Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.
A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
A hydro-lyase that catalyzes the dehydration of 2-phosphoglycerate to form PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE. Several different isoforms of this enzyme exist, each with its own tissue specificity.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
A notch receptor that interacts with a variety of ligands and regulates SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS for multiple cellular processes. It is widely expressed during EMBRYOGENESIS and is essential for EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of neuronal cell adhesion molecules that is required for proper nervous system development. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 consists of six Ig domains, five fibronectin domains, a transmembrane region and an intracellular domain. Two splicing variants are known: a neuronal form that contains a four-amino acid RSLE sequence in the cytoplasmic domain, and a non-neuronal form that lacks the RSLE sequence. Mutations in the L1 gene result in L1 disease. Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is predominantly expressed during development in neurons and Schwann cells; involved in cell adhesion, neuronal migration, axonal growth and pathfinding, and myelination.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
A 110-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that is activated in response to cellular stress and by GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS-mediated pathways.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A transmembrane domain containing ephrin. Although originally found to be specific for the EPHB3 RECEPTOR it has since been shown to bind a variety of EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. During embryogenesis ephrin-B3 is expressed at high levels in the ventral neural tube. In adult tissues, it is found primarily in the BRAIN and HEART.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Any of several Old World finches of the genus Serinus.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional repressors.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.
A genomic region found in DROSOPHILA. The region contains genes encoding BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that play a critical role in the regulation of pattern formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.

Genetic models to study adult neurogenesis. (1/3048)

In the central nervous system (CNS) generation of new neurons continues throughout adulthood, when it is limited to the olfactory bulb and hippocampus. The knowledge regarding the function of newly-generated neurons remains limited and is vigorously investigated using diverse approaches. Among these are genetically modified mice, most of them of knock-out type (KO). Results from 23 diverse KO mouse models demonstrate the importance of particular proteins (growth factors, nitric oxide synthases, receptors, cyclins/cyclin-associated proteins, transcription factors, etc.) in adult neurogenesis (ANGE) as well as separate it from developmental neurogenesis. These results bring us closer to revealing the function of newly generated neurons in adult brains.  (+info)

Adult neurogenesis as a potential therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. (2/3048)

Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are progressive neurological diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. Recent identification and advances in our understanding of multi-potent neural stem cells/progenitors in the mature CNS has raised the possibility that these discoveries can be translated into an effective therapy for degenerative neurological disease.  (+info)

Absent or low rate of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus of bats (Chiroptera). (3/3048)

Bats are the only flying mammals and have well developed navigation abilities for 3D-space. Even bats with comparatively small home ranges cover much larger territories than rodents, and long-distance migration by some species is unique among small mammals. Adult proliferation of neurons, i.e., adult neurogenesis, in the dentate gyrus of rodents is thought to play an important role in spatial memory and learning, as indicated by lesion studies and recordings of neurons active during spatial behavior. Assuming a role of adult neurogenesis in hippocampal function, one might expect high levels of adult neurogenesis in bats, particularly among fruit- and nectar-eating bats in need of excellent spatial working memory. The dentate gyrus of 12 tropical bat species was examined immunohistochemically, using multiple antibodies against proteins specific for proliferating cells (Ki-67, MCM2), and migrating and differentiating neurons (Doublecortin, NeuroD). Our data show a complete lack of hippocampal neurogenesis in nine of the species (Glossophaga soricina, Carollia perspicillata, Phyllostomus discolor, Nycteris macrotis, Nycteris thebaica, Hipposideros cyclops, Neoromicia rendalli, Pipistrellus guineensis, and Scotophilus leucogaster), while it was present at low levels in three species (Chaerephon pumila, Mops condylurus and Hipposideros caffer). Although not all antigens were recognized in all species, proliferation activity in the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream was found in all species, confirming the appropriateness of our methods for detecting neurogenesis. The small variation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis within our sample of bats showed no indication of a correlation with phylogenetic relationship, foraging strategy, type of hunting habitat or diet. Our data indicate that the widely accepted notion of adult neurogenesis supporting spatial abilities needs to be considered carefully. Given their astonishing longevity, certain bat species may be useful subjects to compare adult neurogenesis with other long-living species, such as monkeys and humans, showing low rates of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.  (+info)

Effect of neural precursor proliferation level on neurogenesis in rat brain during aging and after focal ischemia. (4/3048)

The observed age-related decline in neurogenesis may result from reduced proliferation or increased death rate of neuronal precursor cells (NPCs). We found that caspase-3, but not caspase-6, -7, or -9, was activated in NPCs in neurogenic regions of young, young-adult, middle-aged and aged rat brains. The number of capase-3-immunoreactive cells was highest in young and lowest in aged rats. Surprisingly, intraventricular administration of a caspase-3 inhibitor failed to restore the number of BrdU-positive cells in the aged dentate gyrus, suggesting that the age-related decline in neurogenesis may be attributable primarily to reduced proliferation. Additionally, we also found that NPCs in the subventricular zone of young-adult and aged rat brain were increased after focal cerebral ischemia, suggesting that the increase in neurogenesis induced by ischemia may result from an increase in the rate of NPC proliferation, but not from a decrease in NPC death. Thus, our results suggest that age-related and injury-induced changes in the rate of neurogenesis are controlled at the level of NPC proliferation. Furthermore, our results may imply that the mechanisms that maintain a stable population of NPCs in the normal adult and in the ischemic brain, which account for the observed age-dependent reduction or injury-induced increases in neurogenesis, impinge on the regulation of cell division at the NPC level.  (+info)

A population of prenatally generated cells in the rat paleocortex maintains an immature neuronal phenotype into adulthood. (5/3048)


In developing hippocampal neurons, NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) can mediate signaling to neuronal survival and synaptic potentiation, as well as neuronal death. (6/3048)


Fibroblast growth factor 2 enhances striatal and nigral neurogenesis in the acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine model of Parkinson's disease. (7/3048)


Radial glia cells in the developing human brain. (8/3048)


Radial glia‐like cells (RGCs) are the hypothesized source of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the current model of hippocampal neurogenesis does not fully incorporate the in vivo heterogeneity of RGCs. In order to better understand the contribution of different RGC subtypes to adult hippocampal neurogenesis, we employed widely used transgenic lines (Nestin‐CreERT2 and GLAST::CreERT2 mice) to explore how RGCs contribute to neurogenesis under basal conditions and after stimulation and depletion of neural progenitor cells. We first used these inducible fate‐tracking transgenic lines to define the similarities and differences in the contribution of nestin‐ and GLAST‐lineage cells to basal long‐term hippocampal neurogenesis. We then explored the ability of nestin‐ and GLAST‐lineage RGCs to contribute to neurogenesis after experimental manipulations that either ablate neurogenesis (i.c.v. application of the anti‐mitotic AraC, cytosine‐β‐D‐arabinofuranoside) or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leptin restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a chronic unpredictable stress model of depression and reverses glucocorticoid-induced inhibition of GSK-3Β/Β-catenin signaling. AU - Garza, J. C.. AU - Guo, M.. AU - Zhang, W.. AU - Lu, Xinyun. PY - 2012/8/1. Y1 - 2012/8/1. N2 - Stress and glucocorticoid stress hormones inhibit neurogenesis, whereas antidepressants increase neurogenesis and block stress-induced decrease in neurogenesis. Our previous studies have shown that leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone with antidepressant-like properties, promotes baseline neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether leptin is able to restore suppression of neurogenesis in a rat chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) model of depression. Chronic treatment with leptin reversed the CUS-induced reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis and depression-like behaviors. Leptin treatment elicited a delayed long-lasting antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim ...
Neurogenesis is the process of birth of neurons wherein neurons are generated from neural stem cells. Contrary to popular belief, neurogenesis continuously occurs in specific regions in the adult brain. Developmental neurogenesis and adult neurogenesis differ markedly. This article is limited in scope to adult neurogenesis. In humans, new neurons are continually born throughout adulthood in two regions of the brain: The subgranular zone (SGZ), part of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The striatum; however the adult-born neurons are a type of interneuron, not a type that projects to other brain areas. In other species of mammals, particularly rodents, adult-born neurons also appear in the olfactory bulb. In humans, however, few if any olfactory bulb neurons are generated after birth. Much more attention has been paid to neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus than in the other areas. Many of the newborn dentate gyrus neurons die shortly after they are born, but a number of them become functionally ...
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals. Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting ...
The Wnt signaling pathway plays multiple roles during adult neurogenesis, regulating proliferation, differentiation and maturation of newborn neurons [15-18, 40]. Here we studied the potential role of the Wnt receptor FZD1 during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We specifically focused on FZD1 since it is expressed in the adult hippocampus [22, 25], and is well known to activate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway [25-29]. We found that in the adult dentate gyrus, FZD1 is mainly expressed in NSCs, amplifying progenitors and immature neurons, suggesting that FZD1 may mediate the activation of the Wnt pathway in these cell-types. In agreement, the expression of FZD1 was also found in cultured AHPs that were isolated from hippocampi of adult mice.. The in vivo role of FZD1 in adult neurogenesis was evaluated by retrovirus-mediated shRNA knockdown of FZD1 expression in newborn cells of the dentate gyrus. We determined that differentiation into neurons was impaired in FZD1-deficient cells. ...
