Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)
Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.
A genus of large tapeworms.
The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.
Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.
A genus of tapeworm, containing several species, found as adults in birds and mammals. The larvae or cysticercoid stage develop in invertebrates. Human infection has been reported and is probably acquired from eating inadequately cooked meat of animals infected with the second larval stage known as the tetrahythridium.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia.
Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects cattle. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked beef.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.
Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peru" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Republic of Peru. If you have any questions about medical topics that I can help clarify, please let me know!
Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)
An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)

Neurocysticercosis without detectable specific antibody. (1/297)

A 19-year-old girl who had lived in India for five years until 1992 was admitted to Hokuto Hospital after general seizures which lasted for fifteen minutes. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a ring-enhanced lesion of 6 mm in diameter in the right parietal lobe. She underwent surgical resection after diagnosis of the brain tumor. Histopathological examinations revealed that the resected tumor was a cysticercus of Taenia solium (T. solium), and we concluded that her seizures were caused by neurocysticercosis. Serological examinations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblots to detect specific antibody against the glycoproteins of T. solium showed no detectable antibody response. The patient is under careful observation in our out-patient clinic with no medication.  (+info)

Neurocysticercosis in an Italian traveler to Latin America. (2/297)

Neurocysticercosis is rarely reported in short-term travelers, although the disease remains a major public health problem in tropical regions. We present a case of neurocysticercosis that was probably acquired by ingestion of Taenia solium eggs contained in the stomach of a pig butchered by the traveler. Complete clinical resolution was obtained by medical treatment, underlying the importance of early suspicion and diagnosis of the disease.  (+info)

Reappearing CT lesions: 4 cases. (3/297)

An overwhelming majority of disappearing CT lesions in India have been aetiologically linked to cysticercosis. We report 4 patients with disappearing CT lesions in whom the lesion later reappeared at the same (3 patients) or different site (1 patient). One patient was a Taenia carrier. Serial MRI evaluation in one patient revealed a persisting lesion in the interval period. The contribution of these observations towards the understanding of the aetiology of disappearing CT lesions is discussed.  (+info)

Reactivation of neurocysticercosis: case report. (4/297)

A 37-year-old woman with a known history of longstanding neurocysticercosis presented with a three-day history of new onset headache. Several years prior to her current presentation, she had undergone cysticidal treatment and was assumed to be cured of active disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies done three months prior to presentation showed multiple intracerebral calcified lesions consistent with resolved neurocysticercosis. Physical and laboratory findings were noncontributory. Imaging studies showed the same previously calcified lesions, but they were now surrounded by large amounts of edema. This case represents a unique report of reactivation of neurocysticercosis and raises interesting questions about the natural history of this infection.  (+info)

Brain parenchymal, subarachnoid racemose, and intraventricular cysticercosis in an Indian man. (5/297)

The coexistence of brain parenchymal cysts at various stages of evolution, both intraventricular and subarachnoid racemose, is reported in a patient with neurocysticercosis. The condition has a variety of presentations, depending on the location of the cyst. This case is of particular interest because of the rarity of this condition in India.  (+info)

A recombinant 10-kDa protein of Taenia solium metacestodes specific to active neurocysticercosis. (6/297)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. A 10-kDa antigen of Taenia solium metacestodes (TsMs) has been shown to be specific for immunodiagnosis of NCC. Screening of a TsM complementary DNA (cDNA) library isolated a cDNA encoding this protein. The cloned cDNA contained a 258-bp complete open-reading frame that encodes an 86-amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 9582 Da. It showed 73% homology with a 10-kDa antigen of T. crassiceps. The recombinant protein was expressed bacterially as a fusion protein at a high level. In immunoblot with recombinant protein, 97% (184/190) of sera from patients with active NCC showed strong reactivity, whereas 14% (4/29) of those from patients with chronic calcified NCC reacted weakly. In 180 sera from other patients with parasitic infections and from normal controls, it showed 98% specificity. A single recombinant TsM antigen has a high potential for serological differentiation of active NCC.  (+info)

Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in an Andean community. (7/297)

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) has been documented as one of the major causes of epilepsy in developing countries. However, methodological limitations have hindered the evaluation of the epidemiological relationship between cysticercosis and epilepsy at the community level. METHODS: We used the WHO protocol for epidemiological evaluation of neurological disorders to conduct a door-to-door survey among 2723 residents of San Pablo del Lago, an Ecuadorean rural community in which T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis was known to be endemic. The WHO protocol was complemented by neuroimaging and immunological tests to confirm the diagnosis of this infection. RESULTS: In all 31 people suffering from active epilepsy were detected (prevalence 11.4 per 1000, 95% CI:7.7-15.4); 26 agreed to undergo a computer tomography (CT) examination, and 28 agreed to have blood drawn for serodiagnosis. Fourteen of the 26 (53.8%) had CT changes compatible with NCC and six of the 28 (21.4%) tested positive in the enzyme-linked immunoelectro-transfer blot (EITB) assay. In a seizure-free random sample of this population, 17 of 118 (144 per 1000) subjects examined by CT and 10 out of 96 (104 per 1000) examined by EITB had evidence of this infection. The differences between the epilepsy group and the random sample of the population were statistically significant (OR = 6.93, 95% CI: 2.7-17.5, P < 0.001) for CT diagnosis, but not for EITB results (OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 0.8-7.1, P > 0.12, NS). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that T. solium NCC is a significant cause of epilepsy at the community level in Andean villages of Ecuador. It is important to initiate effective public health interventions to eliminate this infection, which may be responsible for at least half of the cases of reported epilepsy in Ecuador.  (+info)

Magnitude of the disease burden from neurocysticercosis in a developing country. (8/297)

Cysticercosis contributes to higher epilepsy rates in developing countries than in industrialized ones, yet no estimate exists for the associated burden of disease. We used epidemiological data on neurocysticercosis in Peru to calculate the burden of disease and applied our model to the other countries of Latin America where neurocysticercosis is endemic to determine a regional estimate. Analysis of 12 population-based community studies demonstrated that neurocysticercosis was endemic in highland areas and high jungles, with seroprevalences from 6% to 24%. In one community, the adult seizure disorder rate was 9.1% among seropositive persons versus 4. 6% among seronegative persons; we used this difference for estimates. On the basis of average prevalence rates in areas of endemicity of 6%-10%, we estimated that there are 23,512-39,186 symptomatic neurocysticercosis cases in Peru. In Latin America, an estimated 75 million persons live in areas where cysticercosis is endemic, and approximately 400,000 have symptomatic disease. Cysticercosis contributes substantially to neurological disease in Peru and in all of Latin America.  (+info)

Neurocysticercosis is a neurological disorder caused by the infection of the brain's tissue with larval stages of the parasitic tapeworm, Taenia solium. The larvae, called cysticerci, can invade various parts of the body including the brain and the central nervous system, leading to a range of symptoms such as seizures, headaches, cognitive impairment, and psychiatric disorders.

