Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A prion disease found exclusively among the Fore linguistic group natives of the highlands of NEW GUINEA. The illness is primarily restricted to adult females and children of both sexes. It is marked by the subacute onset of tremor and ataxia followed by motor weakness and incontinence. Death occurs within 3-6 months of disease onset. The condition is associated with ritual cannibalism, and has become rare since this practice has been discontinued. Pathologic features include a noninflammatory loss of neurons that is most prominent in the cerebellum, glial proliferation, and amyloid plaques. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p773)
Subcellular structures found in nerve cell bodies and DENDRITES. They consist of granular endoplasmic reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) and RIBOSOMES.
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
The delicate interlacing threads, formed by aggregations of neurofilaments and neurotubules, coursing through the CYTOPLASM of the body of a NEURON and extending from one DENDRITE into another or into the AXON.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Type III intermediate filament proteins expressed mainly in neurons of the peripheral and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Peripherins are implicated in neurite elongation during development and axonal regeneration after injury.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
A serine-threonine kinase that plays important roles in CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL MIGRATION; and CELL DEATH of NERVE CELLS. It is closely related to other CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES but does not seem to participate in CELL CYCLE regulation.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Nerve terminal damage by beta-bungarotoxin: its clinical significance. (1/1047)

We report here original data on the biological basis of prolonged neuromuscular paralysis caused by the toxic phospholipase A2 beta-bungarotoxin. Electron microscopy and immunocytochemical labeling with anti-synaptophysin and anti-neurofilament have been used to show that the early onset of paralysis is associated with the depletion of synaptic vesicles from the motor nerve terminals of skeletal muscle and that this is followed by the destruction of the motor nerve terminal and the degeneration of the cytoskeleton of the intramuscular axons. The postjunctional architecture of the junctions were unaffected and the binding of fluorescein-isothiocyanate-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin to acetylcholine receptor was not apparently affected by exposure to beta-bungarotoxin. The re-innervation of the muscle fiber was associated by extensive pre- and post-terminal sprouting at 3 to 5 days but was stable by 7 days. Extensive collateral innervation of adjacent muscle fibers was a significant feature of the re-innervated neuromuscular junctions. These findings suggest that the prolonged and severe paralysis seen in victims of envenoming bites by kraits (elapid snakes of the genus Bungarus) and other related snakes of the family Elapidae is caused by the depletion of synaptic vesicles from motor nerve terminals and the degeneration of the motor nerve terminal and intramuscular axons.  (+info)

ELAV tumor antigen, Hel-N1, increases translation of neurofilament M mRNA and induces formation of neurites in human teratocarcinoma cells. (2/1047)

Human ELAV proteins are implicated in cell growth and differentiation via regulation of mRNA expression in the cytoplasm. In human embryonic teratocarcinoma (hNT2) cells transfected with the human neuronal ELAV-like protein, Hel-N1, neurites formed, yet cells were not terminally differentiated. Cells in which neurite formation was associated with Hel-N1 overexpression, also expressed increased levels of endogenous neurofilament M (NF-M) protein, which distributed along the neurites. However, steady-state levels of NF-M mRNA remained similar whether or not hNT2 cells were transfected with Hel-N1. These findings suggest that turnover of NF-M mRNA was not affected by Hel-N1 expression, despite the fact that Hel-N1 can bind to the 3' UTR of NF-M mRNA and was found directly associated with NF-M mRNA in transfected cells. Analysis of the association of NF-M mRNA with the translational apparatus in Hel-N1 transfectants showed nearly complete recruitment to heavy polysomes, indicating that Hel-N1 caused an increase in translational initiation. Our results suggest that the stability and/or translation of ARE-containing mRNAs can be regulated independently by the ELAV protein, Hel-N1, depending upon sequence elements in the 3' UTRs and upon the inherent turnover rates of the mRNAs that are bound to Hel-N1 in vivo.  (+info)

Deamidation and isoaspartate formation in smeared tau in paired helical filaments. Unusual properties of the microtubule-binding domain of tau. (3/1047)

An extensive loss of a selected population of neurons in Alzheimer's disease is closely related to the formation of paired helical filaments (PHFs). The most striking characteristic of PHFs upon Western blotting is their smearing. According to a previously described protocol (Morishima-Kawashima, M., Hasegawa, M., Takio, K., Suzuki, M., Titani, K., and Ihara, Y. (1993) Neuron 10, 1151-1160), smeared tau was purified, and its peptide map was compared with that of soluble (normal) tau. A CNBr fragment from soluble tau (CN5; residues 251-419 according to the 441-residue isoform) containing the microtubule-binding domain migrated at 15 and 18 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, whereas that from smeared tau exhibited two larger, unusually broad bands at approximately 30 and approximately 45 kDa, presumably representing dimers and trimers of CN5. In the peptide map of smeared tau-derived CN5, distinct peaks eluting at unusual locations were noted. Amino acid sequence and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that these distinct peptides bear isoaspartate at Asn-381 and Asp-387. Because no unusual peptides other than aspartyl or isoaspartyl peptide were found in the digests of smeared tau-derived CN5, it is likely that site-specific deamidation and isoaspartate formation are involved in its dimerization and trimerization and thus in PHF formation in vivo.  (+info)

Aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation in sensory neurons of rats with diabetic neuropathy. (4/1047)

Aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases, and in this study, two animal models of type 1 diabetes--the spontaneously diabetic BB rat and the streptozocin-induced diabetic rat--have been used to determine whether such a phenomenon is involved in the etiology of the symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy commonly associated with diabetes. There was a two- to threefold (P < 0.05) elevation of neurofilament phosphorylation in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of diabetic rats that was localized to perikarya of medium to large neurons using immunocytochemistry. Additionally, diabetes enhanced neurofilament M phosphorylation by 2.5-fold (P < 0.001) in sural nerve of BB rats. Neurofilaments are substrates of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, which includes c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) or stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2. Diabetes induced a significant three- to fourfold (P < 0.05) increase in phosphorylation of a 54-kDa isoform of JNK in DRG and sural nerve, and this correlated with elevated c-Jun and neurofilament phosphorylation. In diabetes, ERK phosphorylation was also increased in the DRG, but not in sural nerve. Immunocytochemistry showed that JNK was present in sensory neuron perikarya and axons. Motoneuron perikarya and peroneal nerve of diabetic rats showed no evidence of increased neurofilament phosphorylation and failed to exhibit phosphorylation of JNK. It is hypothesized that in sensory neurons of diabetic rats, aberrant phosphorylation of neurofilament may contribute to the distal sensory axonopathy observed in diabetes.  (+info)

Overexpression of alpha-internexin causes abnormal neurofilamentous accumulations and motor coordination deficits in transgenic mice. (5/1047)

alpha-Internexin is the first neuronal intermediate filament (IF) protein expressed in postmitotic neurons of the developing nervous system. In the adult, its expression is restricted to mature neurons in the CNS. To study the potential role of alpha-internexin in neurodegeneration, we have generated transgenic mice that overexpress rat alpha-internexin. The total levels of alpha-internexin expressed in the hemizygous and homozygous transgenic mice were approximately 2 and approximately 3 times the normal level, respectively. Overexpression of alpha-internexin resulted in the formation of cerebellar torpedoes as early as 1 month of age. These torpedoes are abnormal swellings of Purkinje cell axons that are usually seen in neurodegenerative diseases involving the cerebellum. EM studies showed accumulations of high levels of IFs and abnormal organelles in the torpedoes and soma of Purkinje cells, as well as in the large pyramidal neurons of the neocortex and in the ventral anterior and posteromedial nuclei of the thalamus. Behavioral tests demonstrate that these mice have a deficit in motor coordination as early as 3 months of age, consistent with the morphological neuronal changes. Our data further demonstrate that the neurofilamentous inclusions also lead to progressive loss of neurons in the aged transgenic mice. The motor coordination deficit and the loss of neurons are transgene dosage-dependent. These data yield direct evidence that high levels of misaccumulated neuronal IFs lead to neuronal dysfunction, progressive neurodegeneration, and ultimate loss of neurons. Moreover, the degrees of neuronal dysfunction and degeneration are proportional to the levels of misaccumulated neuronal IFs.  (+info)

Development of the chick olfactory nerve. (6/1047)

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) is produced and secreted by neurons dispersed throughout the septal-preoptic and anterior hypothalamic areas in adult birds and mammals. These neurons, essential for a functional brain-pituitary-gonadal axis, differentiate in the olfactory placode, the superior aspect of which forms the olfactory epithelium. To reach their final placement within the brain, GnRH neurons migrate out of the epithelium and along the olfactory nerve to the CNS. This nerve is essential for the entrance of GnRH neurons into the CNS. Due to the importance of the nerve for the proper migration of these neurons, we have used immunocytochemistry, DiI labeling and 1 microm serial plastic-embedded sections to characterize the nerve's earliest development in the embryonic chick (stages 17-21). Initially (stage 17) the zone between the placode and prosencephalon is a cellular mass contiguous with the placode. This cluster, known as epithelioid cells, is positive for some but not all neuronal markers studied. The epithelium itself is negative for all neuronal and glial markers at this early stage. By stage 18, the first neurites emerge from the epithelium; this was confirmed at stage 19 by examination of serial 1 microm plastic sections. There is sequential acquisition of immunoreactivity to neuronal markers from stage 18 to 21. The glial component of the nerve appears at stage 21. Axons originating from epithelium, extend to the border of the CNS as confirmed by DiI labeling at stage 21. Small fascicles have entered the CNS at this stage. As previously reported, GnRH neurons begin their migration between stages 20-21 and have also arrived at the border of the brain at stage 21. Despite the penetration of neurites from the olfactory nerve into the CNS, GnRH neurons pause at the nerve-brain junction until stage 29 (2 1/2 days later) before entering the brain. Subsequent studies will examine the nature of the impediment to continued GnRH neuronal migration.  (+info)

Claudin-11/OSP-based tight junctions of myelin sheaths in brain and Sertoli cells in testis. (7/1047)

Members of the newly identified claudin gene family constitute tight junction (TJ) strands, which play a pivotal role in compartmentalization in multicellular organisms. We identified oligodendrocyte-specific protein (OSP) as claudin-11, a new claudin family member, due to its sequence similarity to claudins as well as its ability to form TJ strands in transfected fibroblasts. Claudin-11/OSP mRNA was expressed in the brain and testis. Immunofluorescence microscopy with anti-claudin-11/OSP polyclonal antibody (pAb) and anti-neurofilament mAb revealed that in the brain claudin-11/OSP-positive linear structures run in a gentle spiral around neurofilament-positive axons. At the electron microscopic level, these linear structures were identified as the so-called interlamellar strands in myelin sheaths of oligodendrocytes. In testis, well-developed TJ strands of Sertoli cells were specifically labeled with anti-claudin-11/OSP pAb both at immunofluorescence and electron microscopic levels. These findings indicated that the interlamellar strands of oligodendrocyte myelin sheaths can be regarded as a variant of TJ strands found in many other epithelial cells, and that these strands share a specific claudin species, claudin-11/OSP, with those in Sertoli cells to create and maintain the repeated compartments around axons by oligodendrocytes.  (+info)

Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Erk1 and Erk2) cascade results in phosphorylation of NF-M tail domains in transfected NIH 3T3 cells. (8/1047)

