesis rates. Under these conditions, this radiofrequency field did not increase cell proliferation of normal or transformed cultures of glial cells. ...
Biological Process: abortive mitotic cell cycle; activation of MAPK activity; axon guidance; Bergmann glial cell differentiation; brain development; cellular response to epidermal growth factor stimulus; cerebellar cortex formation; DNA damage checkpoint; ephrin receptor signaling pathway; epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway; ERBB signaling pathway; fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway; genitalia development; glucose homeostasis; heart development; homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue; hormone metabolic process; hormone-mediated signaling pathway; inner ear development; integrin-mediated signaling pathway; leukocyte migration; microvillus organization; multicellular organism growth; multicellular organismal reproductive process; negative regulation of cell adhesion mediated by integrin; negative regulation of cortisol secretion; negative regulation of growth hormone secretion; negative regulation of insulin secretion; nerve growth factor receptor signaling ...
Müller cells, that belong to the family of radial glia cells, have central functions during retinogenesis. They form a stabilizing scaffold, they are candidate targets for the mediation of extraneous retinogenetic factors, and they are an important source for retina-borne retinogenetic factors. Reaggregate cultures allow the analysis of retinogenesis from dispersed cells to fully laminated tissues. Reaggregating cells from the embryonic chick retina reassemble to reversed laminated cellular spheres including constituents of all retinal layers, yet the outer nuclear layer is represented by internal rosettes. Using spheroids, we tested whether Müller cells have a decisive function in establishing retinal polarity and in determining the lamination pattern. To this end, we established confluent monolayers of highly enriched Müller cells derived from E6 or E13 chicken retinas, and then let dispersed E5.5 retinal cells reaggregate either in the absence of these monolayers or on top of them. In the ...
a. Microglia in Normal and Injured CNSs. Microglia constitute a distinct glial population in the CNS [1-4]. Unlike neurons and macroglia that are of neuroepithelial origin, microglia are mesodermal (i.e., bone marrow) in origin and seed the brain early in embryogenesis: during development, mono-cytes migrate to the brain through the vessels located in specific regions of the brain. (called glial fountains in humans). These areas are concentrated around the subven-tricular zones where active neurogenesis occurs. These ameboid tissue macrophages then migrate throughout the entire brain parenchyma and differentiate into resident microglial cells. In the mature CNS, microglia are ubiquitously present as highly ramified cells (resting microglia) [5,6]. They respond to changes in the CNS microenvironment in a variety of disorders with or without the participation of the systemic monocytes. Although in degenerative disorders such as AD and Parkinsons disease there is little evidence to support ...
Astrocytes (green) and oligodendrocytes (red) derived from rat neural stem cells in culture. Both these cells are types of neuroglia and are important for correct brain function.
The enteric nervous system(ENS) is essential for digestive function and gut homeostasis. Here we show that the amorphous neuroglia networks of the mouse ENS are composed of overlapping clonal units founded by postmigratory neural crest-derived progenitors.The spatial configuration of ENS clones depends on proliferation-driven local interactions of ENS progenitors with ... read more lineally unrelated neuroectodermal cells, the ordered colonization of the serosa-mucosa axis by clonal descendants, and gut expansion. Single-cell transcriptomics and mutagenesis analysis delineated dynamic molecular states of ENS progenitors and identified RETas a regulator of neurogenic commitment. Clonally related enteric neurons exhibit synchronous activity in response to network stimulation. Thus, lineage relationships underpin the organization of the peripheral nervous system. show less ...
Gadisseux, JF. ; Evrard, Philippe. Glial-neuronal Relationship in the Developing Central Nervous-system - a Histochemical Electron Microscope Study of Radial Glial-cell Particulate Glycogen in Normal and Reeler Mice and the Human-fetus. In: Developmental Neuroscience, Vol. 7, no. 1, p. 12-32 (1985 ...
The nervous system is composed of two types of cells: neurons and glia. In neuronal circuits, neurons communicate through synapses and glia play a crucial modulatory role. To modulate chemical reuptake, glia send processes close to synapses and many glia directly appose or ensheathe a synapse. This structural motif is one of the elements often included in describing a vertebrate tripartite synapse, which includes a bidirectional functional neuron-glia relationship. The exact nature of this neuron-glia communication is not well understood. In the invertebrate fruit fly, we have also found that particular neurons and glia also have a bidirectional functional relationship. This allows us to ask new questions about glial morphology. Throughout multiple images, I identified particular neuronal synapses and surrounding glia. After creating a 3D reconstruction, I measured the distance between a particular neuronal synapse and its closest glial process. Interestingly, the neuronal synapses were not ...
Glial cells, which normally protect neurons in the retina can also kill them, resulting in vision loss and blindness has been discovered by scientists from University
ischemic gliotic changes - MedHelps ischemic gliotic changes Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for ischemic gliotic changes. Find ischemic gliotic changes information, treatments for ischemic gliotic changes and ischemic gliotic changes symptoms.