The hippocampal dentate gyrus in the adult mammalian brain contains neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) capable of generating new neurons, i.e., neurogenesis. Most drugs of abuse examined to date decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the effects of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids) on hippocampal neurogenesis remain unknown. This study aimed at investigating the potential regulatory capacity of the potent synthetic cannabinoid HU210 on hippocampal neurogenesis and its possible correlation with behavioral change. We show that both embryonic and adult rat hippocampal NS/PCs are immunoreactive for CB1 cannabinoid receptors, indicating that cannabinoids could act on CB1 receptors to regulate neurogenesis. This hypothesis is supported by further findings that HU210 promotes proliferation, but not differentiation, of cultured embryonic hippocampal NS/PCs likely via a sequential activation of CB1 receptors, Gi/o proteins, and ERK signaling. Chronic, but not acute, HU210 treatment promoted ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcription-factor-dependent control of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. AU - Beckervordersandforth, Ruth. AU - Zhang, Chun Li. AU - Lie, Dieter Chichung. PY - 2015/10/1. Y1 - 2015/10/1. N2 - Adult-generated dentate granule neurons have emerged as major contributors to hippocampal plasticity. Newneurons are generated fromneural stem cells through a complex sequence of proliferation, differentiation, and maturation steps. Development of the new neuron is dependent on the precise temporal activity of transcription factors, which coordinate the expression of stage-specific genetic programs. Here, we review current knowledge in transcription factor-mediated regulation of mammalian neural stem cells and neurogenesis and will discuss potential mechanisms of how transcription factor networks, on one hand, allow for precise execution of the developmental sequence and, on the other hand, allow for adaptation of the rate and timing of adult neurogenesis in response to complex stimuli. ...
New neurons incorporate into the granular cell layer of the dentate gyrus throughout life. Neurogenesis is modulated by behavior and plays a major role in hippocampal plasticity. Along with older mature neurons, new neurons structure the dentate gyrus and determine its function. Recent data suggest that the level of hippocampal neurogenesis is substantial in the human brain, suggesting that neurogenesis may have important implications for human cognition. In support of that, impaired neurogenesis compromises hippocampal function and plays a role in cognitive deficits in Alzheimers disease mouse models. We review current work suggesting that neuronal differentiation is defective in Alzheimers disease, leading to dysfunction of the dentate gyrus. Additionally, alterations in critical signals regulating neurogenesis, such as presenilin-1, Notch 1, soluble amyloid precursor protein, CREB, and β-catenin underlie dysfunctional neurogenesis in Alzheimers disease. Lastly, we discuss the detectability of
In the mammalian dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis continues throughout life. Accumulating evidence suggests a unique contribution of adult-generated neurons in DG synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-mediated learning and memory functions. However, the precise involvement of adult neurogenesis to disease-related cognitive deficits still remains unclear. Intellectual disabilities are the most striking clinical features of Down Syndrome (DS) and are characterized by learning deficits and memory impairment, particularly in hippocampus-related functions. Accordingly, the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS recapitulate many hippocampal cognitive deficits of the human syndrome, and also show decreased adult neurogenesis and impaired DG synaptic plasticity. To elucidate the contribution of faulty adult neurogenesis to DG synaptic plasticity deficits and memory impairment in DS we have treated adult Ts65Dn mice with lithium, a widely used mood stabilizer that also promotes neurogenesis. Results showed that chronic ...
It may be possible to increase the neuron reserve of the hippocampus - and thus improve preconditions for learning - by promoting neurogenesis via sustained aerobic exercise such as running, say researchers.. Aerobic exercise, such as running, has positive effects on brain structure and function, for example, the generation of neurons (neurogenesis) in the hippocampus, a brain structure important in learning. It has been unclear whether high-intensity interval training (HIT), referring to alternating short bouts of very intense anaerobic exercise with recovery periods, or anaerobic resistance training has similar effects on hippocampal neurogenesis in adulthood. In addition, individual genetic variation in the overall response to physical exercise likely plays a part in the effects of exercise on adult neurogenesis but is less studied.. Researchers from the Department of Psychology and from the Department of Biology of Physical Activity at the University of Jyväskylä studied the effects of ...
We have previously hypothesized that the reason why physical activity increases precursor cell proliferation in adult neurogenesis is that movement serves
Title:Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Neurotrophic Factors and Depression: Possible Therapeutic Targets?. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Gianluca Serafini, Shawn Hayley, Maurizio Pompili, Yogesh Dwivedi, Goutam Brahmachari, Paolo Girardi and Mario Amore. Affiliation:Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health (DINOGMI), Section of Psychiatry, University of Genoa, IRCCS San Martino, Largo Rosanna Benzi 10, 16100, Genoa, Italy.. Keywords:Antidepressant drugs, hippocampal neurogenesis, major depression, neurotrophic factors, therapeutic targets.. Abstract:Major depression is one of the leading causes of disability and psychosocial impairment worldwide. Although many advances have been made in the neurobiology of this complex disorder, the pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. Among the proposed theories, impaired neuroplasticity and hippocampal neurogenesis have received considerable attention. The possible association between hippocampal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulators of adult neurogenesis in the healthy and diseased brain. AU - Grote, Helen E.. AU - Hannan, Anthony J.. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - 1. In recent decades evidence has accumulated demonstrating the birth and functional integration of new neurons in specific regions of the adult mammalian brain, including the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone. 2. Studies in a variety of models have revealed genetic, environmental and pharmacological factors that regulate adult neurogenesis. The present review examines some of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that could be mediating these regulatory effects in both the normal and dysfunctional brain. 3. The dysregulation of adult neurogenesis may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntingtons, Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease, as well as psychiatric disorders such as depresssion. Recent evidence supports this idea and, furthermore, also indicates that factors ...
Adult neurogenesis, the continuous generation of newborn neurons in discrete regions of the brain throughout life, is now widely regarded as a fundamental mechanism of neural plasticity. This phenomenon, and in particular the integration of new neurons into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, has been associated with the regulation of important but quite subtle and complex aspects of cognition and memory formation.. In addition to its important role in the healthy adult brain, adult neurogenesis has also been of considerable interest to the research community because of a growing body of literature implicating its deregulation in mental disorders. Perhaps the most high-profile example of this is the putative role of reduced neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus in the pathogenesis of major depression.. However, despite the fact that adult neurogenesis is confined to very discrete regions of the brain, and the established role of adult neurogenesis in major depression notwithstanding, it is ...
Synopsis: Except in trauma, where neural stem cells migrate to replace damaged tissue, neurogenesis in adult humans only occurs in the hippocampus, and possibly the SVN. In rodent models of anxiety/depression (e.g. anxious strains exposed to prolonged periods of stress, including social subordination) hippocampal neurogenesis is inhibited and hippocampal size is reduced, probably through direct action of glucocorticoids on hippocampal neurons and reduced transcription of BDNF and related genes. This may leave the hippocampus less able to excert its normally inhibitory effect on the HPA axis, glucocorticoid levels rise further, and depression ensues. Inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SSRIs) help the brain break out of this cycle by stimulating hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF transcription, probably via the 5HT1A receptor (5HT1A knockouts have normal baseline neurogenesis but do not respond to SSRIs). Noradrenaline has comparable effects to serotonin on neurogenesis ...
Title: Neurodegeneration and Neurogenesis: Focus on Alzheimers Disease. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):David A. Greenberg and Kunlin Jin. Affiliation:Buck Institute for Age Research,8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato, CA 94945, USA.. Keywords:Neurodegeneration, neurogenesis, neuronal precursor cells, stem cells, hippocampus, dentate gyrus. Abstract: Neurogenesis, or the production of new neurons from neuronal precursor cells, is a normal phenomenon in the adult brain, and is accentuated by brain injury. Forms of injury associated with increased neurogenesis include both acute (e.g., stroke) and chronic neurodegenerations. Studies on human postmortem material and transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein mutations found in familial Alzheimers disease (AD) suggest that AD is associated with enhanced neurogenesis. However, the mechanism responsible for this effect is unknown, as is what influence it may have on the clinical course of murine or human AD. If AD leads to the production of ...
While the research specifically focused on what happens when neurogenesis is blocked, the scientists said the results suggest that increasing adult neurogenesis might be a potential way to combat drug addiction and relapse.. More research will be needed to test this hypothesis, but treatments that increase adult neurogenesis may prevent addiction before it starts, which would be especially important for patients treated with potentially addictive medications, said Dr. Amelia Eisch, associate professor of psychiatry at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study. Additionally, treatments that increase adult neurogenesis during abstinence might prevent relapse.. Increasingly, addiction researchers have recognized that some aspects of the condition - such as forming drug-context associations - might involve the hippocampus, which is a region of the brain associated with learning and memory. Only with recent technological advances have scientists been able to test their theories in animals by ...
Neurogenesis is the process of neural stem cell differentiation into functional mature neurons. During this process neuronal transcription factors are activated, as well as developmental signaling pathways such as Notch and WNT. The neuronal maturation process involves not only intracellular signaling, but also extracellular changes. These extracellular changes include cellular migration to the appropriate brain area and development of dendritic and axonal contacts with other neurons. During the developmental process, neurons proliferate and differentiate. Neurons that are no longer needed during the developmental process undergo apoptosis. Neurogenesis was originally considered a developmental process, occurring only during embryonic development. However, neurogenesis now clearly plays an important role in adult neural functions such as synaptic plasticity. Dysregulation of neurogenesis during embryonic development leads to inborn neurological disorders, while dysregulation during adulthood is ...