Neurofilaments (NFs) are neuron-specific intermediate filaments, and are the major cytoskeletal component in large myelinated axons. Lysine-serine-proline (KSP) repeats in the tail domains of high molecular weight NF proteins (NF-M and NF-H) are extensively phosphorylated in vivo in the axon. This phosphorylation in the tail domain has been postulated to play an important role in mediating neuron-specific properties, including axonal caliber and conduction velocity. Recent studies have shown that the mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, Erk1 and Erk2) phosphorylate KSP motifs in peptide substrates derived from the NF-M and NF-H tail domains in vitro. However, it is not clear whether activation of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway is able to phosphorylate these domains in vivo. To answer this question, a constitutively active form of mitogen-activated Erk activating kinase (MEK1) was cotransfected with an NF-M expression construct into NIH 3T3 cells. The activated mutant, but not the dominant negative mutant, induced phosphorylation of NF-M. In addition, it was shown that epidermal growth factor, which induces the MAP kinase cascade in NIH 3T3 cells, also activated endogenous Erk1 and Erk2 and NF-M tail domain phosphorylation in the transfected cells. These results present direct evidence that in-vivo activation of Erk1 and Erk 2 is sufficient for NF-M tail domain phosphorylation in transfected cells.  (+info)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is able to enter from the periphery to the central nervous system, triggering neurocognitive impairment which can be asymptomatic, mild cognitive and motor impairment or in a few cases severe dementia. With the availability and efficacy of antiretroviral therapy, HIV patients have a better quality of life. However, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still prevail in near 50% of the treated patients. In this study, we used ELISA to measure neurofilament light chain (NF-L) and neopterin, as markers of neuronal injury and immune activation, respectively. We used plasma and cerebrospinal (CSF) samples obtained from HIV-seropositive (HIV+) patients (n=35) at different stages of HAND, compared to HIV-seronegative controls (n=10). HIV+ patients were subjected to standard laboratory tests (including viral load and CD4+ cell count) and neuropsychological tests (eight domains). Statistical tests included Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearmans ...
1. Recent examination of the hypothesis that distinctly phosphorylated NF-H isoforms exist in different types of neurons revealed that the extent of phosphorylation of the heavy neurofilament...
Neurofilaments (NF) are a key component of the neuronal cytoskeleton, and are responsible for providing structural support to the axon and regulating axon diameter. Mammalian neurofilaments are composed of three major subunits, classified based on molecular weight in SDS-PAGE: light (NF-L), 68-70 kDa; medium (NF-M), 145-160 kDa; and heavy (NF-H), 200-220 kDa. In humans, these proteins are encoded by the NEFL, NEFM, and NEFH genes, respectively. NF-M is also known as neurofilament, medium polypeptide; neurofilament, medium polypeptide 160kDa; NEF3, neurofilament 3, neurofilament triplet M protein, and 160 kDa neurofilament protein. NF-H is also known as neurofilament, heavy polypeptide; neurofilament, heavy polypeptide 200kDa; KIAA0845, neurofilament triplet H protein, and 200 kDa neurofilament protein.. ...
neuroaxonal damage is the pathological substrate of permanent disability in various neurological disorders. ... Here, we review what is known about the structure and function of neurofilaments, discuss analytical aspects and knowledge of age-dependent normal ranges of neurofilaments and provide a comprehensive overview of studies on neurofilament light chain as a marker of axonal injury in different neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative dementia, stroke, traumatic brain injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson disease ...
Uphaus T, Bittner S, Groschel S, Steffen F, Muthuraman M, Wasser K, Weber-Kruger M, Zipp F, Wachter R and Groschel K. Stroke. 2019 Sep 20:STROKEAHA119026410. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.026410
Our data support that DRE is associated with an expansion of the CD4 Tcell subset in the peripheral blood and with a shift toward a proinflammatory Th17/Th1 CD4 Tcell immune profile. Our results further show that pathological levels of sNfL are more frequent in DRE, supporting a potential neurodegen …
Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/. ...
GENETICS IN MEDICINE | NOVEMBER 26, 2020 Dang Do AN, Sinaii N, Masvekar RR, Baker EH, Thurm AE, Soldatos AG, Bianconi SE, Bielekova B and Porter FD. Genet
The transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a neurofilament light (NF-L) messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding protein. Abnormally increased levels of TDP-43 are detected in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and a downregulation of NF-L mRNA. However, links between NF-L and TDP-43 expressions are unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the deficiency of NF-L protein can result in alterations in TDP-43 localization or protein expression and whether this is altered with aging. There was a significant increase in TDP-43 protein levels in the cortex and lumbar spinal cord in 12-month-old NF-L knockout (NF-L KO) mice, compared with wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. However, there was no difference in either the phosphorylation of TDP-43 between WT and NF-L KO mice or the abnormal mislocalization of TDP-43 to the cytoplasm in NF-L KO animals. Our findings suggest that NF-L protein or mRNA may negatively affect the expression of TDP-43 in the central nervous ...
Several recent animal models have clearly demonstrated that axonal NFs are not essential for the survival of small animals (Eyer and Peterson, 1994; Ohara et al., 1993; Zhu et al., 1997). Yet the highly conserved nature of NF proteins suggests that they serve some important function. NFs have long been suspected to help specify the diameter of axons and to support their integrity (Hoffman et al., 1988) and these same animal models (Eyer and Peterson, 1994; Ohara et al., 1993; Zhu et al., 1997) have clearly shown that radial growth is impaired in axons lacking NFs. However, how NFs increase axon caliber and what role individual subunits play in this process remains to be clarified. Myelin-forming cells may also influence axonal diameter through affects on the amount and phosphorylation state of NF subunits (Cole et al., 1994; de Waegh et al., 1992; Hsieh et al., 1994; Nixon et al., 1994; Yin et al., 1998). Thus, NFs may function as effector proteins subject to a complex regulatory cross-talk ...
Research proven, mouse monoclonal NeurofilamentL antibody. Useful as a marker for neurons and neurogenesis. NF-L antibody can also be useful in the diagnostics of neurofilament accumulations seen in many neurological diseases, such as Lou Gehrigs disease or Alzheimers disease. Excellent for immunohistochemistry, immunofluorecence, western blotting and related applications. IF and WB images available.
Conclusions In ALS, increased pNF-H concentration in plasma, serum and CSF appears to be associated with faster disease progression. Factors affecting pNF-H levels or their detection in serum and plasma in relation to disease course may differ from those in CSF. Data raising the possibility that site of ALS onset (bulbar vs spinal) may influence pNF-H levels in peripheral blood seems noteworthy but requires confirmation. These data support further study of pNF-H in CSF, serum and plasma as a potential ALS biomarker.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cationic lipid-mediated NGF gene transfection increases neurofilament phosphorylation. AU - Yang, K.. AU - Xue, J. J.. AU - Qiu, Y. H.. AU - Perez-Polo, J. R.. AU - Whitson, J.. AU - Faustinella, F.. AU - Kampfl, A.. AU - Zhao, X.. AU - Iwamoto, Y.. AU - Mu, X. S.. AU - Clifton, G.. AU - Hayes, R. L.. PY - 1996/12/31. Y1 - 1996/12/31. N2 - We examined the effect of cationic lipid-mediated gene transfection of nerve growth factor (NGF) in primary septo-hippocampal cell cultures. Rat NGF cDNA was subcloned into a pUC19-based plasmid containing a CMV promoter. Two days after NGF gene transfection in primary cell cultures, ELISA confirmed increases in NGF protein secretion from transfected cells. To study the biological effect of cationic lipid-mediated NGF gene transfection, we analyzed the amount of neurofilament protein from NGF-transfected cell cultures. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses detected significant increases in the phosphorylated form of neurofilament ...
Biomarkers that can track disease onset and progression in autosomal dominant Alzheimers disease (ADAD) are needed. We investigate whether serum neurofilament light (NfL) concentration is associated with clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers in ADAD. We also evaluate serum NfL differences between clinical groups. Serum NfL was measured cross-sectionally in 60 individuals from ADAD families using an ultrasensitive immunoassay on the Single molecule array (Simoa) platform and longitudinally in an exploratory study in a subset of six mutation carriers. Spearman coefficients assessed associations between serum NfL and relevant measures. Differences between groups were evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Forty-two participants were mutation carriers: 22 symptomatic (SMC) and 20 asymptomatic (AMC). Eighteen subjects were non-carriers and cognitively normal (controls (CTR)). Serum NfL correlated with the estimated years from symptoms onset across mutation carriers (rho = 0.75, p | 0
The neurofilaments (NFs), the intermediate filaments of the neuronal cytoskeleton, provide mechanical stability to the cell. NFs are relatively scarce in the neuronal cell body and dendrites and are mainly distributed in the nerve axon. NFs have three types of subunits, NF-L (low), NF-M (medium), and NF-H (heavy). pNF-H contains a heavily phosphorylated carboxyl terminal sidearm domain which helps determine the interfilament spacing distances. pNF-H has high resistance to protease, so pNF-H released from damaged axons does not decompose but remains unchanged in the body.[7] pNF-H is specifically expressed in the neuronal body. Therefore, detection of pNF-H in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid could be a useful biomarker to evaluate neuronal damage.[5] The serum pNF-H level increases after injury and remains high for several days after injury in the spinal cord injury model.[8] In addition, pNF-H has been reported as a useful predictor after spinal cord injury.[3,4,10]. However, the value of ...
purpose. To study the time-dependent effects of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) on axonal transport and cytoskeleton proteins in the porcine optic nerve head.. methods. Fifteen pigs were used for this study. Rhodamine-β-isothiocyanate was injected into the vitreous of each eye to study axonal transport. IOP in the left eye was elevated to 40 to 45 mm Hg, and IOP in the right eye was maintained between 10 and 15 mm Hg. Cerebrospinal fluid pressure was also continually monitored. IOP was elevated for 3 hours (n = 7) or 12 hours (n = 8) before animal euthanatization. Antibodies to phosphorylated neurofilament heavy (NFHp), phosphorylation-independent neurofilament heavy (NFH), neurofilament light, neurofilament medium (NFM), microtubule, and microtubule-associated protein (MAP) were used to study the axonal cytoskeleton. Confocal microscopy was used to compare axonal transport and cytoskeleton change between control and high IOP eyes in different laminar regions and quadrants of the optic ...
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Description: Neurofilaments are a type of intermediate filament that serve as major elements of the cytoskeleton supporting the axon cytoplasm. They are the most abundant fibrillar components of the axon, being on average 3-10 times more frequent than axonal microtubules. Neurofilaments (10nm in dia.) are built from three intertwined protofibrils which are themselves composed of two tetrameric protofilament complexs of monomeric proteins. The neurofilament triplet proteins (68/70, 160, and 200 kDa) occur in both the central and peripheral nervous system and are usually neuron specific. The 68/70 kDa NF-L protein can self-assemble into a filamentous structure, however the 160 kDa NF-M and 200 kDa NF-H proteins require the presence of the 68/70 kDa NF-L protein to co-assemble. Neuromas, ganglioneuromas, gangliogliomas, ganglioneuroblastomas and neuroblastomas stain positively for neurofilaments. Although typically restricted to neurons, neurofilaments have been detected in paragangliomas and ...
Blood markers indicative of neurodegeneration (neurofilament light chain; NFL), Alzheimers disease amyloid pathology (amyloid-β; Aβ), and neuroinflammation (kynurenine pathway; KP metabolites) have been investigated independently in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the association of these markers of neurodegeneration and AD pathology with neuroinflammation has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the current study examined whether NFL and Aβ correlate with KP metabolites in elderly individuals to provide insight on the association between blood indicators of neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation.Correlations between KP metabolites, measured using liquid chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and plasma NFL and Aβ concentrations, measured using single molecule array (Simoa) assays, were investigated in elderly individuals aged 65-90 years, with normal global cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination Score ≥ 26) from the Kerr Anglican Retirement ...
The test measures the neurofilament light chain (neurofilament), a protein released from damaged brain cells, which has been linked to other neurodegenerative diseases but hasnt been studied in the blood of Huntingtons disease (HD) patients before.. The team, led by scientists at the UCL Huntingtons Disease Centre working with colleagues in Sweden, the USA, Canada, France and the Netherlands, measured neurofilament levels in blood samples from the TRACK-HD study, an international project that followed 366 volunteers for three years. They found that levels of the brain protein were increased throughout the course of HD - even in carriers of the HD genetic mutation who were many years from showing symptoms of the disease. HD mutation carriers had neurofilament concentrations that were 2.6 times that of the control participants, and the level rose throughout the disease course from premanifest to stage 2 disease.. In the group who had no symptoms at the start of the study, the level of ...
Anti-160 kD Neurofilament Medium antibody (ab39371) has been cited in 2 publications. References for Human, Mouse in IHC-Fr, IHC-P
Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common neurological diseases. A basic understanding of its neuropathology is now emerging. Aside from Purkinje cell loss, a prominent finding is an abundance of torpedoes (rounded swellings of Purkinje cell axons). Such swellings often result from the mis-accumulation of cell constituents. Identifying the basic nature of these accumulations is an important step in understanding the underlying disease process. Torpedoes, only recently identified in ET, have not yet been characterized ultrastructurally. Light and electron microscopy were used to characterize the structural constituents of torpedoes in ET. Formalin-fixed cerebellar cortical tissue from four prospectively collected ET brains was sectioned and immunostained with a monoclonal phosphorylated neurofilament antibody (SMI-31, Covance, Emeryville, CA). Using additional sections from three ET brains, torpedoes were assessed using electron microscopy. Immunoreactivity for phosphorylated neurofilament protein
Objectives Biomarkers for the diagnosis of motoneuron diseases (MND) are urgently needed to improve the diagnostic pathway, patient stratification and monitoring. The aim of this study was to validate candidate markers for MND in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and specify cut-offs based on large patient cohorts by especially considering patients who were seen under the initial differential diagnosis (MND mimics). Methods In a prospective study, we investigated CSF of 455 patients for neurofilament light chain (NfL), phosphorylated heavy chain (pNfH), tau protein (Tau) and phospho-tau protein (pTau). Analysed cohorts included patients with apparently sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) (MND, n=253), MND mimics (n=85) and neurological control groups. Cut-off values were specified, and diagnostic performance and correlation with progression were analysed. Results Nfs were significantly higher in the MND group compared to the control groups, ...
BACKGROUND: The immune response in Alzheimers disease (AD) involves activation of microglia which may remove amyloid-β (Aβ). However, overproduction of inflammatory compounds may exacerbate neural damage in AD. AD pathology accumulates years before diagnosis, yet the extent to which neuroinflammation is involved in the earliest disease stages is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neuroinflammation exacerbates neural damage in preclinical AD. METHODS: We utilized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging collected in 192 asymptomatic late-middle-aged adults (mean age = 60.98 years). Neuroinflammatory markers chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in CSF were utilized as markers of neuroinflammation. Neural cell damage was assessed using CSF neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), CSF total tau (T-Tau), and neural microstructure assessed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). With regard to AD pathology, CSF Aβ 42 and tau ...
