An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 2 and neuraminidase 2. The H2N2 subtype was responsible for the Asian flu pandemic of 1957.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 9 and neuraminidase 2. The H9N2 subtype usually infects domestic birds (POULTRY) but there have been some human infections reported.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
An epithelial cell line derived from a kidney of a normal adult female dog.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A family of spherical viruses, of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, somewhat larger than the orthomyxoviruses, and containing single-stranded RNA. Subfamilies include PARAMYXOVIRINAE and PNEUMOVIRINAE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES for the determination of NITRIC ACID.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A strong oxidizing agent.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A group of inherited metabolic diseases characterized by the accumulation of excessive amounts of acid mucopolysaccharides, sphingolipids, and/or glycolipids in visceral and mesenchymal cells. Abnormal amounts of sphingolipids or glycolipids are present in neural tissue. INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and skeletal changes, most notably dysostosis multiplex, occur frequently. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch56, pp36-7)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
A family of bacteria including numerous parasitic and pathogenic forms.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A group of related enzymes responsible for the endohydrolysis of the di-N-acetylchitobiosyl unit in high-mannose-content glycopeptides and GLYCOPROTEINS.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.

The effects of digestive enzymes on characteristics of placental insulin receptor. Comparison of particulate and soluble receptor preparations. (1/3160)

The role of the surrounding membrane structure on the binding characteristics of the insulin receptor was studied by using several digestive enzymes. The effects observed with particulate membrane preparations are compared with those from soluble receptor preparations. beta-Galactosidase and neuraminidase had no effect on insulin binding to either particulate or soluble receptors from human placentae. Exposure to 2 units of phospholipase C/ml increased insulin binding to particulate membranes, but was without effect on the soluble receptor preparation. The increase in binding to particulate membranes was shown to be due to an increase in apparent receptor number. After 5 min exposure to 500 microgram of trypsin/ml there was an increase in insulin binding to the particulate membrane fraction, owing to an increase in receptor affinity. After 15 min exposure to this amount of trypsin, binding decreased, owing to a progressive decrease in receptor availability. In contrast, this concentration of trypsin had no effect on the solubilized receptor preparation. Because of the differential effects of phospholipase C and trypsin on the particulate compared with the solubilized receptor preparations, it is concluded that the effects of these enzymes were due to an effect on the surrounding membrane structure. Changes in receptor configuration due to alterations within the adjoining membrane provide a potential mechanism for mediating short-term alterations in receptor function.  (+info)

Cell surface sialic acid and the regulation of immune cell interactions: the neuraminidase effect reconsidered. (2/3160)

It has been known for over a decade that sialidase (neuraminidase) treatment could substantially enhance the capacity of resting B cells to stimulate the proliferation of allogeneic and antigen specific, syngeneic T cells. Thus, cell-surface sialic acid was implicated as a potential modulator of immune cell interaction. However, little progress has been made in either identifying explicit roles for sialic acid in this system or in hypothesizing mechanisms to explain the "neuraminidase effect." Here we show for the first time that cell surface sialic acid on medium incubated B cells blocks access to costimulatory molecules on the B cell surface, and that this is the most likely explanation for the neuraminidase effect. Further, we show that it is likely to be upregulation of ICAM-1 and its subsequent engagement of LFA-1 rather than loss of cell surface sialic acid that in part regulates access to CD86 and other costimulatory molecules. However, we cannot exclude a role for CD86-bound sialic acid on the B cell in modulating binding to T cell CD28. Because sialidase treatment of resting B cells but not resting T cells enables T cell activation, we suggest that sialidase treatment may still be an analogue for an authentic step in B cell activation, and show that for highly activated B cells (activated with polyclonal anti-IgM plus INF-gamma) there is specific loss 2, 6-linked sialic acid. Potential roles for sialic acid in modulating B cell/T cell collaboration are discussed.  (+info)

N-Linked glycosylation and sialylation of the acid-labile subunit. Role in complex formation with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 and the IGFs. (3/3160)

Over 75% of the circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II) are bound in 140-kDa ternary complexes with IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the 84-86-kDa acid-labile subunit (ALS), a glycoprotein containing 20 kDa of carbohydrate. The ternary complexes regulate IGF availability to the tissues. Since interactions of glycoproteins can be influenced by their glycan moieties, this study aimed to determine the role of ALS glycosylation in ternary complex formation. Complete deglycosylation abolished the ability of ALS to associate with IGFBP-3. To examine this further, seven recombinant ALS mutants each lacking one of the seven glycan attachment sites were expressed in CHO cells. All the mutants bound IGFBP-3, demonstrating that this interaction is not dependent on any single glycan chain. Enzymatic desialylation of ALS caused a shift in isoelectric point from 4.5 toward 7, demonstrating a substantial contribution of anionic charge by sialic acid. Ionic interactions are known to be involved in the association between ALS and IGFBP-3. Desialylation reduced the affinity of ALS for IGFBP-3. IGF complexes by 50-80%. Since serum protein glycosylation is often modified in disease states, the dependence of IGF ternary complex formation on the glycosylation state of ALS suggests a novel mechanism for regulation of IGF bioavailability.  (+info)

Binding partners for the myelin-associated glycoprotein of N2A neuroblastoma cells. (4/3160)

The myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) has been proposed to be important for the integrity of myelinated axons. For a better understanding of the interactions involved in the binding of MAG to neuronal axons, we performed this study to identify the binding partners for MAG on neuronal cells. Experiments with glycosylation inhibitors revealed that sialylated N-glycans of glycoproteins represent the major binding sites for MAG on the neuroblastoma cell line N2A. From extracts of [3H]glucosamine-labelled N2A cells several glycoproteins with molecular weights between 20 and 230 kDa were affinity-precipitated using immobilised MAG. The interactions of these proteins with MAG were sialic acid-dependent and specific for MAG.  (+info)

Carbohydrate on human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor. Impairment of function by removal of specific galactose residues. (5/3160)

Human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein containing 120 +/- 12 nmol of sialic acid and 135 +/- 13 nmol of galactose/mg of protein was digested with neuraminidase. The affinity of native factor VIII/von Willebrand factor and its asialo form for the hepatic lectin that specifically binds asialoglycoproteins was assessed from in vitro binding experiments. Native factor VIII/von Willebrand factor exhibited negligible affinity while binding of the asialo derivative was comparable to that observed for asialo-alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Incubation of asialo-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor with Streptococcus pneumoniae beta-galactosidase removed only 62% of the galactose but abolished binding to the purified hepatic lectin. When the asialo derivative was incubated with purified beta-D-galactoside alpha2 leads to 6 sialyltransferase and CMP-[14C]NeuAc, only 61% of the galactose incorporated [14C]NeuAc. From the known specificites of these enzymes, it is concluded that galactose residues important in lectin binding are present in a terminal Gal/beta1 leads to 4GlcNAc sequence on asialo-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor. The relative ristocetin-induced platelet aggregating activity of native, asialo-, and agalacto-factor VIII/von Willebrand factor was 100:38:12, respectively, while procoagulant activity was 100:100:103.  (+info)

Tandem amino acid repeats from Trypanosoma cruzi shed antigens increase the half-life of proteins in blood. (6/3160)

Proteins containing amino acid repeats are widespread among protozoan parasites. It has been suggested that these repetitive structures act as immunomodulators, but other functional aspects may be of primary importance. We have recently suggested that tandem repeats present in Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase stabilize the catalytic activity in blood. Because the parasite releases trans-sialidase, this delayed clearance of the enzyme might have implications in vivo. In the present work, the ability of repetitive units from different T. cruzi molecules in stabilizing trans-sialidase activity in blood was evaluated. It is shown that repeats present on T. cruzi shed proteins (antigens 13 and Shed-Acute-Phase-Antigen [SAPA]) increase trans-sialidase half-life in blood from 7 to almost 35 hours. Conversely, those repeats present in intracellular T. cruzi proteins only increase the enzyme half-life in blood up to 15 hours. Despite these results, comparative analysis of structural and catalytic properties of both groups of chimeric enzymes show no substantial differences. Interestingly, antigens 13 and SAPA also increase the persistence in blood of chimeric glutathione S-transferases, thus suggesting that this effect is inherent to these repeats and independent of the carrier protein. Although the molecular basis of this phenomenon is still uncertain, its biotechnological potential can be envisaged.  (+info)

Amino acid substitutions in a conserved region in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN glycoprotein spike impair its neuraminidase activity in the globular domain. (7/3160)

The ectodomain of the paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein spike can be divided into two regions: a membrane-proximal, stalk-like structure and a terminal globular domain. The latter contains all the antibody recognition sites of the protein, as well as its receptor recognition and neuraminidase (NA) active sites. These two activities of the protein can be separated by monoclonal antibody functional inhibition studies and mutations in the globular domain. Herein, we show that mutation of several conserved residues in the stalk of the Newcastle disease virus HN protein markedly decrease its NA activity without a significant effect on receptor recognition. Thus, mutations in the stalk, distant from the NA active site in the globular domain, can also separate attachment and NA. These results add to an increasing body of evidence that the NA activity of this protein is dependent on an intact stalk structure.  (+info)

Ortho- and paramyxoviruses from migrating feral ducks: characterization of a new group of influenza A viruses. (8/3160)