The infection typically occurs when a person ingests tapeworm eggs through contaminated food or water, and the larvae hatch and migrate to various tissues in the body. In neurocysticercosis, the cysticerci can cause inflammation, swelling, and damage to brain tissue, leading to neurological symptoms that can vary depending on the location and number of cysts in the brain.

Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis typically involves a combination of imaging techniques such as MRI or CT scans, blood tests, and sometimes lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to examine cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment may involve anti-parasitic medications to eliminate the cysts, anti-inflammatory drugs to manage swelling and inflammation, and symptomatic treatment for seizures or other neurological symptoms.

"Taenia solium" is a medical term that refers to a type of tapeworm that infects the human intestines. This parasitic worm is acquired by ingesting undercooked pork containing larval cysts (cysticerci) of the parasite. Once inside the human body, these cysts develop into adult tapeworms, which can grow up to 8 meters in length and live for several years.

The infection caused by T. solium is called taeniasis when it affects the intestines, and cysticercosis when the larval cysts infect other parts of the body, such as muscles, eyes, or the brain. Cysticercosis can cause serious health complications, including seizures, neurological disorders, and even death in some cases.

Preventing taeniasis and cysticercosis involves practicing good hygiene, cooking pork thoroughly before eating it, and avoiding contact with human feces. In areas where T. solium is endemic, public health interventions such as mass deworming campaigns and improvements in sanitation and hygiene can help reduce the burden of infection.

"Taenia" is a genus of tapeworms that are known to infect humans and animals. The most common species that affect humans are Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).

Humans can become infected with these tapeworms by consuming raw or undercooked meat from infected animals. Once inside the human body, the larvae can mature into adult tapeworms in the intestines, leading to a condition called taeniasis. Symptoms of taeniasis may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and weight loss.

Ingesting eggs of Taenia solium, through contact with feces from an infected person or contaminated food, can lead to a more serious condition called cysticercosis, where larvae form cysts in various tissues throughout the body, including muscles, brain, and eyes. Cysticercosis can cause a range of symptoms depending on the location of the cysts, and it can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Preventive measures include cooking meat thoroughly, practicing good hygiene, and washing hands and food properly before eating.

Cysticercus is the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. It typically forms cysts in various tissues of the body, including muscles, brain, and eyes, leading to a condition known as cysticercosis. This can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the location of the cysts, such as seizures, headaches, or vision problems. Infection usually occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with tapeworm eggs, often as a result of poor sanitation and hygiene practices.

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm *Taenia solium*. The infection occurs when humans ingest eggs of this tapeworm, usually through contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, these eggs hatch and release larvae that can invade various tissues, including muscles, brain, and eyes, forming cysts known as "cysticerci." Symptoms depend on the location and number of cysts but may include seizures, headaches, vision problems, or muscle weakness. Prevention measures include proper cooking of pork, improved sanitation, and personal hygiene.

Mesocestoides is not a term that has a medical definition on its own. However, it is a genus of tapeworms that can infect various animals, including humans, and cause a condition known as mesocestoidiasis. Here's a brief overview of Mesocestoides and the related condition:

Mesocestoides are tapeworms that belong to the order Cyclophyllidea and the family Mesocestoididae. These parasites have a complex life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts, such as arthropods (like fleas or beetles) and vertebrates (like rodents or birds), before infecting the definitive host, which can be a wide range of carnivorous animals, including dogs, cats, and even humans.

In humans, Mesocestoides infections typically occur after ingesting undercooked meat or offal from an infected intermediate host. The larvae then develop into adult tapeworms in the human intestine. Symptoms of mesocestoidiasis can vary but may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. In rare cases, the larval stages of Mesocestoides can migrate to other organs, causing more severe symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that mesocestoidiasis is a relatively rare condition in humans, and accurate diagnosis and treatment usually require specialized medical expertise. Preventive measures include cooking meat thoroughly and practicing good hygiene when handling raw meat or offal.

Albendazole is an antiparasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis (a tapeworm infection that affects the brain), hydatid disease (a parasitic infection that can affect various organs), and other types of worm infestations such as pinworm, roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections.

Albendazole works by inhibiting the polymerization of beta-tubulin, a protein found in the microtubules of parasitic cells, which disrupts the parasite's ability to maintain its shape and move. This leads to the death of the parasite and elimination of the infection.

Albendazole is available in oral form and is typically taken two to three times a day with meals for several days or weeks, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects of albendazole include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and neurological problems.

It is important to note that albendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, it is not effective against all types of parasitic infections, so proper diagnosis is essential before starting treatment.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, known as an antigen. They are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens, neutralizing or marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Helminths are parasitic worms that can infect humans and animals. They include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes, among others. Helminth infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of worm and the location of the infection.

Antibodies to helminths are produced by the immune system in response to an infection with one of these parasitic worms. These antibodies can be detected in the blood and serve as evidence of a current or past infection. They may also play a role in protecting against future infections with the same type of worm.

There are several different classes of antibodies, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Antibodies to helminths are typically of the IgE class, which are associated with allergic reactions and the defense against parasites. IgE antibodies can bind to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators that help to protect against the worm.

In addition to IgE, other classes of antibodies may also be produced in response to a helminth infection. For example, IgG antibodies may be produced later in the course of the infection and can provide long-term immunity to reinfection. IgA antibodies may also be produced and can help to prevent the attachment and entry of the worm into the body.

Overall, the production of antibodies to helminths is an important part of the immune response to these parasitic worms. However, in some cases, the presence of these antibodies may also be associated with allergic reactions or other immunological disorders.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

Taeniasis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm of the genus Taenia. The two most common species that infect humans are Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).

Humans get infected with T. saginata by consuming raw or undercooked beef from cattle that carry the larval form of the tapeworm, called cysticercus. In contrast, humans acquire T. solium through the consumption of contaminated pork or, more commonly, by accidentally ingesting T. solium eggs due to poor hygiene practices, leading to a more severe infection known as cysticercosis.