History The NF-κB pathway and chemokine (C-C theme) ligand 5 (CCL5) get excited about PF-04971729 discomfort modulation; nevertheless the specific systems of their connections in chronic neuropathic discomfort have yet to become established. and suppressed spine glial cell activation after CCI medical procedures also. The CCL5-neutralizing antibody didnt affect NF-κB expression nevertheless. Furthermore selective glial inhibitors fluorocitrate and minocycline attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by intrathecal CCL5. Conclusions The inhibition of vertebral CCL5 appearance may provide a brand new solution to prevent and deal with nerve injury-induced neuropathic discomfort. Launch Neuropathic discomfort is a therapeutic problem and it is connected with peripheral nerve damage with feature discomfort facilitation frequently. Previous studies have got recommended that chemokines play an important function in glial cell activation inflammatory discomfort and neuropathic discomfort [1-3]. Glial ...
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Névroglie 0 questions The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear. ...
Nevroglia 0 domande The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear. ...
The zebrafish has become a new model for adult neurogenesis, owing to its abundant neurogenic areas in most brain subdivisions. Radial glia-like cells, actively proliferating cells, and label-retaining progenitors have been described in these areas. In the telencephalon, this complexity is enhanced by an organization of the ventricular zone (VZ) in fast and slow-dividing domains, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous progenitor types. In this work, we studied the expression of various transgenic or immunocytochemical markers for glial cells (gfap:gfp, cyp19a1b:gfp, BLBP, and S100beta), progenitors (nestin:gfp and Sox2), and neuroblasts (PSA-NCAM) in cycling progenitors of the adult zebrafish telencephalon (identified by expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), MCM5, or bromodeoxyuridine incorporation). We demonstrate the existence of distinct populations of dividing cells at the adult telencephalic VZ. Progenitors of the overall slow-cycling domains express high levels of ...
Direct-write printing of stem cells within biomaterials presents an opportunity to engineer tissue for in vitro modeling and regenerative medicine. Here, a first example of constructing neural tissue by printing human neural stem cells that are differentiated in situ to functional neurons and supporting neuroglia is reported. The supporting biomaterial incorporates a novel clinically relevant polysaccharide-based bioink comprising alginate, carboxymethyl-chitosan, and agarose. The printed bioink rapidly gels by stable cross-linking to form a porous 3D scaffold encapsulating stem cells for in situ expansion and differentiation. Differentiated neurons form synaptic contacts, establish networks, are spontaneously active, show a bicuculline-induced increased calcium…. ...
Microglial activation is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases. This study focussed on assessing the role of rosiglitazone as an anti-inflammatory agent and analysis was carried out to evaluate its effect in vitro and in vivo. The specific mechanism by which rosiglitazone might exert its effect was investigated and its effect on different glial cell types was also assessed ...
Neuroglial cysts of the CNS are maldevelopmental in nature. Neuroglial cysts are ependymal lined and probably arise from budding or displacement from the ventricular system. They are nowadays picked up as incidental findings, but patients can pr...
This module contains a more detailed version of neuron structure and function that build on what is taught in Module IV Part A: Section IV. This module also adds a fun way for students to understand the purpose of supporting cells (neuroglia ...
The definition of CMD was previously made for CSCR and AMD, but there has been no reported definition in DME. It is important to define CMD and identify the related features to have more information about the prognosis of edema and the benefit of treatment. It has been associated with poor visual acuity in CSCR, and is said to affect the need for treatment in AMD.5,6,7 Cyst formation begins with intercellular fluid accumulation. Coalescence of the extracellular fluid occurs due to the disruption of Müller cells, whose pump-like function keeps the macula dry.18 In the chronic stage, fluid accumulates intracellularly. The subsequent death of Müller cells and neuroglia results in the formation of large cystoid cavities.19 Otani et al.3 reported the acute and chronic morphologies of DME in an OCT-based study and stated that the disappearance of septa resulted in confluent large cysts which might fill all layers of the retina. Consistent with this pathogenesis, Yamomoto et al.20 found that eyes ...
Prednisone - Notable changes were cell proliferation and subsequent degeneration with the formation of cavities, thickening of the neuroglia, and compression and even obliteration of the vessels with circum.scribed areas of necrosis, terminating also Symptoms.
Search result for r-ransom: Restraint of Domestic Animals; A Book for the Use of Students and Practitioners; 312 Illustrations from Pen Drawings and 26 Half Tones from Original Photographs(9781504304542), Neuroglia(9780615780108), The Atonement(9781951585051), The Language of Medicine(9780615774428), Down the Columbia(9780615780092), Restraint of Domestic Animals; A Book for the Use of Students and Practitioners; 312 Illustrations from Pen Drawings and 26 Half Tones from Original Photographs(9781371816544), etc... books - Free Download ebooks
...In studies of human brain cells the widely-used anesthetic desflurane...Over 200 million people undergo surgery each year and there has been ...They subjected human brain cells to 12% desflurane for six hours (mimi...The researchers do emphasize that the current findings are from cell c...,Anesthesia,and,Alzheimers,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ependyma-lined canal with surrounding neuroglial tissues in lumbosacral lipomatous malformations. T2 - Relationship with retained medullary cord. AU - Murakami, Nobuya. AU - Morioka, Takato. AU - Shimogawa, Takafumi. AU - Mukae, Nobutaka. AU - Inoha, Satoshi. AU - Sasaguri, Takakazu. AU - Suzuki, Satoshi. AU - Iihara, Koji. PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. N2 - Background: An ependyma-lined canal with surrounding neuroglial tissues can be present in lumbosacral lipomatous malformations; however, the precise embryological significance is still unclear. Method: Six out of 50 patients with lipomatous malformations had ependymal structures. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, neuroradiological, and histological findings of these patients to demonstrate the relationship with the embryological background of the retained medullary cord (RMC), which normally regresses, but was retained here because of late arrest of secondary neurulation. Results: Five (13.9%) of 36 patients with ...