Ortho- and parainfluenza viruses isolated from the cloacas of migrating feral ducks shot on the Mississippi flyway included three strains of influenza. A virus (Hav6 Nav1, Hav6 Nl, Hav7 Neq2) as well as Newcastle disease virus. One influenza virus, A/duck/Memphis/546/74, possessed Hav3 haemagglutinin, but the neuraminidase was not inhibited by any of the known influenza reference antisera. The neuraminidase on this virus was related to the neuraminidases on A/duck/GDR/72 (H2 N?), A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (Hav 5 N?), A/duck/Ukraine/1/60 (Hav3 N?) and A/turkey/Wisconsin/68. We therefore propose that the neuraminidase on this group of influenza viruses be designated Nav6. The A/duck/Memphis/546/74 influenza virus caused an ocular discharge in 1 of 5 ducks and was shed in faeces for 10 days; it was stable in faecal samples for up to 3 days at 20 degrees C. These results suggest that ecological studies on influenza in avian species should include attempts to isolate virus from faeces. Faecal-oral transmission is an attractive explanation for the spread of influenza virus from feral birds to other animals.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Deletion mutation in the signal anchor domain activates cleavage of the influenza virus neuraminidase, a type II transmembrane protein. AU - Hogue, B. G.. AU - Nayak, D. P.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) is a type II integral membrane protein with a long hydrophobic domain [29 amino acids (aa)] at the N terminus that functions as an uncleaved signal for translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum and anchors the protein in the membrane. The function of the transmembrane domain in intracellular transport was investigated by deletion mutagenesis. Expression of the mutated NA in eukaryotic cells and by in vitro translation in the presence of membranes showed that the deletion of eight amino acids (aa 28 to 35) from the carboxy end of the signal anchor domain resulted in cleavage, probably by the signal peptidase and secretion of NA into the culture medium. The mutant NA (N28-35) was present inside the cell predominantly as dimers, secreted as dimers, ...
Bacterial neuraminidase is type of neuraminidase and a virulence factor for many bacteria including Bacteroides fragilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Its function is to cleave a sialic acid residue off ganglioside-GM1 (a modulator of cell surface and receptor activity) turning it into asialo-GM1 to which type 4 pilli (attachment factors) bind preferentially. Gaskell A, Crennell S, Taylor G (November 1995). The three domains of a bacterial sialidase: a beta-propeller, an immunoglobulin module and a galactose-binding jelly-roll. Structure. 3 (11): 1197-205. doi:10.1016/s0969-2126(01)00255-6. PMID 8591030. Molecular and Cellular Biology ...
We have used a neuraminidase-deficient influenza virus, NWS-Mvi, which was selected by supplying bacterial neuraminidase in the medium (C. Liu and G. M. Air, Virology 194:403-407, 1993), to define the role of neuraminidase in influenza virus replication. Electron microscopy showed that virions of the NWS-Mvi mutant assembled normally and formed large aggregates associated with cell surfaces. The NWS-Mvi virus grown in the absence of neuraminidase was able to carry out a second round of replication in MDCK cells without added neuraminidase, indicating that the virus particles contained in these aggregates were infectious. Aggregates of virus were also found in cytoplasmic vacuoles. When virus-infected cells were incubated in the presence of ferritin, such aggregates were found to be labeled with ferritin, indicating that they are derived from uptake at the cell surface. When the neuraminidase-deficient virus was administered intranasally to C57BL/6 mice, low titers of virus were recovered from ...
Influenza continues to be an ongoing problem despite the existence of vaccines and drugs. Disease outbreaks can occur relatively quickly as witnessed with the recent emergence of the influenza virus A/H1N1 pandemic. The development of new anti-influenza drugs is thus a major challenge. This volume describes all aspects of the virus structure and function relevant to infection. The focus is on drug discovery of inhibitors to the enzyme sialidase, which plays a key role in the infectious lifecycle of the virus. Following an overview of the influenza virus, the haemagglutinin, the interactions with the cell receptors and the enzymology of virus sialidase, recent results in drug design are presented. These include a full coverage of the design, synthesis and evaluation of carbohydrate as well as non-carbohydrate influenza virus sialidase inhibitors. Further reviews of the clinical experience with influenza virus sialidase inhibitors and of the development of resistance to these inhibitor drugs ...
Influenza B Virus Neuraminidase antibody LS-C83326 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to influenza virus Influenza B Virus Neuraminidase. Validated for Inhb.
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are vital in managing seasonal and pandemic influenza infections. NAI susceptibilities of virus isolates (n = 5540) collected during the 2008-2009 influenza season were assessed in the chemiluminescent neuraminidase inhibition (NI) assay. Box-and-whisker plot analyses of log-transformed IC(50)s were performed for each virus type/subtype and NAI to identify outliers which were characterized based on a statistical cutoff of IC(50) >3 interquartile ranges (IQR) from the 75(th) percentile. Among 1533 seasonal H1N1 viruses tested, 1431 (93.3%) were outliers for oseltamivir; they all harbored the H275Y mutation in the neuraminidase (NA) and were reported as oseltamivir-resistant. Only 15 (0.7%) of pandemic 2009 H1N1 viruses tested (n = 2259) were resistant to oseltamivir. All influenza A(H3N2) (n = 834) and B (n = 914) viruses were sensitive to oseltamivir, except for one A(H3N2) and one B virus, with D151V and D197E (D198E in N2 numbering) mutations in the NA, ...
Background The sialidase Neu2 is a cytosolic enzyme which is fully expressed in mature muscle myofibers. Methods To investigate Neu2 expression during muscle atrophy, we employed an in vitro model consisting of terminally differentiated C2C12 myotubes exposed to different pro-atrophic stimuli that triggered catabolic pathways involved in proteasome activation or autophagy. Results Neu2 expression was unchanged in myotubes treated with TNF-alpha, a cytokine known to activate the proteasome. However, Neu2 transcript levels and enzymatic activity were downregulated in starved or dexamethasone-treated myotubes that showed proteosomal activation and several hallmarks of macroautophagy, such as formation of autophagosomes, the accumulation of LC3 dots and bulk degradation of long-lived proteins. Neu2 activity and protein levels were rescued upon cotreatment with the lysosomotropic agent NH4Cl, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or cathepsin inhibitors, as well as by insulin administration, but ...
1A14: COMPLEX BETWEEN NC10 ANTI-INFLUENZA VIRUS NEURAMINIDASE SINGLE CHAIN ANTIBODY WITH A 5 RESIDUE LINKER AND INFLUENZA VIRUS NEURAMINIDASE
The aim of this project was to characterise a neuraminidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae by relating its amino acid sequence to the enzymatic activity of the protein, leading to the production of mutated neuraminidases that could be tested as protective immunogens. The sequence of the cloned neuraminidase gene (nan A), was compared to other bacterial neuraminidases to identify conserved residues, and also utilising crystallography data, predictions were made of the residues likely to be important in catalysis. Three residues, glutamic acid (E) 647, arginine (R) 663 and tyrosine (Y) 752 were chosen for further study. To assess the importance of these residues in catalysis, conservative substitutions of these residues (E647 > Q, R663 > H and Y752 > F) were made and the subsequent effect of enzyme activity measured. The wild-type and mutated neuraminidase genes were cloned into the expression vector pQE30 and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified neuraminidases were assayed for ...
Many respiratory pathogens, including Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, express neuraminidases that can cleave α2,3-linked sialic acids from glycoconjugates. As mucosal surfaces are heavily sialylated, neuraminidases have been thought to modify epithelial cells by exposing potential bacterial receptors. However, in contrast to neuraminidase produced by the influenza virus, a role for bacterial neuraminidase in pathogenesis has not yet been clearly established. We constructed a mutant of P. aeruginosa PAO1 by deleting the PA2794 neuraminidase locus (Δ2794) and tested its virulence and immunostimulatory capabilities in a mouse model of infection. Although fully virulent when introduced i.p., the Δ2794 mutant was unable to establish respiratory infection by i.n. inoculation. The inability to colonize the respiratory tract correlated with diminished production of biofilm, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy and in vitro assays. The importance of ...
Recombinant H7N9 Neuraminidase/NA Protein (His36-Leu465) 40108-VNAHC is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this H7N9 Neuraminidase/NA protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
For the treatment of influenza virus infections, neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) that prevent the release of virus particles have been effective against most influenza strains. Several neuraminidase (NA) assays are available for the evaluation of NAIs. To understand the NAI functions under physiological conditions, assays mimicking viral particle release should be useful. We have constructed retrovirus-based reporter viruses that are pseudotyped with hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein by transfection of producer cells using plasmids expressing retroviral gag-pol, influenza HA, NA, and firefly luciferase genes. Similarly to the life cycle of influenza viruses, the release of pseudotype viruses also requires neuraminidase functions. This requirement was used to develop an assay to evaluate NAI activities by measuring inhibition of pseudotype virus production at different NAI concentrations. The pseudotype virus release assay was used to determine the IC(50) values of Oseltamivir carboxylate, ...
Antiviral drug resistance for influenza therapies remains a concern due to the high prevalence of H1N1 2009 seasonal influenza isolates which display H274Y associated oseltamivir-resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of novel H1N1 raises the potential that additional reassortments can occur, resulting in drug resistant virus. Thus, additional antiviral approaches are urgently needed. DAS181 (Fludase®), a sialidase fusion protein, has been shown to have inhibitory activity against a large number of seasonal influenza strains and a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strain (H5N1). Here, we examine the in vitro activity of DAS181 against a panel of 2009 oseltamivir-resistant seasonal H1N1 clinical isolates. The activity of DAS181 against nine 2009, two 2007, and two 2004 clinical isolates of seasonal IFV H1N1 was examined using plaque number reduction assay on MDCK cells. DAS181 strongly inhibited all tested isolates. EC50 values remained constant against isolates from 2004, 2007, and 2009,
There are no specific protocols for Anti-Swine H1N1 Neuraminidase antibody (ab91643). Please download our general protocols booklet
Summary Ortho- and parainfluenza viruses isolated from the cloacas of migrating feral ducks shot on the Mississippi flyway included three strains of influenza A virus (Hav6 Nav1, Hav6 Nl, Hav7 Neq2) as well as Newcastle disease virus. One influenza virus, A/duck/Memphis/546/74, possessed Hav3 haemagglutinin, but the neuraminidase was not inhibited by any of the known influenza reference antisera. The neuraminidase on this virus was related to the neuraminidases on A/duck/GDR/72 (H2 N?), A/turkey/Ontario/7732/66 (Hav 5 N?), A/duck/Ukraine/1/60 (Hav3 N?) and A/turkey/Wisconsin/68. We therefore propose that the neuraminidase on this group of influenza viruses be designated Nav6. The A/duck/Memphis/546/74 influenza virus caused an ocular discharge in 1 of 5 ducks and was shed in faeces for 10 days; it was stable in faecal samples for up to 3 days at 20 °C. These results suggest that ecological studies on influenza in avian species should include attempts to isolate virus from faeces. Faecal-oral
Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) plays an essential role in release and spread of progeny virions, following the intracellular viral replication cycle. To test whether NA could also facilitate virus entry into cell, we infected cultures of human airway epithelium with human and avian influenza viruses in the presence of the NA inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate. Twenty- to 500-fold less cells became infected in drug-treated versus nontreated cultures (P , 0.0001) 7 h after virus application, indicating that the drug suppressed the initiation of infection. These data demonstrate that viral NA plays a role early in infection, and they provide further rationale for the prophylactic use of NA inhibitors ...
Based on a strategy previously reported by us, we have synthesized D-xylo configured cyclohexenephosphonates designed to mimic the transition state of the sialidase reaction. The double bond orientation corresponds to the benchmark inhibitor Neu5Ac2en and we could selectively introduce hydroxyalkyl substituents in order to simulate the glycerol side-chain of neuraminic acid. The inhibitory activity of a set of compounds towards bacterial sialidases was tested and interesting differences in activity were found. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
Gangliosides play key roles in cell differentiation, cell-cell interactions, and transmembrane signaling. Sialidases hydrolyze sialic acids to produce asialo compounds, which is the first step of degradation processes of glycoproteins and gangliosides. Sialidase involvement has been implicated in some lysosomal storage disorders such as sialidosis and galactosialidosis. Neu2 is a recently identified human cytosolic sialidase. Here we report the first high resolution x-ray structures of mammalian sialidase, human Neu2, in its apo form and in complex with an inhibitor, 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA). The structure shows the canonical six-blade beta-propeller observed in viral and bacterial sialidases with its active site in a shallow crevice. In the complex structure, the inhibitor lies in the catalytic crevice surrounded by ten amino acids. In particular, the arginine triad, conserved among sialidases, aids in the proper positioning of the carboxylate group of DANA within the ...
X-NeuNAc, also known as CB1339 and X-Neu5Ac, is a novel substrate for chromogenic assay of neuraminidase activity in bacterial expression systems. X-NeuNAc can be used to facilitate the screening of bacterial colonies or plaques for the detection of either natural or mutant neuraminidase activity. Preliminary kinetic studies indicate that this compound is a good substrate (Km 0.89 x 10(-3) M) for neuraminidase and is quite stable under identical conditions in the absence of enzyme. These results suggest that X-Neu5Ac can be useful to screen for bacterially-encoded enzyme production directly on agar plates.
We have found that the entrapment of neuraminidase-treated lymphocytes in the liver leads to the induction of autoimmune cellular cytotoxic reactions.. Lymphocytes from mouse spleen and thymus were incubated with neuraminidase in vitro and injected i.v. into syngeneic recipients. Lymphocytic infiltrations into the liver were seen 7 days later with both types of cells. After repeated weekly injections of asialo-lymphocytes, destruction of liver tissue became apparent. Electronmicroscopic studies showed that hepatocytes, fat storage cells, and endothelial cells were affected, mainly at the hepatic periphery.. It is concluded that the adhesion of asialo-lymphocytes to liver cells induces their cytotoxic activity. Similar reactions may occur after paramyxovirus infection due to the action of viral neuraminidase.. ...
Adenocarcinoma, Animal, Ascitic-Fluid: cy, Binding-Sites-Antibody, Cells-Cultured, Complement, Cytotoxicity-Tests-Immunologic, Female, Male, Mammary-Neoplasms-Experimental, Mice, Neoplasm-Transplantation, Neuraminic-Acids: an, Neuraminidase, Vibrio: en. ...
In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.[4] The hemagglutinin is responsible for binding and entry into host epithelial cells while the neuraminidase is involved in the process of new virions budding out of host cells.[5] Sites recognized on the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins by host immune systems are under constant selective pressure. Antigenic drift allows for evasion of these host immune systems by small mutations in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes that make the protein unrecognizable to pre-existing host immunity.[6] Antigenic drift is this continuous process of genetic and antigenic change among flu strains.[7]. In human populations, immune (vaccinated) individuals exert selective pressure for single point mutations in the hemagglutinin gene that increase receptor binding avidity, while naive individuals exert selective pressure for single point mutations that decrease receptor binding avidity.[6] These ...