After ingestion, the larvae develop into adult tapeworms in the human intestine, where they can grow up to 8-12 meters long for T. saginata and 2-3 meters for T. solium. Adult tapeworms consist of a head (scolex) with hooks and suckers that attach to the intestinal wall, a neck region where new segments called proglottids are continuously formed, and a chain of mature proglottids containing male and female reproductive organs.

Symptoms of taeniasis can be mild or even absent, but they may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, nausea, weight loss, and the presence of proglottids or tapeworm segments in stools or, rarely, outside the body (e.g., around the anus). In cases of T. solium infection, accidental ingestion of eggs can lead to cysticercosis, which is a more severe condition involving the formation of larval cysts in various tissues, including muscles, brain, and eyes, causing neurological symptoms and potentially life-threatening complications.

Diagnosis of taeniasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify tapeworm eggs or proglottids. In some cases, molecular techniques like PCR may be used for species identification. Treatment usually consists of a single oral dose of anthelmintic medication such as praziquantel or niclosamide, which eliminates the adult tapeworm from the intestine. Proper sanitation and hygiene measures are crucial to prevent transmission and reinfection.

Anticestodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by tapeworms (cestodes) and other related parasites. These agents work by either stunting the growth or killing the parasites, which allows the body to expel them naturally. Common anticestodal agents include niclosamide, praziquantel, and albendazole. It is important to note that proper diagnosis of the specific type of tapeworm infection is necessary for effective treatment, as different medications may be more or less effective against certain species.

Anthelmintics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These medications work by either stunting the growth of the worms, paralyzing them, or killing them outright, allowing the body to expel the worms through normal bodily functions. Anthelmintics are commonly used to treat infections caused by roundworms, tapeworms, flukeworms, and hookworms. Examples of anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, and ivermectin.

Taenia saginata is a type of tapeworm that infects the human intestine. It's also known as the "beef tapeworm" because it typically infects cattle, and humans become infected by eating undercooked or raw beef from an infected animal. The tapeworm can grow up to 15-30 feet long in the human intestine and can survive for several years. Symptoms of infection may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, weight loss, and the presence of proglottids (segments of the tapeworm) in stool. In some cases, tapeworm segments may migrate outside the intestine and cause additional health problems.

Brain diseases, also known as neurological disorders, refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the brain and nervous system. These diseases can be caused by various factors such as genetics, infections, injuries, degeneration, or structural abnormalities. They can affect different parts of the brain, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications.

Some examples of brain diseases include:

1. Alzheimer's disease - a progressive degenerative disorder that affects memory and cognitive function.
2. Parkinson's disease - a movement disorder characterized by tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
3. Multiple sclerosis - a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system and can cause a range of symptoms such as vision loss, muscle weakness, and cognitive impairment.
4. Epilepsy - a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures.
5. Brain tumors - abnormal growths in the brain that can be benign or malignant.
6. Stroke - a sudden interruption of blood flow to the brain, which can cause paralysis, speech difficulties, and other neurological symptoms.
7. Meningitis - an infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
8. Encephalitis - an inflammation of the brain that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or autoimmune disorders.
9. Huntington's disease - a genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination, cognitive function, and mental health.
10. Migraine - a neurological condition characterized by severe headaches, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.

Brain diseases can range from mild to severe and may be treatable or incurable. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes and quality of life.

Cestode infections, also known as tapeworm infections, are caused by the ingestion of larval cestodes (tapeworms) present in undercooked meat or contaminated water. The most common types of cestode infections in humans include:

1. Taeniasis: This is an infection with the adult tapeworm of the genus Taenia, such as Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). Humans become infected by consuming undercooked beef or pork that contains viable tapeworm larvae. The larvae then mature into adult tapeworms in the human intestine, where they can live for several years, producing eggs that are passed in the feces.
2. Hydatid disease: This is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, which is commonly found in dogs and other carnivores. Humans become infected by accidentally ingesting eggs present in dog feces or contaminated food or water. The eggs hatch in the human intestine and release larvae that migrate to various organs, such as the liver or lungs, where they form hydatid cysts. These cysts can grow slowly over several years and cause symptoms depending on their location and size.
3. Diphyllobothriasis: This is an infection with the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, which is found in freshwater fish. Humans become infected by consuming raw or undercooked fish that contain viable tapeworm larvae. The larvae mature into adult tapeworms in the human intestine and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vitamin B12 deficiency.

Preventing cestode infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meat thoroughly, avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked fish, and washing fruits and vegetables carefully before eating. In some cases, treatment with antiparasitic drugs may be necessary to eliminate the tapeworms from the body.

The subarachnoid space is the area between the arachnoid mater and pia mater, which are two of the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (the third one being the dura mater). This space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which provides protection and cushioning to the central nervous system. The subarachnoid space also contains blood vessels that supply the brain and spinal cord with oxygen and nutrients. It's important to note that subarachnoid hemorrhage, a type of stroke, can occur when there is bleeding into this space.

Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication, which is used to treat and prevent trematode (fluke) infections, including schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever), clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and fasciolopsiasis. It works by causing severe spasms in the muscle cells of the parasites, ultimately leading to their death. Praziquantel is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally in a single dose, although the dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that praziquantel is not effective against tapeworm infections, and other medications such as niclosamide or albendazole are used instead for those infections. Also, Praziquantel should be taken under medical supervision, as it may have some side effects, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache.

It's important to consult a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Antiplatyhelmintic agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic flatworms, also known as platyhelminths. These include tapeworms, flukes, and other types of flatworms that can infect various organs of the body, such as the intestines, liver, lungs, and blood vessels.

Antiplatyhelmintic agents work by disrupting the metabolism or reproductive processes of the parasitic worms, leading to their elimination from the body. Some commonly used antiplatyhelmintic agents include praziquantel, niclosamide, and albendazole.

It is important to note that while these medications can be effective in treating platyhelminth infections, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or dosage can lead to serious side effects or treatment failures.

Immunologic tests are a type of diagnostic assay that detect and measure the presence or absence of specific immune responses in a sample, such as blood or tissue. These tests can be used to identify antibodies, antigens, immune complexes, or complement components in a sample, which can provide information about the health status of an individual, including the presence of infection, autoimmune disease, or immunodeficiency.

Immunologic tests use various methods to detect these immune components, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), Western blots, immunofluorescence assays, and radioimmunoassays. The results of these tests can help healthcare providers diagnose and manage medical conditions, monitor treatment effectiveness, and assess immune function.

It's important to note that the interpretation of immunologic test results should be done by a qualified healthcare professional, as false positives or negatives can occur, and the results must be considered in conjunction with other clinical findings and patient history.

