A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A nucleoside monophosphate sugar which donates N-acetylneuraminic acid to the terminal sugar of a ganglioside or glycoprotein.
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond of a 3-hydroxy acid. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 4.1.3.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria isolated from soil that displays a distinctive rod-coccus growth cycle.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive MUSCULAR ATROPHY and MUSCLE WEAKNESS beginning in the hands, the legs, or the feet. Most are adult-onset autosomal dominant forms. Others are autosomal recessive.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Progressive myopathies characterized by the presence of inclusion bodies on muscle biopsy. Sporadic and hereditary forms have been described. The sporadic form is an acquired, adult-onset inflammatory vacuolar myopathy affecting proximal and distal muscles. Familial forms usually begin in childhood and lack inflammatory changes. Both forms feature intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions in muscle tissue. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1409-10)
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
A computer disk read by a laser beam, containing data prerecorded by a vendor. The buyer cannot enter or modify data in any way but the advantages lie in the speed of accessibility, relative immunity to damage, and relatively low cost of purchase.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.

Rat liver contains age-regulated cytosolic 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonic acid (Kdn). (1/358)

Kdn (3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonic acid), a unique deaminated member of the sialic acid family, has emerged as a new building block of glycoconjugates from a wide variety of organisms, ranging from bacteria to mammals. In particular, the presence of Kdn has been demonstrated in different rat organs and tissues, but not in liver. Here we report on the detection and quantitation of Kdn in rat liver and on its variations with postnatal development and aging. We have previously established the optimal conditions for derivatization of Kdn with 1,2-diamino-4, 5-methylene-dioxybenzene (DMB), and detection by reverse-phase HPLC. Analysis of whole liver homogenates and different subcellular fractions reveals that Kdn is fundamentally present in the cytosolic fraction as nucleotide precursor. The expression of Kdn, Neu5Gc, and Neu5Ac changes unevenly with age. While the content of Neu5Ac, the major species, and Neu5Gc decreases to a different extent from newborn to old animals, Kdn content decreases from newborn to trace amounts in adult rats and increases again with aging. Thus, expression of Kdn, Neu5Gc, and Neu5Ac appears to be independently regulated.  (+info)

Cell-cell interactions: enhancement of glycosyl transferase ectoenzyme systems during Chlamydomonas gametic contact. (2/358)

Glycosyl transferase ectoenzyme systems that transfer galactose, glucose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylneuraminic acid, mannose, and fucose have been detected on vegetative cells and gametes of Chlamydomonas moewusii. Gametes have higher levels of activity of the transferase ectoenzyme systems than morphologically identical vegetative cells, as determined by transfer of monosaccharide onto endogenous cell surface acceptors. When (plus) and (minus) gametes are mixed, there is a significant increase in the activity of transferase ectoenzyme systems. No enhancement in activity of transferase ectoenzyme systems occurs when (plus) and (minus) vegetative cells are mixed. Flagellar membrane vesicles obtained from (plus) and (minus) gametes show high activity of transferase ectoenzyme systems per mg of protein and also demonstrate enhanced activity upon mixing. Therefore, glycosyl transferases and acceptors seem to be located on the flagellar membrane and appear to have a function particularly related to gametic cells. The mechanism of cellular adhesion or recognition proposed by Roseman (1970, Chem. Phys. Lipids 5, 270-297), involving glycosyl transferases and acceptors, is strongly suggested by our data for the mating reaction in Chlamydomonas.  (+info)

Conversion of cellular sialic acid expression from N-acetyl- to N-glycolylneuraminic acid using a synthetic precursor, N-glycolylmannosamine pentaacetate: inhibition of myelin-associated glycoprotein binding to neural cells. (3/358)