The therapeutic landscape of MS is rapidly evolving due to the development of novel, highly specific immunomodulatory therapies. An optimal stratification of MS patients is still challenging due to heterogenic disease courses and therapy responses. We explore emerging biomarkers indicating disease activitiy and neurodegenerative processes such as neurofilament light chains as a marker of axonal damage in MS patients. Our research group is part of the Focus Program Translational Neuroscience (FTN), the Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI) and the Rhine-Main Neuroscience Network (rmn2). ...
A study from the National Institutes of Health confirms that neurofilament light chain as a blood biomarker can detect brain injury and predict recovery in multiple groups, including professional hockey players with acute ...
Measuring blood neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels may help distinguish Parkinsons disease (PD) from atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD), according to a study published onlinein Neurology.
The diagnostic and classificatory performances of all combinations of three core (amyloid β peptide [i.e., Aβ1-42], total tau [t-tau], and phosphorylated tau) and three novel (neurofilament light chain protein, neurogranin, and YKL-40) cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurodegeneration were compared among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (n = 41), Alzheimers disease dementia (ADD; Read & Research Alzheimers More. ...
Serum Neurofilament Light Chain Levels in Patients With Presymptomatic Multiple Sclerosis Kjetil Bjornevik, MD, PhD; Kassandra L. Munger, ScD; Marianna Cortese,MD, PhD; Christian Barro, MD; Brian C. Healy; DavidW. Niebuhr, MD; Ann I. Scher, PhD; Jens Kuhle,MD, PhD; Alberto Ascherio,MD, DrPH JAMA Neurol. doi:10.1001/jam
Balastik, M.; Ferraguti, F.; Pires da Silva, A.; Lee, T. H.; Alvarez-Bolado, G.; Lu, K. P.; Gruss, P.: Deficiency in ubiquitin ligase TRIM2 causes accumulation of neurofilament light chain and neurodegeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (33), pp. 12016 - 12021 (2008 ...
Balastik, M.; Ferraguti, F.; Pires da Silva, A.; Lee, T. H.; Alvarez-Bolado, G.; Lu, K. P.; Gruss, P.: Deficiency in ubiquitin ligase TRIM2 causes accumulation of neurofilament light chain and neurodegeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (33), S. 12016 - 12021 (2008 ...
Despite aggressive treatment regimes, glioma remains a largely fatal disease. 146062-49-9 supplier be a proximal objective in the search for more effective cancer treatments. Previously, we demonstrated that intermediate filament proteins contain short motifs that bind unpolymerized tubulin and that 24-amino acid peptides encompassing these tubulin-binding sites (TBS) maintain tubulin-binding capacity. We also demonstrated that a TBS derived from the neurofilament light subunit (neurofilament light (NFL)-TBS.40-63) inhibited tubulin polymerization where it 146062-49-9 supplier led to disruption of their microtubule network and reduced their viability.20 Here, we compared diverse glioma cell lines with various normal cell types for their capacity to internalize NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide exposure. In contrast, a markedly enhanced Rabbit Polyclonal to OR4C6 ability to internalize the peptide was a prominent feature shared among multiple glioma cell lines, and such internalization was accompanied by ...
Neurofilaments form structural networks in neurons and are transported from the neuronal cell body (the site of synthesis) into the axons via a process known as slow axonal transport. Using neurofilament subunits tagged with a fluorophore, Ackerley et al. show that glutamate, a neurotransmitter which at high concentrations leads to excitotoxicity, can alter neurofilament transport. Glutamate slowed neurofilament transport, most probably due to stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are capable of phosphorylating neurofilament subunits. This observation provides a mechanistic link between excitotoxicity and neurofilament accumulation associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinsons disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. - SMH. J. Cell Biol. 150, 165 (2000).. ...
マウス・モノクローナル抗体 ab74592 交差種: Ms,Rat,Rb,Cat,Hu 適用: WB,IHC-P…68kDa Neurofilament抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody…
ウサギ・ポリクローナル抗体 ab113854 交差種: Ms,Rat,Hu 適用: WB…68kDa Neurofilament抗体一覧…画像、プロトコール、文献などWeb上の情報が満載のアブカムの Antibody 製品。国内在庫と品質保証制度も充実。
The comparison of ZG versus ZF transcriptomes has revealed several unsuspected genes many-fold upregulated in human ZG. NEFM was the fourth most upregulated gene in ZG.21 Moreover, its expression was ≈4-fold higher in ZG-like versus ZF-like APAs.22 Our previous functional studies of 2 of the ZG-specific genes, LGR5 and DACH1, showed that they inhibit aldosterone secretion and proliferation. This surprising finding, together with their absence from upregulated genes in rodent ZG26 and patchiness of aldosterone synthase in human adrenal, was interpreted as an adaptive mechanism to high-salt intake in Western diet.20,21. NEFM encodes one of the subunits forming the neurofilament, the type IV intermediate filament of mature neurons, one of the most abundant proteins in the nervous system. Neurofilament subunits perform extracytoskeletal roles in the neuronal synapses as receptor-interacting proteins. For instance, NEFL interacts directly with one of the subunits of the N-methyl-d-aspartate ...
p,The neurofilament light subunit (NF-L) binds to myosin Va (Myo Va) in neurons but the sites of interaction and functional significance are not clear. We show by deletion analysis that motor domain of Myo Va binds to the NF-L rod domain that forms the NF backbone. Loss of NF-L and Myo Va binding from axons significantly reduces the axonal content of ER, and redistributes ER to the periphery of axon. Our data are consistent with a novel function for NFs as a scaffold in axons for maintaining the content and proper distribution of vesicular organelles, mediated in part by Myo Va. Based on observations that the Myo Va motor domain binds to intermediate filament (IF) proteins of several classes, Myo Va interactions with IFs may serve similar roles in organizing organelle topography in different cell types.,/p,. ...
Finding biomarkers that reflect the amount of peripheral nerve damage (peripheral neuropathies) and that the biomarker will quickly drop in value in response to to effective treatment are desired goals. The tools we need for developing biomarkers for equine neurodegenerative diseases are not available. These tools include a laboratory model for each neurodegenerative disease, putative treatments, and a money bin.. There is an alternate path leading to biomarker development and that is the horizon we are chasing. The biomarker quest project identifies natural cases of disease with neurodegeneration followed by evaluating the data from those cases. Sifting through the data is a process of eliminating the negative, selecting the positive, and interpreting the in-between. I hear a jingle in there somewhere! Generally diseases follow a typical course, or pathogenesis. Interpreting enough cases points toward the direction we should take and where to concentrate our assets. Often clues to a direction ...
Alzheimers disease, Amyloid-beta, Neurofilament light, Neurogranin, YKL-40, Cognition, Cerebrospinal fluid, APOE, MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT, NEUROFILAMENT LIGHT, NEUROGRANIN, PROTEIN, PATHOLOGY, TAU, DEGENERATION, ASSOCIATION, ...
Key Points: QuestionHow do levels of neurofilament light in cerebrospinal fluid (cNfL) compare between neurological conditions and with healthy controls?. Findings: Among 10 059 individuals in this systematic review and meta-analysis, cNfL was elevated in most neurological conditions compared with healthy controls, and the magnitude of the increase varies extensively. Although cNfL overlaps between most clinically similar conditions, its distribution did not overlap in frontotemporal dementia and other dementias or in Parkinson disease and atypical parkinsonian syndromes.. Meaning: The cNfL is a marker of neuronal damage and may be useful to differentiate some clinically similar conditions, such as frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease from atypical parkinsonian syndromes.. This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the associations of age, sex, and diagnosis with neurofilament light in cerebrospinal fluid and evaluates its potential in discriminating ...
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Alterations occurring in nerve proteins of transected nerves were studied in rat sciatic nerves using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to identify and monitor neurofilament (NF) epitopes among nerve proteins following their electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose paper. Immunoblot methods identified NF epitopes in NF triplet proteins (Mr 200,000, 150,000, and 68,000) and in NF nontriplet proteins (all other immunobands below Mr 200,000 and above Mr 40,000). NF triplet and nontriplet proteins were Triton-insoluble in both untransected and transected nerves. Extensive loss of NF triplet and most nontriplet proteins occurred during the 24-48-h period following nerve transection and was attributed to proteolytic degradation. Loss of protease-labile NF proteins led to a markedly reduced level of NF immunoreactivity in 2-day transected nerve. NF proteins which survived the 2-day posttransectional period were considered to represent protease-stable NF fragments. These fragments persisted in
|p|Neurofilaments (NF) are approximately 10 nanometer intermediate filaments found in neurons. They are a major component of the neuronal cytoskeleton, and function primarily to provide structural support for the axon and to regulate the axon diameter. There are three major NF subunits, and the name
The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on the expression of neurofilament and Thy-1 genes in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells was examined at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Addition of NGF to cultured PC12 cells produced increases in mRNAs corresponding to the 68 kd neurofilament protein (NF68) and the Thy-1 glycoprotein within 24 h, with maximal effects of some 90- and 45-fold stimulation (relative to beta-actin mRNA) being observed after 12 and 4 days of treatment, respectively. In addition, transcriptional run-off analyses using isolated nuclei showed that NGF treatment resulted directly in 8- and 4-fold increases in the rate of NF68 and Thy-1 gene transcription. These gene activation events were independent of overt morphological differentiation of PC12 cells occurring both under conditions permissive and non-permissive for neurite outgrowth, and once established the new molecular phenotype was dependent upon the continued presence of NGF. This is the first ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cryptic Amyloidogenic Elements in the 3′ UTRs of Neurofilament Genes Trigger Axonal Neuropathy. AU - Rebelo, Adriana P.. AU - Abrams, Alexander J.. AU - Cottenie, Ellen. AU - Horga, Alejandro. AU - Gonzalez, Michael. AU - Bis, Dana M.. AU - Sanchez-Mejias, Avencia. AU - Pinto, Milena. AU - Buglo, Elena. AU - Markel, Kasey. AU - Prince, Jeffrey. AU - Laura, Matilde. AU - Houlden, Henry. AU - Blake, Julian. AU - Woodward, Cathy. AU - Sweeney, Mary G.. AU - Holton, Janice L.. AU - Hanna, Michael. AU - Dallman, Julia E.. AU - Auer-Grumbach, Michaela. AU - Reilly, Mary M.. AU - Zuchner, Stephan. N1 - Funding Information: We deeply appreciate the commitment of the families who participated in this study. This work was supported by the NIH (R01NS075764, U54NS065712, and U54NS092091 to S.Z.), the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Association, the Austrian Science Fund (FWF P23223-B19 and P27634FW), and the Muscular Dystrophy Association. We also thank the Inherited Neuropathy Consortium for advice ...
Our quantitative immunoblot data showed a significant increase of NF-H, NF-M, and NF-L by 3 wk of age in the mutant DRGs, and thus in sensory neuron cell bodies. The simplest explanation is that these NF subunits were synthesized at normal rates but were moved out of the cell bodies at reduced rates. Overall, the levels of these proteins were not significantly changed in the brain, suggesting that the cell body accumulation is not caused by up-regulation of these proteins. Elevation of NF subunit levels in the DRG was not accompanied by obvious reductions in the sciatic nerve. This behavior is as expected based on two independent lines of evidence. First, the onset of the apparent deficit in transport is observed at 3 wk of age, the age at which substantial NF deposition and radial growth in axonal caliber normally begin. Only a subset of axons in mutants examined at this time have detectable caliber deficits (∼250/3,500 total axons in the sciatic nerve). Second, although Cre-mediated excision ...
Riluzole is the only drug approved for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but its precise mode of action is not properly understood. Damage to axonal transport of neurofilaments is believed to be part of the pathogenic mechanism in ALS and this has been linked to defective glutamate handling and increased phosphorylation of neurofilament side-arm domains. Here, we show that riluzole protects against glutamate-induced slowing of neurofilament transport. Protection is associated with decreased neurofilament side-arm phosphorylation and inhibition of the activities of two neurofilament kinases, ERK and p38 that are activated in ALS. Thus, the anti-glutamatergic properties of riluzole include protection against glutamate-induced changes to neurofilament phosphorylation and transport. ...
The overall objective of this study was to investigate the role that the small heat shock protein Hsp27 plays in neurite initiation and growth, through its regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton. The present investigation was carried out using adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to study the behavior of neurite initiation and extension. -- The extracellular environment triggers the production and extension of a neurite via extracellular cues. To trigger morphological changes in the neuron these cues must be transformed into signals that converge on the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeletal components, such as actin, tubulin and neurofilament light chain (NF-L), can be modified though interaction with other cellular proteins, including Hsp27. Hsp27 is regulated through intracellular signaling cascades, and has been demonstrated to interact with cytoskeletal components. This positioning of Hsp27 as a possible transducer of extracellular signals to the cytoskeleton formed the basis for my ...
Looking for online definition of neurofilament in the Medical Dictionary? neurofilament explanation free. What is neurofilament? Meaning of neurofilament medical term. What does neurofilament mean?
The innervation of the vibrissal follicle sinus complexes (FSCs) in the mystacial pad of the rat was examined by lectin binding histofluorescence with the B subunit of Griffonia simplicifolia (GSA) and by immunofluorescence with a wide variety of antibodies for neuronal related structural proteins, enzymes, and peptides. Only anti-protein gene product 9.5 labeled all sets of innervation. Several types of mechanoreceptors were distributed to specific different targets by medium to large caliber myelinated axons. All were positive for 200 kDa neurofilament subunit, peripherin, and carbonic anhydrase. Their endings expressed synaptophysin. Labeling for the 160 kDa neurofilament subunit, calbindin, and parvalbumin varied. Anti-Schwann cell protein S100 was completely co-extensive with the axons, terminal arbors, and endings of the mechanoreceptor afferents including Merkel innervation. At least 15 different sets of unmyelinated innervation were evident based upon distribution and labeling ...
We have changed the login procedure to improve access between AAN.com and the Neurology journals. If you are experiencing issues, please log out of AAN.com and clear history and cookies. (For instructions by browser, please click the instruction pages below). After clearing, choose preferred Journal and select login for AAN Members. You will be redirected to a login page where you can log in with your AAN ID number and password. When you are returned to the Journal, your name should appear at the top right of the page.. Google Safari Microsoft Edge Firefox. Click here to login. ...
The six types of IFs (types I-VI) are shown. To simplify the schematic, not all epithelial and nonepithelial tissues are displayed. Different keratin pairs are found primarily in unique epithelial cell types in a differentiation state-selective and/or cell type-specific distribution (e.g., K4/K13 in the esophagus, K20 in suprabasal but not in basal crypt enterocytes). The complexity of IF expression in tissues is exemplified in the intestine, in which epithelial cells express different compliments of simple epithelial keratins, the vasculature and other resident mesenchymal cells express vimentin, the smooth muscle layer expresses desmin, and neural elements of the enteric nervous system express neurofilaments. Numbers in parentheses indicate the type of IF. Bfsp1, beaded filament structural protein 1 (previously known as CP115 and filensin); Bfsp2 was previously known as CP49 and phakinin. NFH, high-molecular-weight neurofilament subunit; NFL, low-molecular-weight neurofilament subunit; NFM, ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are intertwined by mixed dementia (MD) harboring varying degrees of AD pathology in combination with cerebrovascular disease. The aim was to assess whether there is a difference in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile, of selected proteins, between patients with VaD and MD with subcortical vascular disease (SVD), AD, and healthy controls that could contribute in the separation of the groups. The study included 30 controls, 26 SVD patients (9 VaD and 17 MD) and 30 AD patients. The protein panel included total tau (T-tau), hyperphosphorylated tau 181 (P-tau181), amyloid β 1-42 (Aβ1-42), neurofilament light (NF-L), myelin basic protein (MBP), heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -2, -3, -9, and -10), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and -2). Immunochemical methods were utilized for quantification of the proteins in CSF and data analysis was performed with a multivariate discriminant ...