Food parasitology is not a commonly used term in medical or scientific communities. However, it generally refers to the study of parasites that are transmitted through food, including parasitic protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., tapeworms, roundworms, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, etc.). Food parasitology involves understanding the life cycles, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these foodborne parasites. It is an important field within medical and veterinary parasitology, as well as food safety and public health.

A seizure is an uncontrolled, abnormal firing of neurons (brain cells) that can cause various symptoms such as convulsions, loss of consciousness, altered awareness, or changes in behavior. Seizures can be caused by a variety of factors including epilepsy, brain injury, infection, toxic substances, or genetic disorders. They can also occur without any identifiable cause, known as idiopathic seizures. Seizures are a medical emergency and require immediate attention.

A tuberculoma is a specific type of granulomatous lesion that occurs in the brain due to infection with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. This condition is relatively rare in developed countries but is still common in developing nations where tuberculosis (TB) is prevalent.

Intracranial tuberculomas are formed when M. tuberculosis bacteria spread through the bloodstream from a primary focus, usually in the lungs, and lodge in the brain tissue. The bacteria then multiply within the brain, leading to an inflammatory response characterized by the formation of granulomas. These granulomas consist of central caseous necrosis (cheese-like material) surrounded by a layer of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphocytes, and multinucleated giant cells.

Tuberculomas can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. They may be solitary or multiple and are often found near the surface of the brain, particularly in the cerebral cortex or meninges (the protective membranes surrounding the brain). The presence of intracranial tuberculomas can lead to various neurological symptoms, such as headaches, seizures, focal deficits, and cognitive impairment.

Diagnosis of intracranial tuberculomas typically involves a combination of imaging techniques (such as CT or MRI scans) and laboratory tests (such as cerebrospinal fluid analysis and PCR for M. tuberculosis). Treatment usually consists of a prolonged course of anti-tuberculous medications, which can help to reduce the size of the lesions and alleviate symptoms. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove or decompress large or symptomatic tuberculomas.

Spinal cord diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the spinal cord, which is a part of the central nervous system responsible for transmitting messages between the brain and the rest of the body. These diseases can cause damage to the spinal cord, leading to various symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, pain, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and difficulty with movement and coordination.

Spinal cord diseases can be congenital or acquired, and they can result from a variety of causes, including infections, injuries, tumors, degenerative conditions, autoimmune disorders, and genetic factors. Some examples of spinal cord diseases include multiple sclerosis, spina bifida, spinal cord injury, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

The treatment for spinal cord diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, and rehabilitation. In some cases, the damage to the spinal cord may be irreversible, leading to permanent disability or paralysis.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Antiparasitic agents are a type of medication used to treat parasitic infections. These agents include a wide range of drugs that work to destroy, inhibit the growth of, or otherwise eliminate parasites from the body. Parasites are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive nutrients at the host's expense.

Antiparasitic agents can be divided into several categories based on the type of parasite they target. Some examples include:

* Antimalarial agents: These drugs are used to treat and prevent malaria, which is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
* Antiprotozoal agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that can cause diseases such as giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and sleeping sickness.
* Antihelminthic agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by helminths, which are parasitic worms that can infect various organs of the body, including the intestines, lungs, and skin. Examples include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Antiparasitic agents work in different ways to target parasites. Some disrupt the parasite's metabolism or interfere with its ability to reproduce. Others damage the parasite's membrane or exoskeleton, leading to its death. The specific mechanism of action depends on the type of antiparasitic agent and the parasite it is targeting.

It is important to note that while antiparasitic agents can be effective in treating parasitic infections, they can also have side effects and potential risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any antiparasitic medication to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Brainstem infarctions refer to the damage or death of brain tissue in the brainstem due to lack of blood supply, resulting in a localized injury known as an infarction. The brainstem is a critical region that controls essential functions such as breathing, heart rate, and consciousness. Infarctions in this area can result in various symptoms depending on the location and extent of damage, which may include:

1. Hemiparesis or paralysis on one side of the body
2. Cranial nerve dysfunction, leading to double vision, slurred speech, or facial weakness
3. Difficulty swallowing or speaking
4. Unstable blood pressure and heart rate
5. Altered level of consciousness, ranging from confusion to coma
6. Abnormal muscle tone and reflexes
7. Respiratory disturbances, such as irregular breathing patterns or apnea (cessation of breathing)

Brainstem infarctions can be caused by various conditions, including atherosclerosis, embolism, vasospasm, or small vessel disease. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are crucial to minimize the risk of long-term disability or death.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. These seizures are caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which can result in a wide range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and altered sensations or behaviors. Epilepsy can have many different causes, including genetic factors, brain injury, infection, or stroke. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.

There are many different types of seizures that can occur in people with epilepsy, and the specific type of seizure will depend on the location and extent of the abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Some people may experience only one type of seizure, while others may have several different types. Seizures can vary in frequency, from a few per year to dozens or even hundreds per day.

Epilepsy is typically diagnosed based on the patient's history of recurrent seizures and the results of an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical activity in the brain. Imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans may also be used to help identify any structural abnormalities in the brain that may be contributing to the seizures.

While there is no cure for epilepsy, it can often be effectively managed with medication. In some cases, surgery may be recommended to remove the area of the brain responsible for the seizures. With proper treatment and management, many people with epilepsy are able to lead normal, productive lives.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peru" is not a medical term. It is a country located in South America, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and beautiful landscapes. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

Arachnoiditis is a medical condition that affects the arachnoid, one of the membranes that surround and protect the nerves of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). The arachnoid becomes inflamed, often as a result of infection, direct injury, or complications from spinal surgery or chronic exposure to irritants such as steroids or contrast dyes.

The inflammation can cause the formation of scar tissue, which can lead to a variety of symptoms including:

1. Chronic pain in the back, legs, or arms
2. Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the limbs
3. Muscle cramps and spasms
4. Bladder and bowel dysfunction
5. Sexual dysfunction

In severe cases, arachnoiditis can cause permanent nerve damage and disability. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and improving quality of life, as there is no cure for the condition.

The fourth ventricle is a part of the cerebrospinal fluid-filled system in the brain, located in the posterior cranial fossa and continuous with the central canal of the medulla oblongata and the cerebral aqueduct. It is shaped like a cavity with a roof, floor, and lateral walls, and it communicates rostrally with the third ventricle through the cerebral aqueduct and caudally with the subarachnoid space through the median and lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka and Magendie). The fourth ventricle contains choroid plexus tissue, which produces cerebrospinal fluid. Its roof is formed by the cerebellar vermis and the superior medullary velum, while its floor is composed of the rhomboid fossa, which includes several important structures such as the vagal trigone, hypoglossal trigone, and striae medullares.