Gene transfer using immunomodulatory molecules is a promising tool for in vivo regulation of immune responses. Experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), which serves as a model for human ocular inflammation, is induced by systemic immunization with autoantigens, but its expression is restricted to the eye. Previously, we reported protection of rodents against EAU by intravenous or/and periocular injection of vIL-10-expressing adenovirus. Here, the expression of vIL-10 was targeted into the rat Lewis eye, by intravitreal injection of either the free virus or ex vivo transfected retinal Müller glial cells (RMG-vIL-10). As shown using GFP-expressing adenovirus, a longer expression of transgene was observed in the eye after transfer of transfected syngeneic RMG cells than was seen after injection of free virus. Intravitreal injection of RMG-vIL-10 led to significant decrease in ocular pathological manifestations, compared to control RMG cells. This was observed when cells were injected simultaneously with
New experiments with the brains glial cells have shed light on some of the most mysterious aspects of the mind. Glial cells make up nearly 90 percent of cells in the brain.. Until the last 20 years, brain scientists believed neurons communicated to each other, represented our thoughts, and that glia represented the cement holding the brain together. They were considered to be mere insulators for neurons.. But recently scientists have begun to focus on a particular type of glial cell - astrocytes - that are very abundant in the cortex. Interestingly, we humans have the most, and the biggest, astrocytes in our cortex.. Scientists have discovered that astrocytes are the adult stem cell in the brain. They also communicate among themselves via calcium waves, and are capable of sending information to neurons. They also control blood flow to important regions of activity in the brain.. Harvard Universitys Stephen W. Kuffler was the first to discover that astrocytes exhibit an electrical potential, ...
Microglia and astroglia have been thought to govern the survival of neurons after damage to the CNS. To investigate these putative glia- neuron relationships, we examined microglia and astroglia secretion products for effects upon growth of cultured neurons. Activated microglia secrete small neurotoxic factors (, 500 Da), while astroglia constitutively release proteins (, 10 kDa) that promote neuronal growth. Proteins released from astroglia, moreover, attenuate microglial toxicity, suggesting that different glial populations have opposing actions upon neuronal survival. Further study shows that neurotoxins from microglia are heat-stable, protease-resistant molecules with biologic activities blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists. Microglial factors, although toxic for chick ciliary neurons and rat spinal cord neurons, did not reduce numbers of oligodendroglia, astroglia, or Schwann cells in culture. The microglial neurotoxins can be distinguished from cytokines, from free radical intermediates, ...
As stated above, neuronal loss was seen with this paradigm in the cerebellar vermis but not in the hippocampus. Interestingly, an increase in amoeboid microglia occurred only in the cerebellar vermis, while robust elevations in astrocytic GFAP expression was observed in both brain regions. While microglial morphological transitions and increased astrocytic GFAP expression do not always equate to activation, they provide considerable evidence of neuroinflammation and are highly associated with reactive glial cell functions [75-78]. Based on this, our findings support the idea that microglial activation is strongly associated with PAE-induced neuronal loss; however, whether microglial activation contributes to or is caused by it remains unclear. In support of the latter, there was little presence of microglia, amoeboid or otherwise, in or near the cell layer in which neurodegeneration occurred. However, it is possible that secreted factors, such as cytokines, could diffuse from a distance to ...
Form of neuroglial cell of the peripheral nervous system responsible for the synthesis and maintenance of the myelin sheath that insulates axons. ►click here to learn more-link provided by:...
This new edition covers recent advances in understanding immunological and inflammatory responses in the nervous system, research driven by the potential to use knowledge of the molecules and mechanisms involved to intervene in, and arrest, neurodegenerative disease processes. This book covers developmental aspects of immune/inflammatory responses in the CNS and basic aspects of glial function, as well as inflammatory mediators and their mechanisms of action, clinical importance, and sites of infection. There is also coverage of the major diseases of the CNS, including stroke, brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimers disease. Throughout, the focus is on the underlying basic neuroscience, clinical relevance and the potential for therapeutic interventions. This book aims to contribute to the understanding and improving of the diagnosis of neuroimmune diseases and determining therapeutic measures.
Foundation Year 2 Doctor, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. Formerly: MB PhD - Cited by 1,737 - Neuron-glial interaction - cerebral blood flow and metabolism - neurovascular coupling - stroke - pericytes
Signal transduction pathways may be important targets of chemokines during neuroinflammation. In the current study, Western blot analyses show that in rat hippocampal neuronal/glial cell cultures chronic CXCL10 increases the level of protein for ERK1/2 as well as for the transcriptional factors CREB and NF-kappaB. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein whose expression can be regulated by a pathway involving ERK1/2, CREB and NF-kappaB, was also increased in the CXCL10 treated cultures. These results implicate a role for ERK1/2, CREB and NF-kappaB in effects of CXCL10 on hippocampal cells and suggest that chronic CXCL10 may have a protective role during certain neuroinflammatory conditions ...