Doublecortin (Dcx) is a microtubule-associated protein expressed by migrating neuroblasts in the embryo and in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ). The adult SVZ contains neuroblasts that migrate in the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulbs. We have examined the distribution and phenotype of Dcx-positive cells in the adult mouse SVZ and surrounding regions. Chains of Dcx-positive cells in the SVZ were distributed in a tight dorsal population contiguous with the RMS, with a separate ventral population comprised of discontinuous chains. Unexpectedly, Dcx-positive cells were also found outside of the SVZ: dorsally in the corpus callosum, and ventrally in the nucleus accumbens, ventromedial striatum, ventrolateral septum, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Dcx-positive cells outside the SVZ had the morphology of migrating cells, occurred as individual cells or in chain-like clusters, and were more numerous anteriorly. Of the Dcx-positive cells found outside of the SVZ, 47% expressed
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radiation-induced impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with cognitive deficits in young mice. AU - Rola, Radoslaw. AU - Raber, Jacob. AU - Rizk, Angela. AU - Otsuka, Shinji. AU - Vandenberg, Scott R.. AU - Morhardt, Duncan R.. AU - Fike, John R.. PY - 2004/8. Y1 - 2004/8. N2 - Advances in the management of pediatric brain tumors have increased survival rates in children, but their quality of life is impaired due to cognitive deficits that arise from irradiation. The pathogenesis of these deficits remains unknown, but may involve reduced neurogenesis within the hippocampus. To determine the acute radiosensitivity of the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ), 21-day-old C57BL/J6 male mice received whole brain irradiation (2-10 Gy), and 48 h later, tissue was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Proliferating SGZ cells and their progeny, immature neurons, were decreased in a dose-dependent fashion. To determine if acute changes translated into long-term alterations in ...
Adult neurogenesis is studied in the mouse hippocampus frequently. was a steady signal of the level of a cells structural growth and could end up being utilized simply because a straightforward parameter of granule cell advancement. As a result, additional research could make use of our doublecortin-staging program and nuclear size dimension to perform inspections of morphological Rabbit Polyclonal to OR4A16 advancement in mixture with useful research of adult-born granule cells. Furthermore, the Thy1-GFP transgenic mouse model can end up being utilized as an extra analysis device because the news reporter gene brands granule cells that are 4 weeks or old, while extremely youthful cells could end up being visualized through the premature gun doublecortin. This will enable comparison studies regarding the function and structure between young immature and older matured granule cells. Launch Adult neurogenesis is certainly a procedure in which brand-new neurons are produced from sensory control ...
Plays a role in the process of neurogenesis. Required throughout embryonic neurogenesis to maintain neural progenitor cells, also called radial glial cells (RGCs), by allowing their daughter cells to choose progenitor over neuronal cell fate. Not required for the proliferation of neural progenitor cells before the onset of embryonic neurogenesis. Also required postnatally in the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis by regulating SVZ neuroblasts survival and ependymal wall integrity. Negative regulator of NF-kappa-B signaling pathway. The inhibition of NF-kappa-B activation is mediated at least in part, by preventing MAP3K7IP2 to interact with polyubiquitin chains of TRAF6 and RIPK1 and by stimulating the Lys-48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation of TRAF6 in cortical neurons.
The main finding of this study is that in PDGF-APPSw,Ind transgenic mice, as in the brains of patients with AD, the generation of new neurons is increased, compared with basal levels of neurogenesis observed in controls. Several conclusions emerge from this finding.. First, because it can be recapitulated in an animal model, the enhancement of neurogenesis observed previously in the hippocampus of AD patients is likely to be a feature of the disease per se, and not an epiphenomenon related to, for example, nutritional state or medications. This is important because nutritional deficiency is common late in the course of AD, and neurogenesis is increased in anorexic (anx/anx) mutant mice (27), which die of starvation. In addition, several drugs that are used commonly by AD patients may also stimulate neurogenesis. These include acetylcholinesterase inhibitors like donepezil, because muscarinic cholinergic receptors are expressed on neuronal progenitors and are coupled to cell proliferation (28); ...
Long-term neurological deficits due to immature cortical development are emerging as a major challenge in congenital heart disease (CHD). However, cellular mechanisms underlying dysregulation of perinatal corticogenesis in CHD remain elusive. The subventricular zone (SVZ) represents the largest postnatal niche of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). We show that the piglet SVZ resembles its human counterpart and displays robust postnatal neurogenesis. We present evidence that SVZ NSPCs migrate to the frontal cortex and differentiate into interneurons in a region-specific manner. Hypoxic exposure of the gyrencephalic piglet brain recapitulates CHD-induced impaired cortical development. Hypoxia reduces proliferation and neurogenesis in the SVZ, which is accompanied by reduced cortical growth. We demonstrate a similar reduction in neuroblasts within the SVZ of human infants born with CHD. Our findings demonstrate that SVZ NSPCs contribute to perinatal corticogenesis and suggest that restoration of ...
Jin, K., Sun, Y., Xie, L., Batteur, S., Mao, X. O., Smelick, C., Logvinova, A. and Greenberg, D. A. (2003), Neurogenesis and aging: FGF-2 and HB-EGF restore neurogenesis in hippocampus and subventricular zone of aged mice. Aging Cell, 2: 175-183. doi: 10.1046/j.1474-9728.2003.00046.x ...
Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate new neurons throughout life in two distinct areas of the mammalian brain, the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in tissue homeostasis, physiologic brain function, and is also associated with a number of neuro-psychiatric diseases, such as cognitive aging and depression. Understanding the mechanisms underlying adult neurogenesis represents a prerequisite for future therapeutic targeting of adult NSCs for endogenous brain repair. Our previous work has identified several pathways/genes that are critically involved in certain steps, from the dividing NSC to the integrating newborn neuron, during the developmental course of adult neurogenesis. Further, we have participated in efforts to characterize the functional role of adult neurogenesis on a behavioral level. Currently, we use gene expression profiling together with analyses of the metabolic state of NSCs and their progeny ...
While human data in this field are still quite limited, animal studies provide abundant evidence demonstrating the link between perinatal immune activation and consequences for the immune system and stress susceptibility in adulthood. These studies, in line with the inflammation and neurogenesis studies described above, also use LPS to activate the immune system; however E. coli infection was employed by some research groups to stimulate immune response [20-22]. Most of the studies show that immune stimulation over the first few days of life leads to changes in the cytokine production in the brain in response to LPS exposure in adulthood. Thus Bilbo and colleagues showed that neonatal E. coli infection at PND 4 led to an increase in IL-1β protein shortly after (1.5 hrs) adult LPS exposure. Interestingly this effect was specific for the hippocampus and parietal cortex [21], while hypothalamic IL-1β protein content was decreased in the same conditions [22]. These changes also correlated with ...
Recently, the statement neurons do not regenerate during adulthood has been challenged, and increasing evidence shows that mature brains are capable of regenerating neurons (Sugaya, 2005). Certain neurogenic regions of the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulbs display enhanced adult neurogenesis in response to neuronal damage (Gould and Tanapat, 1997; Parent, 2003; Koketsu et al., 2006; Gould, 2007). Recent studies have also demonstrated that increased neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus and ependyma of patients with chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as AD (Jin et al., 2004) and Huntingtons disease (Curtis et al., 2003).. Under normal conditions, little or no neurogenesis occurs in the non-neurogenic regions of the brain, such as the neocortex, after birth (Spalding et al., 2005; Bhardwaj et al., 2006) even though many glial progenitor cells are present in these regions (Gogate et al., 1994; Pincus et al., 1997; Roy et al., 1999; Chang et al., 2000; Arsenijevic et al., 2001; ...
Neethi explained the current understanding of neurogenesis in the Sub Granular Zone of DG and the Sub Ventricular Zone of lateral ventricles as well as the impact of neurotherapeutics on neurogenesis. Currently there is no consensus if neurogenesis plays a causal role or is an after-effect in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders through antidepressants or ECS ...
Project leader: Prof. Dr. M. Brand. The capacity to generate new neurons is lost in most areas of the adult mammalian brain, while most non-mammalian vertebrates, including teleosts, retain this ability in many areas of the CNS. Mechanisms of neurogenesis are generally highly conserved among vertebrates. However, the mechanisms that support neural precursor/stem cell activity in the teleost brain, or that prevent it in the mammalian brain, are at present largely unknown. Previously we characterized neural progenitor cell activity, lineage and differentiation of new neurons and glia in the adult zebrafish telencephalon and cerebellum. We identified different types of stem- and progenitor cells in the adult niches as well as molecular differences between them, and showed a functional requirement for Fgf and Bmp signaling. Using newly generated transgenic marker lines, FACS sorting methods and transcriptome analysis, we systematically determined shared and distinct molecular properties of these ...
The birth of new neurons (neurogenesis) does not end completely during development but continues throughout all life in two areas of the adult nervous system, i.e. subventricular zone and hippocampus. Recent research has shown that hippocampal neurogenesis is crucial for memory formation.
Organisms need to adapt to the ecological constraints in their habitat. How specific processes reflect such adaptations are difficult to model experimentally. We tested whether environmental shifts in oxygen tension lead to events in the adult newt brain that share features with processes occurring during neuronal regeneration under normoxia. By experimental simulation of varying oxygen concentrations, we show that hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation lead to neuronal death and hallmarks of an injury response, including activation of neural stem cells ultimately leading to neurogenesis. Neural stem cells accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) during re-oxygenation and inhibition of ROS biosynthesis counteracts their proliferation as well as neurogenesis. Importantly, regeneration of dopamine neurons under normoxia also depends on ROS-production. These data demonstrate a role for ROS-production in neurogenesis in newts and suggest that this role may have been recruited to the capacity to replace ...