Hydrocephalus is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure and potentially causing damage to the brain tissues. This excessive buildup of CSF can result from either overproduction or impaired absorption of the fluid, which typically causes the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain to expand and put pressure on surrounding brain structures.

The condition can be congenital, present at birth due to genetic factors or abnormalities during fetal development, or acquired later in life as a result of injuries, infections, tumors, or other disorders affecting the brain's ability to regulate CSF flow and absorption. Symptoms may vary depending on age, severity, and duration but often include headaches, vomiting, balance problems, vision issues, cognitive impairment, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for hydrocephalus typically involves surgically implanting a shunt system that diverts the excess CSF from the brain to another part of the body where it can be absorbed, such as the abdominal cavity. In some cases, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) might be an alternative treatment option, creating a new pathway for CSF flow within the brain. Regular follow-ups with neurosurgeons and other healthcare professionals are essential to monitor the condition and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It is used to control a wide variety of pests, including flies, ticks, and mites in agriculture, livestock production, and public health. Trichlorfon works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in paralysis and death of the pest. It is important to note that trichlorfon can also have harmful effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and its use is regulated by various governmental agencies to minimize potential risks.

Niclosamide is an antihelminthic medication, which means it is used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms. It works by disrupting the metabolism of the worms, leading to their elimination from the body. Niclosamide is specifically indicated for the treatment of tapeworm infections (such as Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, and Hymenolepis nana).

It's important to note that niclosamide is not typically absorbed into the human body when taken as directed, so it primarily affects the worms in the digestive tract. However, if you have any specific questions about niclosamide or its use, please consult a healthcare professional for medical advice tailored to your particular circumstances.