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Neuroglia. Oxford University Press, 2013. *^ Kettenmann, Helmut, and Bruce R. Ransom. Neuroglia. Oxford University Press, 2013. ... Neuroglia. Oxford University Press, 2013,pp. 44-45 *^ a b Haydon, Philip G. (2001). "Glia: listening and talking to the synapse ... Neuroglia. Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 404-404 *^ Memartone, Nifbot. "Bergmann Glial Cell - NeuroLex". neurolex.org. ... Neuroglia. Oxford University Press, 2013,pp. 38-38 *^ Cervetto, Chiara; Frattaroli, Daniela; Venturini, Arianna; Passalacqua, ...
Helmut Kettenmann; Bruce R. Ransom (2005). Neuroglia. Oxford University Press US. pp. 303-305. ISBN 978-0-19-515222-7. ... and among its responsibilities is the prevention of the over migration of neurons and neuroglia, the supporting cells of the ...
"Characteristics of Neuroglia". In Siegel GJ, Agranoff BW, Albers RW, Fisher SK, Uhler MD (eds.). Basic Neurochemistry: ...
... , also called glial cells or neuroglia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and ... Kettenmann H, Verkhratsky A (December 2008). "Neuroglia: the 150 years after". Trends in Neurosciences. 31 (12): 653-9. doi: ... loss of neurons in the CNS does not result in a similar reaction from neuroglia. In the CNS, regrowth will only happen if the ... ISBN 978-0-19-538115-3. Kettenmann and Ransom, Neuroglia, Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 978-0-19-979459-1 ,http:// ...
Pardo CA, Vargas DL, Zimmerman AW (December 2005). "Immunity, neuroglia and neuroinflammation in autism". Int Rev Psychiatry. ...
"Studies on the neuroglia (human and comparative)". Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Friederich Wilhelm Eurich 1867-1945 ...
"Cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst harbouring ectopic neuroglia". Pediatr Neurosurg. 41 (4): 220-3. doi:10.1159/000086566. ...
A method of fixation for neuroglia fibres". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2 (5): 529-33. doi:10.1084/jem.2.5.529. PMC ...
Neuroglia cells are only affected in severe cases. They fill in the spaces that have been diminished due to the loss or atrophy ...
2311-. ISBN 978-0-12-397769-4. Advances in Neuroglia Research and Application: 2012 Edition. ScholarlyEditions. 26 December ...
It also consists of neuroglia cells and unmyelinated axons. Projections of the gray matter (the "wings") are called horns. ...
The ependyma is one of the four types of neuroglia in the central nervous system (CNS). It is involved in the production of ... Ependymin, glycoprotein isolated from the ependyma Tanycyte Neuroglia "ependyma". The Free Dictionary. Histology, a text in ...
Neuroglia and Circadian Rhythms". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 10: 501. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00501. PMC 6656854. PMID 31379620. ...
However, it also ushered in new interest in neuroglia. Diamond married Richard Martin Diamond in 1950 and they had four ...
"Sialidase-mediated depletion of GM2 ganglioside in Tay-Sachs neuroglia cells". Human Molecular Genetics. 8 (6): 1111-1116. doi: ...
1875). "Nephritis" (Leipzig, 1879). "Fibrinfärbung" (1886). "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Normalen Menschlichen Neuroglia" ( ...
... are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord. Microglia account for 10-15% of ... del Río Hortega P, Penfield W (1892). "Cerebral Cicatrix: the Reaction of Neuroglia and Microglia to Brain Wounds". Bulletin of ... and other neuroglia including astrocytes) are distributed in large non-overlapping regions throughout the CNS. Microglia are ...
"MRI reveals differential effects of amphetamine exposure on neuroglia in vivo". FASEB Journal. 27 (2): 712-24. doi:10.1096/fj. ...
"Sialidase-mediated depletion of GM2 ganglioside in Tay-Sachs neuroglia cells". Human Molecular Genetics. Oxford University ...
"Colloquium Series on Neuroglia in Biology and Medicine: From Physiology to Disease". Morgan & Claypool Publishers. Retrieved 29 ... Working with Arthur Butt, Verkhratsky published two textbooks on physiology and pathophysiology of neuroglia in 2007 and 2013 ... Colloquium Series on Neuroglia in Biology and Medicine: From Physiology to Disease, editor of 8 books Verkhratsky, Alexei; Butt ... and have been the only didactic writings on neuroglia. Verkhratsky conducted the first recordings of Ca2+ currents in aged ...
Gardner-Medwin AR (December 1981). "Possible roles of vertebrate neuroglia in potassium dynamics, spreading depression and ...
Neuroscience Neuroglia Olfaction Olfactory system Microglia Ramón-Cueto A, Avila J (June 1998). "Olfactory ensheathing glia: ...
Two types of neuroglia found in the PNS are satellite cells and Schwann cells. In the central nervous system (CNS), the tissue ... It is composed of neurons, or nerve cells, which receive and transmit impulses, and neuroglia, also known as glial cells or ... Neuroglia encompasses the non-neural cells in nervous tissue that provide various crucial supportive functions for neurons. ... Four types of neuroglia found in the CNS are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells and oligodendrocytes. ...
In addition, MDA activates a response of the neuroglia, though this subsides after use. Symptoms of acute toxicity may include ...
"The Effects of Normal Aging on Nerve Fibers and Neuroglia in the Central Nervous System". In Riddle, David R. (ed.). Brain ...