In the first mouse study, when young and old mice were conjoined, allowing blood to flow between the two, the young mice showed a decrease in neurogenesis while the old mice showed an increase. When blood plasma was then taken from old mice and injected into young mice, there was a similar decrease in neurogenesis, and impairments in memory and learning.. Analysis of the concentrations of blood proteins in the conjoined animals revealed the chemokine (a type of cytokine) whose level in the blood showed the biggest change - CCL11, or eotaxin. When this was injected into young mice, they indeed showed a decrease in neurogenesis, and this was reversed once an antibody for the chemokine was injected. Blood levels of CCL11 were found to increase with age in both mice and humans.. The chemokine was a surprise, because to date the only known role of CCL11 is that of attracting immune cells involved in allergy and asthma. It is thought that most likely it doesnt have a direct effect on neurogenesis, ...
The importance of adult neurogenesis has only recently been accepted, resulting in a completely new field of investigation within stem cell biology. The regulation and functional significance of adult neurogenesis is currently an area of highly active research. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as potential modulators of adult neurogenesis. GPCRs represent a class of proteins with significant clinical importance, because approximately 30% of all modern therapeutic treatments target these receptors. GPCRs bind to a large class of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. Besides their typical role in cellular communication, GPCRs are expressed on adult neural stem cells and their progenitors that relay specific signals to regulate the neurogenic process. This review summarizes the field of adult neurogenesis and its methods and specifies the roles of various GPCRs and their signal transduction pathways that are involved in the regulation ...
In the adult SGZ, both type 1 and type 2 cells (radial and nonradial glia-like cells) can give rise to intermediate TAPs, which in turn generate neuroblasts (Figure 2). Immature neurons then migrate into the inner granule cell layer and differentiate into dentate granule cells in the hippocampus, followed by dendrites extensions and axonal projections towards CA3 regions [14]. New neurons eventually incorporate into existing neuronal circuitry through a stereotypic synaptic integration [15]. Initially, these adult-born neurons received tonic activation by ambient GABA released from surrounding interneurons [16,17]. Later on, they started to receive GABAergic synaptic inputs, followed by glutamatergic inputs ([17] [18]Overstreet-Wadiche et al., 2006b) and mossy fiber synaptic outputs to CA3 neurons [19]. During specific differentiation stages, adult-born neurons were found to display higher excitability and ehanced synaptic plasticity comparing to granule cells that already exhisted in the ...
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The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is uncertain,[28] but there is some evidence that hippocampal adult neurogenesis is important for learning andmemory.[29] Multiple mechanisms for the relationship between increased neurogenesis and improved cognition have been suggested, including computational theories to demonstrate that new neurons increase memory capacity,[30] reduce interference between memories,[31] or add information about time to memories.[32]Experiments aimed at ablating neurogenesis have proven inconclusive, but several studies have proposed neurogenic-dependence in some types of learning,[33] and others seeing no effect.[34] Studies have demonstrated that the act of learning itself is associated with increased neuronal survival.[35] However, the overall findings that adult neurogenesis is important for any kind of learning are equivocal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disc1 Variation Leads to Specific Alterations in Adult Neurogenesis. AU - Chandran, Jayanth S. AU - Kazanis, Ilias. AU - Clapcote, Steven J. AU - Ogawa, Fumiaki. AU - Millar, J Kirsty. AU - Porteous, David J. AU - Ffrench-Constant, Charles. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk factor for a spectrum of neuropsychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. Here we use two missense Disc1 mouse mutants, described previously with distinct behavioural phenotypes, to demonstrate that Disc1 variation exerts differing effects on the formation of newly generated neurons in the adult hippocampus. Disc1 mice carrying a homozygous Q31L mutation, and displaying depressive-like phenotypes, have fewer proliferating cells while Disc1 mice with a homozygous L100P mutation that induces schizophrenia-like phenotypes, show changes in the generation, placement and maturation of newly generated neurons in the ...
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The majority of cells that build the nervous system of animals are generated early in embryonic development in a process called neurogenesis. Although the vertebrate nervous system is much more complex than that of insects, the underlying principles of neurogenesis are intriguingly similar. In both …
We previously reported that the dried peel powder of Citrus kawachiensis, one of the citrus products of Ehime, Japan, exerted anti-inflammatory effects in the brain of a lipopolysaccharide-injected systemic inflammation animal model. Inflammation is one of the main mechanisms underlying aging in the brain; therefore, we herein evaluated the anti-inflammatory and other effects of the dried peel powder of C. kawachiensis in the senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) model. The C. kawachiensis treatment inhibited microglial activation in the hippocampus, the hyper-phosphorylation of tau at 231 of threonine in hippocampal neurons, and ameliorated the suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus ...
Neurogenesis continues through the adult life of mice in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, but its function remains unclear. Measuring cellular proliferation in the hippocampus of 719 outbred heterogeneous stock mice revealed a highly significant correlation with the proportions of CD8+ versus CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets. This correlation reflected shared genetic loci, with the exception of the H-2Ea locus that had a dominant influence on T cell subsets but no impact on neurogenesis. Analysis of knockouts and repopulation of TCRα-deficient mice by subsets of T cells confirmed the influence of T cells on adult neurogenesis, indicating that CD4+ T cells or subpopulations thereof mediate the effect. Our results reveal an organismal impact, broader than hitherto suspected, of the natural genetic variation that controls T cell development and homeostasis.
Neurogenesis has been the subject of active research in recent years and many authors have explored the phenomenology of the process, its regulation and its purported purpose in both the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In the adult SVZ, type-B astrocytes that are present close to endothelial cells act as slowly dividing neural stem cells, capable of generating a progeny of type-A neuroblast precursors [1] through a rapidly proliferating type-C cell intermediate. Type-A neuroblasts then migrate in a unique fashion to the olfactory bulb (OB) along a path known as the rostral migratory stream (RMS), which is large (of the order of millimetres) in comparison with the size of each individual cell (of the order of microns) [2]. These neuronal precursors migrate in chains along the RMS, which is ensheathed by astrocytic processes and outlined by blood vessels [3-5]. After migrating through the RMS, these type-A neuroblasts arrive at the centre of the OB and then move ...
Learn how neurogenesis occurs, how neurons can migrate to where theyre needed in the brain, and what lifestyle factors inhibit and promote neurogenesis.
The life-long generation of new neurons from radial glia-like neural stem cells (NSCs) is achieved through a stereotypic developmental sequence that requires precise regulatory mechanisms to prevent exhaustion or uncontrolled growth of the stem cell
Generation of new neurons is a tightly regulated process that involves several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Among them, a metabolic switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, together with mitochondrial remodeling, has emerged as crucial actors of neurogenesis. However, although accumu …
New study establishes neurogenesis in the hippocampi of elderly human brains and in brains of patients with mild cognitive impairments and Alzheimers disease
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Adult neurogenesis, mental health, and mental illness: Hope or hype?. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Neurogenesis and Brain Repair Lab of Mi Hyeon Jang at Mayo Clinic: Contact Dr. Jang for information about her research or collaboration opportunities.
The polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme metabolizes psychoactive compounds and is expressed in the adult liver and fetal brain. Previously, we demonstrated that the absence of CYP2C19 is associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in 1472 Swedes. Conversely, transgenic mice carrying the human CYP2C19 gene (2C19TG) have shown an anxious phenotype and decrease in hippocampal volume and adult neurogenesis. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine whether the 2C19TG findings could be translated to humans, (2) evaluate the usefulness of the 2C19TG strain as a tool for preclinical screening of new antidepressants and (3) provide an insight into the molecular underpinnings of the 2C19TG phenotype ...
... has been best characterized in model organisms such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Neurogenesis in ... Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, the neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSCs). It occurs in ... Neurogenesis can be a complex process in some mammals. In rodents for example, neurons in the central nervous system arise from ... In contrast, neurogenesis in humans generally begins around gestational week (GW) 10 and ends around GW 25 with birth about GW ...
Concise introduction to neurogenesis from Wellesley College Comprehensive website on neurogenesis from Lafayette College Early ... The functional relevance of adult neurogenesis is uncertain, but there is some evidence that hippocampal adult neurogenesis is ... In a mouse model, plasma levels of these chemokines correlate with reduced neurogenesis, suggesting that neurogenesis may be ... Also in the early 1990s hippocampal neurogenesis was demonstrated in non-human primates and humans. More recently, neurogenesis ...
... is the role that epigenetics (hertitable characteristics that do not involve changes in ... Ji F, Lv X, Jiao J (February 2013). "The role of microRNAs in neural stem cells and neurogenesis". Journal of Genetics and ... Neurogenesis is the mechanism for neuron proliferation and differentiation. It entails many different complex processes which ... Neurogenesis continues after development well through adulthood. Growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta (GADD45b) is ...
Freitas HR, Reis RA (February 2017). "7R activation on Müller glia". Neurogenesis. 4 (1): e1283188. doi:10.1080/23262133.2017. ...
Neurogenesis. 4 (1): e1283188. doi:10.1080/23262133.2017.1283188. PMC 5305167. PMID 28229088. Noctor G, Foyer CH (June 1998). " ...