Huntingtons disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, caused by a CAG-repeat expansion in the HTT-gene. Today there are no disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), but several promising clinical trials are underway, including therapies that reduce mutant huntingtin expression.. Reliable biomarkers could empower such trials and guide the timing for initiation of future DMTs.. Neurofilament light (NFL) and tau, which are cerebrospinal fluid markers of neuronal death, have been implicated as markers of disease progression. Increased levels of the inflammatory marker YKL-40 have also been reported in HD.. The aim was to validate and compare the above biomarker candidates by targeted analyses, while explorative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to identify new candidates. Clinically well-characterized HD patients, premanifest gene expansion carriers (pGECs), and controls were enrolled from Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden.. In contrast to tau, NFL ...
Rare autosomal recessive disorder of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene that codes gigaxonin protein. The mutations result in disorganization of axonal NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, formation of the characteristic giant axons, and progressive neuropathy. The clinical features of the disease include early-onset progressive peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies often associated with central nervous system involvement (INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY, seizures, DYSMETRIA, and CONGENITAL NYSTAGMUS ...
Christophe participated to the Emerging Concepts in the Neuronal Cytoskeleton meeting in Villarica, Chile. He was the first speaker of the meeting in the Super-resolution microscopy of the neuronal cytoskeleton, straight after three flights and 30 hours of travel! He presented new results on the visualization of axonal actin rings using super-resolution and electron microscopy (see the preprint here). The meeting was excellent with a stunning location by the lake, lots of amazing talks and interesting discussions. Read more on Twitter.. ...
Neurofilament (H+L) (Neuronal Marker) Antibody, Mouse Monoclonal Antibody [Clone NF421 + NFL/736 ] validated in IHC, IF, FC (AH12982-7), Abgent
Amyloid-β plaque accumulation in Alzheimers disease (AD) is associated with dystrophic neurite formation and synapse loss in principal neurons, but interneuron pathology is less clearly characterised. We compared the responses of neuronal processes immunoreactive for either neurofilament triplet (NF+) or calretinin (CR+) to fibrillar amyloid (Aβ) plaques in human end-stage and preclinical AD, as well as in APP/PS1 and Tg2576 transgenic mouse AD models. Neurites traversing the Aβ plaque core, edge or periphery, defined as 50, 100 and 150% of the plaque diameter respectively, in human AD and transgenic mouse tissue were compared to age-matched human and wild-type mouse controls. The proportion of NF+ neurites exhibiting dystrophic morphology (DNs) was significantly larger than the proportion of dystrophic CR+ neurites in both human AD and transgenic mice (p
Iam currently building a outfit based on that of a male southerner who lived in a city that was ransacked by the union army but is now a refugee (a wounded veteran of a earlier war) and was wondering what sort of sidearm would be appropriate.
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I can control what I consume and how I treat and move my body when it is up for exercise, but the rest of it is just riding the waves of whatever is happening on a given day. My schedule is only so much my own with the every other week chemo sessions. Any plans made need to be recognized as changeable. And so I awake each day with ideas for my day, but not necessarily the ability to follow through. I must be accepting of simply flowing like water around and through the days. A sense of control must give way to self-kindness and allowance. These are the subjects of countless platitudes and memes that swirl around the internet. Ideas that we all love the sensibility of, but rarely have the fortitude to put into action. And even in a situation such as mine, with optimism and hope as my sidearms, it is hard to stay on the sunny side of the street all the time. ...
NF-L antibody [1H3] (neurofilament, light polypeptide) for ELISA, FACS, ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-NF-L mAb (GTX60541) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Which of the following compounds has the greatest molar solubility? A) AgBr, Ksp= 5.4 x 10^13 B) Ba3(PO4)2, Ksp = 3.0 x 10^-23 C) Al(OH)3, Ksp = 1.9 x 10^-33 D) MgF2, Ksp = 7.4 x 10^-11 E) Pb(OH)2, Ksp = 1.2 x 10^-15 I know the ...
training camps open this week. fuck yeah. Why the NFL is better than MLB: if its late in the season and your team sucks, you can still go to an NFL game and have a good time. I have lots of experience with this. Why the NFL is better than the NBA: they play defense in the NFL. Why the NFL is better than the NHL: fewer canadians. Lots fewer. Why the NFL is better than NCAA football: college ball is played in places like Tuscaloosa and Knoxville and South Bend. College ball
Colin Kaepernick could be one of the greatest quarterbacks ever. I love his skill set. He throws with accuracy. And in todays NFL, you have to have mobility. Hes got all those…. ...
The NFL combine wasnt friendly to all prospects hoping to be selected early on in the 2013 draft, and as a result, their respective pro days will be vital in order to improve their declining draft stock...
You cant expect anybody to be able to give a guy that fast, that much of a running start, and expect them to be able to turn and run with them ...
I mean, if he wasnt completely cleared right now, and his condition were currently keeping him from playing/participating in the combine/etc. that would be an enormous red flag. Thats the kind of thing that would get him entirely crossed off a lot of boards. That would indicate that his condition is much worse/more advanced than i think most people were led to believe ...
The protein was originally purified from rat optic nerve and spinal cord. The protein copurifies with other neurofilament ... As development continues into neurons the neurofilament triplet proteins (NF-L: neurofilament low molecular mass, NF-M: ... along with the neurofilament triplet proteins. They are expressed in a relatively fixed stoichiometric ratio to neurofilaments ... α-internexin is functionally interdependent with the neurofilament triplet proteins. If one genetically deletes NF-M and/or NF- ...
Neurofilament medium polypeptide (NF-M) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEFM gene. Neurofilaments are type IV ... This gene encodes the medium neurofilament protein. This protein is commonly used as a biomarker of neuronal damage. GRCh38: ... "Cytoplasmic O-GlcNAc modification of the head domain and the KSP repeat motif of the neurofilament protein neurofilament-H". J ... 1987). "The human mid-size neurofilament subunit: a repeated protein sequence and the relationship of its gene to the ...
For example, there is an increase in phosphorylated neurofilament proteins and cytoskeletal components, tubulin and actin, in ... Goldstein, ME; Cooper, HS; Bruce, J; Carden, MJ; Lee, VM; Schlaepfer, WW (1987). "Phosphorylation of neurofilament proteins and ... The increase in protein can be explained by the increase in cytoskeleton size. Changes in the cell body cytoskeleton seem to be ... Also both seem to be mechanically related to a disruption of the delivery of neurofilament to the axon due to a decreased ...
"Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase 1 Regulates Protein Phosphatase 2A-Mediated Topographic Phosphorylation of Neurofilament Proteins". ... The enzyme binds to a subset of proteins and thus plays a role as a post phosphorylation control in regulating protein function ... Pin is a small protein at 18 kDa and does not have a nuclear localization or export signal. However, 2009, Lufei et al. ... "Entrez Gene: PIN1 Protein (peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase) NIMA-interacting 1". da Costa, Kauê Santana; Galúcio, João ...
"Effect of Guilingji on expression of neurofilament protein in cerebral cortex and corpus striatum". Chinese Journal of Anatomy ...
Frappier T, Regnouf F, Pradel LA (1988). "Binding of brain spectrin to the 70-kDa neurofilament subunit protein". Eur. J. ... Secondly, another insert of 20 amino acids in the 10th spectrin repeat, termed SH3i+, contains protein kinase A and protein ... Herrmann H, Wiche G (1987). "Plectin and IFAP-300K are homologous proteins binding to microtubule-associated proteins 1 and 2 ... Ankyrin repeats of the multidomain Shank protein family interact with the cytoskeletal protein alpha-fodrin". J. Biol. Chem. ...
In contrast, structural proteins such as tubulin and neurofilament subunits are transported at lower rates. Proteins that are ... Microtubule Neurofilament Tubulin Microtubule associated protein Neuronal migration "Medical Definition of NEUROTUBULE". www. ... Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are proteins that interact with microtubules by binding to their tubulin subunits and ... soluble protein. The speed of transport depends on the types of cargo to be transported. Neurotrophins, a family of proteins ...
"Analysis of epitopes shared by Hirano bodies and neurofilament proteins in normal and Alzheimer's disease hippocampus". Lab. ... It was observed that Hirano bodies are a specific site of a C-terminal fragment of β-amyloid precursor proteins. University of ... More specifically the actin and actin binding proteins seen in Hirano bodies are a significant feature of an Alzheimer's ... Hirano bodies are intracellular aggregates of actin and actin-associated proteins first observed in neurons (nerve cells) by ...
"Characterization of the human superior olivary complex by calcium binding proteins and neurofilament H (SMI-32)". J. Comp. ... "Characterization of the rhesus monkey superior olivary complex by calcium binding proteins and synaptophysin". J. Anat. 207 (6 ...
A preliminary study about neurofilament light chain and tau protein levels in psoriasis: Correlation with disease severity. ... "A preliminary study about neurofilament light chain and tau protein levels in psoriasis: Correlation with disease severity." ... Okan and his team reported their findings that psoriasis patients had unusually high levels of neurofilament and Tau protein, ...
... (NFL), also known as neurofilament light chain, is a neurofilament protein that in humans is ... protein C-terminus binding. • protein binding. • identical protein binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • Ras guanyl ... notably the tau and neurofilament light chain proteins.. *^ Xu Z, Henderson RD, David M, McCombe PA (2016). "Neurofilaments as ... protein polymerization. • intermediate filament bundle assembly. • neuromuscular process controlling balance. • neurofilament ...
... and these cells form interconnected axon networks and express tetanus toxin receptors and neurofilament proteins. By 10-14 days ... of NTERA-2 clonal human embryonal carcinoma cells into neurons involves the induction of all three neurofilament proteins". J ... as well as microtubule-associated proteins expressed in human neuroepithelium. NTERA-2 cells also accumulate cytoplasmic ...
Other molecules that can be degraded by calpains are microtubule subunits, microtubule-associated proteins, and neurofilaments ... as well as tau protein and amyloid precursor protein (APP) deposition. Lesions typically exist in the white matter of brains ... One of the proteins activated by the presence of calcium in the cell is calpain, a Ca2+-dependent non-lysosomal protease. About ... "Topography of axonal injury as defined by amyloid precursor protein and the sector scoring method in mild and severe closed ...
2004). "Stable tubule only polypeptides (STOP) proteins co-aggregate with spheroid neurofilaments in amyotrophic lateral ... Microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6) or stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP or STOP protein) is a protein that in humans is ... This gene encodes a microtubule-associated protein (MAP). The encoded protein is a calmodulin-binding and calmodulin-regulated ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 8 (2): 85-95. doi: ...
... microtubule-associated proteins, and neurofilaments. It may also damage ion channels, other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules, ... to recognize its common properties with two well-known proteins at the time, the calcium-regulated signalling protein, ... A calpain (/ˈkælpeɪn/; EC 3.4.22.52, EC 3.4.22.53) is a protein belonging to the family of calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal ... Amongst protein substrates, tertiary structure elements rather than primary amino acid sequences are likely responsible for ...
"Myotubularin-related 2 protein phosphatase and neurofilament light chain protein, both mutated in CMT neuropathies, interact in ... The protein also contains a GRAM domain. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B, an ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 6 (3): 197-205. doi: ... Myotubularin-related protein 2 also known as phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate 3-phosphatase or phosphatidylinositol-3- ...
Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate ... most extensively studied effect of cocaine on the central nervous system is the blockade of the dopamine transporter protein. ...
A Lewy body is composed of the protein alpha-synuclein associated with other proteins, such as ubiquitin, neurofilament protein ... Tau proteins may also be present, and Lewy bodies may occasionally be surrounded by neurofibrillary tangles. Lewy bodies and ... He was the first doctor to notice some unusual proteins in the brain make some people act and think differently, but as of that ... "Alpha-synuclein is a DNA binding protein that modulates DNA repair with implications for Lewy body disorders". Sci Rep. 2019 ...
Several neuronal markers such as neurofilament proteins, HNK-1 antigen and tetanus toxin binding sites are expressed at highest ... "Bone morphogenetic proteins induce cardiomyocyte differentiation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase ... After 10 days of exposure, astroglial cells can be detected using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which is a specific ... The main affected signaling pathway, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) pathway is the most strongly studied signaling in P19 ...
Studies of extracted proteins suggest that this anemone's neurons contain neurofilament-like proteins that are molecularly ...
Finally, a loss of vesicular monoamine transporters, neurofilament proteins, and other morphological changes appear to indicate ...
... but it can also heteropolymerize with neurofilaments in several neuronal types. This protein in humans is encoded by the PRPH ... Its size, structure, and sequence/location of protein motifs is similar to other type III intermediate filament proteins such ... with other type III proteins or the light neurofilament subunit (NF-L) to form intermediate filament networks. Type III ... glial fibrillary acidic protein, and desmin. All intermediate filament proteins share a common secondary structure consisting ...
Neurofilament light chain is a protein that is important in the growth and branching of neurons-cells found in the brain. In ... Atrophy of any tissue means a decrement in the size of the cell, which can be due to progressive loss of cytoplasmic proteins. ... Other biomarkers like Ng - a protein important in long-term potentiation and memory - have been tracked for their associations ... One study took advantage of biomarkers, namely one called neurofilament light chain (NFL), in patients with Alzheimer's Disease ...
... and neurofilament protein. Some medulloblastomas may also display other forms of differentiation as demonstrated by the ... presence of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. Skeletal muscle and melanocytic differentiation are ...
Activated p38 is able to recruit OGT to specific protein targets, including neurofilament H; O-GlcNAc modification of ... regulating protein-protein interactions, altering protein structure or enzyme activity, changing protein subcellular ... O-GlcNAc is almost exclusively found on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins rather than membrane proteins and secretory proteins, ... Expressed protein ligation has been used to prepare O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in a site-specific manner. Methods exist for ...
2000). "Association of synapse-associated protein 90/ postsynaptic density-95-associated protein (SAPAP) with neurofilaments". ... Disks large-associated protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DLGAP2 gene. The product of this gene is one of ... 1997). "Characterization of guanylate kinase-associated protein, a postsynaptic density protein at excitatory synapses that ... This protein may play a role in the molecular organization of synapses and in neuronal cell signaling. Alternatively spliced ...