This gelatinous substance consists mainly of neuroglia, but contains a few nerve cells and fibers; it is traversed by processes ...
Peters A (1 January 2007). "The Effects of Normal Aging on Nerve Fibers and Neuroglia in the Central Nervous System". In Riddle ...
This channel which is activated by ATP depletion is found on neurons, neuroglia and endothelium. This channel enables the ...
... this occurred likely because the SVZ was able to gradually replace the neuroglia of the brain. Chemotherapeutics were also ...
Neuroglia of the brain shown by Golgi's method. OECs are capable of phagocytosing axonal debris in vivo, and in vitro they ...
Nuestros experimentos muestran que GSK3β es inactivada por fosforilación en Ser389 en el sistema nervioso; existiendo diferencias regionales y cambios durante el desarrollo. Además esta ruta de inactivación responde a estímulos que producen rotura en el ADN de doble cadena. Hemos encontrado también que la vía de regulación dependiente de fosforilación en Ser389 tiene una destacada función en la neuroinmunidad, estando implicada en la reacción neuroinflamatoria tanto microglial/macroglial como astrocitaria, y en la infiltración de células inmunitarias periféricas. En la actualidad profundizamos en estos hallazgos utilizando modelos de ratones knockout.. -La inhibición de la vía de NOTCH1 en células mieloides mediante tecnología knockout atenúa los signos de patología en ratones en los que se ha inducido esclerosis múltiple (menor parálisis, activación glial reducida y disminución de citoquinas inflamatorias infiltradas en el sistema nervioso). ...
Neuroglia, or glial cells, are part of the nervous system that support neurons by providing them nutrients, oxygen and ... Neuroglia, or glial cells, are part of the nervous system that support neurons by providing them nutrients, oxygen and ... Microglia are a type of neuroglia that reside in the spinal cord and brain. They function to provide immunity to nervous cells ...
Neuroglia. 2018; 1(1):126-150. Chicago/Turabian Style. Ferrer, Isidro. 2018. "Astrogliopathy in Tauopathies." Neuroglia 1, no. ... Neuroglia EISSN 2571-6980 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert ... Neuroglia 2018, 1, 126-150. AMA Style. Ferrer I. Astrogliopathy in Tauopathies. ...
... Petra Mohácsik,1 Anikó Zeöld,1 Antonio C. Bianco,2 and Balázs ... Figure 4: Proposed model of neuroglia-neuron interaction of thyroid hormone signaling in the brain. D2 activates the prohormone ... 3. Thyroid Hormone Activation in Neuroglia. 3.1. Regulation of Type 2 Deiodinase in Glial Cells. While thyroid hormone impacts ... H. Kettenmann and B. R. Ransom, Neuroglia, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995. ...
... Gui-Lin Jin,1,2 Sai-Di He,1 Shao-Mei Lin ...
Two astrocytes are shown (Golgi stain). They appear to be fibrous astrocytes. Vessels (V) are also stained. The expanded ends of astrocyte processes are called end feet (not visible here). Collectively, astrocyte end feet form a glial limiting membrane around vessels and along the CNS surface, deep to pia mater ...
Neuroglia cells make up around half the mass of the central nervous system. Magnification: x1500 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image ... They have numerous long processes (green) which attach them to other neuroglia cells (as seen here), and also to nerve cells. ... Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of cultured neuroglia cells (blue). These cells are found in nervous tissue and ... Caption: Neuroglia cells. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of cultured neuroglia cells (blue). These cells are found ...
Several images of the neuroglia can be found online to help students complete this assignment if there are no applicable images ...
Glial cell function is indispensible for the functional and structural integration of the nervous system. Glial cells are now known to regulate diverse functions in the nervous system, including migration of neural cells during development, generation of structural matrix to embed neurons, tuning and timing neuronal excitability, ensuring fast impulse conduction, biochemical and electrical insulation, domain specialization on axons, maintaining the homeostasis by actively clearing the metabolites and cell debris. Not surprisingly, uncoupling of glial cell function compromises the functional integration in almost all neurological disorders. Thus a better understanding of glial cell function and attempts to regenerate glial cells will promote functional recovery of patients with such disorders. This research topic aims at compiling research articles and reviews that will improve our understanding of glial cell function in the pathology and physiology of the nervous system. Contributions may include, but
NEUROGLIA,HEALTH-2007-2.2.1-6,UNIVERSITATSKLINIKUM BONN(DE),EURICE EUROPEAN RESEARCH AND PROJECT OFFICE GMBH(DE),Klinik Max ... NeuroGLIA is thus in the privileged position to unravel fundamental mechanisms of neuron-astroglia signalling in health and ... NeuroGLIA will also investigate how dysfunction of neuron-astroglia signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of brain ... Importantly, access to living tissue from epilepsy patients, allows NeuroGLIA to investigate neuron-astroglia interactions and ...
... Acta Morphol Acad Sci Hung. 1981;29(2-3):185-93. ...
Possible roles of vertebrate neuroglia in potassium dynamics, spreading depression and migraine ... Possible roles of vertebrate neuroglia in potassium dynamics, spreading depression and migraine ... Possible roles of vertebrate neuroglia in potassium dynamics, spreading depression and migraine ... Possible roles of vertebrate neuroglia in potassium dynamics, spreading depression and migraine ...