We have investigated the recognition of the PB1, neuraminidase, and matrix (M1) proteins of influenza virus A/NT/60/68 (H3N2 subtype) by secondary in vitro stimulated polyclonal cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) populations. While these three proteins have different functions and cellular locations, they can all be recognized as target antigens. However, the immunogenicity of these proteins for CTLs is under strict genetic control. Thus, PB1 protein is recognized as a cross-reactive target antigen by CTLs raised in CBA (H-2k) but not BALB/c (H-2d) mice. CBA, but not BALB/c mice, also generate a low-level CTL response to the neuraminidase. This latter response was only detectable following in vivo priming of CBA mice with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing neuraminidase (N2-VACC). The matrix protein, expressed from recombinant vaccinia virus M-VACC, was not recognized as an antigen by CTL generated from either CBA or BALB/c strains of mice. By contrast, human HLA-A2-restricted influenza virus-specific
The influenza virus NA, which is important for virus release from cells, also aids in infection by degrading the mucus barrier of the respiratory tract.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computational studies of sialyllactones. T2 - Methods and uses. AU - Parrill, Abby L.. AU - Mamuya, Nellie. AU - Dolata, Daniel P.. AU - Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - N-Acetylneuraminic acid (1) is a common sugar in many biological recognition processes. Neuraminidase enzymes recognize and cleave terminal sialic acids from cell surfaces. Viral entry into host cells requires neuraminidase activity, thus inhibition of neuraminidase is a useful strategy for development of drugs for viral infections. A recent crystal structure for influenza viral neuraminidase with sialic acid bound shows that the sialic acid is in a boat conformation [Prot Struct Funct Genet 14: 327 (1992)]. Our studies seek to determine if structural pre-organization can be achieved through the use of sialyllactones. Determination of whether siallylactones are pre-organized in a binding conformation requires conformational analysis. Our inability to find a systematic study comparing the ...
Construction of a P. aeruginosa PAO1 neuraminidase null mutant A nanA null mutant (Δ2794) was constructed by allelic replacement. An in-frame nonpolar deletion allele was constructed by removing the nanA coding sequence corresponding to amino acids 5-435 of the predicted 438-residue polypeptide and used to replace the full-length gene (1,317 base pairs) by the method previously described (56). Primers were designed using the published DNA sequence for the neuraminidase gene (designated PA2794) from P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 (GenBank accession no. AF236853). A nanA complementation plasmid was constructed by cloning a PCR product corresponding to the full-length neuraminidase open reading frame into plasmid pMMBGW with either a gentamicin or a penicillin resistance marker (56). The complementation clone or an empty vector control was introduced into the Δ2794 mutant by conjugation and selection on gentamicin (40 μg/ml) or piperacillin (100 μg/ml). The same procedure was carried out to generate ...
On December 19, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Rapivab (peramivir) to treat influenza infection in adults.. Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. Flu infections can range from mild to severe and can sometimes lead to hospitalization and death. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 5-20 percent of the American population gets the flu and more than 200,000 people are hospitalized from seasonal flu-related complications each year.. Rapivab is an inhibitor of influenza virus neuraminidase, an enzyme that releases viral particles from infected cells. Neuraminidase inhibitors are commonly used to treat flu infection. Rapivab is the first neuraminidase inhibitor approved for intravenous (IV) administration and is administered as a single IV dose. It is intended for patients 18 years and older who have acute uncomplicated influenza and have shown symptoms of flu for no more than two days.. For ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimal conditions for the assay of fibroblast neuraminidase with different natural substrates. AU - Caimi, L.. AU - Lombardo, A.. AU - Preti, A.. AU - Wiesmann, U.. AU - Tettamanti, G.. PY - 1979/11/9. Y1 - 1979/11/9. N2 - A method for the assay of neuraminidase in human cultured fibroblasts has been worked out. The substrates, all naturally occurring, were: sialyloligosaccharides (α(2 → 3)sialyllactose, α(2 → 6)sialyllactose, disialyllactose), sialylglycolipids (disialogangliosides GD1a and GD1b), sialylglycoproteins and sialylglycopeptides (ovine submaxillary glycoprotein and its pronase-glycopeptides). The method was based on the determination of the enzymically liberated N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) by a chromatographic-colorimetric microprocedure. The enzyme acted on sialyloligosaccharides and, in the presence of Triton X-100, on gangliosides, while it did not appreciably affect sialylglycoproteins and sialylglycopeptides. The optimum pH was 4.0 for all tested ...
Influenza viruses have been identified with NA molecules that serve as receptor binding proteins, a function usually reserved for the HA glycoprotein.
Neuraminidase inhibitors provide a small benefit by shortening the duration of illness in children with seasonal influenza and reducing household transmission. They have little effect on asthma exacerbations or the use of antibiotics. Their effects on the incidence of serious complications, and on t …
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Avian Influenza A Neuraminidase兔多克隆抗体(ab21305)经ELISA实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
The worldwide spread of H5N1 avian influenza has raised concerns that this virus might acquire the ability to pass readily among humans and cause a pandemic. Two anti-influenza drugs currently being used to treat infected patients are oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza), both of which target the neuraminidase enzyme of the virus. Reports of the emergence of drug resistance make the development of new anti-influenza molecules a priority. Neuraminidases from influenza type A viruses form two genetically distinct groups: group-1 contains the N1 neuraminidase of the H5N1 avian virus and group-2 contains the N2 and N9 enzymes used for the structure-based design of current drugs. Here we show by X-ray crystallography that these two groups are structurally distinct. Group-1 neuraminidases contain a cavity adjacent to their active sites that closes on ligand binding. Our analysis suggests that it may be possible to exploit the size and location of the group-1 cavity to develop new ...
Neuraminidase inhibitors are the only licensed antiviral medications available to treat avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infections in humans. According to a neuraminidase inhibition assay, an R292K substitution reduced antiviral efficacy of inhibitors, especially oseltamivir, and decreased viral fitness in cell culture. Monitoring emergence of R292K-carrying viruses using a pH-modified neuraminidase inhibition assay should be considered.
The Y155H amino acid substitution in the neuraminidase gene (NA) has previously been associated with highly reduced inhibition by neuraminidase inhibitors in the seasonal H1N1 influenza A virus which circulated in humans before the 2009 pandemic. During the 2012/13 epidemic season in Spain, two A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses bearing the specific Y155H substitution in the NA were detected and isolated from two patients diagnosed with severe respiratory syndrome and pneumonia requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Contrary to what was observed in the seasonal A(H1N1) viruses, neither of the Y155H A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses described here showed a phenotype of reduced inhibition by NAIs as determined by the neuraminidase enzyme inhibition assay (MUNANA). High-throughput sequencing of the NA of both Y155H viruses showed that they were composed to >99% of H155 variants. We believe that this report can contribute to a better understanding of the biological significance of amino acid substitutions in the
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Neuraminidase, 1 ml. Neuraminidases or sialidases are exoglycosidases that catalyze the cleavage of a glycosidically linked terminal N acetyl neuraminic acid from sialylated glycoconjugates.
Modules of approx. 200 residues, found at the N-terminus of GH33 sialidases. Can also be found inserted in the β-propeller of GH33 sialidases. The sialic acid binding function has been demonstrated for the N-terminal CBM40 of Vibrio cholerae sialidase (Moustafa et al. (2004) J Biol Chem 279:40819-26) (PMID: 15226294 ...
All Images are for Editorial Use Only). This negatively-stained transmission electron micrograph (TEM) revealed the presence of a number of Hong Kong flu virus virions, the H3N2 subtype of the influenza A virus. This virus is a Orthomyxoviridae virus family member, and was responsible for the flu pandemic of 1968-1969, which infected an estimated 50,000,000 people in the United States, killing 33,000. Note the proteinaceous coat, or capsid, surroundind each virion, and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase spikes, which differ in terms of their molecular make-up from strain to strain.. There are many different subtypes of type A influenza viruses. These subtypes differ because of changes in certain proteins on the surface of the influenza A virus (hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA] proteins). There are 16 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes of influenza A viruses. Many different combinations of HA and NA proteins are possible. Each combination represents a different subtype. All known ...
Supplementary Materials? IRV-13-522-s001. hosts with a number of NA subtypes (N1\N9). solid course=kwd-title Keywords: antiviral medications, avian, influenza A trojan, level of resistance, zoonotic 1.?Launch Zoonotic and pet influenza A infections cause a substantial risk to community wellness; they can cause severe disease in humans with little safety afforded by seasonal vaccination due to antigenic differences.1 NAIs are routinely used to treat individuals infected with influenza viruses, regardless of subtype, and the oseltamivir is the most commonly prescribed anti\influenza therapeutic. Antiviral level of resistance Pradefovir mesylate can emerge in character or pursuing treatment with NAIs through adjustments to the top antigen NA that have an effect on neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) binding. Such changes may cause resistance to 1 or even more NAIs. 2 While NA gene series evaluation can be used to display screen infections for set up markers of level of resistance frequently, genetic ...
购买我们的Avian Influenza A Neuraminidase肽。ab39804可作为ab21304的封闭肽并经过Blocking, ELISA实验验证。Abcam提供免费的实验方案,操作技巧及专业的支持。
The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal enzyme that cleaves terminal sialic acid residues from substrates such as glycoproteins and glycolipids. In the lysosome, this enzyme is part of a heterotrimeric complex together with beta-galactosidase and cathepsin A (the latter is also referred to as protective protein). Mutations in this gene can lead to sialidosis, a lysosomal storage disease that can be type 1 (cherry red spot-myoclonus syndrome or normosomatic type), which is late-onset, or type 2 (the dysmorphic type), which occurs at an earlier age with increased severity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Expression-ready H12N5 Neuraminidase/NA cDNA ORF clone (VG40237-UT) with enhanced promotor in expression vector (pCMV3-untagged) is confirmed by full-length sequence and validated in expression capability for gene expression studies or other applications. Quote for bulk production.
[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/E & EC/EC-32118-S.pdf]Neuraminidase (Isoenzyme S), 1
A radiometric method for the assay of ganglioside sialidase in cultured human fibroblasts was set up. As substrate, highly radioactive (1.28 Ci/mmol) ganglioside GD1a isotopically tritium-labeled at carbon C-3 of the long chain base was employed; the liberated, and TLC separated [3H]GM1 was determined by computer-assisted radiochromatoscanning. Under experimental conditions that provided a low and quite acceptable (4-5%) coefficient of variation, the detection limit of the method was 0.1 nmol of liberated GM1, using as low as 10 μg of fibroblast homogenate as protein. The detection limit could be lowered to 0.02-0.03 nmol, adopting conditions that, however, carried a higher analytical error (coefficient of variation over 10%). The content of ganglioside sialidase in human fibroblasts cultured in 75-cm2 plastic flasks was 5.8 ∓ 2.5 (SD) nmol liberated GM1 h-1 mg protein-1. Subfractionation studies performed on fibroblast homogenate showed that the ganglioside sialidase was mainly associated ...
Lysosomal Storage Disorders are a class of inherited metabolic conditions that result from alterations in the function of lysosomal enzymes. One example is GM1 Gangliosidosis (GM1), a disorder in which the activity of β-galactosidase is deficient resulting in neurodegeneration and early death. The enzyme, β-gal, is a member of the Lysosomal Multienzyme Complex (LMC), which transports proteins to the lysosome and enables various functions. LMC members include β-gal, α-neuraminidase and the Protective Protein Cathepsin A (PPCA). In a unique ovine model of GM1, there is a primary deficiency in the activity of β- galactosidase and a secondary deficiency in α-neuraminidase activity. The cause of the secondary deficiency in α-neuraminidase activity, which is not seen in any other animal model of GM1, is currently unknown. The α-neuraminidase protein is coded for by the NEU1 gene and is, a glycohydrolitic enzyme that is active in the lysosome. The secondary deficiency of α- neuraminidase seen in our
Our study provides validated virus inactivation protocols that allow implementation of phenotypic NAI susceptibility testing, HI assessment (for serology as well antigenic characterization of viruses), and T-cell response characterization using avian, swine, and human influenza viruses under BSL-2 containment conditions. Using pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v virus strains, we illustrate the ease of carrying out Triton X-100 and formalin virus inactivation protocols prior to the assessment of A(H1N1)v virus susceptibility to antivirals and the characterization of B- and T-cell responses, respectively, outside the BSL-3 high-containment facility. These inactivation protocols facilitate the diagnostic examination of pandemic influenza viruses by applying standard laboratory conditions at BSL-2.. Considering results from documented studies and taking ease of use under BSL-3 conditions into account, therefore excluding, e.g., irradiation protocols, we evaluated human A(H3N2) and avian A(H7N3) virus ...
Our study provides validated virus inactivation protocols that allow implementation of phenotypic NAI susceptibility testing, HI assessment (for serology as well antigenic characterization of viruses), and T-cell response characterization using avian, swine, and human influenza viruses under BSL-2 containment conditions. Using pandemic influenza A(H1N1)v virus strains, we illustrate the ease of carrying out Triton X-100 and formalin virus inactivation protocols prior to the assessment of A(H1N1)v virus susceptibility to antivirals and the characterization of B- and T-cell responses, respectively, outside the BSL-3 high-containment facility. These inactivation protocols facilitate the diagnostic examination of pandemic influenza viruses by applying standard laboratory conditions at BSL-2.. Considering results from documented studies and taking ease of use under BSL-3 conditions into account, therefore excluding, e.g., irradiation protocols, we evaluated human A(H3N2) and avian A(H7N3) virus ...
Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids mainly expressed at the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Sialidase NEU3 is a key enzyme in the catabolism of gangliosides with its up-regulation having been observed in human cancer cells. In the case of CME (clathrin-mediated endocytosis), although this has been widely studied, the role of NEU3 and gangliosides in this cellular process has not yet been established. In the present study, we found an increased internalization of Tf (transferrin), the archetypical cargo for CME, in cells expressing complex gangliosides with high levels of sialylation. The ectopic expression of NEU3 led to a drastic decrease in Tf endocytosis, suggesting the participation of gangliosides in this process. However, the reduction in Tf endocytosis caused by NEU3 was still observed in glycosphingolipid-depleted cells, indicating that NEU3 could operate in a way that is independent of its action on gangliosides. Additionally, internalization of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuraminidase from Trypanosoma cruzi. T2 - Analysis of enhanced expression of the enzyme in infectious forms. AU - Harth, G.. AU - Haidaris, C. G.. AU - So, M.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - We purified the neuraminidase (sialidase, acylneuraminyl hydrolase, EC 3.2.1.18) from the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, strain Y, and examined the developmental regulation of the enzyme. The detectable amount of enzyme activity increased 10- to 20-fold upon conversion of the parasite from the noninfectious epimastigote form to the infectious trypomastigote form. The enzyme was purified from membranes of trypomastigotes ,5000-fold to apparent homogeneity and migrated as an entity of M(r) 60,000 under denaturing conditions. Antibodies produced in rabbits against the denatured protein recognized the neuraminidase in membrane extracts from the infectious stage but not from the noninfectious stage. Sera from a patient with acute chagasic disease also reacted strongly with the neuraminidase. ...
