Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Cysticercus: The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Cysticercosis: Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.Mesocestoides: A genus of tapeworm, containing several species, found as adults in birds and mammals. The larvae or cysticercoid stage develop in invertebrates. Human infection has been reported and is probably acquired from eating inadequately cooked meat of animals infected with the second larval stage known as the tetrahythridium.Albendazole: A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Taeniasis: Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Anticestodal Agents: Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.Anthelmintics: Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.Taenia saginata: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects cattle. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked beef.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Praziquantel: An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.Antiplatyhelmintic Agents: Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Tuberculoma, Intracranial: A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)PeruArachnoiditis: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)Fourth Ventricle: An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Trichlorfon: An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)Niclosamide: An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.

Neurocysticercosis without detectable specific antibody. (1/297)

A 19-year-old girl who had lived in India for five years until 1992 was admitted to Hokuto Hospital after general seizures which lasted for fifteen minutes. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a ring-enhanced lesion of 6 mm in diameter in the right parietal lobe. She underwent surgical resection after diagnosis of the brain tumor. Histopathological examinations revealed that the resected tumor was a cysticercus of Taenia solium (T. solium), and we concluded that her seizures were caused by neurocysticercosis. Serological examinations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblots to detect specific antibody against the glycoproteins of T. solium showed no detectable antibody response. The patient is under careful observation in our out-patient clinic with no medication.  (+info)

Neurocysticercosis in an Italian traveler to Latin America. (2/297)

Neurocysticercosis is rarely reported in short-term travelers, although the disease remains a major public health problem in tropical regions. We present a case of neurocysticercosis that was probably acquired by ingestion of Taenia solium eggs contained in the stomach of a pig butchered by the traveler. Complete clinical resolution was obtained by medical treatment, underlying the importance of early suspicion and diagnosis of the disease.  (+info)

Reappearing CT lesions: 4 cases. (3/297)

An overwhelming majority of disappearing CT lesions in India have been aetiologically linked to cysticercosis. We report 4 patients with disappearing CT lesions in whom the lesion later reappeared at the same (3 patients) or different site (1 patient). One patient was a Taenia carrier. Serial MRI evaluation in one patient revealed a persisting lesion in the interval period. The contribution of these observations towards the understanding of the aetiology of disappearing CT lesions is discussed.  (+info)

Reactivation of neurocysticercosis: case report. (4/297)

A 37-year-old woman with a known history of longstanding neurocysticercosis presented with a three-day history of new onset headache. Several years prior to her current presentation, she had undergone cysticidal treatment and was assumed to be cured of active disease. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies done three months prior to presentation showed multiple intracerebral calcified lesions consistent with resolved neurocysticercosis. Physical and laboratory findings were noncontributory. Imaging studies showed the same previously calcified lesions, but they were now surrounded by large amounts of edema. This case represents a unique report of reactivation of neurocysticercosis and raises interesting questions about the natural history of this infection.  (+info)

Brain parenchymal, subarachnoid racemose, and intraventricular cysticercosis in an Indian man. (5/297)

The coexistence of brain parenchymal cysts at various stages of evolution, both intraventricular and subarachnoid racemose, is reported in a patient with neurocysticercosis. The condition has a variety of presentations, depending on the location of the cyst. This case is of particular interest because of the rarity of this condition in India.  (+info)

A recombinant 10-kDa protein of Taenia solium metacestodes specific to active neurocysticercosis. (6/297)

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide. A 10-kDa antigen of Taenia solium metacestodes (TsMs) has been shown to be specific for immunodiagnosis of NCC. Screening of a TsM complementary DNA (cDNA) library isolated a cDNA encoding this protein. The cloned cDNA contained a 258-bp complete open-reading frame that encodes an 86-amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular weight of 9582 Da. It showed 73% homology with a 10-kDa antigen of T. crassiceps. The recombinant protein was expressed bacterially as a fusion protein at a high level. In immunoblot with recombinant protein, 97% (184/190) of sera from patients with active NCC showed strong reactivity, whereas 14% (4/29) of those from patients with chronic calcified NCC reacted weakly. In 180 sera from other patients with parasitic infections and from normal controls, it showed 98% specificity. A single recombinant TsM antigen has a high potential for serological differentiation of active NCC.  (+info)

Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in an Andean community. (7/297)

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC) has been documented as one of the major causes of epilepsy in developing countries. However, methodological limitations have hindered the evaluation of the epidemiological relationship between cysticercosis and epilepsy at the community level. METHODS: We used the WHO protocol for epidemiological evaluation of neurological disorders to conduct a door-to-door survey among 2723 residents of San Pablo del Lago, an Ecuadorean rural community in which T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis was known to be endemic. The WHO protocol was complemented by neuroimaging and immunological tests to confirm the diagnosis of this infection. RESULTS: In all 31 people suffering from active epilepsy were detected (prevalence 11.4 per 1000, 95% CI:7.7-15.4); 26 agreed to undergo a computer tomography (CT) examination, and 28 agreed to have blood drawn for serodiagnosis. Fourteen of the 26 (53.8%) had CT changes compatible with NCC and six of the 28 (21.4%) tested positive in the enzyme-linked immunoelectro-transfer blot (EITB) assay. In a seizure-free random sample of this population, 17 of 118 (144 per 1000) subjects examined by CT and 10 out of 96 (104 per 1000) examined by EITB had evidence of this infection. The differences between the epilepsy group and the random sample of the population were statistically significant (OR = 6.93, 95% CI: 2.7-17.5, P < 0.001) for CT diagnosis, but not for EITB results (OR = 2.75, 95% CI: 0.8-7.1, P > 0.12, NS). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that T. solium NCC is a significant cause of epilepsy at the community level in Andean villages of Ecuador. It is important to initiate effective public health interventions to eliminate this infection, which may be responsible for at least half of the cases of reported epilepsy in Ecuador.  (+info)

Magnitude of the disease burden from neurocysticercosis in a developing country. (8/297)

Cysticercosis contributes to higher epilepsy rates in developing countries than in industrialized ones, yet no estimate exists for the associated burden of disease. We used epidemiological data on neurocysticercosis in Peru to calculate the burden of disease and applied our model to the other countries of Latin America where neurocysticercosis is endemic to determine a regional estimate. Analysis of 12 population-based community studies demonstrated that neurocysticercosis was endemic in highland areas and high jungles, with seroprevalences from 6% to 24%. In one community, the adult seizure disorder rate was 9.1% among seropositive persons versus 4. 6% among seronegative persons; we used this difference for estimates. On the basis of average prevalence rates in areas of endemicity of 6%-10%, we estimated that there are 23,512-39,186 symptomatic neurocysticercosis cases in Peru. In Latin America, an estimated 75 million persons live in areas where cysticercosis is endemic, and approximately 400,000 have symptomatic disease. Cysticercosis contributes substantially to neurological disease in Peru and in all of Latin America.  (+info)