Common symptoms of neurocysticercosis include seizures, headaches, blindness, meningitis and dementia. Neurocysticercosis is ... The symptoms of neurocysticercosis largely depend on the number and location of cysts, as well as the host immune response to ... Neurocysticercosis occurs when cysts formed by the infection take hold within the brain, causing neurologic syndromes such as ... Neurocysticercosis most commonly involves the cerebral cortex followed by the cerebellum. The pituitary gland is very rarely ...
The term neurocysticercosis is generally accepted to refer to cysts in the parenchyma of the brain. It presents with seizures ... The diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is mainly clinical, based on a compatible presentation of symptoms and findings of imaging ... Racemose neurocysticercosis refers to cysts in the subarachnoid space. These can occasionally grow into large lobulated masses ... Spinal cord neurocysticercosis most commonly presents symptoms such as back pain and radiculopathy. In some cases, cysticerci ...
September 3, 1992). "Neurocysticercosis in an Orthodox Jewish Community in New York City". New England Journal of Medicine. 327 ... Laboratory Diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium). J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Aug 27;56(9):e00424-18. doi: 10.1128/JCM. ... oz.) of fluid, and 13% of patients with neurocysticercosis can have all three types in the brain. Taenia solium adult Taenia ... Carpio A, Fleury A, Romo ML, Abraham R. Neurocysticercosis: the good, the bad, and the missing. Expert Rev Neurother. 2018 Apr; ...
For instance, taeniasis can lead to seizures due to neurocysticercosis. In extreme cases of intestinal infestation, the mass ... Del Brutto OH (2012). "Neurocysticercosis: a review". TheScientificWorldJournal. 2012: 159821. doi:10.1100/2012/159821. PMC ...
Such brain infection can lead to a serious medical condition called neurocysticercosis. This disease is the leading cause of ... Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Sotelo, Julio; Román, Gustavo C. (1998). Neurocysticercosis : A Clinical Handbook. Lisse [Netherlands]: ... Development of an experimental model of porcine neurocysticercosis". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (8): e0003980. doi: ...
Vaccination of pigs to control human neurocysticercosis. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 72, 837-839. ... the incidence of cystic echinococcosis and neurocysticercosis in humans. The EG95 vaccine was proven successful in experimental ...
Neurocysticercosis is a serious form of cysticercosis. Common symptoms include chronic headaches and seizures. Other symptoms ...
Bruschi, Fabrizio (2011). "Was Julius Caesar's epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis?". Trends in Parasitology. 27 (9): 373-74. ...
Bruschi, Fabrizio (2011). "Was Julius Caesar's epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis?". Trends in Parasitology. Cell Press. 27 (9 ...
Almeida SM, Gurjão SA (February 2010). "Frequency of depression among patients with neurocysticercosis". Arquivos de Neuro- ... October 2002). "Current consensus guidelines for treatment of neurocysticercosis". Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 15 (4): 747-56. doi: ... Neurocysticercosis (NCC): is an infection of the brain or spinal cord caused by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia ... "The rate of depression in those with neurocysticercosis is higher than in the general population." Toxoplasmosis; is an ...
Cysticercosis (especially neurocysticercosis), which is caused by the larval form of the pork tapeworm (i.e. albendazole is the ... Those being treated for retinal neurocysticercosis can face retinal damage if they are not first checked for ocular cysticeri, ... Side effects can be different when treating for hydatid disease versus neurocysticercosis: for example, those being treated for ... People receiving albendazole for the treatment of neurocysticercosis can have neurological side effects such as seizures, ...
García, Héctor; Del Brutto, Óscar (2020). "Fake news in neglected tropical diseases: The case of neurocysticercosis". PLOS ...
He died in 2003 from neurocysticercosis at his home in France. Dundalk Dublin City Cup winner: 1938 FAI Cup finalist: 1938 ...
Neurocysticercosis, or the parasitic infection of the nervous system, can be fatal. Taeniasis is not fatal. It is usually ...
After MRI examinations, a large brain lesion was revealed, caused by neurocysticercosis. On March 1, he passed away at the age ...
"Migraine-like Visual Hallucinations as the Presenting Manifestations of Focal Seizures in Neurocysticercosis". Journal of Neuro ...
When she returned to Chicago she became an expert in leprosy and neurocysticercosis. Panosian completed her specialist training ...
... though it has been judged less effective than albendazole in treatment of neurocysticercosis) In dogs and cats, whose ... "Albendazole versus praziquantel in the treatment of neurocysticercosis: a meta-analysis of comparative trials". PLoS Neglected ...
In endemic areas, neurocysticercosis is the main cause behind focal epilepsy in early adulthood. All growth phases of ... "Neurocysticercosis as a Cause of Epilepsy and Seizures in Two Community-Based Studies in a Cysticercosis-Endemic Region in Peru ...
Acosta E (1990). "Antibodies to the metacestode of Taenia solium in the saliva from patients with neurocysticercosis". J. Clin ... A study published in 1990 demonstrated the diagnostic utility of saliva IgG testing in identifying neurocysticercosis secondary ...
Ventricular endoscopy is used in the treatment of intraventricular bleeds, hydrocephalus, colloid cyst and neurocysticercosis. ...
"Expression and distribution of Toll-like receptors 11-13 in the brain during murine neurocysticercosis". Journal of ...
Cook died of an advanced case of neurocysticercosis, which formed cystic lesions in his brain. From the late 1990s until his ...
He averred that the patients with neurocysticercosis are prone to developing perilesional gliosis, may develop drug resistance ... A study based on magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging in patients with neurocysticercosis". Annals of Neurology. ...
It is successful but he is forced to delete it because Mo has falsely claimed that Masood has neurocysticercosis. Masood and ...
solium Neurocysticercosis, caused when the parasite inhabitis the brain This disambiguation page lists articles associated with ...
... of plant-based therapeutic options to manage drug-resistant epilepsy and the neglected tropical disease neurocysticercosis. In ... activity of the plant alkaloid cryptolepine and its solid-lipid nanoparticles in the management of neurocysticercosis-induced ...
However, neurocysticercosis resulting from penetration of T. solium larvae into the central nervous system is the major cause ...
Neurocysticercosis, and Demyelinating Disease. Central Nervous System vasculitis may be associated with this condition as well ... neurocysticercosis, and demyelinating disease. Central Nervous System vasculitis may be associated with this condition as well ...
Because of the lack of specificity in diagnostic technique, coenurosis can be misdiagnosed as neurocysticercosis or ...
Common symptoms of neurocysticercosis include seizures, headaches, blindness, meningitis and dementia. Neurocysticercosis is ... The symptoms of neurocysticercosis largely depend on the number and location of cysts, as well as the host immune response to ... Neurocysticercosis occurs when cysts formed by the infection take hold within the brain, causing neurologic syndromes such as ... Neurocysticercosis most commonly involves the cerebral cortex followed by the cerebellum. The pituitary gland is very rarely ...
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the nervous system and is the main cause of acquired epilepsy ... encoded search term (Neurocysticercosis) and Neurocysticercosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Neurocysticercosis. Updated: Oct 02, 2023 * Author: Mohammed J Zafar, MD, FAAN, FACP, FASN; Chief Editor: Niranjan N Singh, ... Treatment of neurocysticercosis depends upon the viability of the cyst and its complications. [4] If the parasite is dead, the ...
Neurocysticercosis is almost exclusively caused by Taenia solium tapeworms. We describe a case of neurocysticercosis in ... Neurocysticercosis may be caused by Taenia spp. other than T. solium tapeworms. Cases in which an infection with T. solium is ... Diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis. Nat Rev Neurol. 2011;7:584-94. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Neurocysticercosis is a zoonotic, parasitic, central nervous system infection almost exclusively caused by the larvae of Taenia ...
Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in the world, yet remains a rare diagnosis in the UK. ... Imaging and serological findings were consistent with a diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis. She was treated with Albendazole, ... Here we discuss the presentation, investigation and management of the sequelae of Neurocysticercosis. ...
Albendazole is a new drug for the treatment of cerebral cysticercosis. We have recently experience a case that had shown poor therapeutic response to praziquantel. The patient have multiple parenchymal cysts. She was treated with 15mg/kg/day of albendazole for 1 month to confirm healing of the intracranial lesion by the follow up brain CT scan and CSF-ELISA associated with marked clinical improvement. ...