Antibodies are a major means of protection from influenza virus infections. Antibody-mediated immunity is the basis of current vaccines and most efforts to improve immunity to influenza. Influenza virus vaccinations induce antibodies that predominantly target the immunodominant globular head of influenza HA, blocking viral attachment to prevent infection (4, 5). However, immunity to the HA head domain is highly susceptible to influenza antigenic drift or viral mutation, which introduces novel amino acids and glycosylation sites that allow the virus to evade existing immunity. The stalk is a more conserved domain, allowing antibodies that target this region to neutralize a wide spectrum of influenza virus subtypes (6-9). The currently appreciated mechanism of protection by HA stalk-reactive antibodies is to lock the HA trimer in a prefusion conformation, preventing pH-triggered conformational changes upon viral uptake into endocytic compartments. This conformational change exposes the fusion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuraminidase and contractile responses to norepinephrine in rat tail artery. AU - Rice, J. H.. AU - Webb, R. C.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - Sialic acids are negatively charged groups in the carbohydrate side chains of glycolipids and glycoproteins which line the external membrane surface. The goal of this study was to characterize the effect of neuraminidase, which selectively cleaves sialic acids, on contractile activity in vascular smooth muscle. Helically cut strips of rat tail artery were mounted in an organ chamber and isometric contractions were recorded. Following treatment with neuraminidase (0.2 U/ml, 1 h), contractile responses to norepinephrine were signficantly greater than control responses. Phasic concentrations to norepinephrine in calcium-free medium were not altered by neuraminidase, whereas following calcium depletion with EGTA, contractile responses to added calcium were greater in enzyme-treated strips than in control when activated with ...
Background: Little is known about whether neuraminidase inhibitors are effective Vorinostat purchase for children infected with oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses.. Methods: Children aged 15 years and younger having influenza-like illness and who visited outpatient clinics within 48 hours Bcl 2 inhibitor of fever onset were enrolled from 2006-2007 to 2008-2009 influenza seasons in Japan. Patients received oseltamivir, zanamivir, or no treatment after screening by a rapid antigen test. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected before antiviral therapy. and were used for virus isolation. Oseltamivir resistance was determined by detection of the H275Y mutation in neuraminidase, and susceptibility test using neuraminidase inhibition assay. Daily body temperature was evaluated according to drug type and susceptibility by univariate and multivariate analyses.. Results: Of 1647 patients screened, 238 oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 cases (87 oseltamivir-treated, 64 zanamivir-treated, and 87 ...
Although oseltamivir-resistant pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 is uncommon in immunocompetent individuals, a recent report from Newcastle, Australia, showed the first sustained community spread, from June to August 2011, of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus carrying the H275Y neuraminidase (NA) mutation. To determine the frequency and the extent of this viral variant spread in the nearest major city to Newcastle, we performed a sequence-based genotypic assessment on samples from 143 oseltamivir untreated and 23 oseltamivir post-treatment individuals with influenza collected contemporaneously in Sydney, 120 km southwest of Newcastle. The detection of two of 143 (1.4%) community-derived samples containing H275Y suggests a low prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in the general community and no convincing evidence of spread of the NA H275Y-bearing influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. In oseltamivir treated patients, oseltamivir-resistant influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus
Background: Influenza viruses present a serious threat to global health. Resistance to current antiviral drugs underscore the need for additional therapies. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) and its active metabolite tizoxanide (TIZ) were found to inhibit the replication of H1N1 PR8 influenza A virus by a novel mechanism, impairing hemagglutinin maturation and virus morphogenesis. Herein we investigated the activity of NTZ and TIZ against a broad spectrum of human and avian influenza strains. Furthermore, the synergistic potential of NTZ in combination with neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) oseltamivir (OST) and zanamivir (ZAN) was explored. Methods: The effect of NTZ/TIZ activity was investigated in MDCK cells after infection (5 HAU/105 cells) with the following influenza A strains: H1N1 A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8), H1N1 A/Wisconsin/33, H3N2 A/Firenze/7/03, H3N2 amantadine-resistant A/Parma/06/07 (AMD-R), H1N1 OST-resistant A/Parma/24/09 (OST-R), and avian H5N9-LP A/Ck/Italy/9097/97, H1N1 A/Goose/Italy/296246/03 and ...
Human infections with Eurasian avian-like swine influenza H1N1 viruses have been reported in China in past years. One case resulted in death and others were mild case. In 2016, the World Health Organization recommended the use of A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) virus to construct the first candidate vaccine strain for Eurasian avian-like swine influenza H1N1 viruses. Previous reports showed that the neuraminidase of A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1) might improve the viral yield of reassortant viruses. Therefore, we constructed two reassortant candidate vaccine viruses of A/Hunan/42443/2015(H1N1) by reverse genetic technology, with (6+2) and (7+1) gene constitution, respectively. The (6+2) virus had hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from A/Hunan/42443/2015, and the (7+1) one had hemagglutinin from A/Hunan/42443/2015, while all the other genes were from A/Puerto Rico/8/34. Our data revealed that although the neuraminidase of the (7+1) virus was from high yield A/Puerto Rico/8/34, the hemagglutination titer and the ...
We have cloned the Bacteroides fragilis TAL2480 neuraminidase (NANase) structural gene, nanH, in Escherichia coli. This was accomplished by using the cloning shuttle vector pJST61 and a partial Sau3A library of TAL2480 chromosomal inserts created in E. coli. The library was mobilized into the NANase-deficient B. fragilis TM4000 derivative TC2. NANase-producing colonies were enriched by taking advantage of the inability of TC2, but not the wild-type of NANase+ revertant, to grow in vitro in fluid aspirated from the rat granuloma pouch. Plasmids pJST61-TCN1 and pJST61-TCN3, containing inserts of 9.1 and 4.5 kilobases (kb), respectively, were found in the TC2 derivatives that grew in the rat pouch medium. In B. fragilis, NANase production from the two plasmids was inducible by free N-acetylneuraminic acid or sialic acid-containing substrates, just as in the parental TAL2480 strain. However, when these plasmids were transferred back to E. coli, NANase activity was barely detectable. A 3.5-kb portion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outside-binding site mutations modify the active sites shapes in neuraminidase from influenza A H1N1. AU - Tolentino-Lopez, Luis. AU - Segura-Cabrera, Aldo. AU - Reyes-Loyola, Paola. AU - Zimic, Mirko. AU - Quiliano, Miguel. AU - Briz, Veronica. AU - Muñoz-Fernández, Angeles. AU - Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario. AU - Ilizaliturri-Flores, Ian. AU - Correa-Basurto, Jose. PY - 2013/1. Y1 - 2013/1. N2 - The recent occurrence of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic as well as others has raised concern of a far more dangerous outcome should this virus becomes resistant to current drug therapies. The number of clinical cases that are resistant to oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is larger than the limited number of neuraminidase (NA) mutations (H275Y, N295S, and I223R) that have been identified at the active site and that are associated to oseltamivir resistance. In this study, we have performed a comparative analysis between a set of NAs that have the most representative mutations located outside the ...
Rapid shifts in microbial composition frequently occur during intestinal inflammation, but the mechanisms underlying such changes remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that an increased caecal sialidase activity is critical in conferring a growth advantage for some bacteria including Escherichia coli (E. coli) during intestinal inflammation in mice. This sialidase activity originates among others from Bacteroides vulgatus, whose intestinal levels expand after dextran sulphate sodium administration. Increased sialidase activity mediates the release of sialic acid from intestinal tissue, which promotes the outgrowth of E. coli during inflammation. The outburst of E. coli likely exacerbates the inflammatory response by stimulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by intestinal dendritic cells. Oral administration of a sialidase inhibitor and low levels of intestinal α2,3-linked sialic acid decrease E. coli outgrowth and the severity of colitis in mice. Regulation of sialic acid ...
Clinical trial for Influenza Vaccine | Influenza , Study to Assess Efficacy and Safety of Baloxavir Marboxil In Combination With Standard-of-Care Neuraminidase Inhibitor In Hospitalized Participants With Severe Influenza
HMTK KARUNARATHNA, RAPM PERERA, VJ FANG, HL YEN, BJ COWLING AND JSM PEIRIS (2016). Serum anti-neuraminidase antibody (Anti-NA N1) responses in human pandemic H1N1 2009 Influenza A virus infections and cross reactivity with seasonal H1N1 virus. Presented at Options IX for the control of influenza conference, Chicago, Illinois, USA held from 24th to 28th August 2016. (Best poster presentation at the symposium in the theme of Public Health ...
1. Riegger D*, Hai R*, Dornfeld D, Manz B, Leyva-Grado V, Sanchez-Aparicio MT, Albrecht RA, Palese P, Haller O, Schwemmle M, Garcia-Sastre A, Kochs G, Schmolke M. 2015. The nucleoprotein of newly emerged H7N9 influenza A virus harbors a unique motif conferring resistance to antiviral human MxA. J Virol 89:2241-2252. (*: These authors contributed equally to this work.). 2. Leyva-Grado, V. H.*, Hai, R.*, Fernandes, F., Belicha-Villanueva, A., Carter, C., and Yondola, M. 2014. Modulation of an ectodomain motif in the influenza A virus neuraminidase alters tetherin sensitivity and results in virus attenuation in vivo. Journal of molecular biology 426:1308-1321. (*: These authors contributed equally to this work.). 3. Hai, R., Schmolke, M., Leyva-Grado, V. H., Thangavel, R. R., Margine, I., Jaffe, E. L., Krammer, F., Solorzano, A., Garcia-Sastre, A., Palese, P., and Bouvier, N. M. 2013. Influenza A(H7N9) virus gains neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without loss of in vivo virulence or ...
A series of substrates, sialyl(2 leads to 6)GalNAc and ganglioside GM3, containing either N-acetylneuraminic acid (AcNeu) or N-glycolloylneuraminic acid (GcNeu), has been prepared. The trisaccharide GcNeu(2 leads to 3)lactose was preapred by ozonolysis of GcNeu-GM3, and the disaccharides AcNeu(2 leads to 6)GalNAc and GcNeu(2 leads to 6)GalNAc were isolated from bovine submandibular-gland mucin by alkali elimination. Sialidases from Newcastle-disease virus, fowl-plague virus, influenza virus A2, Clostridium perfringens, Vibrio cholerae, Arthrobacter ureafaciens and human liver lysosomes were studied with the above substrates and all showed poorer cleavage of GcNeu-containing substrates when compared with the corresponding AcNeu-containing compounds. This was reflected in the Km and Vmax. values of these sialidases. Differences between viral and bacterial sialidases could be detected on the basis of their kinetic constants and time curves of sialic acid release. Preferred release of AcNeu relative ...
Bacteria are developing resistance against β-lactam antibiotics by various genetic mechanisms of which plasmid acquiring is the most deadly. Amongst others bacteria acquire resistance by degradation or modification of the antibiotic before it reaches the target site, alteration of the antibiotic site and the prevention of access of the antibiotic to the target by forced efflux.. One of the most problematic bacteria known to roam the corridors and wards in hospitals is Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram positive bacterium. We conduct computational structural biology and reaction dynamics studies on S. Aureus to develop lead drugs that may be a new form of antibiotic.. Ian L. Rogers and Kevin J. Naidoo/ Profiling Transition-State Configurations on the Trypanosoma cruzi trans-Sialidase Free-Energy Reaction Surfaces. J. Phys Chem B. 2015. 119, 1192-1201.. Umraan Hendricks, Werner Crous and Kevin J. Naidoo. Computational Rationale for the Selective Inhibition of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Uracil-DNA ...
Bacteria are developing resistance against β-lactam antibiotics by various genetic mechanisms of which plasmid acquiring is the most deadly. Amongst others bacteria acquire resistance by degradation or modification of the antibiotic before it reaches the target site, alteration of the antibiotic site and the prevention of access of the antibiotic to the target by forced efflux.. One of the most problematic bacteria known to roam the corridors and wards in hospitals is Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram positive bacterium. We conduct computational structural biology and reaction dynamics studies on S. Aureus to develop lead drugs that may be a new form of antibiotic.. Ian L. Rogers and Kevin J. Naidoo/ Profiling Transition-State Configurations on the Trypanosoma cruzi trans-Sialidase Free-Energy Reaction Surfaces. J. Phys Chem B. 2015. 119, 1192-1201.. Umraan Hendricks, Werner Crous and Kevin J. Naidoo. Computational Rationale for the Selective Inhibition of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Uracil-DNA ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1s0j.1. Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase in complex with MuNANA (Michaelis complex)
Description: Oseltamivir is an inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase [1].Oseltamivir is a prodrug that is converted by intestinal and/or hepatic esterases to the neuraminidase inhibitor molecule, oseltamivir carboxylate ...
Control of flavonoid derivatives inhibitors release through the inhibition of neuraminidase has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of H1N1 influenza disease. We have employed molecular dynamics simulation techniques to optimize the 2009 H1N1 influenza neuraminidase X-ray crystal structure. Molecular docking of the compounds revealed the possible binding mode. Our molecular dynamics simulations combined with the solvated interaction energies technique was applied to predict the docking models of the inhibitors in the binding pocket of the H1N1 influenza neuraminidase. In the simulations, the correlation of the predicted and experimental binding free energies of all 20 flavonoid derivatives inhibitors is satisfactory, as indicated by R2 = 0.75.
Cited for: VARIANTS SIALIDOSIS VAL-68; GLY-182; ARG-227; ARG-240; TYR-260; PHE-270; VAL-298; SER-328 AND PRO-363; CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIANTS SIALIDOSIS VAL-68; GLY-182; ARG-227; TYR-260; PHE-270; VAL-298; SER-328 AND PRO-363; Novel missense mutations in the human lysosomal sialidase gene in sialidosis patients and prediction of structural alterations of mutant enzymes. ...
Endosialidase (endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) is a tailspike enzyme of bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic Escherichia coli K1, which specifically recognizes and degrades polySia (polysialic acid). polySia is also a polysaccharide of the capsules of other meningitis- and sepsis-causing bacteria, and a post-translational modification of the NCAM (neural cell-adhesion molecule). We have cloned and sequenced three spontaneously mutated endosialidases of the PK1A bacteriophage and one of the PK1E bacteriophage which display lost or residual enzyme activity but retain the binding activity to polySia. Single to triple amino acid substitutions were identified, and back-mutation constructs indicated that single substitutions accounted for only partial reduction of enzymic activity. A homology-based structural model of endosialidase revealed that all substituted amino acid residues localize to the active site of the enzyme. The results reveal the importance of non-catalytic amino acid residues for ...
Endosialidase (endo-N-acetylneuraminidase) is a tailspike enzyme of bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic Escherichia coli K1, which specifically recognizes and degrades polySia (polysialic acid). polySia is also a polysaccharide of the capsules of other meningitis- and sepsis-causing bacteria, and a post-translational modification of the NCAM (neural cell-adhesion molecule). We have cloned and sequenced three spontaneously mutated endosialidases of the PK1A bacteriophage and one of the PK1E bacteriophage which display lost or residual enzyme activity but retain the binding activity to polySia. Single to triple amino acid substitutions were identified, and back-mutation constructs indicated that single substitutions accounted for only partial reduction of enzymic activity. A homology-based structural model of endosialidase revealed that all substituted amino acid residues localize to the active site of the enzyme. The results reveal the importance of non-catalytic amino acid residues for ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Koji Yamamoto, Kohta Takahashi, Kazuhiro Shiozaki, Kazunori Yamaguchi, Setsuko Moriya, Masahiro Hosono, Hiroshi Shima, Taeko Miyagi].