Nelson studied neuroscience and defined genes encoding neurofilament proteins. In 1986 he joined the C. Thomas Caskey ... Lumaban, J. G.; Nelson, D. L. (30 December 2014). "The Fragile X proteins Fmrp and Fxr2p cooperate to regulate glucose ... "RNA-Binding Proteins hnRNP A2/B1 and CUGBP1 Suppress Fragile X CGG Premutation Repeat-Induced Neurodegeneration in a Drosophila ... "Fragile X-Related Proteins Regulate Mammalian Circadian Behavioral Rhythms". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 83 (1): 43 ...
The cells were not immunoreactive for neurofilament, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP ... Prior to implantation, the NSCs were treated with neurogenin 2 protein to encourage proliferation of the intended inner ear ... cells eventually became immunoreactive to neurofilament, NSE, and GFAP. The cells that had this immunoreactivity were then ...
... investigating the properties of neurofilament proteins with Peter Davison. He eventually returned to the University of Chicago ... The goal of their project was to demonstrate that the 6S colchicine-binding protein is the subunit protein of microtubules. ... His work in the laboratory not only led to his discovery of tubulin, the protein subunit of microtubules, but it also developed ... In 1950, Taylor, together with Gary Borisy who was a graduate student in Taylor's lab, discovered the protein that is the ...
... and has been extensively validated for the transport of the cytoskeletal protein neurofilament. The movement of soluble ( ... but appears to have a similar basis where soluble proteins organize into multi-protein complexes that are then conveyed by ... Kinesin and dynein are motor proteins that move cargoes in the anterograde (forwards from the soma to the axon tip) and ... Scott DA, Das U, Tang Y, Roy S (May 2011). "Mechanistic logic underlying the axonal transport of cytosolic proteins". Neuron. ...
巢蛋白(英语:Nestin (protein)). *神经丝(英语:Neurofilament) *NEFL ... endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response. · protein localization to nucleus. · sterol regulatory element binding protein ... It stays associated with the membrane through protein-protein interactions of itself and other membrane associated proteins, ... activation of signaling protein activity involved in unfolded protein response. · mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly. · ...
"Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network.". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. PMID 16189514. doi ... Vallenius T، Mäkelä TP (2003). "Clik1: a novel kinase targeted to actin stress fibers by the CLP-36 PDZ-LIM protein.". J. Cell ... Wang H، Harrison-Shostak DC، Lemasters JJ، Herman B (1996). "Cloning of a rat cDNA encoding a novel LIM domain protein with ... Vallenius T، Luukko K، Mäkelä TP (2000). "CLP-36 PDZ-LIM protein associates with nonmuscle alpha-actinin-1 and alpha-actinin-4 ...
Delayed axonal injury and demyelination markers include Neurofilament proteins (NF) - heavy, medium and light and Myelin basic ... Temporal protein biomarkers in tracking different phases of TBIEdit. A continuum of protein biomarkers in tracking different ... These include dendritic protein microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) [137,138], brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) [ ... Post-injury neurodegeneration/tauopathy such as Tau protein and phospho-tau protein. There are also autoantibodies as ...
identical protein binding. • protein binding. • actin binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. Cellular component. • ... Filamin B, beta (FLNB), also known as Filamin B, beta (actin binding protein 278), is a cytoplasmic protein which in humans is ... "Cloning from the thyroid of a protein related to actin binding protein that is recognized by Graves disease immunoglobulins". ... 2003). "A new member of the LIM protein family binds to filamin B and localizes at stress fibers". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (14): ...
There are a number of ALS genes that encode for RNA-binding proteins. The first to be discovered was TDP-43 protein,[35] a ... "Neurofilaments as Biomarkers for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". PLOS One. 11 (10): ... Mutant SOD1 protein forms intracellular aggregations that inhibit protein degradation. Cytoplasmic aggregations of wild-type ( ... Once these mutant RNA-binding proteins are misfolded and aggregated, they may be able to misfold normal protein both within and ...
"The Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Amyloid β-Protein Is an Antimicrobial Peptide". PLoS ONE 5 (3): e9505. Bibcode:2010PLoSO... ... "Effect of melatonin and melatonylvalpromide on beta-amyloid and neurofilaments in N2a cells". Neurochem. Res. 33 (6): 1138-44. ... Shinkai Y, Yoshimura M, Ito Y, Odaka A, Suzuki N, Yanagisawa K, Ihara Y (September 1995). "Amyloid beta-proteins 1-40 and 1-42( ... Zou K, Gong JS, Yanagisawa K, Michikawa M (June 2002). "A novel function of monomeric amyloid beta-protein serving as an ...
protein binding. • identical protein binding. • actin binding. • protein kinase binding. • small GTPase binding. • Rac GTPase ... "The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-interacting protein (WIP) binds to the adaptor protein Nck". The Journal of Biological ... The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) is a 502-amino acid protein expressed in cells of the hematopoietic system. In the ... Banin S, Gout I, Brickell P (August 1999). "Interaction between Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP) and the Fyn protein- ...
A Lewy body is composed of the protein alpha-synuclein associated with other proteins, such as ubiquitin,[10] neurofilament ... Tau proteins may also be present, and Lewy bodies may occasionally be surrounded by neurofibrillary tangles.[11][12] Lewy ... Lewy bodies are abnormal aggregates of protein that develop inside nerve cells, contributing to Parkinson's disease (PD), the ... He was the first doctor to notice that some unusual proteins in the brain make some people act and think differently, but as of ...
Several different proteins can be affected, and the specific protein that is absent or defective identifies the specific type ... Neurofilament: Parkinson's disease. *Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1F, 2E. *Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ... Among the proteins affected in LGMD are α, β, γ and δ sarcoglycans. The sarcoglycanopathies could be possibly amenable to gene ... Protein MYOT (also known as TTID one of the many genes whose mutations are responsible for this condition). ...
"Impairment of LTD and cerebellar learning by Purkinje cell specific ablation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I." The Journal ...
This led to the conclusion that IMPase is required for the correct localization of synaptic protein components.[13][14] The egl ...
The protein complex composed of actin myosin, contractile proteins, is sometimes referred to as "actomyosin". In striated ... Myofilaments are the filaments of myofibrils, constructed from proteins,[1] principally myosin or actin. Types of muscle are ... These proteins are thought to provide the cellular scaffolding necessary for the actin-myosin complex to undergo contraction. ... Elastic filaments, 1 nm in diameter, are made of titin, a large springy protein. They run through the core of each thick ...
The protein ELKS binds to the cell adhesion protein, β-neurexin, and other proteins within the complex such as Piccolo and ... It is stabilized by proteins within the active zone and bound to the presynaptic membrane by SNARE proteins. These vesicles are ... In the periactive zone, scaffolding proteins such as intersectin 1 recruit proteins that mediate endocytosis such as dynamin, ... Neuroligin then interacts with proteins that bind to postsynaptic receptors. Protein interactions like that seen between ...
"Arsenic Inhibits Neurofilament Transport and Induces Perikaryal Accumulation of Phosphorylated Neurofilaments: Roles of JNK and ... Konopacka, Agnieszka, Filip A. Konopacki, and Jan Albrecht (2009) "Protein Kinase G Is Involved in Ammonia-induced Swelling of ... Defuria, Jason (2006) "The Environmental Neurotoxin Arsenic Impairs Neurofilament Dynamics by Overactivation of C-JUN Terminal ...
Muroyama, Y; Fujiwara, Y; Orkin, SH; Rowitch, DH (2005). "Specification of astrocytes by bHLH protein SCL in a restricted ... Umjesto toga, uzrokuje da astrociti luče inhibitorni faktor citokina leukemije (LIF), regulatorni protein koji podstiče ...
Oligodendrocytter gør dette ved at producere myelinskeder omkring aksonerne, bestående af 80% lipid og 20% protein.[2] En enkel ...
Several extracellular matrix proteins are enriched at nodes of Ranvier, including tenascin-R, Bral-1, and proteoglycan NG2, as ... The decreased axon size reflects a higher packing density of neurofilaments in this region, which are less heavily ... All of these proteins, including ankyrin, are enriched in the initial segment of axons which suggests a functional relationship ... They are also found to provide the nucleation site for attachment of ankyrin G, Nav channels, and other proteins.[8] The recent ...
protein binding. • ADP binding. • protein membrane anchor. • actin-dependent ATPase activity. • calmodulin binding. • ATPase ... Other proteins that are known to interact with NM IIA include the actin binding protein tropomyosin 4.2 [26] and a novel actin ... It encodes a protein of the same length, with 97.1% amino acid identity with the human MYH9 protein.[15] ... Myosin-9 also known as myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle or non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIa (NMMHC-IIA) is a protein which in ...
protein binding. • vinculin binding. • protein complex binding. • actin binding. • cadherin binding. • phosphatidylserine ... "Protein sequence of human TLN1 (Uniprot ID: Q9Y490)". Cardiac Organellar Protein Atlas Knowledgebase (COPaKB). Retrieved 7 July ... Talin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLN1 gene.[5][6] Talin-1 is ubiquitously expressed, and is localized to ... IRE1-mediated unfolded protein response. • muscle contraction. • platelet degranulation. • movement of cell or subcellular ...
The mutation can appear in GJB1 coding for connexin 32, a gap junction protein expressed in Schwann cells. Because this protein ... Neurofilament: Parkinson's disease. *Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1F, 2E. *Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ... Some mutations affect the gene MFN2, on chromosome 1, which codes for a mitochondrial protein. Mutated MFN2 causes the ... Cell membrane protein disorders (other than Cell surface receptor, enzymes, and cytoskeleton) ...
In the cytoskeleton of a neuron the intermediate filaments are known as neurofilaments. There are a great number of proteins ... Protein synthesis. Main article: Protein biosynthesis. Cells are capable of synthesizing new proteins, which are essential for ... RNA/protein synthesis coupled in the cytoplasm RNA synthesis in the nucleus. protein synthesis in the cytoplasm ... The subunit protein of microfilaments is a small, monomeric protein called actin. The subunit of microtubules is a dimeric ...
protein homodimerization activity. • zinc ion binding. • protein binding. • copper ion binding. • protein phosphatase 2B ... neurofilament cytoskeleton organization. • heart contraction. • embryo implantation. • locomotory behavior. • thymus ... protein complex. • neuronal cell body. • mitochondrial matrix. • cytoplasmic vesicle. • axon cytoplasm. • extracellular space. ... identical protein binding. • superoxide dismutase copper chaperone activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • ...
... is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move along microtubules in cells. They convert the chemical energy ... Dynactin is a protein that aids in intracellular transport throughout the cell by linking to cytoplasmic dynein. Dynactin can ... The protein responsible for movement of cilia and flagella was first discovered and named dynein in 1963 (Karp, 2005). 20 years ... Ron Vale's Seminar: "Molecular Motor Proteins". *Dynein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
"Cytoplasmic O-GlcNAc modification of the head domain and the KSP repeat motif of the neurofilament protein neurofilament-H". J ... NEFM, NEF3, NF-M, NFM, neurofilament, medium polypeptide, neurofilament medium. معرفات خارجية. الوراثة المندلية البشرية عبر ... "Identification of six phosphorylation sites in the COOH-terminal tail region of the rat neurofilament protein M.". J. Biol. ... NEFM‏ (Neurofilament medium) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين NEFM في الإنسان.[1][2] ...
... or DSTN (also known as actin depolymerizing factor or ADF) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DSTN gene.[2] ... 3][4] Destrin is a component protein in microfilaments. The product of this gene belongs to the actin-binding proteins ADF ( ... This family of proteins is responsible for enhancing the turnover rate of actin in vivo. This gene encodes the actin ... There are three ordered layers to destrin which is a globular protein. There is a central β sheet that is composed of one ...
... i u cerebellumu pacova, obojeni antitijelima za mijelinski bazni protein (crveno) i DNK (plavo).. Dva ćelijska ...
Ankyrin-B, also known as Ankyrin-2, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ANK2 gene.[1][2] Ankyrin-B is ubiquitously ... Ankyrin-B is a member of the ankyrin family of proteins, and is a modular protein which is composed of three structural domains ... Ankyrin-B protein is around 220 kDa, with several isoforms.[3] The ANK2 gene is approximately 560 kb in size and consists of 53 ... "Protein sequences of human ANK2 (Uniprot ID Q01484)". UniProt. Retrieved 12 July 2015.. ...
... the roles of proteins showing loss of nerve tissue such as neurofilaments, tau, and N-acetylaspartate are under investigation.[ ... and more activation of cytokines and other destructive proteins.[8] Inflammation can potentially reduce transmission of ...
Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain protein levels in subtypes of frontotemporal dementia.. Landqvist Waldö M1, ... Neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), a cytoskeletal constituent of intermediate filaments, is thought to reflect neuronal ... Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain protein levels in subtypes of frontotemporal dementia ... Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain protein levels in subtypes of frontotemporal dementia ...
CSF neurofilament protein analysis in the differential diagnosis of ALS.. Reijn TS1, Abdo WF, Schelhaas HJ, Verbeek MM. ... CSF concentrations of neurofilament light (NFL) and heavy chain (NFHp35), but not other brain-specific proteins, were ... In this retrospective study, CSF concentrations of various brain-specific proteins were analyzed in patients with ALS (n = 32) ...
Recombinant Human Neurofilament heavy polypeptide protein is a Wheat germ Protein fragment 263 to 363 aa range and validated in ... Neurofilaments usually contain three intermediate filament proteins: L, M, and H which are involved in the maintenance of ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Cell lines and Lysates. Multiplex ... Phosphorylation seems to play a major role in the functioning of the larger neurofilament polypeptides (NF-M and NF-H), the ...
... neurofilament light (NF-L), neurofilament medium (NF-M) and neurofilament heavy (NF-H). The neurofilaments are obligate ... Neurofilament light and glial fibrillary acidic protein in multiple sclerosis. Norgren, Niklas Umeå universitet, Medicinska ... Objective: To evaluate levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in CSF from patients with ... Immunology, Neurofilament protein, ELISA, Cerebrospinal fluid, Neurodegenerative diseases, Immunologi Nationell ämneskategori ...
What is Neurofilament proteins? Meaning of Neurofilament proteins medical term. What does Neurofilament proteins mean? ... Looking for online definition of Neurofilament proteins in the Medical Dictionary? Neurofilament proteins explanation free. ... neurofilament. (redirected from Neurofilament proteins). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. neurofilament. [noor″o-fil´ah ... S100 protein, synaptophysin, chromogranin, neurofilament protein, desmin, and HMB-45 may be variably and focally expressed in ...
1982) Differential expression of neurofilament triplet proteins in brain development. Nature 298:296-299, pmid:7088178.. ... 1993) Neurofilament deficiency in quail caused by nonsense mutation in neurofilament-L gene. J Cell Biol 121:387-395, pmid: ... 1987) The human mid-sized neurofilament subunit: a repeated protein sequence and the relationship of its gene to the ... Gene Targeting Studies Begin to Reveal the Function of Neurofilament Proteins. Nobutaka Hirokawa, Sen Takeda ...
Mammalian neurofilament proteins, particularly midsized (NF-M) and heavy (NF-H) molecular weight neurofilament proteins, are ... phosphorylation of neurofilament proteins without any appreciable change in total neurofilament protein. The antibody to NF-L, ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (Erk1,2) Phosphorylate Lys-Ser-Pro (KSP) Repeats in Neurofilament Proteins NF-H and NF-M. ... 1993) Tau protein kinase II has similar characteristics to cdc2 kinases for phosphorylating neurofilament proteins. J Biol Chem ...
We compared the responses of neuronal processes immunoreactive for either neurofilament triplet (NF+) or calretinin (CR+) to ... We compared the responses of neuronal processes immunoreactive for either neurofilament triplet (NF+) or calretinin (CR+) to ... Neurofilament triplet proteins belong to the type IV intermediate filament protein family, and, in the neocortex of many ... Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase 1 regulates protein phosphatase 2A-mediated topographic phosphorylation of neurofilament proteins. J ...