... V. Giacomet. ;F. Penagini. Secondo. ;P. Erba;F. D. Nello ... Neurocysticercosis in a 14-year-old boy in Italy : an unexpected case / V. Giacomet, F. Penagini, P. Erba, F.D. Nello, P. ... Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. It ... Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system caused by larvae of Taenia solium. It ...
The impact of neurocysticercosis in California: a review of hospitalized cases. PLOS Negl Trop Dis 2012;6(1). doi: 10.1371/ ... Cysticercosis and Neurocysticercosis. Croker C, Redelings M, Reporter R, Sorvillo F, Mascola L, et al. ... which causes taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17(4):631-7. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00511-09 ...
Neurocysticercosis has been increasingly recognized as a major cause of neurologic disease worldwide and an important problem ... encoded search term (Pediatric Neurocysticercosis) and Pediatric Neurocysticercosis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Pediatric Neurocysticercosis. Updated: Mar 03, 2015 * Author: Vinod K Dhawan, MD, FACP, FRCPC, FIDSA; Chief Editor: Russell W ... Neurocysticercosis is more common among immigrants from endemic areas or children in contact with these immigrants. [7, 8] ...
Stages of Neurocysticercosis Mnemonic [Vegans Cant Get Neurocysticercosis]. Administrator - August 29, 2023. 0 ...
Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm and is a ... Monk, Edward, Abba, Katharine and Ranganathan, LN (2021) Anthelmintics for people with neurocysticercosis. Cochrane Database ... To assess the effects of anthelmintics on people with neurocysticercosis.. Search methods. We searched the Cochrane Infectious ... The aggregate analysis across all participants with neurocysticercosis did not demonstrate a difference between groups in ...
Eight years after neurocysticercosis cure, 11.1% of patients with parenchymal, 47.3% with subarachnoid, and 41.7% with ... Neurocysticercosis prevalence estimates often are based on serosurveys. However, assessments of Taenia solium seropositivity ... Animals Antibodies, Helminth Antigens, Helminth Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Humans Neurocysticercosis Taenia ... We used that assay to test sequential serologic responses over several years after neurocysticercosis cure in 46 patients, 9 ...
Neurocysticercosis - A Journey from Pre-independence to Modern India ... Garg RK, Agrawal A, Verma M. CT spectrum of neuro- cysticercosis. J Assoc Physicians India. 1991;39(9):726-727. [Google Scholar ... Carpio A. Neuro- cysticercosis: an update. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;2(12):751-762. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Google Scholar] ... Carpio A, Placencia M, Santillan F, Escobar A. A proposal for classification of neurocysticercosis. Canadian J Neurologi Sci. ...
AIMS: Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in the world. Antiparasitic treatment of viable brain ... N2 - AIMS: Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in the world. Antiparasitic treatment of viable ... AB - AIMS: Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in the world. Antiparasitic treatment of viable ... abstract = "AIMS: Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in the world. Antiparasitic treatment of ...
Neurocysticercosis in Panama: Preliminary Epidemiologic Study in the Azuero Region Fernando Gracia ...
PAHO - Training on the treatment of neurocysticercosis. Treatment of neurocysticercosis and the use of anthelmintics are ... WHO guidelines on the management of Taenia solium neurocysticercosis. *Considerations for the use of anthelminthic therapy for ... In this workshop aimed at physicians, Dr Agnes Fleury covers the basics of treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis and the ... Symptoms and signs compatible with neurocysticercosis in relation to preventive chemotherapy. *Early detection and management ...
Transventricular endoscopic approach to the anterior interhemispheric fissure for neurocysticercosis: illustrative cases ... Intraventricular neurocysticercosis and Bruns syndrome: a review . J Rare Dis Res Treat . 2017 ; 2 ( 2 ): 1 - 5 . 10 ...
Singhi P. Neurocysticercosis. Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2011;4:67-81. Gauchan E, Malla T, Basnet S, Rao KS. Variability of ... Kalra V. Neurocysticercosis. In: Parthasarathy A, Menon PS, Agarwal RK, Choudhury P, Thacker CN, Ugra D, et al. eds. IAP ... Electroencephalogram, Imaging, Neurocysticercosis Abstract. Background: To study the electroencephalographic abnormalities and ... Electroencephalographic abnormalities and imaging profile of neurocysticercosis: analysis of 60 cases in children Authors. * ...
Control of neurocysticercosis. A56/11. WHOs contribution to achievement of the development goals of the United Nations ...
... calcified parenchymal neurocysticercosis,ventricular neurocysticercosis, and subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. Our ... calcified parenchymal neurocysticercosis,ventricular neurocysticercosis, and subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. Our ... calcified parenchymal neurocysticercosis,ventricular neurocysticercosis, and subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. Our ... calcified parenchymal neurocysticercosis,ventricular neurocysticercosis, and subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. Our ...
Corticosteroid use in neurocysticercosis. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 Aug;11(8):1175-83. doi: 10.1586/ern.11.86. Nash TE, Garcia ... Corticosteroid use in neurocysticercosis. Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 Aug;11(8):1175-83. doi: 10.1586/ern.11.86. Nash TE, Garcia ... Treatment of neurocysticercosis: current status and future research needs. Neurology. 2006 Oct 10;67(7):1120-7. Nash TE, ... Treatment of neurocysticercosis: current status and future research needs. Neurology. 2006 Oct 10;67(7):1120-7. Nash TE, ...
DIFFERENTIAL SERODIAGNOSIS OF ALVEOLAR ECHINOCOCCOSIS, CYSTIC ECHINOCOCCOSIS AND NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS. JSPS (Japan Society for ...
Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to vascular compression and neurocysticercosis: illustrative case. Vásquez M, Saavedra LJ, ...
Neurocysticercosis American Society of Tropical Medicine and HygieneInfectious Diseases Society of America ...
Late onset temporal lobe epilepsy with MRI evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis following acute neurocysticercosis: case ... This suggests that acute neurocysticercosis associated with repeated seizures may cause MTS and late onset TLE. ... and acute neurocysticercosis with multiple cysts. A 56 years old man with new onset headache, Simple Partial Seizures and ...
Categories: Neurocysticercosis Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Infection of the brain (neurocysticercosis) can cause seizures and other nervous system problems. ...
"Neurocysticercosis is virtually nonexistent in areas of the world that have banned pork consumption, further highlighting the ... The fluid-filled cysts, subsequent tests showed, were evidence of neurocysticercosis, which the case report describes as "a ... a theoretical risk factor for neurocysticercosis via autoinoculation, as we suspected in this case," according to the case ... Neurocysticercosis is rarely seen in the U.S., although eating rare pork "is ...
Taenia solium-Cysticercosis/Neurocysticercosis Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid Cyst) Review Questions Section VII Diagnostic ...
  • In this workshop aimed at physicians, Dr Agnes Fleury covers the basics of treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis and the considerations for the use of anthelmintics for the treatment of neurocysticercosis. (who.int)
  • These guidelines present our approaches to the diagnosis and management of patients with the different forms of neurocysticercosis,including viable parenchymal neurocysticercosis,single enhancing lesions, calcified parenchymal neurocysticercosis,ventricular neurocysticercosis, and subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Assessment of combined antiparasitic drugs praziquantel and albendazole versus albendazole alone in the treatment of active parenchymal neurocysticercosis in Tanzania and Zambia. (who.int)
  • Neurocysticercosis /ˈnjʊəroʊˌsɪstiˌsɜːrˈkoʊsɪs/ is a specific form of the infectious parasitic disease cysticercosis that is caused by the infection with Taenia solium, a tapeworm found in pigs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurocysticercosis is the result of accidental ingestion of eggs of Taenia solium (ie, pork tapeworm), usually due to contamination of food by people with taeniasis. (medscape.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis is almost exclusively caused by Taenia solium tapeworms. (cdc.gov)
  • We describe a case of neurocysticercosis in Switzerland caused by infection with Taenia martis , the marten tapeworm, and review all 5 published cases of human infection with the marten tapeworm. (cdc.gov)
  • Neurocysticercosis is a zoonotic, parasitic, central nervous system infection almost exclusively caused by the larvae of Taenia solium , the pork tapeworm ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In a few exceptional cases, neurocysticercosis in humans is not caused by T. solium but by other zoonotic Taenia species, representing rare spillover infections from distant ecologic niches ( Appendix Table). (cdc.gov)