"Neurogenesis in Birds". Neurogenesis. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved August 11, 2012. Dethier, V. G. ( ... Canaries have been extensively used in research to study neurogenesis, or the birth of new neurons in the adult brain, and also ...
Adult Neurogenesis. Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 66-78. ISBN 978-0-19-517971-2 Reynolds, Brent A.; Samuel Weiss (27 March ...
2006). "Hippocampal neurogenesis: opposing effects of stress and antidepressant treatment". Hippocampus. 16 (3): 239-49. doi: ... Newton, S.S.; Duman, RS (2005). "Regulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis in depression". Curr Neurovasc Res. 1 (3): 261-7. ... Perera, T.D.; Lisanby, SH (2000). "Neurogenesis and depression". Journal of Psychiatric Practice. 6 (6): 322-333. doi:10.1097/ ...
This process is also referred to as adult neurogenesis. While rapid neurogenesis was known to occur in the early stages of life ... This research revealed some degree of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb of rats, and paved the way for ... Goldman, Steven (1999). "Adult neurogenesis: From canaries to the clinic". Journal of Neurobiology. 36 (2): 267-286. doi: ... Joseph, Altman; Das, GD (1965). "Autoradiographic and Histological Evidence of Postnatal Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats". ...
A pioneer of neurogenesis research, his work refuted the classic idea that no new nerve cells are born in the adult mammalian ... Kaplan, MS, "Neurogenesis in the Three Month Old Rat Visual Cortex," Journal of Comparative Neurology, 195: 323-338, 1981. ... His research using light and electron microscopy suggested that neurogenesis occurs in the brain of adult mammals, but his ... Kaplan, MS, "Environmental Complexity Stimulates Visual Cortex Neurogenesis: Death of a Dogma and a Research Career" Trends in ...
By 1999, Rakic admitted that neurogenesis was real. To that end he published a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy ... Gould, E; McEwen, BS; Tanapat, P; Galea, LA; Fuchs, E (1 April 1997). "Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult tree ... She was an early investigator of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a research area that continues to be controversial. In ... Heather A. Cameron reported on adrenal steroid control of adult neurogenesis in rat dentate gyrus. Additionally, her work has ...
Carletti B, Rossi F (February 2008). "Neurogenesis in the cerebellum". The Neuroscientist. 14 (1): 91-100. doi:10.1177/ ...
List of pathologists Gerd Kempermann MD (2001). Adult Neurogenesis (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 616. ISBN 978-0-19- ...
... s are born during the earliest stages of cerebellar neurogenesis. Neurogenin2, together with neurogenin1, are ... Carletti B, Rossi F (2008). "Neurogenesis in the cerebellum". Neuroscientist. 14 (1): 91-100. doi:10.1177/1073858407304629. ...
Monje, Michelle (April 2003). "Radiation injury and neurogenesis". Current Opinion in Neurology. 16 (2): 129-134. doi:10.1097/ ... Monje, Michelle (2003). "Inflammatory blockade restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis". Science. 302 (5651): 1760-1765. ...
... growth factors and adult hippocampal neurogenesis". Neurogenesis and Neural Plasticity. Current Topics in Behavioral ... It is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier and is associated with neurogenesis, specifically in the mouse dentate gyrus ...
On a whole, neurogenesis is regulated both by many varied regulatory pathways in the CNS as well as several other factors, from ... While adult neurogenesis is up-regulated in the hippocampus in patients with these diseases, whether its effects are ... Neurogenesis in the adult brain is often associated with diseases that deteriorate the CNS, like Huntington's disease, ... This connection led researches to postulate that depression could be the result of changes in levels of neurogenesis in the ...
Tis21-GFP has been used as a neurogenic marker because it is not expressed until neurogenesis begins, is present in almost all ... Tirone F, Farioli-Vecchioli S, Micheli L, Ceccarelli M, Leonardi L (2013). "Genetic control of adult neurogenesis: interplay of ... Götz M, Huttner WB (October 2005). "The cell biology of neurogenesis". Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 6 (10): 777-88. ... "Dual control of neurogenesis by PC3 through cell cycle inhibition and induction of Math1". The Journal of Neuroscience. 24 (13 ...
"Neurogenic genes and vertebrate neurogenesis". Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 6 (1): 3-10. doi:10.1016/S0959-4388(96)80002-X. PMID ...
Mazarati A, Lu X, Shinmei S, Badie-Mahdavi H, Bartfai T (2004). "Patterns of seizures, hippocampal injury and neurogenesis in ... It may also promote neurogenesis. Galanin is predominantly an inhibitory, hyperpolarizing neuropeptide and as such inhibits ... increase in the concentrations of galanin are also believed to be for neuroprotective reasons and lead to promoted neurogenesis ...
Wu HH, Ivkovic S, Murray RC, Jaramillo S, Lyons KM, Johnson JE, Calof AL (January 2003). "Autoregulation of neurogenesis by ... Other studies in mice suggest that GDF11 is involved in mesodermal formation and neurogenesis during embryonic development. ... while repairing neurogenesis in the aged brain. GDF11 gene transfer alleviates HFD-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin ...
Following sensory neurogenesis, differentiation occurs, and two types of nociceptors are formed. They are classified as either ... They form late during neurogenesis. Earlier forming cells from this region can become non-pain sensing receptors, either ...
In the adult brain, the endocannabinoid system facilitates the neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells. In the subgranular ... Christie BR, Cameron HA (2006). "Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus". Hippocampus. 16 (3): 199-207. doi:10.1002/hipo.20151. ... "Cannabinoids promote embryonic and adult hippocampus neurogenesis and produce anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects". ...
Later studies in early Drosophila neurogenesis provided some of the first indications of Notch's roll in cell-cell signaling, ... Lehmann R, Dietrich U, Jiménez F, Campos-Ortega JA (July 1981). "Mutations of early neurogenesis inDrosophila". Wilhelm Roux's ... Artavanis-Tsakonas S, Muskavitch MA, Yedvobnick B (April 1983). "Molecular cloning of Notch, a locus affecting neurogenesis in ... "On the phenotype and development of mutants of early neurogenesis inDrosophila melanogaster". Wilhelm Roux's Archives of ...
Rakic is also known for failing to identify adult neurogenesis in the primate cerebral cortex. Grass Foundation Award, 1985 ... "Profile: Pasko Rakic", Nature Medicine 11, 362 (2005) Rakic, P (1986-03-01). "Limits of neurogenesis in primates". Science. 227 ... Kornack, RD (2001-12-07). "Cell proliferation without neurogenesis in the adult primate neocortex". Science. 294 (5549): 2127- ...
Okada Y (1983). "Neurogenesis of evoked magnetic fields". In Williamson SH, Romani GL, Kaufman L, Modena I (eds.). Biomagnetism ...
Neurogenesis primarily occurs in the embryo of most organisms. Adult neurogenesis can occur and studies of the age of human ... Neurogenesis largely ceases during adulthood in most areas of the brain. Neurons are the primary components of the nervous ... Wang Z, Tang B, He Y, Jin P (March 2016). "DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis". Epigenomics. 8 (3): 401-14. doi:10.2217/ ... Neurons are born through the process of neurogenesis, in which neural stem cells divide to produce differentiated neurons. Once ...
For example, in neurogenesis, a subpopulation of cells from the ectoderm segregate from other cells and further specialize to ... Hartenstein, Volker; Stollewerk, Angelika (2015-02-23). "The Evolution of Early Neurogenesis". Developmental Cell. 32 (4): 390- ...
Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons are generated from neural stem cells and progenitor cells. Neurons are 'post- ... Neurogenesis also occurs in specific parts of the adult brain. Axon guidance KCC2 Pioneer neuron Neural Darwinism Brain ... Rash, BG; Ackman, JB; Rakic, P (February 2016). "Bidirectional radial Ca(2+) activity regulates neurogenesis and migration ... Wang, Zhiqin; Tang, Beisha; He, Yuquan; Jin, Peng (March 2016). "DNA methylation dynamics in neurogenesis". Epigenomics. 8 (3 ...
He is a researcher in developmental biology known for his studies on neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster neural stem cell ... Doe, CQ; Goodman, CS (September 1985). "Early events in insect neurogenesis. II. The role of cell interactions and cell lineage ...
Neurogenesis in other organisms[edit]. Neurogenesis has been best characterized in model organisms such as the fruit fly ... Main article: Adult neurogenesis. Neurogenesis can be a complex process in some mammals. In rodents for example, neurons in the ... although their period of cortical neurogenesis does not end until a few days after birth.[9] In contrast, neurogenesis in ... Substance-induced neurogenesis[edit]. *DMT: In September 2020, an in vitro and in vivo study showed that DMT present in the ...
"It will be important for them to knock down neurogenesis in a mouse and show that [this] signal disappears to confirm the ... The Birth of a Brain Cell: Scientists Witness Neurogenesis. New method allows researchers to pinpoint young nerve cells in the ... "In other patients, it could show us how neurogenesis is related to the course of diseases such as depression, bipolar disorder ... They then passed an electric current through the animals brains; electric currents induce neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a ...
The neurogenesis assay developed by the Thuret Group has also been used to study other memory and learning-affected conditions ... Neurogenesis encompasses the stages of cells birth, proliferation (cell growth and division), differentiation (stem cell ... Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in vitro is modulated by dietary-related endogenous factors and associated with depression in ... In this study, researchers from the Thuret Group looked at neurogenesis in the hippocampus - a part of the brain primarily ...