The neurofilament protein is a major structural protein of neurons and a marker for axonal damage. The concentrations of the ... The neurofilament is a major structural protein of neurons that maintains neuronal size, shape, and axonal calibre.1 The light ... NFL is the light subunit of the neurofilament triplet protein. It is a major structural element of neurons. It constitutes only ... Neurofilament protein in cerebrospinal fluid: a potential marker of activity in multiple sclerosis ...
We assessed mutant huntingtin (mHTT) and neurofilament light (NfL) protein concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and ... Evaluation of mutant huntingtin and neurofilament proteins as potential markers in Huntingtons disease. ...
... Liu, Yao ... The transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a neurofilament light (NF-L) messenger RNA ( ... Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), Neurofilament light (NF-L), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), ... we investigated whether the deficiency of NF-L protein can result in alterations in TDP-43 localization or protein expression ...
... in immunolabelled neurofilament proteins (NF-L) in the frontal cortex of morphine-tolerant rats, suggesting the induction of ... of tolerance to opioid-induced antinociception and protection against morphine-induced decrease of neurofilament proteins by ... did not modify the levels of NF-L proteins in brain. Interestingly, the concurrent chronic treatment (13 days) of idazoxan or ...
Importance: Neurofilament light protein (NfL) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a number of neurological conditions ... Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurology: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. ... Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurology: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA ... using the search terms neurofilament light and cerebrospinal fluid) in neurological or psychiatric conditions and/or in HC. ...
S100 protein and neurofilament antisera Article type: Research Article ... Regeneration of fine neurofilament-positive axonal sprouts into the proximal portions of the graft was observed as early as ... Regenerating axons were accompanied by S100 protein reactive Schwann cells and newly synthesized laminin-positive endoneurial ...
Neurofilament light polypeptide Recombinant Protein-NP_035040.1 (MBS9422422) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant ... UniProt Protein Name Neurofilament light polypeptide UniProt Synonym Protein Names 68 kDa neurofilament protein; Neurofilament ... Recombinant Mus musculus Neurofilament light polypeptide. Product Synonym Names 68 kDa neurofilament protein; Neurofilament ... protein binding; protein binding, bridging; protein C-terminus binding; protein domain specific binding; protein ...
Serum Neurofilament Light Chain Protein Is A Measure Of Disease Intensity In Frontotemporal Dementia. ... Twenty-four of the FTD participants carried a pathogenic mutation in C9orf72 (9), microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT; 11 ... Objective: To investigate serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and to see ...
Antibodies to neurofilament, glial filament, and fibroblast intermediate filament proteins bind to different cell types of the ... S H Yen, K L Fields; Antibodies to neurofilament, glial filament, and fibroblast intermediate filament proteins bind to ... Anti-49,000-dalton serum did not react with the triplet proteins but precipitated the 49,000-dalton protein. By ... Changes in neurofilament transport coincide temporally with alterations in the caliber of axons in regenerating motor fibers. ...
The value of the serum neurofilament protein heavy chain as a biomarker for peri-operative brain injury after carotid ... The value of the serum neurofilament protein heavy chain as a biomarker for peri-operative brain injury after carotid ... This prospective study examined the value of serum neurofilament protein levels for detecting peri-operative brain damage ... An ELISA was used for quantification of neurofilament protein heavy chain (NfH(SMI35)) levels from patients undergoing ...
Neurofilament; Microheterogeneity; Title: Developmentally regulated epitopes on a neurofilament protein visualized by ... Developmentally regulated epitopes on a neurofilament protein visualized by monoclonal antibodies. Thorey, I., & Seifert, W. ( ... 1989). Developmentally regulated epitopes on a neurofilament protein visualized by monoclonal antibodies. Developmental Brain ... Free keywords: Monoclonal antibody; Developmentally regulated antigen; Cytoskeleton; Neurofilament; Microheterogeneity Abstract ...
Slowing of the axonal transport of neurofilament proteins during development. P. N. Hoffman, R. J. Lasek, J. W. Griffin, D. L. ... Hoffman, P. N., Lasek, R. J., Griffin, J. W., & Price, D. L. (1983). Slowing of the axonal transport of neurofilament proteins ... Hoffman, P. N. ; Lasek, R. J. ; Griffin, J. W. ; Price, D. L. / Slowing of the axonal transport of neurofilament proteins ... Slowing of the axonal transport of neurofilament proteins during development. / Hoffman, P. N.; Lasek, R. J.; Griffin, J. W.; ...
In addition, neurofilament protein expression was consistently absent in sensory-terminal regions of the muscle spindles in the ... Micrographs of the same section of the mdx soleus labelled with anti-dystrophin (a), anti-neurofilament protein (b), and post- ... Transverse section of an mdx spindle stained with H & E (a), anti-dystrophin(b), and anti-neurofilament protein (c). Intrafusal ... The atrophy of extrafusal fibers and, to a lesser degree, the intrafusal fibers,along with the absence of neurofilament protein ...
Neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), a cytoskeletal constituent of intermediate filaments, is thought to reflect neuronal ... From: Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain protein levels in subtypes of frontotemporal dementia ...
Learn more about a study that suggests two neurofilament proteins hold promise as biomarkers of neurodegeneration in ... Neurons die over the course of the disease and neurofilaments - proteins that support axons - are thought to be released into ... Tagged biomarker, neurodegeneration, neurofilament heavy chain, neurofilament-light chain, NfL, pNfH.. Post navigation. ... Neurofilament light chain (NfL) and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNfH) - two key components of axons (nerve cell ...
... Author(s): Jong, D. de ; Jansen, R.W.M.M. ; Pijnenburg, ... BACKGROUND: Neurofilament (NF) proteins are major cytoskeletal constituents of neurons. Increased CSF NF levels may reflect ... amyloid beta42 protein (Abeta42), total tau and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (p-tau181). RESULTS: CSF NFL levels were ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins, Neurofilament Proteins, Peripherins, Protein Transport, Spinal Cord, Transgenes Abstract:. ,p,In ... the overexpression of human neurofilament heavy (NF-H) proteins provoked the formation of massive perikaryal IF protein ... Peripherin-mediated death of motor neurons rescued by overexpression of neurofilament NF-H proteins.. Publication Type:. ... Our analysis suggests that the protective effect of extra NF-H proteins is related to the sequestration of peripherin into the ...
For comparison, parallel studies examined the biology of neurofilament (NF) proteins in this model. The sciatic nerve was ... Regulation of peripherin and neurofilament expression in regenerating rat motor neurons Brain Res. 1990 Oct 8;529(1-2):232-8. ... By 8 weeks postaxotomy, levels of peripherin mRNA and protein returned to control values. The increases in the expression of ... and these changes are quite different from the alterations in neurofilament mRNA that decrease after axotomy. The contrasting ...
Mutations in the small heat-shock protein HSPB1 (HSP27) are responsible for one form of dHMN. In this study, we have analysed ... including neurofilament middle chain subunit (NF-M) and p150 dynactin. These findings suggest a possible pathogenic mechanism ... Microtubule-Associated Proteins, Mitochondria, Motor Neuron Disease, Mutation, Neoplasm Proteins, Neurofilament Proteins, ... A mutation in the small heat-shock protein HSPB1 leading to distal hereditary motor neuronopathy disrupts neurofilament ...
Associations between neurofilament light-chain protein, brain structure, and chronic kidney disease *Ellen van der Plas ...
Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurologic Diseases. Posted at 02:03h in ALS, ... Diagnostic Value of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein in Neurology: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA ...
... and in NF nontriplet proteins (all other immunobands below Mr 200,000 and above Mr 40,000). NF triplet and nontriplet proteins ... NF proteins which survived the 2-day posttransectional period were considered to represent protease-stable NF fragments. These ... Loss of protease-labile NF proteins led to a markedly reduced level of NF immunoreactivity in 2-day transected nerve. ... Extensive loss of NF triplet and most nontriplet proteins occurred during the 24-48-h period following nerve transection and ...
  • Neurofilaments (NFs) are enriched in neurons, especially in large-caliber axons. (rupress.org)
  • The neurofilament protein is a major structural protein of neurons and a marker for axonal damage. (bmj.com)
  • The neurofilament is a major structural protein of neurons that maintains neuronal size, shape, and axonal calibre. (bmj.com)
  • SDS-PAGE and gel fluorography confirmed that the distribution of labeled neurofilament triplet protein coincides with the major slow component a (SCa) wave in these neurons. (elsevier.com)
  • The velocity of neurofilament transport was calculated on the basis of the location of the 50th percentile of radioactivity in this wave 33 days after motor neurons were labeled by the intraspinal administration of [ 3 H]leucine and [ 3 H]lysine. (elsevier.com)
  • Neurons die over the course of the disease and neurofilaments - proteins that support axons - are thought to be released into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, the fluid that circulates in the brain and spinal cord), and blood. (friedreichsataxianews.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Neurofilament (NF) proteins are major cytoskeletal constituents of neurons. (ru.nl)
  • Peripherin-mediated death of motor neurons rescued by overexpression of neurofilament NF-H proteins. (ulaval.ca)
  • In previous studies, we showed that overexpression of peripherin, a neuronal intermediate filament (IF) protein, in mice deficient for neurofilament light (NF-L) subunits induced a progressive adult-onset degeneration of spinal motor neurons characterized by the presence of IF inclusion bodies reminiscent of axonal spheroids found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). (ulaval.ca)
  • In contrast, the overexpression of human neurofilament heavy (NF-H) proteins provoked the formation of massive perikaryal IF protein accumulations with no loss of motor neurons. (ulaval.ca)
  • Our analysis suggests that the protective effect of extra NF-H proteins is related to the sequestration of peripherin into the perikaryon of motor neurons, thereby abolishing the development of axonal IF inclusions that might block transport. (ulaval.ca)
  • Multiple fates of newly synthesized neurofilament proteins: evidence for a stationary neurofilament network distributed nonuniformly along axons of retinal ganglion cell neurons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immunoreactivity for the neurofilament protein triplet was investigated in neurons of the dorsal root ganglia of the guinea-pig by using a battery of antibodies. (edu.au)
  • In unfixed tissue, nearly all neurons in these ganglia demonstrated some degree of neurofilament protein triplet immunoreactivity. (edu.au)
  • Double-labelling immunofluorescence demonstrated that most antibodies to the individual subunits of the neurofilament protein triplet had the same distribution and intensity of labelling in sensory neurons. (edu.au)
  • Increasing durations of tissue fixation in aldehyde solutions selectively diminished neurofilament protein triplet immunoreactivity in small to medium-sized neurons. (edu.au)
  • These results indicate that, with a judicious manipulation of the duration of tissue fixation, neurofilament protein triplet immunoreactivity can be used in combination with other neuronal markers to distinguish groups of neurons according to their size and chemical coding. (edu.au)
  • The axonal cytoskeleton consists of three polymers: microfilaments (MFs), microtubules (MTs), and neurofilaments (NFs), which are the intermediate filaments (IFs) of neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recent examination of the hypothesis that distinctly phosphorylated NF-H isoforms exist in different types of neurons revealed that the extent of phosphorylation of the heavy neurofilament polypeptide of bovine ventral root motor neurons is markedly higher than that of dorsal root neurons. (springer.com)
  • Neurofilament antibodies and spinal ganglion neurons of mammalian cochlea. (springer.com)
  • Monoclonal antibody to neurofilament protein (SM132) labels a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons in the human and monkey neocortex. (springer.com)
  • Dynamics of mammalian high-molecular-weight neurofilament subunit phosphorylation in cultured rat sympathetic neurons. (springer.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to the heavy neurofilament subunit (NF-H) of Torpedo cholinergic neurons. (springer.com)
  • Mutations in neurofilament light polypeptide gene, NEFL cause CMT2E, an axonal form of CMT that results in abnormal structures and/or functions of peripheral axons in spinal cord motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion neurons. (plos.org)
  • Electron microscopy immunolocalization studies have been performed previously on isolated filaments and on filaments from neurons in culture, and have confirmed the localization of NF68 as a core filament protein and NF200 as a peripheral protein. (duke.edu)
  • Neurofilaments (NFs) are intermediate filaments with a diameter of 10 nm, similar to that of neurons. (biologists.org)
  • Background Neurofilaments (Nf) are major structural proteins that occur exclusively in neurons. (bmj.com)
  • Indeed, the NF triplet are the most abundantly expressed IF proteins in neurons. (rupress.org)
  • This MAb reacts with a 200kDa protein, identified as heavy sub-unit of neurofilaments (NF-H). Neurofilaments make up the main structural elements of axons and dendrites and are found in neurons, peripheral nerves, and sympathetic ganglion cells. (novusbio.com)
  • The protein normally resides inside brain cells, or neurons, as part of their internal skeleton. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Knowing that lamprey axons are packed with neurofilaments, a group led by University of Pennsylvania neurologist Mickey Selzer and Alan Jacobs of the University of California, San Francisco, decided to trace neurofilament protein in regenerating lamprey neurons. (sciencemag.org)
  • With the use of antisera against neurofilament protein (NFP) and S-100 protein which are specific for neurons and glial elements, respectively, the innervation in human teeth, rat molars, and rat periodontium was discussed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The fraction containing Erk2, as well as bacterially expressed Erk1 and Erk2, phosphorylated all types of KSP motifs in peptides (KSPXK, KSPXXK, KSPXXXK, and KSPXXXXK) derived from NF-M and NF-H. They also phosphorylated an expressed 24 KSPXXXK repeat NF-H polypeptide, an expressed NF-H as well as dephosphorylated native rat NF-H, and NF-M proteins with accompanying decreases in their respective electrophoretic mobilities. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, a differential developmental modification, possibly involving the masking of an epitope, is demonstrated for the small neurofilament polypeptide in rat and monkey brain tissue. (mpg.de)
  • Neurofilament light polypeptide ( NFL ), also known as neurofilament light chain , is a neurofilament protein that in humans is encoded by the NEFL gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurofilament light polypeptide gene ( NEFL ) has been identified as the causative gene in CMT2E [ 2 ]. (plos.org)
  • The NEFL gene encodes neurofilament light polypeptide (NFL), one of the neuronal intermediate filaments proteins (IFs) that form the major structural framework that maintains the diameter of the axon and thus the normal transmission of nerve signals. (plos.org)
  • Neurofilament M (NEFM, Neurofilament Medium Polypeptide, NFM, NEF3, NF-M) (MaxLight 750) Pab Rb xHu B. Recognizes NEFM. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • 200kD Neurofilament polypeptide. (alzforum.org)
  • Neurofilament light polypeptide has been shown to interact with: MAP2, Protein kinase N1, and TSC1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurofilament medium polypeptide (NF-M) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEFM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • They belong to the fourth group of IFs, which comprises three subunit proteins: NF-L (apparent molecular mass ∼68 kD), NF-M (idem. (rupress.org)
  • 1 The light subunit of the neurofilament protein (NFL) has been used experimentally as a marker for neuronal degeneration in animal brain. (bmj.com)
  • Two monoclonal antibodies (mabs) which recognized the 68 kDa subunit of the rat neurofilament triplet were isolated. (mpg.de)
  • Mutant (P182L) but not wild-type HSPB1 led to the formation of insoluble intracellular aggregates and to the sequestration in the cytoplasm of selective cellular components, including neurofilament middle chain subunit (NF-M) and p150 dynactin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Polymorphism in the multi-phosphorylation domain of the human neurofilament heavy-subunit-encoding gene. (springer.com)