  • Title : Triplex ELISA for Assessing Durability of Taenia solium Seropositivity after Neurocysticercosis Cure Personal Author(s) : Tang, Nina L.;Nash, Theodore E.;Corda, Madelynn;Nutman, Thomas B.;O'Connell, Elise M. (cdc.gov)
  • Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is infestation of the human brain by the larva of worm, Taenia solium and is the most prevalent central nervous system (CNS) helminthiasis. (nams-annals.in)
  • WHO has designed trainings for programme staff and medical practitioners working in areas endemic or potentially endemic for Taenia solium , to consider the circumstances in which preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel is not recommended because individuals show signs or symptoms compatible with the presence of T. solium larvae in the central nervous system (neurocysticercosis). (who.int)
  • Bhattacharjee S, Biswas P. Childhood seizure-A case of neurocysticercosis involving left parietal lobe. (ijmedicine.com)
  • Because of the unclear date of infection, the unknown proliferation rate of the parasite in humans, and the possibility of undetectable lesions, we treated the patient with albendazole and praziquantel, analogous to treatment for T. solium neurocysticercosis, assuming similar susceptibility of the parasite ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The larvae of T solium ( Cysticercus cellulosae ) cause neurocysticercosis. (medscape.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis occurs when cysts formed by the infection take hold within the brain, causing neurologic syndromes such as epileptic seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the CNS. (medscape.com)
  • Infection of the brain (neurocysticercosis) can cause seizures and other nervous system problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Albenza is commonly prescribed for treating conditions like neurocysticercosis, a parasitic infection that affects the brain and can cause neurological symptoms. (jcenonline.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic infection of the human nervous system and the most frequent preventable cause of epilepsy in the developing world. (galvmed.org)
  • CSF analysis for neurocysticercosis is indicated in every patient presenting with new-onset seizures or neurologic deficit in whom neuroimaging shows a solitary lesion but does not offer a definitive diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis is suspected in patients who live in or have come from developing countries and who have eosinophilic meningitis or unexplained seizures, cognitive or focal deficits, or personality changes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Albendazole is an antihelminthic drug prescribed for treating a variety of parasitic worm infestations such as ascariasis, filariasis or roundworm disease, giardiasis, trichuriasis, pinworm disease, neurocysticercosis, and hydatid disease. (medindia.net)
  • It is commonly prescribed by healthcare providers for conditions such as neurocysticercosis, hydatid disease, and certain types of worm infections. (jcenonline.com)
  • Albendazole Therapy for Multiple Neurocysticercosis. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Singhi P, Ray M, Singhi S, Khandelwal N. Clinical spectrum of 500 children with neurocysticercosis and response to albendazole therapy. (ijmedicine.com)
  • MRI is the imaging modality of choice for neurocysticercosis, especially for evaluation of intraventricular and cisternal/subarachnoidal cysts. (medscape.com)
  • abstract = "AIMS: Neurocysticercosis is the most common cause of acquired epilepsy in the world. (edu.pe)
  • The cysts may rarely coalesce and form a tree-like pattern which is known as racemose neurocysticercosis, which when involving the pituitary gland may result in multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Racemose neurocysticercosis. (doximity.com)
  • Historically, neurocysticercosis was endemic to only Latin America, Asia, and Africa, although it has become increasingly frequent in the United States since the 1980s. (medscape.com)
  • Subsequent evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. (medscape.com)
  • A diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis was made mainly on the basis of clinical features, imaging studies and serological tests. (ijmedicine.com)
  • Kalra V, Sethi A. Childhood neurocysticercosis-Epidemiology, diagnosis and course. (ijmedicine.com)
  • The executive summary below lists the recommendations for the diagnosis and clinical management of neurocysticercosis. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Note that diagnosis and management of patients with neurocysticercosis can be challenging even with expert guidelines. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The symptoms of neurocysticercosis largely depend on the number and location of cysts, as well as the host immune response to the parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simple neurocysticercosis occurs in children with only a single exposure to cysts. (medscape.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis is more common among immigrants from endemic areas or children in contact with these immigrants. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis vary with the locations of the lesions, the number of parasites, and the host's immune response. (medscape.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis is associated with a wide variety of neurologic symptoms due to its ability to present in diverse areas of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurocysticercosis has been increasingly recognized as a major cause of neurologic disease worldwide and an important problem among immigrant populations in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • One study reported neurocysticercosis as the cause of 2% of the neurologic and neurosurgical admissions in southern California. (medscape.com)
  • Antoniuk S, Bruck I, Santos LH, Souza LP, Fugimura S. Neurocysticercosis in Children: clinical study and follow up of 112 patients. (ijmedicine.com)
  • Gidelines for the clinical management of patients with neurocysticercosis (NCC) were prepared by a panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH). (elsevierpure.com)
  • In epidemiologically nonplausible cases of neurocysticercosis, zoonotic spillover infections should be suspected. (cdc.gov)
  • The pituitary gland is very rarely involved in neurocysticercosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of neurocysticercosis and the use of anthelmintics are complex topics. (who.int)
  • In developing countries, neurocysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease of the nervous system and is the main cause of acquired epilepsy. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of neurocysticercosis includes epileptic therapy and a long-course medication of praziquantel (PZQ) and/or albendazole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of neurocysticercosis depends upon the viability of the cyst and its complications. (medscape.com)
  • We assessed the pharmacokinetics of their combined use for the treatment of neurocysticercosis. (edu.pe)
  • Treatment of neurocysticercosis is much more complicated, though, and can require long-term medications and surgery. (cdc.gov)
  • Controlling this inflammation is an important part of treatment of neurocysticercosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccination and treatment method combined with human mass drug administration (MDA) and health education provides a promising strategy to break the life cycle of the tapeworm that is transmitted to humans, thus contributing to control measures for human neurocysticercosis. (galvmed.org)
  • Neurocysticercosis most commonly involves the cerebral cortex followed by the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysticercosis in the United States, which commonly presents in the form of neurocysticercosis, has been classified as a "neglected tropical disease", which commonly affects the poor and homeless, particularly those without access or in the habit of inadequate hand-washing and in the habit of eating with their hands. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurocysticercosis is commonly diagnosed with the routine use of diagnostic methods such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. (medscape.com)
  • To study the electroencephalographic abnormalities and imaging profile of 60 children suffering from neurocysticercosis at a tertiary care centre over a period of two years. (ijmedicine.com)
  • METHODS A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of ABZ and PZQ in 32 patients with neurocysticercosis was carried out. (edu.pe)
  • The impact of neurocysticercosis in California: a review of hospitalized cases. (cdc.gov)
  • however, if ova are ingested, neurocysticercosis may occur in this normally intermediate host. (medscape.com)
  • People can also act as intermediate hosts and develop human cysticercosis or neurocysticercosis when the central nervous system is involved. (galvmed.org)
  • It is estimated that 20 million people harbour neurocysticercosis worldwide(1). (nams-annals.in)
  • In this article, we describe a rare case of T. martis neurocysticercosis in a woman in Switzerland. (cdc.gov)
  • Variability of presentations and CT-scan findings in children with neurocysticercosis. (ijmedicine.com)
  • Oxidative stress in children with neurocysticercosis. (ijmedicine.com)
  • This type of neurocysticercosis tends to be observed in the United States and other nonendemic areas. (medscape.com)