One h after receiving a single pulse of [3H]thymidine, spinal cords from jimpy and control animals were examined for labeled cells and for cells in mitosis. Although the number of labeled cells was significantly higher in jimpy spinal cords at 14 and
Jung P., Cornell-Bell A.H., deGrauw A., Strawsburg R. (2003) Neuroglia, the Other Brain Cells. In: Milton J., Jung P. (eds) ...
Neuroglia, the third edition, is the long-awaited revision of the most highly regarded reference volume on glial cells. This ... Neuroglia. Third Edition. Edited by Helmut Kettenmann and Bruce R. Ransom. *The long-awaited revision of this highly regarded ... Neuroglia, the third edition, is the long-awaited revision of the most highly regarded reference volume on glial cells. This ... Neuroglia belongs on every neuroscientists bookshelf and will be a great asset for educators and neurological clinicians as ...
Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release ... "Neuroglia" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Neuroglia" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Neuroglia" by people in Profiles. ...
Neuroglia 2018, 1, 30-47. AMA Style. Vermehren P, Trotman-Lucas M, Hechler B, Gachet C, Evans RJ, Gibson CL, Fern R. ... Neuroglia EISSN 2571-6980 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert ... Neuroglia. 2018; 1(1):30-47. Chicago/Turabian Style. Vermehren, Philipp; Trotman-Lucas, Melissa; Hechler, Beatrice; Gachet, ... Neuroglia 2018, 1(1), 30-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/neuroglia1010005 Cooperation between NMDA-Type Glutamate and P2 Receptors ...
Coordinate expression of insulin-like growth factor system components by neurons and neuroglia during retinal and cerebellar ... Coordinate expression of insulin-like growth factor system components by neurons and neuroglia during retinal and cerebellar ... Coordinate expression of insulin-like growth factor system components by neurons and neuroglia during retinal and cerebellar ... Coordinate expression of insulin-like growth factor system components by neurons and neuroglia during retinal and cerebellar ...
We analyzed three major types of neuroglia, astrocytes,... ... Neuroglia in the autistic brain: evidence from a preclinical ... Pathological changes in neuroglia are complex and can be classified into reactive response (astrogliosis, activation of ... All three types of neuroglia are critically important for normal development of the CNS and for formation of neuronal ensembles ... We analyzed three major types of neuroglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia in the brains of an animal model of ...
What are the 5 types of neuroglia cells and their functions?. Actually, I count six macrogilia types. http://en.wikipedia.org/ ...
Neuroglia. Neuroglia of the Central Nervous System. Glia, named from the Greek word for "glue," support and scaffold neurons ... Neuroglia of the CNS. Neuroglia in the CNS include astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes. In the ... Neuroglia of the PNS. Neuroglia in the PNS include Schwann cells and satellite cells. ... Neuroglia of the Peripheral Nervous System. The two kinds of glia cells in the PNS, schwann cells and satellite cells; each ...
NEURAL TISSUE Cells in Nervous Tissue Neurons Neuroglia Neuroglia (Glia) about half the volume of cells in the ... glucose and other necessary chemicals from the blood to neurons and neuroglia Filters & creates CSF "blood of nervous tissue" • ...
... Michael T. Henekaa,⁎, José J. Rodríguezb,e, Alexei Verkhratskyc, ... homeostasis therefore is entrusted to specific population ofneural cells known as neuroglia.. The concept of neuroglia as a ... Neuroglia. Oxford, OUP.. Heyser, C.J., Masliah, E., Samimi, A., Campbell, I.L., Gold, L.H., 1997.. Kettenmann, H., Verkhratsky ... on neuroglia. Mol. Neurobiol. 39, 190-208.. Theodore, S., Cao, S.W., McLean, P., Standaert, D., 2008. Microglial Virchow, R., ...
Neuroglia are support cells for the neurons in the nervous system. They have a very wide variety of functions, and Im sure it ... but actually had more neuroglia, particularly astrocytes, which were concentrated in the area of the brain involved in imagery ...
Neuroglia. Neuroglia, also known as glial cells, act as the "helper" cells of the nervous system. Each neuron in the body is ... The majority of the nervous system is tissue made up of two classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia. ... Because neurons are extremely specialized cells that are essential to body function and almost never reproduce, neuroglia are ... surrounded by anywhere from 6 to 60 neuroglia that protect, feed, and insulate the neuron. ...
Abstract:. Astrocytes have been shown to participate in a variety of brain functions. These include homeostasis, metabolism, plasticity of neuronal networks, neuronal survival in pathological circumstances, and neurovascular coupling. Since astrocytes extend their processes into close proximity to synapses, it has also been proposed that they take an active role in synaptic transmission and formation of new synapses - important in for example learning and memory. The complexity of dynamic neuron-astrocyte interactions on both molecular and cellular levels is overwhelming. This creates a demand for detailed, integrative computational models for advancing our understanding of functional contribution by astrocytes in the nervous system.. This workshop aims to address interdisciplinary and complementary tools and approaches necessary to better understand the roles of astroglia in brain functions. We will particularly focus on the capabilities of theoretical and computational modeling to facilitate ...