  • The light chain is among the most abundant proteins in these cells, so the results indicate there is enough peripherin to serve as a full-fledged neurofilament subunit, not just an occasional accessory, Nixon said. (alzforum.org)
  • However, the results are strong enough to suggest that the assembly of peripherin as a fourth subunit of neurofilament is highly plausible. (alzforum.org)
  • The light subunit of the neurofilament protein (NFL) is a component of myelinated axons, and elevated concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are a sensitive marker of ongoing axonal injury in HIV-associated dementia (HAD). (charternntc.org)
  • At this time, the most useful is the light subunit of the neurofilament protein (NFL). (chalmers.se)
  • Neurofilaments in mammalian nervous tissues have three subunit proteins. (duke.edu)
  • These subunit proteins have apparent molecular masses of 200 (NF200), 150 (NF150) and 68 (NF68) kD. (duke.edu)
  • Each neurofilament subunit contains a highly conserved 310 amino acid rod domain that is important for the co-assembly with other NF subunits to form filaments. (biologists.org)
  • Previous studies have suggested that NF number as well as the phosphorylation state of the COOH-terminal tail of the heavy neurofilament (NF-H) subunit are major determinants of axonal caliber. (rupress.org)
  • Analytical sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of human spinal cord components followed by immunoblots with sera under study revealed that the serum antibody was specific for the high molecular weight protein subunit of neurofilaments. (jci.org)
  • In sharp contrast to the other major cytoskeletal systems, microfilaments and microtubules, IF exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity with regard to their protein subunit composition. (booktopia.com.au)
  • In the current study, researchers genetically altered the neurofilament medium subunit such that it could no longer be modified in response to myelination. (redorbit.com)
  • Neurofilament light chain protein (NFL), a cytoskeletal constituent of intermediate filaments, is thought to reflect neuronal and axonal death when appearing in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (nih.gov)
  • Neurofilaments usually contain three intermediate filament proteins: L, M, and H which are involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber. (abcam.com)
  • Neurofilaments are the main cytoskeletal constituents in neuronal cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • We compared the responses of neuronal processes immunoreactive for either neurofilament triplet (NF + ) or calretinin (CR + ) to fibrillar amyloid (Aβ) plaques in human end-stage and preclinical AD, as well as in APP/PS1 and Tg2576 transgenic mouse AD models. (frontiersin.org)
  • 6. Chronic treatment (13 days) with morphine (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was associated with a marked decrease (49%) in immunolabelled neurofilament proteins (NF-L) in the frontal cortex of morphine-tolerant rats, suggesting the induction of neuronal damage. (nih.gov)
  • Neurofilaments are involved in the maintenance of neuronal caliber. (mybiosource.com)
  • These findings illustrate the importance of IF protein stoichiometry in formation, localization and toxicity of neuronal inclusion bodies. (ulaval.ca)
  • The very rapid neurodegeneration of prion disease results in strong signals from surrogate protein markers in the blood that reflect neuronal, axonal, synaptic or glial pathology in the brain: notably the tau and neurofilament light chain proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Double-labelling with neurofilament protein triplet antibodies in combination with antibodies to other neuronal markers, such as neuron-specific enolase, substance P and tyrosine hydroxylase, showed that tissue processing conditions affect the degree of co-localization of immunoreactivity to the neurofilament protein triplet and to these other neuronal markers. (edu.au)
  • Neuronal IFs consist of the neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM and NFH for neurofilament light, middle and high), α-internexin and peripherin [ 3 ]. (plos.org)
  • We speculated that these intermediate filament proteins would be expressed in neuroblastoma (NB), a neural crest-derived tumor with many neuronal features. (elsevier.com)
  • We used Reelin (Reln) as the marker for C-R cells and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy chain protein (N200) as markers of neuronal maturation. (frontiersin.org)
  • This strain has no neurofilament (NF) in the axons or neuronal cell bodies in the whole body. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To elucidate the biochemical mechanism of Quv in the present study, we examinated the in vivo expression of NF triplet protein subunits and the assembly state thereof in neuronal cell bodies in Quv and controls. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Neurofilaments comprise the exoskeleton and functionally maintain neuronal caliber. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is commonly used as a biomarker of neuronal damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurofilaments (NF) are a key component of the neuronal cytoskeleton, and are responsible for providing structural support to the axon and regulating axon diameter. (clontech.com)
  • Neurofilaments comprise the axoskeleton and they functionally maintain the neuronal caliber. (biolegend.com)
  • It is primarily a neuronal protein, but can also be found in the neuroglial cells. (biolegend.com)
  • Spindles were serially-sectioned in transverse and longitudinal planes, and they were double-labelled with an antibody to dystrophin and with a 200 kD neurofilament protein antibody which revealed their sensory innervation. (ubc.ca)
  • In the current study, dissociated cultures were made from the spinal cords of embryos injected at the two-cell stage with an antibody to the middle molecular mass NF protein (NF-M), and time-lapse videomicroscopy was used to study early neurite outgrowth in descendants of both the injected and uninjected blastomeres. (jneurosci.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The specificity of the peripherin labeling of NB and the ability of the peripherin antibody to label the entire spectrum of NBs, including ganglioneuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas, indicate that this intermediate filament protein has potential as a diagnostic marker for these related neural crest neoplasms. (elsevier.com)
  • By immunoblotting against chymotryptic fragments of the NF200 protein, we have found that the mAB-NF111 reacts solely with a 160 kD piece, whereas the other monoclonal antibody reacts with both the 160 kD piece and the 40 kD piece. (duke.edu)
  • The antibody was raised in mouse using bovine brain neurofilament and can be used for immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of human and bovine NF-M and NF-H subunits. (clontech.com)
  • Western blot of purified anti-Neurofilament L (NF-L) antibody (clone NFL3). (biolegend.com)
  • IHC staining of purified anti-Neurofilament L (NF-L) antibody (clone NFL3) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human brain tissue. (biolegend.com)
  • The antibody NF-09 reacts with both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated form of medium neurofilament protein (160 kDa) of various species. (novusbio.com)
  • Neurofilaments (NFs) in the adult mammalian nervous system consist of three major subunits: low molecular weight neurofilament protein NF-L (68 kDa), NF-M (95 kDa), and NF-H (115 kDa) ( Liem, 1993 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies distinguish several differentially phosphorylated states of the two largest rat neurofilament subunits (NF-H and NF-M) and demonstrate their existence in the normal nervous system of adult rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Defective expression of neurofilament protein subunits in hereditary hypotrophic axonopathy of quail' Laboratory Investigation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Neurofilaments consist of three major subunits with molecular weights of 68kDa (NF-L), 160kDa (NF-M) and 200kDa (NF-H). Anti-neurofilament stains a number of neural, neuroendocrine, and endocrine tumors. (novusbio.com)
  • The protein group includes neurofilament subunits that are classified as light, medium and heavy. (redorbit.com)
  • For the last 15 years, the proposed underlying mechanism for an axon's diameter growth has focused on myelin-dependent modification of regions of neurofilaments that are located within the heavy and medium subunits. (redorbit.com)
  • NF-H has an important function in mature axons that is not subserved by the two smaller NF proteins. (abcam.com)
  • Neurofilaments in nerve axons are composed of a parallel array of 10-nm filaments with frequent crossbridges between NFs or between NFs and microtubules (MTs) or membranous organelles ( Hirokawa, 1982 ) (Fig. 1 ). (rupress.org)
  • and of Peterson's mice expressing an NF-H-β galactosidase fusion protein, which completely inhibits neurofilament transport into axons ( Eyer and Peterson, 1994 ). (rupress.org)
  • Mammalian neurofilament proteins, particularly midsized (NF-M) and heavy (NF-H) molecular weight neurofilament proteins, are highly phosphorylated in axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Regenerating axons were accompanied by S100 protein reactive Schwann cells and newly synthesized laminin-positive endoneurial tubes. (iospress.com)
  • An antiserum against the 58,000-dalton protein of the cytoskeleton of NIL-8 fibroblasts strongly stained sciatic nerve sections, binding to Schwann cells but not to axons or to myelin. (rupress.org)
  • We examined age-dependent changes in neurofilament transport in motor axons of the rat sciatic nerve. (elsevier.com)
  • Neurofilament light chain (NfL) and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNfH) - two key components of axons (nerve cell extensions responsible for transmitting nerve signals) - show promise as biomarkers of neurodegeneration in Friedrich's ataxia (FA), a study reports. (friedreichsataxianews.com)
  • Immunohistochemical differences between neurofilaments in perikarya, dendrites, and axons. (springer.com)
  • Neurofilament phosphorylation in axons and perikarya: Immunofluorescence study of the rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia with monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Yuan determined there were about one-third as many peripherin molecules as there were neurofilament light chain proteins in mouse sciatic axons. (alzforum.org)
  • Neurofilaments (NFs) are prominent components of large myelinated axons. (rupress.org)
  • Three of these proteins, termed the neurofilament (NF) triplet, assemble into heteropolymeric NFs, which are the most prominent cytoskeletal components in large myelinated axons. (rupress.org)
  • To determine whether PNS and CNS myelination have equivalent effects on axons, neurofilaments, and microtubules in CNS, myelin-deficient shiverer axons were examined. (jneurosci.org)
  • Loss of all neurofilaments in the axon results in myelinated axons with slowed conduction velocities. (redorbit.com)
  • In axons that were "bad regenerators," Jacobs and Selzer found, neurofilament mRNA production fell after the axons were cut and stayed low. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mRNA levels recovered even when the spinal cord gap was so broad that axons couldn't grow across it, suggesting that neurofilament revitalization isn't merely a consequence of axon regeneration but helps drive it. (sciencemag.org)
  • The mutations result in disorganization of axonal NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, formation of the characteristic giant axons, and progressive neuropathy. (curehunter.com)
  • We gratefully acknowledge Phil Grant for his gift of neurofilament protein antibodies. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antibodies to neurofilament, glial filament, and fibroblast intermediate filament proteins bind to different cell types of the nervous system. (rupress.org)
  • Developmentally regulated epitopes on a neurofilament protein visualized by monoclonal antibodies. (mpg.de)
  • Alterations occurring in nerve proteins of transected nerves were studied in rat sciatic nerves using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to identify and monitor neurofilament (NF) epitopes among nerve proteins following their electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose paper. (semanticscholar.org)
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: By use of antibodies specific to peripherin and NF- 66/α-internexin, we detected these proteins on Western blots of NB tissue extracts and in paraffin sections of NBs. (elsevier.com)
  • RESULTS: Western blotting indicated that NB tumor extracts contained immunoreactive proteins that co-migrated with rat peripherin and human NF-66/α-internexin from normal tissues, thus establishing the specificity of the antibodies for these proteins in tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies to epitopes on different regions of the 200 000 dalton neurofilament protein. (duke.edu)
  • Using immunogold labelled protein A, we have been able to localize these antibodies to tissue sections of adult cerebellum at the EM level. (duke.edu)
  • Antibodies to neurofilament protein in retinitis pigmentosa. (jci.org)
  • Whenever possible, the phospho protein-specific antibodies we offer are optimized to work for multiple applications, allowing for clone and product consistency across different experimental systems. (biolegend.com)
  • We also discuss the relationship between changes in the velocity of neurofilament transport and alterations in the composition of the cytoskeleton that occur as the axon grows in caliber during postnatal development. (elsevier.com)
  • Neurofilament light protein is part of the neuroaxonal cytoskeleton and can be released into plasma following neuroaxonal damage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This cytoskeleton comprises microtubules (MTs), neurofilaments (NFs), and microfilaments. (jneurosci.org)
  • Phosphorylation seems to play a major role in the functioning of the larger neurofilament polypeptides (NF-M and NF-H), the levels of phosphorylation being altered developmentally and coincident with a change in the neurofilament function. (abcam.com)
  • Quantitative studies on aluminium deposition and its effects on neurofilament protein expression and phosphorylation, following the intraventricular administration of aluminium maltolate to adult rabbits. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Characterization of the phosphorylation sites of the squid (Loligo pealei) high-molecular-weight neurofilament protein from giant axon axoplasm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although all three proteins have the tripartite structure described above, NF-M and NF-H have long, hypervariable COOH-terminal tails (NF-M 439 amino acids, NF-H 660 amino acids) containing several KSP repeats that are targets of phosphorylation. (rupress.org)
  • Neurofilament function depends on the state of phosphorylation of the numerous serine/threonine residues in these proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • The MEK inhibitor PD 98059 also inhibited phosphorylation of NF-H, NF-M, and microtubule-associated protein (MAP) in primary rat hippocampal cells and caused a decrease in neurite outgrowth, suggesting that Erk1,2 may play an important role in neurite growth and branching. (jneurosci.org)
  • The structure, biochemical properties and immunogenicity of neurofilament peripheral regions are determined by phosphorylation state. (springer.com)
  • Two stage expression of neurofilament polypeptides during rat neurogenesis with early establishment of adult phosphorylation patterns. (springer.com)
  • Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the heavy neurofilaments protein NF-H. (springer.com)
  • Effect of the substrate on neurofilament phosphorylation in mixed culturs or rat embryo spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. (springer.com)
  • Local modulation of neurofilament phosphorylation axonal caliber and slow axonal transport by myelinating Schwann cells. (springer.com)
  • Identification of six phosphorylation sites in the COOH-terminal tail region of the rat neurofilament protein M.". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Altered axon-Schwann cell interactions in PNS myelin-deficient Trembler mice result in changed axonal transport rates, neurofilament and microtubule-associated protein phosphorylation, neurofilament density, and microtubule stability. (jneurosci.org)
  • The study, "Phosphorylation of Highly Conserved Neurofilament-M KSP Repeats Is Not Required for Myelin-Dependent Radial Axonal Growth," was published in The Journal of Neuroscience. (redorbit.com)
  • The peptide composition of Al-induced tangles is chiefly neurofilament protein whereas AD paired helical filaments are composed primarily of hyperphosphorylated tau (a microtubule associated protein) and ubiquitin (12,38,52). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a-synuclein may be involved in the regulation of dopamine release and transport and also may function to induce fibrillization of microtubule-associated protein tau. (biolegend.com)
  • Price, D. L. / Slowing of the axonal transport of neurofilament proteins during development . (elsevier.com)