Learn how flu viruses get into and out of your cells using Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase proteins on their surface. Rishi is a pediatric infectious disease physician and works at Khan Academy. These videos do not provide medical advice and are for informational purposes only. The videos are not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen in any Khan Academy video.
The team examined blood samples from people who were vaccinated against flu and those who were diagnosed with either the H3N2 or H1N1 influenza viruses. They found that flu vaccines rarely induced anti-NA antibodies. In contrast, natural flu infection induced anti-NA antibodies at least as often as anti-HA ones.. Lab experiments showed that anti-NA antibodies induced during natural flu infection reacted against diverse strains of flu virus. To test whether they could also protect against diverse strains, the researchers isolated anti-NA antibodies from the H3N2 and H1N1 influenza patients. When the team gave anti-NA antibodies derived from the H3N2 patients to mice and infected the mice with a different H3N2 virus strain, 11 of the 13 tested antibodies protected the mice. Four of eight anti-NA antibodies derived from the H1N1 patients protected mice against both a similar H1N1 virus strain and an H5N1-like strain. Past studies have found far less overlap among anti-HA antibodies.. These findings ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in exo-alpha-(2->8)-sialidase activity pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate) is an antiviral drug approved for treatment of uncomplicated influenza A and B in patients 1 year of age or older. It is also approved for prophylaxis (prevention) of influenza in people 13 years or older after household contact or at high risk for exposure during influenza season. Tamiflu is one of a group of anti-influenza drugs called neuraminidase inhibitors that act by blocking the viral enzyme neuraminidase which helps the influenza virus invade cells in the respiratory tract ...
With enhanced promotor, Neuraminidase/NA cDNA ORF Clone, Influenza B in pCMV3-SP-N-His is expression-ready, and confirmed by full-length sequence & expression validation
The study-led by David Baltimore, Caltechs Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Biology and recipient of the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and postdoctoral scholar Jesse D. Bloom-appears in the June 4 issue of the journal Science. Tamiflu and other antiviral drugs directly target viruses, unlike vaccines, which instead stimulate our bodys immune system to respond to the pathogens after an infection is established. In a flu infection, viruses bind to sialic acid on the surface of a host cell using a protein called hemagglutinin (the H in H1N1). The viruses then enter the cell and replicate. When the newly minted viruses exit the cell, they too bind to sialic acid. The viruses then use a protein called neuraminidase (the N in H1N1) to cut the sialic acid, freeing themselves to infect new cells. This process, however, is blocked by Tamiflu, which prevents neuraminidase from cleaving the sialic acid. It does this by binding in the active site of the neuraminidase molecule, ...
Coronavirus drug is an antiviral agent that you can buy right now. When taken orally, it is hydrolyzed, turning into an active form of medicine - oseltamivir carboxylate. Its mechanism of action is related to the ability to inhibit neuraminidase (enzymes involved in replication) of influenza viruses A and B. Meanwhile, the ability of viral particles to penetrate the human cells, as well as the exit of virions from an infected human cell, is impaired. This limits the spread of the pathogen through the respiratory tract ...
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The chemical relationship of the seven forms of human liver α-L fucosidase has been studied by isoelectric focusing of neuraminidase- and sialyltransf
Tamiflu is the current standard treatment for patients with influenza. A recent study has presented results demonstrating that treatment with Tamiflu reduces the time to relief of flu symptoms, however, increases the occurrence of nausea and vomiting. Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) is a neuraminidase inhibitor that blocks the activity of influenza virus enzymes. During the 2009 influenza… ...
Hydrolysis of alpha-(2->3)-, alpha-(2->6)-, alpha-(2->8)- glycosidic linkages of terminal sialic acid residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid and synthetic substrates ...
A group of 23 volunteers were each inoculated with 600 CCA of a new form of influenza virus A/England/42/72 vaccine; this vaccine consisted of purified haemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens adsorbed to alhydrogel. No significant reactions to the vaccine were reported. Twenty-two volunteers produced increased titres of serum HI antibody, and all showed increased titres of NI antibody after immunization. Thus, for volunteers with no pre-immunization serum HI antibody, the geometric mean titre of serum antibody increased from 1/5 to 1/196 after immunization. Ten volunteers developed local neutralizing antibody after immunization; this antibody response was detected most frequently in volunteers who showed the greater serum antibody response to immunization, and in nasal washings with the higher concentrations of protein and IgA. Ten weeks after immunization, the vaccinees and a group of matched controls were inoculated intranasally with attenuated A/England/42/72 virus. Evidence of infection ...
Widespread use of antiviral therapy can lead to drug resistance, and resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors has been documented in type A influenza. During an i
Read Antiviral Drug Strategies by Raimund Mannhold available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first purchase. By focusing on general molecular mechanisms of antiviral drugs rather than therapies for individual viruses, this ready Author: Raimund Mannhold, Hugo Kubinyi, Gerd Folkers. Description. It begins with a general discussion of antiviral strategies, followed by a broad survey of known viral targets, such as reverse transcriptases, proteases, neuraminidases, RNA polymerases, helicases and primases, as well as their known inhibitors. The final section contains several cases studies of recent successful antiviral drug. It begins with a general discussion of antiviral strategies, followed by a broad survey of known viral targets, such as reverse transcriptases, proteases, neuraminidases, RNA polymerases, helicases and primases, as well as their known inhibitors. The final section contains several cases studies of recent successful antiviral drug development. Strategies of ...
Proteazomi su proteinski kompleksi koji su nađeni svih eukariota i Archaea, a i kod nekih bakterija. Kod eukariota se nalaze u jedru i citoplazmi.[1] Glavna funkcija proteazoma je razgradnja nepotrebnih ili oštećenih proteina, u procesu proteolize, odnosno hemijske reakcije u kojoj se razlažu peptidne veze. Enzimi koji kataliziraju ove reakcije su proteaze.[2][3][4] Proteazomi su dio velikog mehanizma kojim ćelije reguliraju koncentraciju pojedinih proteina i razgrađuju nepravilno savijene proteine. U procesu degradacije nastaju peptidi sa oko sedam do osam aminokiselina, koji se zatim razrađuju u aminokiseline i koriste u sintezi novih proteina.[5] Za degradaciju, proteini se obilježavaju malim proteinom zvanim ubikvitin. Reakcija obilježavanja se katalizira enzimima ubikvitinskim ligazama. Vezanje jednog ubikvitina na protein je signal drugim ligazama da vežu dodatne molekule ubikvitina. Rezultat je poliubikvitinski lanac za koji se veže proteazom, što omogućava degradaciju ...
... researchers have developed influenza neuraminidase inhibitors which effectively block the influenza neuraminidase and ... The influenza virus protein viral neuraminidase is a six-bladed beta-propeller protein whose active form is a tetramer. It is ... The beta-propeller domain of the influenza virus neuraminidase are often used for drug design. Through study of this enzyme, ... Matrosovich MN, Matrosovich TY, Gray T, Roberts NA, Klenk HD (November 2004). "Neuraminidase is important for the initiation of ...
Hinek A, Bodnaruk TD, Bunda S, Wang Y, Liu K (Oct 2008). "Neuraminidase-1, a subunit of the cell surface elastin receptor, ... The elastin receptor complex includes S-Gal, neuraminidase and Cathepsin A. When elastin-derived peptides bind to the S-Gal ... Hinek A, Pshezhetsky AV, von Itzstein M, Starcher B (Feb 2006). "Lysosomal sialidase (neuraminidase-1) is targeted to the cell ... The enzymatic activity of neuraminidase in the elastin receptor complex is involved in the release of tropoelastin molecules ...
Parainfluenza hemagglutinin-neuraminidase: a type of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase produced by parainfluenza which is closely ... Cold agglutinin disease Hemagglutination assay Neuraminidase Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) Agglutination Henry, R.; Murphy, FA ... Wikipedia (August 3, 2019) [January 5, 2009]. "Parainfluenza hemagglutinin-neuraminidase". www.wikipedia.com. Retrieved Nov 7, ... Oct 24, 2018) [2018]. ""Etymologia: Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase"". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 24 (10): 1849. doi:10.3201 ...
They discovered neuraminidase. He was elected a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Science in 1954. On his retirement in 1959 ...
ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1. van der Spoel, A; Bonten E; d'Azzo A (Mar 1998). "Transport of human lysosomal neuraminidase to mature ... 1991). "Combined deficiency of beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase: natural history of the disease in the first 18 years of an ... This gene encodes a glycoprotein that associates with lysosomal enzymes beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase to form a complex ... It is protective for β-galactosidase and neuraminidase. Deficiencies in this gene are linked to multiple forms of ...
Penzel R, Uhl J, Kopitz J, Beck M, Otto HF, Cantz M (2001). "Splice donor site mutation in the lysosomal neuraminidase gene ... Sialidase 1 (lysosomal sialidase), also known as NEU1 is a mammalian lysosomal neuraminidase enzyme which in humans is encoded ... van der Spoel A, Bonten E, d'Azzo A (Mar 1998). "Transport of human lysosomal neuraminidase to mature lysosomes requires ... Bonten E, van der Spoel A, Fornerod M, Grosveld G, d'Azzo A (1997). "Characterization of human lysosomal neuraminidase defines ...
Neuraminidase inhibitors. Overall the benefits of neuraminidase inhibitors in those who are otherwise healthy do not appear to ... Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase molecules cluster into a bulge in the cell membrane. The vRNA and viral core proteins leave the ... The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins are shown on the surface of the particle. The viral RNAs that make up ... Hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) are the two large glycoproteins on the outside of the viral particles. HA is a lectin ...
It is a neuraminidase inhibitor and was developed by the Australian biotech firm Biota Holdings. It was licensed to Glaxo in ... Zanamivir works by binding to the active site of the neuraminidase protein, rendering the influenza virus unable to escape its ... Zanamivir, a transition-state analogue inhibitor of neuraminidase, was the result. As Biota was a small company, it did not ... Its strategy relied on the availability of the structure of influenza neuraminidase by X-ray crystallography. It was also known ...
Aisaka, Kazuo; Uwajima, Takayuki (1987). "Production of neuraminidase byMicromonospora viridifaciens". FEMS Microbiology ... and characterization of neuraminidase from Micromonospora viridifaciens". Agricultural and Biological Chemistry. 55 (4): 997- ... "Contribution of the active site aspartic acid to catalysis in the bacterial neuraminidase from Micromonospora viridifaciens". ... and characterization of the Micromonospora viridifaciens neuraminidase gene in Streptomyces lividans". J Bacteriol. 174 (21): ...
Segment 6 encodes NA (neuraminidase). About 100 molecules of neuraminidase are needed to make one virion. Segment 7 encodes two ... protein and a type 1 neuraminidase (N) protein. There are 18 known types of hemagglutinin and 11 known types of neuraminidase, ... The neuraminidase, on the other hand, is critical for the subsequent release of the daughter virus particles created within the ... N = neuraminidase, an enzyme that cleaves the glycosidic bonds of the monosaccharide sialic acid (previously called neuraminic ...
Royal, Jr., George C.; Nandedkar, Arvind K. N.; Sampson, Calvin C.; Faggett, Timothy (1984). "Neuraminidase Production by ...
Yamashita M, Tomozawa T, Kakuta M, Tokumitsu A, Nasu H, Kubo S (January 2009). "CS-8958, a prodrug of the new neuraminidase ... Laninamivir (CS-8958) is a neuraminidase inhibitor that is a drug used for the treatment and prophylaxis of Influenzavirus A ... It is a long-acting neuraminidase inhibitor administered by nasal inhalation. Laninamivir was approved for influenza treatment ... Samson, M; Pizzorno, A; Abed, Y; Boivin, G (May 2013). "Influenza virus resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors". Antiviral ...
Colman determined the three-dimensional structure of the influenza virus neuraminidase and, in one of the earliest cases of ... "Influenza virus neuraminidase: Structure, antibodies, and inhibitors". Protein Science. 3 (10): 1687-96. doi:10.1002/pro. ... "Structure of the influenza virus glycoprotein antigen neuraminidase at 2.9 Å resolution". Nature. 303 (5912): 35-40. doi: ... "Three-dimensional structure of a complex of antibody with influenza virus neuraminidase". Nature. 326 (6111): 358-63. doi: ...
... neuraminidase hydrolyses sialic acid residues from glycoproteins; NanM is a sialic acid mutarotase, involved in efficient ...
On the other hand, a few strains resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors have emerged and circulated in the absence of much use ... The main classes of antiviral drugs used against influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors, such as zanamivir and oseltamivir, ... Lackenby A, Thompson CI, Democratis J (December 2008). "The potential impact of neuraminidase inhibitor resistant influenza". ... neuraminidase (NA) were to acquire the tamiflu-resistance (His274Tyr) mutation which is currently widespread in seasonal H1N1 ...
Preliminary tests have shown it to be an effective neuraminidase inhibitor against the influenza A virus subtype H1N1. Huang, ... neuraminidase inhibitors from Vitis amurensis". Food Chemistry. 124 (2): 437-443. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.06.049. ISSN 0308 ...
Neuraminidase are enzymes that break glycosidic breaks glycosidic linkages. The size and surface molecules presented on of the ... In the case of the influenza virosome, the glycoproteins are antigen, haemagglutinin, and neuraminidase. Antigens are molecules ... and neuraminidase (NA) intercalated in the phospholipid bilayer membrane. They have a typical mean diameter of 150 nm. ...
... is a neuraminidase inhibitor isolated from the fungus Phellinus linteus. Yeom, JH; Lee, IK; Ki, DW; Lee, MS; Seok ... SJ; Yun, BS (2012). "Neuraminidase Inhibitors from the Culture Broth of Phellinus linteus". Mycobiology. 40 (2): 142-4. doi: ...
... is a neuraminidase inhibitor, a competitive inhibitor of influenza's neuraminidase enzyme. The enzyme cleaves the ... May 2016). "Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza: a systematic review and meta-analysis of regulatory and mortality data". ... Wang K, Shun-Shin M, Gill P, Perera R, Harnden A (April 2012). Harnden A (ed.). "Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and ... April 2014). "Neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing and treating influenza in healthy adults and children". The Cochrane ...
... is a neuraminidase inhibitor, acting as a transition-state analogue inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase and thereby ... Thorlund K, Awad T, Boivin G, Thabane L (May 2011). "Systematic review of influenza resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors ... McKimm-Breschkin JL (January 2013). "Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance". ... a S247N neuraminidase mutation) giving some resistance to oseltamivir and zanamivir, but no significant reduction in ...
It attaches to CD46 using a dead neuraminidase domain. Pan CH, Jimenez GS, Nair N, et al. (August 2008). "Use of Vaxfectin ...
Bardeletti G, Kessler N, Aymard-Henry M (1975). "Morphology, biochemical analysis and neuraminidase activity of rubella virus ...
NA codes for neuraminidase, an antigenic glycosylated enzyme found on the surface of the influenza viruses. It facilitates the ... N1 stands for the first of several known types of the protein neuraminidase. Other examples include: A/duck/Hong Kong/308/78( ... The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) RNA strands specify the structure of proteins that are most medically relevant as ... and Consensus Screening of Avian Influenza H5N1 Wild-Type Neuraminidase and of the Oseltamivir-Resistant H274Y Variant". J. ...
Laborda, Pedro; Wang, Su-Yan; Voglmeir, Josef (2016-11-11). "Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitors: Synthetic Approaches, ... synthesis of the anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu)". J. Org. Chem. 66: 2044-51. doi: ...