Notably, disrupted neurogenesis in TopBP1-depleted tissues was substantially rescued by inactivation of p53 but not of ATM. Our ... The rapid proliferation of progenitors during neurogenesis requires a stringent genomic maintenance program to ensure ... Thus, TopBP1 is crucial for maintaining genome integrity in the early progenitors that drive neurogenesis. ... Figure 6: TopBP1 deficiency during neurogenesis results in DNA strand break accumulation in cortical progenitors.. ...
Neurogenesis is integrated with neuronal migration to ensure proper development of the cerebral cortex. Reporting in Neuron, ... Rnd-ing up RhoA activity to link neurogenesis with steps in neuronal migration Dev Cell. 2011 Apr 19;20(4):409-10. doi: 10.1016 ... Neurogenesis is integrated with neuronal migration to ensure proper development of the cerebral cortex. Reporting in Neuron, ...
1999b) Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:13427-13431, ... 2006) Type-2 cells as link between glial and neuronal lineage in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Glia 54:805-814, doi:10.1002/ ... 2003) VEGF is necessary for exercise-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Eur J Neurosci 18:2803-2812, doi:10.1111/j.1460- ... 1999a) Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nat Neurosci 2:266-270, doi: ...
Neurogenesis expands the sound of modular analog and digital synthesizers into a bright and dynamic landscape, layered with ... Neurogenesis is his second release in that wholly oppressive year designated 2020, and the musics very vibrancy runs in stark ... I got back to work on Neurogenesis in June, and finished in late October. I had specific ideas for the artwork, and John Bergin ... Neurogenesis expands the sound of modular analog and digital synthesizers into a bright and dynamic landscape, layered with ...
In contrast to many other mammals, cetaceans have relatively small hippocampi that appear to lack adult neurogenesis.. Title. ... Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the birth, migration and integration of new neurons, is thought to contribute to hippocampal ... Animals, Cetacea, Hippocampus, Linear Models, Mammals, Microtubule-Associated Proteins, Neurogenesis, Neurons, Neuropeptides, ... In contrast to many other mammals, cetaceans have relatively small hippocampi that appear to lack adult neurogenesis.. ...
HRLs History of the Future Podcast focuses on the famed Hughes Research facilitys past and HRLs present advancements in science and technology ...
Losartan improves memory, neurogenesis and cell motility in transgenic Alzheimers mice Journal Article Overview abstract * ... Losartan increased neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro and improved migratory properties of astrocytes isolated from adult ... However, their beneficial effects on memory deficits, cholinergic activity, neurogenesis and Amyloid beta (Aβ) clearance reveal ...
We now show that proneural proteins promote neurogenesis by upregulating Sox21 expression. These data establish a key role for ... The HMG-box transcription factors Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3 (Sox1-3) have previously been shown to suppress neurogenesis by ... yet the mechanisms underlying neurogenesis are not well established. ... It is shown that proneural proteins promote neurogenesis by upregulating Sox21 expression, establishing a key role for Sox21 in ...
Neurobiology of zinc and its role in neurogenesis. ... especially in neurogenesis in adults. Neurogenesis is a ... Numerous researchers are working on neurogenesis, however, there is a paucity of knowledge about neurogenesis, ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Apoptotic : CK(2905) : AC(1672), Neurogenesis : CK(215) : AC(109), Neuroprotective Agents : CK( ... This article reviews the existing knowledge on the role of Zn and its importance in neurogenesis. ...
This work evaluated the effect of ex situ management on neurogenesis (cell proliferation in the dorsal and medial ventricular ... Together, the results suggest that ex-situ incubation in hatcheries is related to a slowing down of neurogenesis, ovariogenesis ... This work evaluated the effect of ex-situ management on neurogenesis (cell proliferation in the dorsal and medial ventricular ... Negative Effects on Neurogenesis, Ovariogenesis, and Fitness in Sea Turtle Hatchlings Associated to ex situ Incubation ...
August 19, 2022. UIC scientists discover method for restoring memory loss from Alzheimers disease Stimulating brain stem cells to produce new neurons could lead to promising therapies.. ...
... which impairs neurogenesis and olfactory memory. Adipose transplantation restores lipid metabolic homeostasis and neurogenesis ... accompanied by decreased neurogenesis in adult SVZ, diminished new neuron formation in the olfactory bulb, and impaired ... mice and their effect on adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory function. It was found that KO mice ... concomitant with restoration of the SVZ neurogenesis and olfactory function. Mechanistically, PKCα was the potential mediator ...
Toll and TLR function in inflammation and neurogenesis. Add to your list(s) Download to your calendar using vCal ... University of Cambridge , , Immunology in Pathology , Toll and TLR function in inflammation and neurogenesis ...
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPS) to identify alterations of neurogenesis associated with autism * About this project ...
Neurogenesis occurs even in females that mate with sterile males. These findings imply that forebrain olfactory neurogenesis ... Neurogenesis occurs in the olfactory system of the adult brain throughout life, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, but its ... Neurogenesis occurs even in females that mate with sterile males. These findings imply that forebrain olfactory neurogenesis ... Pregnancy-Stimulated Neurogenesis in the Adult Female Forebrain Mediated by Prolactin *Shingo, Tetsuro ...
The aim of my project is to identify the mechanisms of cortical neurogenesis that further have crucial implications for our ... In this unique model of temporal neurogenesis, I will test candidate genes such as the transcription factors FoxG1, Sp8 (both ... Identification of mechanisms controlling temporal neurogenesis in the cortex using an embryonic stem cells-based model. ... Chinmo affecting temporal neurogenesis in drosophila), using an inducible system of gene expression. By microarrays experiments ...
Award Type: Invited Talk. Awarding Entity: UC Irvine Center for Neurobiology of Learning and Memory Spring Meeting. Award Date: May 1, 2014. ...
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 andRET: from neoplasia to neurogenesis Message subject: (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Play neurogenesis_psy and discover followers on SoundCloud , Stream tracks, albums, playlists on desktop and mobile. ... neurogenesis_psys tracks. Psydemo 2015 (DJ set) by neurogenesis_psy. published on 2015-09-17T04:27:30Z. Neurogenesis - Time ... Neurogenesis - Flux Capacity by neurogenesis_psy. published on 2014-01-19T20:14:54Z. Endogenic - Connection by neurogenesis_psy ... Neurogenesis - Metacosm by neurogenesis_psy. published on 2013-10-29T03:48:41Z. *neurogenesis_psys likes ...
This research was divided in three projects: a description of the developing brain using different markers of neurogenesis and ... I found that there are sex-specific changes in neurogenesis and myelination over song development that differ between the ... Diez, Adriana, "Developmental neurogenesis and myelination of songbird brains: sex differences, hormones and social effects" ( ... This research was divided in three projects: a description of the developing brain using different markers of neurogenesis and ...
cSox3 expression and neurogenesis in the epibranchial placodes. 2001, Pubmed Abu-Elmagd, cSox3 expression and neurogenesis in ... Vertebrate neurogenesis is counteracted by Sox1-3 activity. 2003, Pubmed Carruthers, Depletion of the cell-cycle inhibitor p27( ... Sox1 acts through multiple independent pathways to promote neurogenesis. 2004, Pubmed Kim, NeuroD-null mice are deaf due to a ... Secondary neurogenesis in the brain of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, as revealed by PCNA, Delta-1, Neurogenin- ...
Seminars and Events at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) and Vienna Biocenter (VBC).
Neurogenesis in an adult avian song nucleus is reduced by decreasing caspase-mediated apoptosis. Submitted by Eliot A.- ... Home » Neurogenesis in an adult avian song nucleus is reduced by decreasing caspase-mediated apoptosis ... Neurogenesis in an adult avian song nucleus is reduced by decreasing caspase-mediated apoptosis. ... Much remains unknown, however, about the mechanistic interaction between neuron death and neurogenesis in adult vertebrates. In ...
Parvalbumin interneurons mediate neuronal circuitry-neurogenesis coupling in the adult hippocampus. Juan Song, Jiaqi Sun, ... Parvalbumin interneurons mediate neuronal circuitry-neurogenesis coupling in the adult hippocampus. In: Nature neuroscience. ... Parvalbumin interneurons mediate neuronal circuitry-neurogenesis coupling in the adult hippocampus. / Song, Juan; Sun, Jiaqi; ... Parvalbumin interneurons mediate neuronal circuitry-neurogenesis coupling in the adult hippocampus. Nature neuroscience. 2013; ...
Here, cortical neurogenesis in FXS is reviewed and the putative contribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to defects of ... There is evidence that FMRP is involved in neurogenesis. FMRP is widely expressed throughout the embryonic brain development ... Cortical neurogenesis in fragile X syndrome. Front. Biosci. (Schol Ed) 2016, 8(1), 160-168. ...