Mohácsik P, Zeöld A, Bianco AC, Gereben B. Thyroid hormone and the neuroglia: Both source and target. Journal of Thyroid ... Mohácsik, P, Zeöld, A, Bianco, AC & Gereben, B 2011, Thyroid hormone and the neuroglia: Both source and target, Journal of ... Mohácsik, P., Zeöld, A., Bianco, A. C., & Gereben, B. (2011). Thyroid hormone and the neuroglia: Both source and target. ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Thyroid hormone and the neuroglia: Both source and target. Together they form a ...
We analyzed three major types of neuroglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia in the brains of an animal model of ... After sacrifice, we examined gene and protein expression of specific markers of neuroglia in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, ... Molecular analyses indicate that prenatal valproic acid exposure affects all types of neuroglia, mainly causing transcriptional ... Neuroglia in the autistic brain: evidence from a preclinical model. *Maria Rosanna Bronzuoli1. na1, ...
... neuroglia) in the brain might also have important clinical benefits. Neuroglia encompass the non-neuronal cells in the brain, ... Neuroglia as targets. Non-neuronal cells can be targeted for effective drug delivery to the brain even though reaching out to ... Why neuroglia? Glial cells were thought to hold the nervous system together, forming the matrix that protects and facilitates ... The word glia means glue in Greek and thereby came the name neuroglia. It was much later that different cell types were ...
The central position of astrocytes in the brain parenchyma allows them to play critical roles in the modulation of energy metabolism and regulation of extracellular ion and neurotransmitter composition. Neuronal activity leads to significant fluctuations in extracellular potassium that have a sizeable functional impact on neuronal signaling. Simultaneously, neurotransmitters, in particular glutamate, are released by neurons. Both glutamate and potassium need to be tightly regulated to ensure accurate synaptic transmission. Both are also signals for astrocytes to provide a metabolic response, characterized by enhanced lactate production. We investigate these spatiotemporal interactions in transgenic or virus-injected mice or in human brain tissue, mainly using one- and two-photon imaging, combined with electrophysiology.. ...
  • IGF-I mRNA is transiently expressed in large projection neurons--cerebellar Purkinje and retinal ganglion cells--while IGFBP2 mRNA is selectively expressed by contiguous neuroglia--Bergmann glia in the cerebellum and Muller cells and astrocytes of the nerve fiber layer in the retina. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neuroglia in the CNS include astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells and oligodendrocytes. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Neuroglia in the PNS include Schwann cells and satellite cells.Astrocytes support and brace the neurons and anchor them to their nutrient supply lines. (lumenlearning.com)
  • In the course of late 19th-early 20th century the cellular nature and morpho-functional heterogeneity of neuroglial cells were firmly Astrocytes organise the brain matter The astrocytes provide for the micro-architecture of the grey matter by dividing it (through the process known as "tiling" recent decades the functional relevance and versatility of into relatively independent structural neuroglia that is involved in all activities of the CNS, from units. (medicinelakex1.com)
  • Studies done on (supposedly) Einstein's brain, show that he didn't really have any greater number of neurons, but actually had more neuroglia, particularly astrocytes, which were concentrated in the area of the brain involved in imagery and complex thinking ( NPR news article on the subject, June 2010 ). (blogspot.com)
  • Neuroglia include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, NG2-glia, and ependymal cells in the central nervous system, as well as Schwann cells and satellite glial cells in the peripheral nervous system. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • We continue our look at the Nervous System with the neuroglia cells: Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, Microglial cells and. (merlot.org)
  • Astrocytes, the most common neuroglia in the brain, surround capillaries, maintain a barrier between the bloodstream and the neurons, and actively control what gets through that barrier. (visiblebody.com)
  • La inhibición de la vía de NOTCH1 en células mieloides mediante tecnología knockout atenúa los signos de patología en ratones en los que se ha inducido esclerosis múltiple (menor parálisis, activación glial reducida y disminución de citoquinas inflamatorias infiltradas en el sistema nervioso). (uclm.es)
  • Neuroglia, or glial cells, are part of the nervous system that support neurons by providing them nutrients, oxygen and insulation and by eliminating harmful pathogens. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Neuroglia , the third edition, is the long-awaited revision of the most highly regarded reference volume on glial cells. (oup.com)
  • Neuroglia, also known as glial cells, act as the "helper" cells of the nervous system. (innerbody.com)
  • Though targeting neurons is essential, it is now becoming clear that therapeutic targeting of the non-neuronal glial cells (neuroglia) in the brain might also have important clinical benefits. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • Neuroglia , the 3rd version, is the long-awaited revision of the main very popular reference quantity on glial cells. (jakebellows.com)
  • Glial cells, sometimes called neuroglia or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the brain and peripheral nervous system. (biofoundations.org)
  • The majority of the nervous system is tissue made up of two classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia. (innerbody.com)
  • It is the outermost layer of neural tissue, and among its responsibilities is the prevention of the over migration of neurons and neuroglia, the supporting cells of the nervous system, into the meninges. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the cellular level, this tissue consists of neurons and neuroglia. (visiblebody.com)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of cultured neuroglia cells (blue). (sciencephoto.com)
  • They have numerous long processes (green) which attach them to other neuroglia cells (as seen here), and also to nerve cells. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Neuroglia cells make up around half the mass of the central nervous system. (sciencephoto.com)
  • What are the 5 types of neuroglia cells and their functions? (jiskha.com)