  • A researcher in the lab of Dr. Hector Garcia explains to the group the pathobiology behind neurocysticercosis, a tapeworm infection that is common in povery conditions where hogs and humans overlap. (wabash.edu)
  • Occasionally the eggs may be present in the food of humans or eggs may auto infect the humans and leads to formation of larva which then migrates in the body and if it spreads to the brain leads to Neurocysticercosis. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • Carpio A, Santillan F, Leon P. Is the course of neurocysticercosis modified by treatment with antihelminthic agents? (medscape.com)
  • Abstract Neurocysticercosis Areeporn Chonhenchob MD Department of Surgery, BMA Medical College and Vajira Hospital Neurocysticercosis is the common neurosurgical disease in Thailand. (who.int)
  • Neurocysticercosis is characterized by the presence of cysticerci (encysted tapeworm larvae) in the central nervous system. (medscape.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic infection that is contracted when someone swallows tapeworm eggs that have passed in the feces of another person who has an intestinal tapeworm. (cnn.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis-a disease in which a young tapeworm infects the brain-is common in much of the developing world. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At present, medicines that kill the adult tapeworm in the stomach and intestines are also used to treat neurocysticercosis caused by the young tapeworm. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic infection of the central nervous system by T solium (ie pork tapeworm) usually through accidental ingestion of contaminated food containing its eggs. (hkmj.org)
  • It is called Neurocysticercosis as neuro = brain, cysticercus = cyst of cercus (tapeworm) sis = disease. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • That's called neurocysticercosis, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that about 1,000 people a year get them from eating something infected with "microscopic eggs passed in the feces of a person who has an intestinal pork tapeworm. (cnn.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis is a disease most often acquired from a human infected with T. solium tapeworms, and infected swine can perpetuate the infection ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Se sospecha que el paciente cursaba con reinfección por T. solium en el lóbulo frontal derecho por la presencia de edema perilesional, los nódulos calcificados distribuidos aleatoriamente en la imagen y la información suministrada por sus familiares durante la anamnesis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the CNS with T solium and associated host inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis most commonly involves the cerebral cortex followed by the cerebellum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background Large cerebral infarction is a rare complication of neurocysticercosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Case Description A 59-year-old man with known neurocysticercosis developed a large cerebral infarction during praziquantel therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • Patient: A 35-year-old man with a history of cerebral neurocysticercosis who presented with both cauda equina and Brown-Sequard syndromes associated with cerebrospinal fluid findings of eosinophilic meningitis. (uab.edu)
  • Furthermore, acute hydrocephalus caused by isolated intraspinal neurocysticercosis without concomitant cerebral involvement is extremely rare. (duhnnae.com)
  • El 60-90% de los cisticercos se ubican en el parénquima cerebral, siendo menos frecuentes las ubicaciones ventricular, subaracnoidea, ocular, meníngea y medular. (bvsalud.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Neurocysticercosis presenting as stroke. (who.int)
  • 3. Rajshekhar V. Surgical management of neurocysticercosis. (hkmj.org)
  • Our group has generated different proposals to improve the understanding and management of neurocysticercosis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Stroke is a common but under recognized complication of neurocysticercosis (NCC). (who.int)
  • However, sporadic cases were reported during the last 2 decades of the 20th century, mainly in immigrants from India, and several case series have suggested that the prevalence of neurocysticercosis in the Arab world has been increasing over the past few years. (cdc.gov)
  • carriers who enter countries in this region every year might infect native persons and increase the prevalence of neurocysticercosis without infected swine. (cdc.gov)
  • Neurocysticercosis' prevalence in the UK is unclear. (yahoo.com)
  • Neurocysticercosis involving the spinal cord, most commonly presenting as back pain and radiculopathy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Cysticercal involvement of the spinal cord is a very rare form of neurocysticercosis. (uab.edu)
  • NCC = neurocysticercosis, Ag pos = antigen ELISA positivity, CSF = cerebrospinal fluid, PWE = people with epilepsy. (nih.gov)
  • TsolR13 is a novel real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) target and may be a useful tool for diagnosing neurocysticercosis from plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), according to study results published in Clinical Infectious Diseases . (neurologyadvisor.com)
  • The parasite preferentially infects subcutaneous tissue, but may invade the central nervous system, resulting in neurocysticercosis (NC). (bvsalud.org)
  • Neurocysticercosis in children: clinical findings and response to albendazole therapy in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in newly diagnosed cases. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical spectrum of 500 children with neurocysticercosis and response to albendazole therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Occasionally the eggs may be present in the food of humans or eggs may auto infect the humans and leads to formation of larva which then migrates in the body and if it spreads to the brain leads to Neurocysticercosis. (pediatriconcall.com)