  • electric currents induce neurogenesis in the hippocampus, a forebrain structure that is one of two sites (the other being the subventricular zone) where new neurons are believed to arise. (
  • In this study, researchers from the Thuret Group looked at neurogenesis in the hippocampus - a part of the brain primarily associated with learning and memory and the shrinkage of which has been associated with depression. (
  • The cetacean hippocampus lacks staining for doublecortin in the dentate gyrus and thus shows no clear signs of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. (
  • This lack of evidence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, along with the small hippocampus, questions current assumptions regarding cognitive abilities associated with hippocampal function in the cetaceans. (
  • These anatomical features of the cetacean hippocampus may be related to the lack of postnatal sleep, causing a postnatal cessation of hippocampal neurogenesis. (
  • Sox21 controls hippocampal adult neurogenesis via transcriptional repression of the Hes5 gene, a downstream effector of Sox21 at the point where the Notch and Sox pathways intersect to control the number of neurons in the adult hippocampus. (
  • One hypothesis is that adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus enables spatial pattern separation, allowing animals to distinguish between similar stimuli. (
  • The scientists concluded that neurogenesis does occur in the adult primate hippocampus and olfactory bulbs, but found no evidence of new nerve cell growth in the neocortex. (
  • In 1998, Princeton University scientists and others announced that they had observed neurogenesis in the hippocampus and olfactory bulbs of the adult primate brain. (
  • Later, researchers at the Salk Institute reported on neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult human brains. (
  • The next logical challenge for scientists is to discover why and how neurogenesis occurs in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. (
  • The pathogenesis of these deficits remains unknown, but may involve reduced neurogenesis within the hippocampus. (
  • Since the hippocampus plays a central role in processing new memories and is severely affected in AD, better understanding of the ADAM10 regulators of neurogenesis will highlight the opportunities for enhancing the expression and/or activity of the ADAM10 as a therapeutic target by manipulating neurogenesis in the brain. (
  • While it has been hypothesized that adult neurogenesis (NG) plays a role in the encoding of temporal information at long time-scales, the temporal relationship of immature cells to the highly rhythmic network activity of the hippocampus has been largely unexplored. (
  • Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. (
  • Evidence is accumulating that many mental health conditions are associated with reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. (
  • Interestingly, many anti-depressants -that were once thought to work through their effects on the serotonin system-are now known to increase neurogenesis in the hippocampus. (
  • Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, the neurons , are produced by neural stem cells (NSCs). (
  • Neurogenesis is most active during embryonic development and is responsible for producing all the various types of neurons of the organism, but it continues throughout adult life in a variety of organisms. (
  • The amount of time required to generate all the neurons of the CNS varies widely across mammals, and brain neurogenesis is not always complete by the time of birth. (
  • For the first time, researchers have developed a way to view stem cells in the brains of living animals, including humans-a finding that allows scientists to follow the process neurogenesis (the birth of neurons). (
  • They found that late-life depression was associated with changes in neurogenesis - the process by which new neurons are formed - and discovered that diet may be driving these changes. (
  • Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, the birth, migration and integration of new neurons, is thought to contribute to hippocampal circuit plasticity to augment function. (
  • We evaluated hippocampal volume in relation to brain volume in 375 mammal species and examined 71 mammal species for the presence of adult hippocampal neurogenesis using immunohistochemistry for doublecortin, an endogenous marker of immature neurons that can be used as a proxy marker for the presence of adult neurogenesis. (
  • The generation of neurons constitutes the foundation of nervous system development, yet the mechanisms underlying neurogenesis are not well established. (
  • This will allow to look for gene signatures of cortical neurons generated from ES cells, and to identify other genes associated with cortical neurogenesis. (
  • Adult neurogenesis emerges as a tremendous form of plasticity with the continuous addition and loss of neurons in the adult brain. (
  • With this award, a number of important questions about the relationship between learning and neurogenesis will be answered: What do new neurons do once they are rescued from death? (
  • New neurons are born in the adult brain (called "adult neurogenesis") and this process is impaired in AD, suggesting that impaired cognitive function in AD might, at least, in part, be due to impaired neurogenesis in the adult brain. (
  • Adult brain contains discrete populations of stem cells that retain the capacity to generate new neurons through the process of adult neurogenesis. (
  • Neurogenesis is the natural process of the formation of new neurons, which can be induced through various technologies and techniques to treat disease or increase brain function in health individuals. (
  • CB1 affected the stages of adult neurogenesis that involve intermediate highly proliferative progenitor cells and the survival and maturation of new neurons. (
  • It involves a process called neurogenesis, which is the formation of new neurons in the brain (and elsewhere in the nervous system). (
  • Studies in other animals show convincingly that exercise leads to the creation of new hippocampal neurons (neurogenesis), with preliminary evidence suggesting this is also true in humans. (
  • Once considered impossible, neurogenesis (growth of new neurons) actually takes place in the brains of gamers. (
  • [2] For example, mice undergo cortical neurogenesis from about embryonic day (post-conceptional day) (E)11 to E17, and are born at about E19.5. (
  • [8] Ferrets are born at E42, although their period of cortical neurogenesis does not end until a few days after birth. (
  • The aim of my project is to identify the mechanisms of cortical neurogenesis that further have crucial implications for our understanding of pathological brain development and for the rational design of replacement therapies of neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Here, cortical neurogenesis in FXS is reviewed and the putative contribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to defects of FXS neurogenesis is discussed. (
  • The rate of neurogenesis and the type of neuron generated (broadly, excitatory or inhibitory) are principally determined by molecular and genetic factors. (
  • This abnormality was not seen in participants with a single occurrence of depression, suggesting that while late-life depression can affect neurogenesis , it is multiple incidents of depression that cause lasting effects in neuron function. (
  • It is suggested that the common themes of SoxB gene function across phylogeny lie in specifying developmental potential and, later on, in selectively controlling terminal differentiation programs of specific neuron types, but not in broadly controlling neurogenesis. (
  • It was found that KO mice presented an ectopic accumulation of lipid in the lateral ventricle, accompanied by decreased neurogenesis in adult SVZ, diminished new neuron formation in the olfactory bulb, and impaired olfactory-related memory. (
  • Much remains unknown, however, about the mechanistic interaction between neuron death and neurogenesis in adult vertebrates. (
  • Finally, we propose future directions in the field to decipher how host circuits can accommodate new neuron integration and to determine the impact of adult neurogenesis on global brain plasticity. (
  • Predicted to act upstream of or within positive regulation of neurogenesis and positive regulation of neuron differentiation. (
  • Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in vitro is modulated by dietary-related endogenous factors and associated with depression in a longitudinal ageing cohort study (DOI: 10.1038/s41380-022-01644-1) was published in Molecular Psychiatry . (
  • Huperzine A promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. (
  • SOX2 mutations are associated with defective hippocampal development and seizures in humans and impaired neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain. (
  • Evidence is provided that Sox11 is required for both embryonic and adult neurogenesis, and potential downstream target genes of Sox11 are identified using functional genomics. (
  • The brain size difference emerges very early during neurogenesis (between embryonic days 8.5 and 9.5), and remains roughly constant throughout development and adulthood. (
  • Using tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) 2 deficient ( Tph2 -deficient) mice that lack brain serotonin, we explored the relationship between serotonin signaling and exercise-induced neurogenesis. (
  • Surprisingly, Tph2 -deficient mice exhibit normal baseline hippocampal neurogenesis but impaired activity-induced proliferation. (
  • Young-adult [6 weeks of age, postnatal day (P) 42], adult (3 months of age, P80), and 1-year-old female Tph2 −/− mice, their Tph2 +/+ littermates, or C57BL/6N mice (as control for P42) were used to investigate the role of serotonin on proliferation and increased hippocampal neurogenesis following physical activity. (
  • Losartan increased neurogenesis in vivo and in vitro and improved migratory properties of astrocytes isolated from adult transgenic AD mice. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the systemic lipid metabolic abnormalities of Seipin knockout (KO) mice and their effect on adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory function. (
  • In the restorative study, we found that subcutaneous adipose tissue transplantation (AT) rescued the abnormality of peripheral metabolism in KO mice and ameliorated the ectopic lipid accumulation in SVZ, concomitant with restoration of the SVZ neurogenesis and olfactory function. (
  • New brain fitness research by a team at Columbia University isolates neurogenesis as a factor in improved pattern separation (in mice). (
  • To determine if acute changes translated into long-term alterations in neurogenesis, mice were given a single dose of 5 Gy, and 1 or 3 months later, proliferating cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2′- deoxyuridine (BrdU). (
  • Third, we will assess cognitive function to study the functional outcome of altered neurogenesis in the ADAM10 mice. (
  • In addition we used cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) deficient mice and treatment with CB1 antagonist AM251 in Nestin-GFP-reporter mice to investigate the role of the CB1 receptor in adult neurogenesis in detail. (
  • Low-level gestational lead exposure increases retinal progenitor cell proliferation and rod photoreceptor and bipolar cell neurogenesis in mice. (
  • Hericium erinaceus Improves Recognition Memory and Induces Hippocampal and Cerebellar Neurogenesis in Frail Mice during Aging. (
  • Among them, Zn has an essential role in neurogenesis. (
  • Although SOX2 is arguably a cornerstone of neural stem cell biology and plays an essential role in neurogenesis in the developing and adult brain, the mechanisms by which this protein regulates neuronal differentiation have remained unclear until now," said senior study author Alexey Terskikh, Ph.D. , associate professor in the Development, Aging, and Regeneration Program at Sanford-Burnham. (