Wagner R, Matrosovich M, Klenk HD (May 2002). "Functional balance between haemagglutinin and neuraminidase in influenza virus ...
Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) is a single protein that induces hemagglutination and possesses neuraminidase (sialidase) ... Most likely, viral hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein, highly contributes to the effect (see "Neuraminidase (NA) removal of ... Neuraminidase (NA), a subunit of the HN protein, binds to and cleaves sialic acid from the cell surface. NA also promotes cell ... Neuraminidase (NA) is a sialidase that cleaves and removes sialic acid from the surface of a host cell. This cleavage promotes ...
Neuraminidase is a type of glycoside hydrolase enzyme which helps to move the virus particles through the infected cell and ... It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described ... Oseltamivir (trade name Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) are two neuraminidase inhibitors (antiviral medications) currently ... but the neuraminidase (NA) and matrix protein (M) genes resembled versions present in European swine flu isolates. The six ...
In particular, he designed and carried out critical studies evaluating the value of the neuraminidase inhibitors now in use for ... Monto, Arnold (2006). "Neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility network position statement: antiviral resistance in influenza A/ ... How Can Neuraminidase-Based Immunity Contribute to Better Influenza Virus Vaccines?". mBio. 9 (2). doi:10.1128/mBio.02332-17. ... 2009 Co-chair Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network, 2006-2013 Co-chair, Infectious Disease Society of America ...
HN (Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase) attachment proteins occur in respiroviruses, rubulaviruses and avulaviruses. These possess ... Attachment proteins with neither haemagglutination nor neuraminidase activity are designated G (glycoprotein). These occur in ... both haemagglutination and neuraminidase activity, which cleaves sialic acid on the cell surface, preventing viral particles ...
The best-known neuraminidase is the viral neuraminidase, a drug target for the prevention of the spread of influenza infection ... Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids. Neuraminidase ... Main article: Neuraminidase inhibitors. Neuraminidase inhibitors are useful for combating influenza infection: zanamivir, ... Main article: Viral neuraminidase. Influenza neuraminidase is a mushroom-shaped projection on the surface of the influenza ...
Neuraminidase is an hydrolase enzyme that breaks down glycosidic bonds. It is found on the surface of the Orthomyxoviridae1 ... Neuraminidase is an hydrolase enzyme that breaks down glycosidic bonds. It is found on the surface of the Orthomyxoviridae1 ... Neuraminidase, along with hemagglutinin, are the two proteins on the surface of the virus recognized by the human body as ... The first hint that neuraminidase existed was unearthed in the 1940s, when George Hirst found that when allantoic fluid2 ...
Types include: Mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase Parainfluenza hemagglutinin-neuraminidase Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase ... Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase refers to a single viral protein that has both hemagglutinin and (endo) neuraminidase EC 3.2.1.18 ... Its neuraminidase domain has the CAZy designation glycoside hydrolase family 83 (GH83). It does show a structural similarity to ... Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase allows the virus to stick to a potential host cell, and cut itself loose if necessary. ...
neuraminidase synonyms, neuraminidase pronunciation, neuraminidase translation, English dictionary definition of neuraminidase ... Related to neuraminidase: sialic acid, Neuraminidase inhibitor. neu·ra·min·i·dase. (no͝or′ə-mĭn′ĭ-dās′, -dāz′, nyo͝or′-). n.. A ... The neuraminidases of HiNi viruses also are similar to a neuraminidase in the current vaccine strain.. FDA panel defers ... Neuraminidase - definition of neuraminidase by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/neuraminidase ...
Neuraminidase inhibitor drugs improved the survival of children with influenza when they were given the drugs within the first ... Neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) drugs improved survival of children with influenza when they were given the drugs within the ... Cite this: Neuraminidase Inhibitors Improve Survival in Kids With Flu - Medscape - Nov 25, 2013. ...
US Oral Neuraminidase Study Group. . Efficacy and safety of the oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in treating acute ... Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Critically Ill Children With Influenza. Janice K. Louie, Samuel Yang, Michael C. Samuel, Timothy M ... neuraminidase inhibitor. OR - odds ratio. pH1N1 - influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. Whats Known on This Subject:. Few data on treating ... Treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors for critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55(9): ...
Introduction of neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir * S Handysides, W Kiehl, S Salmaso, K Ekdahl, R Hemmer, T Hovi, B Iversen, E ... Introduction of neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir. Euro Surveill. 1999;3(41):pii=1318. https://doi.org/10.2807/esw.03.41.01318- ...
This Neuraminidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α2-3, α2-6, and α2-8 linked N-acetyl-neuraminic acid residues from glycoproteins ... Neuraminidase is the common name for Acetyl-neuraminyl hydrolase (Sialidase). ... α2-3,6,8 Neuraminidase α2-3,6,8 Neuraminidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α2-3, α2-6, and α2-8 linked sialic acid residues from ... Neuraminidase is the common name for Acetyl-neuraminyl hydrolase (Sialidase). This Neuraminidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α2 ...
Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Jan;7( ... Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Jan;7( ... Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Jan;7( ... Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance.. McKimm-Breschkin JL1. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
1980) Gangliosides, Neuraminidase and Sialyltransferase at the Nerve Endings. In: Svennerholm L., Mandel P., Dreyfus H., Urban ...
Antibodies which inhibit the enzyme limit the infection, but antigenic variation of the neuraminidase renders it ineffective in ... It is the enzyme neuraminidase, projecting from the surface of influenza virus particles, which allows the virus to leave ... The neuraminidase of influenza virus Proteins. 1989;6(4):341-56. doi: 10.1002/prot.340060402. ... It is the enzyme neuraminidase, projecting from the surface of influenza virus particles, which allows the virus to leave ...
Different Inhibitory Potencies of Oseltamivir Carboxylate, Zanamivir, and Several Tannins on Bacterial and Viral Neuraminidases ... and bacterial Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA). Compared to the positive controls, all tested polyphenols displayed a weak ... showed synergistic inhibitory effects on the bacterial neuraminidase. Co-crystal structures of VCNA with oseltamivir ... the inhibitory potency of plant tannins versus clinically used inhibitors on both a viral and a bacterial model neuraminidase b ...
Structure of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase from human parainfluenza virus type III.. Lawrence MC1, Borg NA, Streltsov VA, ... The three-dimensional structure of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) from a human parainfluenza virus is described at ca ... a dimer of beta-propellers and find no evidence for spatially separated sites performing the receptor-binding and neuraminidase ...
Two neuraminidase inhibitors for treatment of influenza. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... 1999). Two neuraminidase inhibitors for treatment of influenza. The Medical Letter On Drugs and Therapeutics, 41(1063), 91-3. ... "Two Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Treatment of Influenza." The Medical Letter On Drugs and Therapeutics, vol. 41, no. 1063, 1999 ... Two Neuraminidase Inhibitors for Treatment of Influenza. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1999 Oct 8;41(1063):91-3. PubMed PMID: 10535051. ...
Positive Regulation of Insulin Signaling by Neuraminidase 1. Larbi Dridi, Volkan Seyrantepe, Anne Fougerat, Xuefang Pan, Éric ... Positive Regulation of Insulin Signaling by Neuraminidase 1. Larbi Dridi, Volkan Seyrantepe, Anne Fougerat, Xuefang Pan, Éric ... Positive Regulation of Insulin Signaling by Neuraminidase 1 Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
There are no specific protocols for Anti-Swine H1N1 Neuraminidase antibody (ab91643). Please download our general protocols ...
NHS Evidence on Neuraminidase Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases -DARE & NHS EED (evaluates reliability of research ...
The non-viral neuraminidase is called Sialidase.. *endo-neuraminidase is a phage neuraminidase which cleaves α-2,8-polysialic ... Neuraminidase or sialidase (NAN) is a viral neuraminidase which cleaves the glycosidic bonds of neuraminic acid[1]. ... Treatments:Neuraminidase Inhibitor Pharmacokinetics References. . Relevance The viral NAN is a drug target for prevention of ... Pseudaminidase is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa neuraminidase. *Trans-sialidase transfers sialic acid from Trypanosoma cruzi to a ...
An important function of the influenza virus neuraminidase protein is to remove sialic acid from glycoproteins, allowing virus ... I have written about the HA and its function during infection (article one and two) but not about the neuraminidase (NA, red) ... Years ago Peter Palese showed that influenza virus forms aggregates at the cell surface when the viral neuraminidase is ...
Benefit of oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in natural influenza. Euro Surveill. 2000;4(8):pii=1652. https://doi.org/ ...
... is a traditional Chinese herb which inhibits the viral enzyme neuraminidase in a fashion comparable to that of Tamiflu. ... Radix Isatidis (Woad) is a traditional Chinese herb which inhibits the viral enzyme neuraminidase in a fashion comparable to ... In this paper, the in vitro inhibitory action of Radix Isatidis on neuraminidase (NA) was investigated by fluorometric assay ...
The data is inconclusive as to whether or not neuraminidase inhibitors are effective at preventing and treating influenza in ... Problem Substances : Neuraminidase inhibitors : CK(20) : AC(1), Oseltamivir (trade name Tamiflu) : CK(223) : AC(33), Zanamivir ... BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) are recommended for use against influenza and its complications in inter-pandemic ... The data is inconclusive as to whether or not neuraminidase inhibitors are effective at preventing and treating influenza in ...
Rabbit polyclonal Influenza A Neuraminidase 1 antibody. Validated in ELISA and tested in Influenza A. Immunogen corresponding ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Influenza A Neuraminidase 1 antibody (ab119972) ELISA Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) ( ... ab119972 recognises the neuraminidase protein from seasonal Influenza A/Georgia/20/2006 (H1N1) (Genbank accession no. ACA33620 ... Synthetic peptide corresponding to the Neuraminidase protein from seasonal Influenza A/Georgia/20/2006 (H1N1) (Genbank ...
The treatment of influenza is mainly based on the administration of neuraminidase inhibitors. The neuraminidase inhibitors ... A neuraminidase located on the surface of the virus plays an important role in viral reproduction by contributing to the ... In order to create more potent neuraminidase inhibitors and fight against the surge in resistance resulting from naturally- ... occurring mutations, these anti-influenza drugs have been used as templates for the development of new neuraminidase inhibitors ...
The only universally conserved sequence amongst all influenza A viral neuraminidase (NA) is located between amino acids 222-230 ... Universal anti-neuraminidase antibody inhibiting all influenza A subtypes Antiviral Res. 2013 Nov;100(2):567-74. doi: 10.1016/j ... The only universally conserved sequence amongst all influenza A viral neuraminidase (NA) is located between amino acids 222-230 ...
Browse our Seasonal H1N1 Neuraminidase product catalog backed by our Guarantee+. ... Seasonal H1N1 Neuraminidase products available through Novus Biologicals. ...
Hemagglutinin-neuraminidaseAdd BLAST. 565. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. Graphical ... Neuraminidase activity ensures the efficient spread of the virus by dissociating the mature virions from the neuraminic acid ... sp,P04850,HN_PIV5 Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase OS=Parainfluenza virus 5 (strain W3) GN=HN PE=1 SV=1 ... Belongs to the paramyxoviruses hemagglutinin-neuraminidase family.Curated. ,p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a ,a href="http:// ...
  • Neuraminidase is the common name for Acetyl-neuraminyl hydrolase (Sialidase). (neb.com)
  • Neuraminidase or sialidase (NAN) is a viral neuraminidase which cleaves the glycosidic bonds of neuraminic acid [1] . (proteopedia.org)
  • The non-viral neuraminidase is called Sialidase . (proteopedia.org)
  • The Amplex® Red Neuraminidase (Sialidase) Assay Kit provides a sensitive and simple method for detecting neuraminidase activity in serum and in purified enzyme systems using either a fluorescence microplate reader or fluorometer. (thermofisher.com)
  • Neuraminidase (also known as sialidase) is a very common enzyme that hydrolyzes terminal sialic acid residues on polysaccharide chains, most often exposing a galactose residue. (thermofisher.com)
  • The Amplex® Red Neuraminidase (Sialidase) Assay Kit provides an ultrasensitive method for detecting neuramimidase activity. (thermofisher.com)
  • Sandhoff K., Pallmann B., Wiegandt H., Ziegler W. (1978) Studies on Bovine Brain Membrane-Bound Neuraminidase (Sialidase). (springer.com)
  • Either of two types of mucolipidosis caused by a deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase (formerly called sialidase) and characterized by myoclonic seizures, cherry-red maculas in the retina with visual impairment, enlarged liver and spleen, and intellectual disability in the more severe type. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • a neuronal storage disease of children caused by a deficiency of the enzyme sialidase (neuraminidase). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A condition caused by an isolated defect of alpha-N-acetyl neuraminidase (sialidase) in leukocytes and fibroblasts and an increase of sialyloligosaccharide in the urine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Recent emergence of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistant human influenza A( H1N1 ) H274Y has emphasized the need for suitable expression systems to obtain large quantities of highly pure and stable, recombinant neuraminidase through two separate artificial tetramerization domains that facilitate the formation of catalytically active neuraminidase homotetramers from yeast and Staphylothermus marinus, which allow for secretion of FLAG-tagged proteins and further purification. (wikipedia.org)
  • A range of flavan-3-ols, ellagitannins and chemically defined proanthocyanidin fractions was evaluated in comparison to oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir for their inhibitory activities against viral influenza A (H1N1) and bacterial Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (VCNA). (rcsb.org)
  • ab119972 recognises the neuraminidase protein from seasonal Influenza A/Georgia/20/2006 (H1N1) (Genbank accession no. (abcam.com)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to the Neuraminidase protein from seasonal Influenza A/Georgia/20/2006 (H1N1) (Genbank accession no. (abcam.com)
  • Swine Influenza Virus PA and Neuraminidase Gene Reassortment into Human H1N1 Influenza Virus Is Associated with an Altered Pathogenic Phenotype Linked to Increased MIP-2 Expression. (jcvi.org)
  • Sharma DK, Rawat AK, Srivastava S, Srivastava R, Kumar A (2010) Comparative Sequence Analysis on Different Strains of Swine Influenza Virus Sub-type H1N1 for Neuraminidase and Hemagglutinin. (omicsonline.org)
  • The H1N1 amino acid sequences of neuraminidase (GenBank Acc. (omicsonline.org)
  • During the H1N1 pandemic in 2009-2010 neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI) were recommended as empiric treatment for suspected cases of H1N1. (lasvegasemr.com)
  • Antigenic Drift of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase in seasonal H1N1 influenza Viruses from Saudi Arabia in 2014-2015. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Gangul Sayak, Mazumder Manjita, Basu Protip, Roy Paushali, Mitra Sayani, Datta Abhijit: In silico screening of herbal and nanoparticle lead compounds for effectivity against H5N1, H1N1 neuraminidase and telomerase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neuraminidase amino acids 149 and 347 determine the infectivity and oseltamivir sensitivity of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (2009) and avian influenza A/H5N1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (2009) and avian influenza A/H5N1 neuraminidase (NA) differ at two critical residues, positions 149 and 347. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Oseltamivir resistance depends on the position 273 amino acid of neuraminidase of the type A influenza virus (H1N1), circulating in human population]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • these projections include the mushroom-shaped neuraminidase proteins, among many others. (everything2.com)