  • A mutation in the small heat-shock protein HSPB1 leading to distal hereditary motor neuronopathy disrupts neurofilament assembly and the axonal transport of specific cellular cargoes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cdk5 inhibits anterograde axonal transport of neurofilaments but not that of tau by inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) inhibits neurofilament (NF) anterograde axonal transport while p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPk) promotes it. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • To accomplish this, we manipulated the activity of these kinases in differentiated NB2a/d1 cells, and monitored anterograde axonal transport of green fluorescent protein-conjugated-NF-M (GFP-M) and cyan fluorescent protein-conjugated (CFP)-tau. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Nitration may target neurofilament proteins, affecting axonal transport. (genome.jp)
  • Characterization of a cyclic nucleotide- and calcium-independent neurofilament protein kinase activity in axoplasm from the squid giant axon. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The highly regulated expression of neurofilament (NF) proteins during axon outgrowth suggests that NFs are important for axon development, but their contribution to axon growth is unclear. (jneurosci.org)
  • Although proteins responsible for compaction of CNS and PNS myelin are well characterized, less is known about proteins mediating axon-glial cell interactions in either CNS or PNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • When nerve cells are unmyelinated, the axon has a smaller diameter and contains neurofilaments that are less modified and are more compact. (redorbit.com)
  • But the central nervous system (the brain, eyes, and spinal cord) in adult mammals is soaked through with proteins that inhibit axon growth. (sciencemag.org)
  • Self-assembly in vitro of the 68,000 molecular weight component of the mammalian neurofilament triplet proteins into intermediate-sized filaments. (springer.com)
  • 1993). "Glycosylation of mammalian neurofilaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurofilaments are type IV intermediate filament heteropolymers composed of light (NEFL), medium (this protein), and heavy (NEFH) chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importance: Neurofilament light protein (NfL) is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a number of neurological conditions compared with healthy controls (HC) and is a candidate biomarker for neuroaxonal damage. (eur.nl)
  • The value of the serum neurofilament protein heavy chain as a biomarker for peri-operative brain injury after carotid endarterectomy. (mysciencework.com)
  • [5] [6] Neurofilament light chain is a biomarker that can be measured with immunoassays in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma and reflects axonal damage in a wide variety of neurological disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tau or neurofilament light-Which is the more suitable biomarker for Huntington's disease? (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally 140 proteins found in the cortical proteome were present in the proteome of cerebrospinal fluid, providing tissue-specific candidates for biomarker discovery in body fluid. (mcponline.org)
  • Neurofilament Protein as a Potential Biomarker of Axonal Degeneration in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Neurofilament of 160kD polypeptides. (alzforum.org)
  • 200-210 kD polypeptides, of nerves and human brain, not cytokeratins, GFAP or any other cytoskeletal proteins or intermediate filaments. (alzforum.org)
  • Localization of multiple O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties on neurofilament polypeptides L and M.". J. Biol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, one can only marvel at the number of different IF polypeptides, their associated proteins (IFAP) and, consequently, the number of genes involved in encoding the multiple constituents of the various IF networks found in different cell types. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Normal cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light protein, but increased intrathecal immunoactivation in virally-suppressed HIV-infected patients with mild neurocognitive impairment. (charternntc.org)
  • Objective: To evaluate levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in CSF from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in relation to clinical progress of the disease. (diva-portal.org)
  • Conclusions: CSF levels of neurofilament light and glial fibrillary acidic protein may have prognostic value in multiple sclerosis. (diva-portal.org)
  • We also observed elevated levels of neurofilament light (NfL) chain protein in the plasma of veterans displaying excess [ 18 F]AV1451 retention. (nature.com)
  • The active fighters had higher levels of neurofilament light chain and tau compared to either the non-fighters or the retired ones. (upi.com)
  • Levels of neurofilament light chain were 40 percent higher in boxers than non-fighters. (upi.com)
  • The levels of neurofilament light chain, but not tau, were linked with the amount of sparring the fighters said they did in the two weeks before giving a blood sample. (upi.com)
  • In this study, we investigated whether the deficiency of NF-L protein can result in alterations in TDP-43 localization or protein expression and whether this is altered with aging. (diva-portal.org)
  • TDP-43 is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that undergoes a pathological conversion to an aggregated cytoplasmic localization in affected regions of the nervous system. (pnas.org)
  • NFL: one of the three (L, M, and H) intermediate filament proteins that form neurofilaments. (mybiosource.com)
  • To understand better the dynamics of intermediate filament formation, transport, and stability in a healthy, living cell , we inserted neurofilament heavy chain (NFH)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs in adenoviral vectors with tetracycline (tet)-regulated promoters. (nasa.gov)
  • Human NFL can self-assemble in the absence of other intermediate filament proteins, but forms a much more elaborate network when either NFM or NFH is present [ 4 ]. (plos.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Peripherin and neurofilament (NF)-66/α-internexin are recently characterized, neuron-specific intermediate filament proteins that are expressed in the developing peripheral nervous system. (elsevier.com)
  • 5. The Nuclear Lamina: An Intermediate Filament Protein Structure of the Cell Nucleus. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 13. Neural Intermediate Filament (Neurofilament) Genes. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The expression pattern of neurofilament peptides and the presence of truncated NF on blots with no specific association to PMI delay indicate early susceptibility of this neuro-axonal intermediate filament to phosphatases and proteases and post-translational modifications. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rare autosomal recessive disorder of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT PROTEINS. (curehunter.com)
  • NfL and pNfH are two axonal proteins that recently have been found at high levels in CSF samples of patients with different types of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), raising the possibility that both also may be useful biomarkers of neurodegeneration in FA. (friedreichsataxianews.com)
  • Our study proposes neurofilaments as potential biomarkers for the assessment of neurodegeneration in interventional trials that aim to slow down disease activity in Friedreich's ataxia ," researchers wrote. (friedreichsataxianews.com)
  • markers of neurodegeneration (neurofilament light protein). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Chemically, these fibers are composed of glial fibrillary acidic protein and alpha-beta crystallin. (medscape.com)
  • They also had higher levels of another protein called glial fibrillary acidic protein, which points to damage to a specialized type of brain cell. (medindia.net)
  • In comparison to the nonalthletes, boxers showed high levels of 2 of the 3 chemicals (neurofilament light protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein) immediately after a bout. (medindia.net)
  • This gene encodes the medium neurofilament protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human alpha-synuclein protein is made of 140 amino acids, encoded by the SNCA gene. (biolegend.com)
  • The genetic defect in shiverer is a deletion in the myelin basic protein (MBP) gene, an essential component of CNS myelin. (jneurosci.org)
  • Shiverer mice contain a deletion in the MBP gene, do not produce MBP protein, and have no compact CNS myelin (for review, see Readhead and Hood, 1990 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Jacobs cloned the gene encoding lamprey neurofilament protein and constructed complementary DNA probes that would bind to the gene's messenger RNA (mRNA) product, indicating how much protein was being made. (sciencemag.org)
  • The disease is caused by mutations in the gene that codes gigaxonin protein. (curehunter.com)
  • Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN)(1) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder caused by mutations in the GAN gene that encodes gigaxonin, a member of the BTB/Kelch family of E3 ligase adaptor proteins. (curehunter.com)
  • Defective tau proteins have been linked with dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease. (upi.com)
  • Neurofilament light (NF-L) levels are elevated in Alzheimer's Disease. (biolegend.com)
  • Protein misfolding is intimately associated with devastating human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's. (pnas.org)
  • These protein-misfolding disorders include disastrous neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and the frontal temporal dementias ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • A blood test for a protein could identify people in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease a decade or more before symptoms, such as a decline in memory and thinking, emerge. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Postmortem exams of the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease reveal three typical hallmarks: plaques of beta-amyloid protein, tangles of tau protein, and loss of connections between brain cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Small volumes of NFL recombinant protein vial(s) may occasionally become entrapped in the seal of the product vial during shipment and storage. (mybiosource.com)
  • These chemicals are called neurofilament light protein and total tau. (medindia.net)
  • Here, we review what is known about the structure and function of neurofilaments, discuss analytical aspects and knowledge of age-dependent normal ranges of neurofilaments and provide a comprehensive overview of studies on neurofilament light chain as a marker of axonal injury in different neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, neurodegenerative dementia, stroke, traumatic brain injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunochemical studies show decreased NFL protein levels in DRG, cerebellum and spinal cord in Nefl N98S/+ mice, and total NFL protein pool is shifted toward the triton-insoluble fraction. (plos.org)
  • Two autosomal recessive NEFL mutations have also been reported, causing truncated NFL proteins resulting in a severe form of CMT [ 8 , 9 ]. (plos.org)
  • The transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a neurofilament light (NF-L) messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding protein. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our findings suggest that NF-L protein or mRNA may negatively affect the expression of TDP-43 in the central nervous system. (diva-portal.org)
  • By 8 weeks postaxotomy, levels of peripherin mRNA and protein returned to control values. (nih.gov)
  • The increases in the expression of peripherin parallel those of beta-tubulin and actin, and these changes are quite different from the alterations in neurofilament mRNA that decrease after axotomy. (nih.gov)
  • He then cut halfway through several lampreys' spinal cords, and while the fish convalesced he tracked neurofilament mRNA levels. (sciencemag.org)
  • Dystrophin is a high molecular weight protein localized under the sarcolemma of normal extrafusal muscle fibers but absent in skeletal muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and in the mdx mouse. (ubc.ca)
  • Identification of endogenously phosphorylated sites in KSP motifs of the high molecular weight rat neurofilaments. (springer.com)
  • Disclaimer note: The observed molecular weight of the protein may vary from the listed predicted molecular weight due to post translational modifications, post translation cleavages, relative charges, and other experimental factors. (novusbio.com)
  • High molecular weight neurofilament proteins are physiological substrates of adduction by the lipid peroxidation product hydroxynonenal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A mong cytoskeletal systems, the intermediate filaments (IFs) 1 are unique because they are composed of different proteins in different tissues. (rupress.org)
  • Antisera were raised to the 210,000-dalton and the 49,000-dalton proteins of a fraction enriched in intermediate (10 nm) filaments from human brain. (rupress.org)
  • Cells in the cultures and tissue sections of the nervous system failed to react with antiserum to the 58,000-dalton protein of skin intermediate filaments. (rupress.org)
  • Like all intermediate filaments, each monomer of NFL protein is composed of an α-helical rod domain flanked by N-terminal head domain and C-terminal tail domain [ 3 ]. (plos.org)
  • Neurofilaments are members of a family of proteins called intermediate filaments. (alzforum.org)
  • Yuan also transfected the three neurofilament components plus peripherin into a human adrenal carcinoma line, SW13, which lacked its own intermediate filaments. (alzforum.org)
  • Accessory Proteins Involved in Regulating the Organization of Intermediate Filaments. (booktopia.com.au)
  • This MAb reacts with a 200 kDa protein, identified as heavy sub-unit of neurofilaments (NF-H). (biotium.com)
  • Second, the researchers tested if peripherin and neurofilament are found together. (alzforum.org)
  • Dephosphorylation of neurofilament proteins enhances their susceptibility to degradation by calpain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present study is a part of our ongoing effort to detect protein expression alterations in human frontal cortex as Lewy body deposition spreads from the brainstem to the limbic system and eventually to the isocortex with progression of PD ( 2 , 16 , 17 ). (mcponline.org)
  • There was a significant increase in TDP-43 protein levels in the cortex and lumbar spinal cord in 12-month-old NF-L knockout (NF-L KO) mice, compared with wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. (diva-portal.org)
  • Neurofilament proteins from brain and spinal cord of immature rat (20-35 days of age) and rabbit (15-17 days of age) were prepared by an axonal flotation technique. (elsevier.com)
  • Two flavors of neurofilament-one with peripherin and the other with α-internexin-could help explain why peripheral nerves and central nerves succumb to different diseases, the authors wrote. (alzforum.org)
  • Neurofilaments are essential, and a target of genetic mischief that affects the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system," Nixon said. (alzforum.org)
  • In spite of the many studies performed since the original descriptions of Cajal (1891) and Retzius (1893) it is surprising that the problem of C-R cell identification that is based on both their morphology and marker protein expression is still unresolved. (frontiersin.org)
  • Based on the findings, he said that "neurofilament light chain reflects acute injury but is not a good marker of ongoing injury. (upi.com)
  • It seems that the level of tau may be a better marker of accumulated injury to the head than neurofilament light chain. (upi.com)
  • It's pure speculation at this point," says Selzer, "but it may be that temporarily overexpressing neurofilament in people with central nervous system injuries would help the nerve fibers to grow, if we also can eliminate some of the extracellular barriers to regeneration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Distribution of neurofilament protein-immunoreactive nerve fibers in rat molars and periodontium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To investigate serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and to see whether they are associated with the severity of disease. (quanterix.com)
  • The value of the serum neurofilament protein heavy chain as a. (mysciencework.com)
  • This prospective study examined the value of serum neurofilament protein levels for detecting peri-operative brain damage following carotid endarterectomy. (mysciencework.com)
  • Recently, the major disease protein found in the pathological inclusions of two of these diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontal temporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U), was identified as the 43-kDa TAR-DNA-binding protein (TDP-43), providing a molecular link between them. (pnas.org)
  • Mutations in FUS, an RNA processing protein, cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 6. (genome.jp)
  • Typically, expression levels of experimentally introduced proteins are not regulated, and high levels are often preferred to facilitate detection. (nasa.gov)
  • The chapters have been divided into five major sections which are concerned with the subcellular organization of IF, the molecular structure of IF, the differential expression of IF genes, descriptions of associ- ated proteins involved in the intracellular organization of IF, and finally an analysis of the changes seen in IF in pathological conditions. (booktopia.com.au)
  • In "good regenerators," however, neurofilament expression showed a smaller decrease and then-about 4 weeks later-climbed back up. (sciencemag.org)
  • Persistence of immunoreactive neurofilament protein breakdown products in transected rat sciatic nerve. (semanticscholar.org)