  • [4] [5] Following RGC proliferation, neurogenesis involves a final cell division of the parent RGC, which produces one of two possible outcomes. (
  • Neurogenesis encompasses the stages of cells' birth, proliferation (cell growth and division), differentiation (stem cell undergoing a complex process to become a more specific type of cell), and cell death (this can occur at any stage as a method to control cell numbers). (
  • The rapid proliferation of progenitors during neurogenesis requires a stringent genomic maintenance program to ensure transmission of genetic fidelity. (
  • Voluntary wheel running has long been known to induce precursor cell proliferation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in rodents. (
  • This work evaluated the effect of ex situ management on neurogenesis (cell proliferation in the dorsal and medial ventricular zones, neuronal integration in the dorsomedial and medial cortices), ovary cell proliferation, body size (mass and length) and self-righting ability. (
  • Neurogenesis is integrated with neuronal migration to ensure proper development of the cerebral cortex. (
  • The role of Sox21 is investigated during the progression of neurogenesis in the chick spinal cord and it is found that Sox1-3 proteins have the ability to maintain progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state and suppress neuronal differentiation. (
  • This elegant study highlights a synergistic relationship between proneural proteins and SOX21 in their regulation of neuronal formation, thereby providing an important advance in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in neurogenesis. (
  • Whereas the impact of synthetic cannabinoids on the neuronal progenitor cells has been described, there has been lack of information about the action of plant-derived extracts on neurogenesis. (
  • This research was divided in three projects: a description of the developing brain using different markers of neurogenesis and myelination (Chapter 2 & 3), a manipulation of acoustic experience (isolation and late tutoring) (Chapter 4), and a manipulation of testosterone during song development (Chapter 5). (
  • Effects of Eya1 and Six1 knockdown on markers of neurogenesis and placodal ectoderm . (
  • I found that there are sex-specific changes in neurogenesis and myelination over song development that differ between the posterior motor and anterior forebrain pathway of the vocal control circuit. (
  • Three months after irradiation, changes in neurogenesis were associated with spatial memory retention deficits determined using the Morris water maze. (
  • Fred Gage, a genetics professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, Calif., and co-author a 1998 report in Nature Medicine that announced the discovery of neurogenesis in the adult human brain, praises the new approach. (
  • The discovery of neurogenesis has transformed the way we think about the adult brain and generated much interest in the public, especially educators of children and young adults. (
  • These findings imply that forebrain olfactory neurogenesis may contribute to adaptive behaviors in mating and pregnancy. (
  • An oblique view on the role of mitotic spindle orientation in vertebrate neurogenesis. (
  • With a number of recent news articles referring to neuroplasticity (also called brain plasticity), and neurogenesis interchangeably (they aren't the same thing), we thought it would be useful to highlight the differences between the two terms and offer a couple of working definitions: Curious about your brain? (
  • Adult neurogenesis is a particular example of brain plasticity that is partially modulated by the endocannabinoid system. (
  • Due to its physiological role in brain plasticity the endocannabinoid system might contribute to the control of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in health and disease. (
  • 2011) Nucleotides affect neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation of mouse fetal midbrain-derived neural precursor cells. (
  • Neurogenesis occurs in the olfactory system of the adult brain throughout life, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, but its physiological regulation is not understood. (
  • This work in humans strengthened the conclusions from earlier work the earlier studies -- neurogenesis does occur in the adult brain. (
  • Neurogenesis in the adult brain plays a critical role in learning and memory, adaptation to novel environments, and injury or disease. (
  • But the new study isolated neurogenesis from all of the other possible influences on the boost in pattern separation: "In addition to stimulating neurogenesis, these earlier methods exerted many other effects on the brain," said Dr. René Hen, PhD, lead researcher on the study and professor of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, in the Departments of Neuroscience and Psychiatry at Columbia University and the New York State Psychiatric Institute. (
  • [6] [7] The genes and mechanisms involved in regulating neurogenesis are the subject of intensive research in academic, pharmaceutical , and government settings worldwide. (
  • In this unique model of temporal neurogenesis, I will test candidate genes such as the transcription factors FoxG1, Sp8 (both affecting mammalian brain development through unknown mechanisms), and Chinmo homologues zBTB20-24 (Chinmo affecting temporal neurogenesis in drosophila), using an inducible system of gene expression. (
  • However, the molecular mechanisms that control this neurogenesis process have not been fully understood. (
  • However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of SOX2 in adult neurogenesis were previously unknown. (
  • The neurogenesis assay developed by the Thuret Group has also been used to study other memory and learning-affected conditions such as Alzheimer's, cognitive decline, and dementia. (
  • Neurogenesis is very useful for treating disease like Alzheimer's, and for people who suffered brain injury or psychological trauma. (
  • We investigated whether spatial pattern separation and other putative hippocampal functions of adult neurogenesis were altered in a novel genetic model of neurogenesis ablation in the rat. (
  • Meta-analysis of all published studies found no significant effects for ablation of adult neurogenesis on spatial memory, cue conditioning or ethological measures of anxiety. (
  • Developing neural tissues undergoes a period of neurogenesis followed by a period of gliogenesis. (
  • BrdU-birthdating and confocal studies confirmed the selective rod and bipolar cell increases and showed that the patterns of neurogenesis and gliogenesis were unaltered by GLE. (
  • The roles of SOX TFs in adult neurogenesis and brain homeostasis are outlined and whether impaired adult neuroGenesis, detected in neurodegenerative diseases, could be associated with deregulation of SoX proteins activities is discussed. (
  • Thus, planarians provide a powerful model to identify genes required for adult neurogenesis in vivo . (
  • However, their beneficial effects on memory deficits, cholinergic activity, neurogenesis and Amyloid beta (Aβ) clearance reveal significant interstudy variability. (
  • These data provide evidence that irradiation of young animals induces a long-term impairment of SGZ neurogenesis that is associated with hippocampal-dependent memory deficits. (
  • As it is currently impossible to observe neurogenesis in live humans, the researchers developed an assay where they incubate hippocampal stem cells with blood samples, allowing cells to receive signals from the blood. (
  • The researchers also demonstrated that changes in dietary factors may be driving these neurogenesis- associated changes specifically in those with late-life depression. (
  • Numerous researchers are working on neurogenesis, however, there is a paucity of knowledge about neurogenesis, especially in neurogenesis in adults. (
  • The researchers had boosted neurogenesis and shown improved pattern separation (pattern separation is the brain function that enables us to make fine distinctions, such as distinguishing between similar places, events and experiences). (
  • Here we took advantage of this new mouse model to directly test the action of serotonin and its role in activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis. (
  • In 1965, Altman and Das published their seminal article "Autoradiographic and histological evidence of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats" (J. Comp. (
  • First, we aim to investigate whether wild-type and/or ADAM10 mutations affect adult neurogenesis in our transgenic mouse models. (
  • How they regulate placodal neurogenesis, however, remains unclear. (
  • The function of adult neurogenesis in the rodent brain remains unclear. (
  • The source of this heterogeneity remains unclear and poses a challenge for studies of the function of adult neurogenesis. (
  • As outlined by Dr. Evan Snyder, [ 25 ] of Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, investigation of the perturbations occurring in developmentally less mature brains, such as those of children, may provide a temporal/spatial window on neurogenesis. (
  • Neurogenesis occurs even in females that mate with sterile males. (
  • Overall, this study demonstrates that Seipin deficiency leads to systemic lipid metabolism disorder, which impairs neurogenesis and olfactory memory. (
  • ADGRL3 genomic variation implicated in neurogenesis and ADHD links functional effects to the incretin polypeptide GIP. (
  • Adipose transplantation restores lipid metabolic homeostasis and neurogenesis via PKCα involved pathway. (
  • [9] In contrast, neurogenesis in humans generally begins around gestational week (GW) 10 and ends around GW 25 with birth about GW 38-40. (
  • The understanding of exercise-induced neurogenesis might offer preventive but also therapeutic opportunities in depression and age-related cognitive decline. (
  • Finally, we will also investigate whether increasing neurogenesis could be a therapeutic target in a mouse model of AD. (
  • Figure 5: Defective neurogenesis after Topbp1 inactivation requires p53 but not ATM signaling. (
  • Dr. Choi's team hypothesizes that ADAM10 also plays critical roles in adult neurogenesis, and they propose various animal and cell culture experiments to validate their hypothesis. (
  • Secondly, we will find mechanism(s) by how ADAM10 regulates adult neurogenesis using cell culture systems. (
  • Neurogenesis can be a complex process in some mammals. (
  • Neurogenesis is a multifactorial process and is regulated by many metal ions (e.g. (
  • Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of neurogenesis, the generation of cells in the nervous system. (
  • One of the most effective known technique of kickstarting the process of Neurogenesis is learning new sets of motor skills, but it can also be done through supplements, meditation, or other methods. (
  • However, their potential roles in adult neurogenesis or central nervous system (CNS) function are not well understood. (
  • After pinpointing their marker, the team ran two tests to determine the method's sensitivity and accuracy: First, they injected a bevy of stem cells into a rat's cerebral cortex, an outer brain layer where neurogenesis does not normally occur. (
  • The HMG-box transcription factors Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3 (Sox1-3) have previously been shown to suppress neurogenesis by maintaining neural cells in an undifferentiated state. (
  • This month scientists backed away from previous conclusions about neurogenesis -- that is, growth of new nerve cells -- when they found that nerve cells do not grow in the neocortex of adult primates. (
  • Understanding the fundamental mechanism of SOX2 function may inspire the design of pharmacological approaches to enhance adult neurogenesis as well as shed light on the potential function of SOX2 in cancer stem cells. (
  • Some studies have shown that berries can help improve cognitive function by reducing brain inflammation and stimulating neurogenesis and new nerve cells' growth. (