  • Neuraminidase, along with hemagglutinin , are the two proteins on the surface of the virus recognized by the human body as antigen s, and they are also commonly targeted by antiviral drugs (such as zanamivir and oseltamivir ). (everything2.com)
  • I have written about the HA and its function during infection (article one and two ) but not about the neuraminidase (NA, red) or M2 (purple) proteins. (virology.ws)
  • Image of influenza virus showing hemagglutinin (blue) and neuraminidase (red) proteins on the surface of the virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Neuraminidase is one of three different viral proteins embedded in the lipid membrane of influenza virus (NA is blue in the illustration at left). (virology.ws)
  • Studies employing monoclonal antibodies have revealed several conformational epitopes of fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins, and one linear epitope composed of 345 to 353 amino acid residues of the HN protein has been defined ( 5 , 7 - 9 , 22 , 28 ). (asm.org)
  • Three of these proteins are expressed on the plasma membrane and incorporated in the envelope of the budding virion: hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and an ion channel (M2). (asm.org)
  • The first was finding two networks of co-mutations that may po-tentially affect the current flu-drug binding sites on neuraminidase (NA), one of the two surface proteins of flu virus. (scirp.org)
  • In the N-terminus there is a cysteine-rich domain containing a stretch of 332 amino acids nearly 30% identical to the Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase, three repeat motifs highly conserved in bacterial and viral neuraminidases, and two segments with similarity to the YWTD repeats found in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and in other vertebrate and invertebrate proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Antigenic drift of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) proteins of influenza virus cause decrease in vaccine efficacy. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Identification of Residues That Affect Oligomerization and/or Enzymatic Activity of Influenza Virus H5N1 Neuraminidase Proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The surface of neuraminidase is decorated with several polysaccharide chains that are similar to the polysaccharide chains that decorate our own cell surface proteins. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The 3-dimensional structure of the epitopes was obtained by X-ray diffraction methods using crystals of neuraminidase complexed with monoclonal antibody Fab fragments. (nih.gov)
  • The crystal structure of two mutants showed that the change in structure was restricted to that particular sidechain, but the change in the epitope was sufficient to abolish antibody binding even though it is known in one case that 21 other amino acids on the neuraminidase are in contact with the antibody. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified and characterized an H5N1 neuraminidasespecific monoclonal antibody which specifically inhibits N1 neuraminidase activity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) strains from clades 1 and 2. (curehunter.com)
  • Q neuraminidases were measured before and after immunization, the antibody levels were increased following immunization, however no relationship was detected between antibody levels and the survival time of the individual mice. (bl.uk)
  • This antibody detects Neuraminidase. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Influenza B Virus Neuraminidase antibody LS-C83326 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to influenza virus Influenza B Virus Neuraminidase. (lsbio.com)
  • Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase refers to a single viral protein that has both hemagglutinin and (endo) neuraminidase EC 3.2.1.18 activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • One viral protein, an enzyme called neuraminidase , is required for the bundle to unglue itself so that individual virus particles can infect other cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In support of earlier work on the structure of the homologous protein from the avian pathogen Newcastle disease virus (NDV), we observe a dimer of beta-propellers and find no evidence for spatially separated sites performing the receptor-binding and neuraminidase functions of the protein. (nih.gov)
  • The other influenza virus surface protein, neuraminidase (referring to brain lipids from which it was first derived) is a virus receptor-destroying enzyme that removes its substrate, sialic acids, from infected cell surfaces so that newly made progeny viruses are released to infect additional cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of this project was to characterise a neuraminidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae by relating its amino acid sequence to the enzymatic activity of the protein, leading to the production of mutated neuraminidases that could be tested as protective immunogens. (bl.uk)
  • Paramyxoviruses, including HPIVs, possess an envelope protein hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) that has receptor-cleaving as well as receptor-binding activity where the two activities reside on the same glycoprotein unlike influenza which carries hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities as individual glycoproteins. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Funning, T.G., Reid, A.H., Taubenberger, J.K.: Influenza A virus neuraminidase: regions of the protein potentially involved in virus-host interactions. (springer.com)
  • Its neuraminidase (NA) gene encodes a protein that appears to be highly divergent from all known influenza NAs and was assigned as a new subtype N10. (pnas.org)
  • However, unlike other members of this family, lysosomal neuraminidase requires the carboxypeptidase protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA) for intracellular transport and lysosomal activation. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an important multifunctional envelope protein, which plays key roles in virus attachment, neuraminidase and fusion promotion activities. (umd.edu)
  • A recent crystal structure of the HN protein of NDV gives valuable information about the location of amino acids involved in receptor-binding, neuraminidase and fusion promotion activities of the protein. (umd.edu)
  • α2-3,6,8,9 Neuraminidase A has activity over a broad pH range, and has been found to work well on a protein that has been denatured. (neb.com)
  • Tamiflu, co-developed with Gilead Sciences, Inc., is a systemic treatment for all common strains of influenza (Types A and B). The medication targets one of two major surface structures on the influenza virus, the neuraminidase protein. (gilead.com)
  • The neuraminidase protein is virtually the same in all common strains of influenza. (gilead.com)
  • The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with its immunotherapeutic activities and sialic acid binding abilities is a promising cancer adjuvant. (jcancer.org)
  • Its heamaglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein is a multifunctional protein. (jcancer.org)
  • This protein consists of two domains associated with the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities which mediate the recognition as well as cleavage of the sialic acid containing receptors [ 5 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • A neuraminidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae has the features of a surface protein. (asm.org)
  • The predicted molecular weight of the protein and certain amino acid sequences are typical of other neuraminidases. (asm.org)
  • We have previously shown that TGF-β activity increases during influenza virus infection in mice and suggested that the neuraminidase (NA) protein mediates this activation. (prolekare.cz)
  • Neuraminidases, also called sialidases, catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal sialic acid residues from the newly formed virions and from the host cell receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two major classes of Neuraminidase that cleave exo or endo poly-sialic acids: Exo hydrolysis of α-(2→3)-, α-(2→6)-, α-(2→8)-glycosidic linkages of terminal sialic acid residues Endo hydrolysis of (2→8)-α-sialosyl linkages in oligo- or poly(sialic) acids Neuraminidases, also called sialidases, catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal sialic acid residues from the newly formed virions and from the host cell receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialic acid 3 is now more often called N-acetyl neuraminic acid , and hence the name of RDE was changed yet again, this time to neuraminidase. (everything2.com)
  • α2-3,6,8 Neuraminidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α2-3, α2-6, and α2-8 linked sialic acid residues from glycoproteins and oligosaccharides. (neb.com)
  • These analogues have been developed from the structure of sialic acid, the neuraminidase (NA) substrate. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Parainfluenza virus type 3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase is expressed by HPIV paramyxoviruses that bind to sialic acid-containing receptor molecules on the surface of host lung cells. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • The current strategy for treating influenza focuses on inhibiting the function of neuraminidase, which is an enveloped enzyme located on the surface of both influenza A and B. Influenza neuraminidase is an exosialidase that recognizes the α -ketosidic linkage between neuraminic acid (or sialic acid) and carbohydrate residues ( Von Itzstein, 2011 ). (peerj.com)
  • Neuraminidases are enzymes that cleave sialic acid groups from glycoproteins. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Neuraminidase, on the other hand, cleaves the HA-sialic acid bondage from the newly formed virions and the host cell receptors during budding. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The main function of influenza neuraminidase (NA) involves enzymatic cleavage of sialic acid from the surface of host cells resulting in the release of the newly produced virions from infected cells, as well as aiding the movement of virions through sialylated mucus present in the respiratory tract. (hku.hk)
  • Our objectives were then to investigate both sialic acid binding and cleavage of neuraminidase at an atomic resolution level. (hku.hk)
  • These subtypes are classified based on the combination of the virus coat glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. (abcam.com)
  • At present, 18 hemagglutinin subtypes (H1-H18) and 11 neuraminidase subtypes (N1-N11) are recognized. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza A viruses can be classified into subtypes based on the antigenic properties of their surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). (pnas.org)
  • Based on mean IC 50 values, influenza A viruses (with neuraminidase subtypes N1 and N2) were more sensitive to both the NA inhibitors than were influenza B strains. (health.gov.au)
  • Compared to the positive controls, all tested polyphenols displayed a weak inhibition of the viral enzyme but similar or even higher potency on the bacterial neuraminidase. (rcsb.org)
  • Both the neuraminidase (NA) inhibition assay and CETSA demonstrated that isoimperatorin exerts an inhibitory effect on NA-mediated progeny virus release. (frontiersin.org)
  • May be used in immunoassays to detect and quantitate Influenza B neuraminidase and in neuraminidase inhibition assays. (lsbio.com)
  • Positive samples were inoculated in MDCK cells and virus phenotypic susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) was assessed using fluorescent NA inhibition. (who.int)
  • Reduced inhibition (RI) by one or more neuraminidase inhibitor was exhibited by 0.2% of viruses tested (n = 32). (openrepository.com)
  • Two hundred and forty-five human influenza A and B viruses isolated in Australia between 1996 and 2003 were tested for their sensitivity to the NA inhibitor drugs, zanamivir and oseltamivir using a fluorescence-based neuraminidase inhibition assay. (health.gov.au)
  • Here, we describe a mutation in IAV nucleoprotein (NP) that enhances replication and transmission in guinea pigs while selectively reducing neuraminidase (NA) gene segment packaging into virions. (pnas.org)
  • The sequence of the cloned neuraminidase gene (nan A), was compared to other bacterial neuraminidases to identify conserved residues, and also utilising crystallography data, predictions were made of the residues likely to be important in catalysis. (bl.uk)
  • Cloning and expression of the Bacteroides fragilis TAL2480 neuraminidase gene, nanH, in Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • We have cloned the Bacteroides fragilis TAL2480 neuraminidase (NANase) structural gene, nanH, in Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • Here, we assessed the ability of a novel dual-specific anti-tumor oncolytic adenovirus, expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene from the Newcastle disease virus under the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter (Ad-hTERTp-E1a-HN), to inhibit esophageal cancer EC-109 cells in culture and to reduce tumor burden in xenografted BALB/c nude mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Cloning and characterization of nanB, a second Streptococcus pneumoniae neuraminidase gene, and purification of the NanB enzyme from recombinant Escherichia coli. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is believed to produce more than one form of neuraminidase, but there has been uncertainty as to whether this is due to posttranslational modification of a single gene product or the existence of more than one neuraminidase-encoding gene. (asm.org)
  • Only one stable pneumococcal neuraminidase gene (designated nanA) has been described. (asm.org)
  • In the present study, we isolated and characterized a second neuraminidase gene (designated nanB), which is located close to nanA on the pneumococcal chromosome (approximately 4.5kb downstream). (asm.org)
  • A gene from Streptococcus pneumoniae (nanA), with features entirely consistent with a neuraminidase gene, has been sequenced. (asm.org)
  • High levels of neuraminidase activity were obtained after cloning of this gene, without flanking sequences, into a high-expression vector. (asm.org)
  • The nanH structural gene for neuraminidase was cloned from B. fragilis TM4000 and was used to create two isogenic strains with chromosomal disruptions at the nanH gene. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the evolutionary trajectory of the main lineages of N1 type neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences of influenza A viruses by estimating their evolutionary rates and the selection pressures exerted upon them. (eurekamag.com)
  • When newly created viruses bud off (wrapped in an envelope of the host cell's own membrane), the neuraminidase is needed to cut the viruses' section of the cell membrane free from the host cell. (everything2.com)
  • If the neuraminidase is blocked, the newly created viruses cannot break away from the body of the host cell, and the infection stops. (everything2.com)
  • The neuraminidases of HiNi viruses also are similar to a neuraminidase in the current vaccine strain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A neuraminidase located on the surface of the virus plays an important role in viral reproduction by contributing to the release of viruses from infected host cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Neuraminidase Mutations Conferring Resistance to Oseltamivir in Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Treatment of infected patients with the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor oseltamivir was associated with emergence of viruses carrying NA substitutions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The NA-Star® Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance Detection Kit includes everything you need to quantitate neuraminidase activity and neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in avian, equine, human (types A and B), and porcine influenza viruses. (thermofisher.com)
  • Oseltamivir and zanamivir are two neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) active on A and B influenza viruses. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Neuraminidase is one of the two surface glycoproteins of influenza A and B viruses. (eur.nl)
  • To this aim, one of the most promising approaches consists to generate recombinant viruses harboring partially truncated neuraminidase (NA) segments. (omicsonline.org)
  • In this study, we described a paper-based neuraminidase assay sensor (PNAS) which can be applied to detect the infection by influenza viruses. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Global update on the susceptibility of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors and status of novel antivirals, 2016-2017. (openrepository.com)
  • A total of 13672 viruses, collected by World Health Organization recognised National Influenza Centres between May 2016 and May 2017, were assessed for neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility by four WHO Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance Epidemiology and Control of Influenza. (openrepository.com)
  • Analysis of 13581 neuraminidase sequences retrieved from public databases, of which 5243 sequences were from viruses not included in the phenotypic analyses, identified 58 further viruses (29 without phenotypic analyses) with amino acid substitutions associated with RI by at least one neuraminidase inhibitor. (openrepository.com)