  • Neuroglia in the PNS include Schwann cells and satellite cells. (lumenlearning.com)
  • There are two kinds of neuroglia in the peripheral nervous system (PNS): Schwann cells and satellite cells. (lumenlearning.com)
  • homeostasis therefore is entrusted to specific population ofneural cells known as neuroglia. (medicinelakex1.com)
  • Neuroglia are support cells for the neurons in the nervous system. (blogspot.com)
  • Because neurons are extremely specialized cells that are essential to body function and almost never reproduce, neuroglia are vital to maintaining a functional nervous system. (innerbody.com)
  • Neuroglia encompass the non-neuronal cells in the brain, and have been shown to play major pathophysiological roles in almost all neurological disorders. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • The Nervous System : Neuroglia Cells. (merlot.org)
  • In contrast to neurons, the cells of the neuroglia retain the capacity to divide. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are eight types of nerve cells in the cerebral ganglia on the basis of their histological characteristics and stain affinity: two types of neurosecretory cells, three types of neurons, and three types of neuroglia. (mahidol.ac.th)
  • The neuroglia are small cells and contain spindle-shaped nuclei. (mahidol.ac.th)
  • Together with their support cells, neuroglia, neurons make up all nervous system tissue. (visiblebody.com)
  • Types of neuroglia cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • Microglia are a type of neuroglia that reside in the spinal cord and brain. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Neuroglia: normal and pathological,' Cytology and cellular pathology of the nervous system, ed. (mcgill.ca)
  • NeuroGLIA will also investigate how dysfunction of neuron-astroglia signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of brain disorders, focussing on epilepsy. (europa.eu)
  • Importantly, access to living tissue from epilepsy patients, allows NeuroGLIA to investigate neuron-astroglia interactions and its dysregulation in the human brain. (europa.eu)
  • After sacrifice, we examined gene and protein expression of specific markers of neuroglia in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum, these brain regions being associated with autism spectrum disorder pathogenesis. (springer.com)
  • doi: Neuroglia-the concept features, demonstrate a profound functional heterogeneity indifferent brain regions and at different developmental stages. (medicinelakex1.com)
  • This essay is specifically dedicated to the role of is manifested in the highly developed brain-blood barrier, neuroglia in neurodegenerative processes, yet prior to embark which essentially limits the impact of bodily homeostatic into the realms of disease we shall provide a brief overview of systems on the central nervous system (CNS). (medicinelakex1.com)
  • The neuroglia is evenly distributed over the entire brain and accounts for approximately 40 percent of the brain's volume. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The neuroglia acts as a protective layer for the neurons and forms part of the blood-brain barrier between the bloodstream and the encephalic neurons. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neuroglia belongs on every neuroscientist's bookshelf and will be a great asset for educators and neurological clinicians as well. (oup.com)
  • Neuroglia belongs on each neuroscientist's bookshelf and may be an exceptional asset for educators and neurological clinicians to boot. (jakebellows.com)
  • Considering their close proximity to neurons, neuroglia are now understood to be closely intertwined with the functioning of neurons, and consequently involved in the majority of neurological disorders. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • Thus, these findings suggest that LPS induces neurotoxicity by increasing oxidative stress and activating neuroglia and inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex . (bvsalud.org)
  • The activity of oxidative enzymes in neuroglia cultured in vitro. (rcin.org.pl)
  • Mossakowski, Mirosław Jan (1929 - 2001), 1966, The activity of oxidative enzymes in neuroglia cultured in vitro. (rcin.org.pl)
  • Recent findings highlight contribution of neuroglia to the ASD pathophysiology. (springer.com)
  • The neuroglia also helps to maintain the reactive properties of nerve tissue in such conditions as posttraumatic scarring, inflammatory reactions, and oncogenesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Neuroglia support the neurons and other structures that supply and surround nervous tissue. (visiblebody.com)
  • The neuroglia comprises the astroglia (also called macroglia), oligoglia (also called oligodendroglia), and the ependyma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It was long believed that neuroglia did not play any role in neuro-transmission, however recent advances have demonstrated that neuroglia play a key role in synapse formation and maintenance. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Molecular analyses indicate that prenatal valproic acid exposure affects all types of neuroglia, mainly causing transcriptional modifications. (springer.com)
  • Types of neuroglia found in the CNS and PNS. (lumenlearning.com)
  • His work on pellagra early and psammomas later brought him great recognition but the development of the Golgi method to stain neuroglia achieved for him permanent fame. (scribd.com)
  • Astrocyte , star-shaped cell that is a type of neuroglia found in the nervous system in both invertebrates and vertebrates . (britannica.com)
  • Hemos encontrado también que la vía de regulación dependiente de fosforilación en Ser389 tiene una destacada función en la neuroinmunidad, estando implicada en la reacción neuroinflamatoria tanto microglial/macroglial como astrocitaria, y en la infiltración de células inmunitarias periféricas. (uclm.es)
  • This study investigated whether LPS modulates neuroglia activation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory factors in the cerebral cortex . (bvsalud.org)
  • A defect in the cell cycle of neuroglia in the myelin deficient jimpy mouse. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An embryonic epithelial cell that gives rise to the neuroglia. (dictionary.com)
  • Several systems have been shown to be taken up by neuroglia and some can affect the survival or functional capabilities of the neuroglia. (futuremedicineindia.com)
  • Several images of the neuroglia can be found online to help students complete this assignment if there are no applicable images in their textbook. (biologycorner.com)
  • Neuroglia" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)