  • Influenza neuraminidase is a type of neuraminidase found on the surface of influenza viruses that enables the virus to be released from the host cell. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A comparison of IC 50 values for viruses isolated before and after the release of the NA inhibitors in Australia, found there was no significant difference in the sensitivity of strains to either neuraminidase inhibitor and none of the isolates tested showed clinically significant resistance. (health.gov.au)
  • Viruses resistant to the neuraminidase inhibitors can be generated in vitro by multiple passage in the presence of the drugs, however many of these strains demonstrate a significantly reduced infectivity in animal models. (health.gov.au)
  • The emergence of viruses resistant to neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel inhibitors underlines the need for alternate anti-influenza drugs with novel mechanisms of action. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Neuraminidase activity ensures the efficient spread of the virus by dissociating the mature virions from the neuraminic acid containing glycoproteins. (uniprot.org)
  • α2-3 Neuraminidase S is a highly specific exoglycosidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of α2-3 linked N-acetyl-neuraminic acid residues from glycoproteins and oligosaccharides. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • Several reports describe the use of different expression systems to obtain recombinant immunogens based on hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) or F glycoproteins of NDV with various degrees of success ( 2 , 9 , 10 , 17 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Neuraminidase (NA) and hemagglutinin (HA) are major membrane glycoproteins found on the surface of influenza virus. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The Trypanosoma cruzi neuraminidase contains sequences similar to bacterial neuraminidases, YWTD repeats of the low density lipoprotein receptor, and type III modules of fibronectin. (rupress.org)
  • NanA contains the four copies of the sequence SXDXGXTW that is present in all the bacterial neuraminidases previously described. (asm.org)
  • Our results showed that recombinant influenza virus harboring truncated neuraminidase segment abrogated lung and systemic inflammatory response in wild type mice and were completely harmless to KO mice. (omicsonline.org)
  • The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was obtained as a recombinant antigen in Rachiplusia nu larvae. (asm.org)
  • Recombinant H7N9(A/Anhui/1/2013) Neuraminidase (AGI60300.1) (His36-Leu465) was expressed , the cell lysates are collected, and bio-activity was tested. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Amantadine and rimantadine are approved for treating influenza A, while the neuraminidase inhibitor drugs zanamivir and oseltamivir are approved to treat both influenza A and B [6-8]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir were introduced into clinical practice in various parts of the world between 1999 and 2002. (asm.org)
  • Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are recommended for the control of severe influenza A and B infections (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are two major classes of antivirals available for the treatment and prevention of influenza, the M2 inhibitors and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs). (nih.gov)
  • This study explores the chemical space of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), which provides an opportunity to obtain further molecular insights regarding the underlying basis of their bioactivity. (peerj.com)
  • Furthermore, molecular docking was employed to investigate the binding modes and their moiety preferences of active NAIs against both influenza A and B neuraminidases. (peerj.com)
  • Moreover, novel NAIs with robust binding fitness towards influenza A and B neuraminidase were generated via combinatorial library enumeration and their binding fitness was on par or better than FDA-approved drugs. (peerj.com)
  • They have described how to use their newly discovered compounds to interrupt the enzyme neuraminidase 's facilitation of influenza's spread. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is the enzyme neuraminidase, projecting from the surface of influenza virus particles, which allows the virus to leave infected cells and spread in the body. (nih.gov)
  • Radix Isatidis (Woad) is a traditional Chinese herb which inhibits the viral enzyme neuraminidase in a fashion comparable to that of Tamiflu. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We developed a highly multiplexed padlock-ligation assay targeting signature sequences in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Escape mutants, selected by growing virus in the presence of monoclonal antibodies to the neuraminidase, possess single amino acid sequence changes. (nih.gov)
  • The only universally conserved sequence amongst all influenza A viral neuraminidase (NA) is located between amino acids 222-230 and plays crucial roles in viral replication. (nih.gov)
  • The structure of H5N1 avian influenza neuraminidase suggests new opportunities for drug design. (proteopedia.org)
  • Neuraminidase inhibitor sensitivity and receptor-binding specificity of Cambodian clade 1 highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We here assess the inhibitory potency of plant tannins versus clinically used inhibitors on both a viral and a bacterial model neuraminidase by applying the 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-d- N -acetylneuraminic acid (MUNANA)-based activity assay. (rcsb.org)
  • In this paper, the in vitro inhibitory action of Radix Isatidis on neuraminidase (NA) was investigated by fluorometric assay with 4-methylumbelliferyl-D-N-acetylneuraminate (FL-MU-NANA) method. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The NA-Star® Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Reagent kit provides all necessary assay reagents enabling improved global assay standardization and more accurate comparison of results lab-to-lab. (thermofisher.com)
  • The NA-Star® Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance Detection Kit includes NA-Star chemiluminescent substrate for neuraminidase, all necessary assay reagents, and microplates -- everything you need for the fast, accurate quantitation of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in influenza virus isolates. (thermofisher.com)
  • This assay utilizes Amplex® Red reagent to detect hydrogen peroxide generated by galactose oxidase oxidation of desialiated galactose, the end result of neuraminidase action. (thermofisher.com)
  • The purified neuraminidases were assayed for enzyme activity using a colorimetric assay. (bl.uk)
  • A subtyping assay for both the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) surface antigens of the avian influenza virus (AIV) has been developed. (diva-portal.org)
  • Dynamic range of four orders of magnitude enables you to quantitate virus isolates over a broad range of virus concentration and with varying levels of neuraminidase activity without performing numerous sample dilutions. (thermofisher.com)
  • Clinical efficacy and safety of the selective oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir in treating acute influenza--placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter phase III trial]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We conducted the placebo-controlled double-blind multicenter Phase III trial of newly developed selective oral neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir phosphate (Ro64-0796), in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety, when Ro64-0796 was administered orally to both type A and type B influenzavirus infected patients. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antibodies which inhibit the enzyme limit the infection, but antigenic variation of the neuraminidase renders it ineffective in a vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • We have studied the maturation of the influenza A virus neuraminidase (NA), using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with different conformational specificities against the head domains of the N8 NA. (asm.org)
  • The wide range of reactivity probably relates to the infection history of the donor, whose plasmablasts generated antibodies with long regions that insert into the active site of the neuraminidase enzyme. (flutrackers.com)
  • We describe three human monoclonal antibodies isolated from an H3N2-infected donor that bind with exceptional breadth to multiple different influenza A and B virus neuraminidases. (flutrackers.com)
  • These antibodies neutralize the virus, mediate effector functions, are broadly protective in vivo, and inhibit neuraminidase activity by directly binding to the active site. (flutrackers.com)
  • Structural and functional characterization of these antibodies will inform the development of neuraminidase-based universal vaccines against influenza virus. (flutrackers.com)
  • The following is a list of major classes of neuraminidase enzymes: Viral neuraminidase Bacterial neuraminidase Mammalian neuraminidases: Influenza neuraminidase is a mushroom-shaped projection on the surface of the influenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian neuraminidases have been localised inside the lysosomes, in the cytosol as well as in the various membranes of the cell cytocavitary system (1). (springer.com)
  • Two fold dilutions of α2-3,6,8 Neuraminidase are incubated with 1 nmol AMC-labeled substrate and 1X GlycoBuffer 1 in a 10 µl reaction. (neb.com)
  • The three-dimensional structure of the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) from a human parainfluenza virus is described at ca 2.0 A resolution, both in native form and in complex with three substrate analogues. (nih.gov)
  • Simply incubate your virus samples with dilutions of neuraminidase inhibitor, add NA-Star chemiluminescent substrate, incubate again, and then add the accelerator solution, which triggers light emission from the reaction product. (thermofisher.com)
  • S. Herlambang and R. Saleh, "The Comparison of Substrate Stability in Neuraminidase Type 2 (N2) Active Site between A/Tokyo/3/67 and A/Pennsylvania/10218/84 with Heating Dynamics Simulation," World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics , Vol. 1 No. 3, 2011, pp. 77-87. (scirp.org)
  • The PNAS was designed and manufactured to quantitatively identify the levels of neuraminidase in the sample, which is based on colorimetric analysis using the X-Neu5Ac substrate. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Influenza neuraminidase inhibitors: antiviral action and mechanisms of resistance. (nih.gov)
  • In order to create more potent neuraminidase inhibitors and fight against the surge in resistance resulting from naturally-occurring mutations, these anti-influenza drugs have been used as templates for the development of new neuraminidase inhibitors through structure-activity relationship studies. (mdpi.com)
  • The NA-Star® Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitor Resistance Detection Kit is designed for the rapid and sensitive quantitation of influenza neuraminidase inhibitor resistance in dilutions of virus culture medium in a 96-well microplate format. (thermofisher.com)
  • The kit's fast and easy protocol and convenient 96-well plate format make it ideal for monitoring influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor resistance, as well as high-throughput inhibitor compound screening. (thermofisher.com)
  • The kit's chemiluminescent-based detection technology provides a wide dynamic range -- greater than four orders of magnitude of neuraminidase concentration (two orders of magnitude greater than fluorescent MUNANA-based assays) -- enabling you to quantitate neuraminidase inhibitor resistance levels over a broad range of virus concentration and neuraminidase activity without having to test multiple virus dilutions. (thermofisher.com)
  • In order to monitor the potential development of resistance, the Neuraminidase Inhibitor Susceptibility Network was established to coordinate testing of clinical isolates collected through the World Health Organization influenza surveillance network from different regions of the world (M. Zambon and F. G. Hayden, Antivir. (asm.org)
  • However, H257Y mutation responsible for resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors was missing. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Trypanosoma cruzi expresses a developmentally regulated neuraminidase (TCNA) implicated in parasite invasion of cells. (rupress.org)
  • The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir, laninamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir have been commercialized and have been demonstrated to be potent influenza viral neuraminidase inhibitors against most influenza strains. (mdpi.com)
  • The fight against the emergence of mutant influenza strains has led to the screening of an increasing number of compounds for inhibitory activity against influenza neuraminidase. (peerj.com)
  • Neuraminidase enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids . (wikipedia.org)
  • Its neuraminidase domain has the CAZy designation glycoside hydrolase family 83 (GH83). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuraminidase (NA) is an important antiviral drug target. (flutrackers.com)
  • Like influenza, the paramyxoviruses show hemagglutinin and neuraminidase (HN) activities, but in this case, the two activities reside on the same glycoprotein. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • turned their attention away from the current vaccine target-the mutable hemagglutinin-and investigated an alternative, less variable virus-coat glycoprotein: neuraminidase. (flutrackers.com)
  • Swiss-Prot lists 137 types of neuraminidase from various species as of October 18, 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three types of neuraminidase are found in mammals and are defined as lysosomal, plasma membrane and cytosolic on the basis of their biochemical properties and subcellular distribution. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This 2016/17 analysis demonstrates that neuraminidase inhibitors remain suitable for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza virus infections, but continued monitoring is important. (openrepository.com)
  • Reagents for analysis of neuraminidase-based immunity are scarce, and assays are not widely used for clinical studies evaluating vaccines. (eur.nl)
  • The underlying anti-influenza virus mechanism of SJS was studied by a series of biological assays to determine if hemagglutinin, ribonucleoprotein complex or neuraminidase were targets of SJS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) are recommended for use against influenza and its complications in inter-pandemic years and during pandemics. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Neuraminidase plays a crucial role in the release of new virions from the infected cell 1 and the structure of the enzyme active site is highly conserved across the known types of influenza A and B which are responsible for epidemic and, for influenza A, pandemic human disease. (health.gov.au)
  • The viral neuraminidases are frequently used as antigenic determinants found on the surface of the influenza virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best-known neuraminidase is the viral neuraminidase , a drug target for the prevention of the spread of influenza infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuraminidase is important for the initiation of influenza virus infection in human airway epithelium. (proteopedia.org)
  • Similar reactions may occur after paramyxovirus infection due to the action of viral neuraminidase. (jimmunol.org)
  • The protective effects of the mutated neuraminidases in mice was investigated by immunization followed by challenge with virulent Streptococcus penumoniae. (bl.uk)
  • There have been many resource requests for glycan array screening of paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (for example, click here ). (functionalglycomics.org)
  • Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase can be found in a variety of paramyxoviruses including mumps virus, human parainfluenza virus 3, and the avian pathogen Newcastle disease virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Types include: Mumps hemagglutinin-neuraminidase Parainfluenza hemagglutinin-neuraminidase Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase inhibitors have been investigated and suggest that there may applications for human use in the future. (wikipedia.org)
  • To see all glycan array results for parainfluenza hemagglutinin-neuraminidase, click here . (functionalglycomics.org)
  • While there are data that show a protective role of anti-neuraminidase immunity, many questions remain unanswered. (eur.nl)
  • The specific neuraminidase activity of infective trypomastigotes obtained from tissue culture and from the bloodstream of infected mice is 7 to 15 times higher than that of the acellular culture forms. (sciencemag.org)
  • This study did not evaluate specific neuraminidase inhibitors. (lasvegasemr.com)
  • Neuraminidases or sialidases are exoglycosidases that catalyze the cleavage of a glycosidically linked terminal N acetyl neuraminic acid from sialylated glycoconjugates. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Chemical structures of the neuraminidase inhibitors (A) DANA, (B) zanamivir, (C) oseltamivir carboxylate, (D) peramivir, and (E) laninamivir. (nih.gov)
  • Both HA-mediated entry and viral superinfection were rescued by the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir. (asm.org)
  • Laborda P, Wang S-Y, Voglmeir J. Influenza Neuraminidase Inhibitors: Synthetic Approaches, Derivatives and Biological Activity. (mdpi.com)