Sialic acids are prominent termini of mammalian glycoconjugates and are key binding determinants for cell-cell recog-nition lectins. Binding of the sialic acid-dependent lectin, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), to nerve cells is implicated in the inhibition of nerve regeneration after injury. Therefore, blocking MAG binding to nerve cell sialoglycoconjugates might enhance nerve regeneration. Previously, we reported that certain sialoglycoconjugates bearing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) but not N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) support MAG binding (Collins et al., 1997a). We now report highly efficient conversion of sialic acids on living neural cells from exclusively NeuAc to predominantly NeuGc using a novel synthetic metabolic precursor, N-glycolylmannosamine pentaacetate (Man-NGc-PA). When NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells, which normally express only NeuAc (and bind to MAG), were cultured in the presence of 1 mM ManNGcPA, they expressed 80-90% of their sialic acid precursor pool as NeuGc within 24 h. Within 5 days, 80% of their ganglioside-associated sialic acids and 70% of their glycoprotein-associated sialic acids were converted to NeuGc. Consistent with this result, treatment of NG108-15 cells with ManNGcPA resulted in nearly complete abrogation of MAG binding. These results demonstrate that ManNGcPA treatment efficiently alters the sialic acid structures on living cells, with a commensurate change in recognition by a physiologically important lectin.  (+info)

Substitution of amino acid residue in influenza A virus hemagglutinin affects recognition of sialyl-oligosaccharides containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid. (4/358)

Sialic acids are essential components of cell surface receptors used by influenza viruses. To determine the molecular mechanisms of viral recognition of two major species of sialic acids, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), we tested the binding reactivity of nine human H3 influenza A viruses to sialylglycolipids containing type II sugar chain and different molecular species of terminal sialic acids. All human H3 viruses tested except A/Memphis/1/71 bound both Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc. Nucleotide sequence analysis suggests that amino acids at 143, 155, and 158 are linked to the viral recognition of Neu5Gc.  (+info)

Loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human evolution. Implications for sialic acid recognition by siglecs. (5/358)

The common sialic acids of mammalian cells are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Humans are an exception, because of a mutation in CMP-sialic acid hydroxylase, which occurred after our common ancestor with great apes. We asked if the resulting loss of Neu5Gc and increase in Neu5Ac in humans alters the biology of the siglecs, which are Ig superfamily members that recognize sialic acids. Human siglec-1 (sialoadhesin) strongly prefers Neu5Ac over Neu5Gc. Thus, humans have a higher density of siglec-1 ligands than great apes. Siglec-1-positive macrophages in humans are found primarily in the perifollicular zone, whereas in chimpanzees they also occur in the marginal zone and surrounding the periarteriolar lymphocyte sheaths. Although only a subset of chimpanzee macrophages express siglec-1, most human macrophages are positive. A known evolutionary difference is the strong preference of mouse siglec-2 (CD22) for Neu5Gc, contrasting with human siglec-2, which binds Neu5Ac equally well. To ask when the preference for Neu5Gc was adjusted in the human lineage, we cloned the first three extracellular domains of siglec-2 from all of the great apes and examined their preference. In fact, siglec-2 had evolved a higher degree of recognition flexibility before Neu5Gc was lost in humans. Human siglec-3 (CD33) and siglec-6 (obesity-binding protein 1) also recognize both Neu5Ac and Neu5Gc, and siglec-5 may have some preference for Neu5Gc. Others showed that siglec-4a (myelin-associated glycoprotein) prefers Neu5Ac over Neu5Gc. Thus, the human loss of Neu5Gc may alter biological processes involving siglec-1, and possibly, siglec-4a or -5.  (+info)

Protein kinase C phosphorylates and regulates UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase. (6/358)

UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase) is the key enzyme in the de novo synthesis pathway of neuraminic acid, which is widely expressed as a terminal carbohydrate residue on glycoconjugates. UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase is a bifunctional enzyme and catalyzes the first two steps of neuraminic acid synthesis in the cytosol, the conversion of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to ManAc and the phosphorylation to ManAc-6-phosphate. So far, regulation of this essential enzyme by posttranslational modification has not been shown. Since UDP-N-acetylglucosamine is a cytosolic protein containing eight conserved motifs for protein kinase C (PKC), we investigated whether its enzymatic activity might be regulated by phosphorylation by PKC. We showed that UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase interacts with several isoforms of PKC in mouse liver and is phosphorylated in vivo. Furthermore, PKC phosphorylates UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase and this phosphorylation results in an upregulation of the UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase enzyme activity.  (+info)

Structural analysis of trisialylated biantennary glycans isolated from mouse serum transferrin. Characterization of the sequence Neu5Gc(alpha 2-3)Gal(beta 1-3)[Neu5Gc(alpha 2-6)]GlcNAc(beta 1-2)Man. (7/358)

Five variants of mouse serum transferrin (mTf, designated mTf-I to mTf-V) with respect to carbohydrate composition have been isolated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography in the following relative percentages: mTf-I: 0.55; mTf-II: 0.79; mTf-III: 71.80; mTf-VI: 21. 90 and mTf-V: 4.96. The primary structures of the major glycans from mTf-III and mTf-IV were determined by methylation analysis and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. All glycans possessed a common trimannosyl-N,N'-diacetylchitobiose core. From the glycovariant mTf-III two isomers of a conventional biantennary N-acetyllactosamine type were isolated, in which two N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) residues are linked to galactose either by a (alpha 2-6) or (alpha 2-3) linkage. A subpopulation of this glycovariant contains a fucose residue (alpha 1-6)-linked to GlcNAc-1. The structure of the major glycan found in variant mTf-IV contained an additional Neu5Gc and possessed the following new type of linkage: Neu5Gc(alpha 2-3)Gal(beta 1-3)[Neu5Gc(alpha 2-6)]GlcNAc(beta 1-2 )Man(alpha 1-3). In addition to this glycan, a minor compound contained the same antennae linked to Man(alpha 1-6). In fraction mTf-V, which was found to be very heterogeneous by (1)H NMR analysis, carbohydrate composition and methylation analysis suggested the presence of tri'-antennary glycans sialylated by Neu5Gc alpha-2,6- and alpha-2, 3-linked to the terminal galactose residues. In summary, mTf glycans differed from those of other analyzed mammalian transferrins by the presence of Neu5Gc and by a Neu5Gc(alpha 2-6)GlcNAc linkage in trisialylated biantennary structures, reflecting in mouse liver, a high activity of CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase and (alpha 2-6)GlcNAc sialyltransferase.  (+info)

Incorporation of N-propanoylneuraminic acid leads to calcium oscillations in oligodendrocytes upon the application of GABA. (8/358)

Sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids plays an important role during development, regeneration and pathogenesis. It has been shown that unnatural sialylation within glial cell cultures can have distinct effects on their proliferation and antigenic profiles. These cultures metabolize N-propanoylmannosamine (N-propanoylneuraminic acid precursor=P-NAP), a synthetic non-physiological precursor of neuraminic acid, resulting in the expression of N-propanoylneuraminic acid in glycoconjugates of their cell membranes [Schmidt, C., Stehling, P., Schnitzer, J., Reutter, W. and Horstkorte, R. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 19146-19152]. To determine whether these biochemically engineered sialic acids influence calcium concentrations in cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage, mixed glial cultures of oligodendrocytes growing on top of an astrocyte monolayer were exposed to glutamate, histamine, adrenaline, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), high potassium (high K(+)) and ATP. Calcium responses in P-NAP-treated oligodendrocytes were determined by confocal microscopy with the calcium indicator fluo-3 AM, and compared with control cultures. We showed that P-NAP differentially modulated the calcium responses of individual oligodendrocytes when GABA was applied. GABA induced calcium oscillations with up to four spikes per min in 60% of oligodendrocytes when treated with P-NAP.  (+info)

J:188842 Bergfeld AK, et al., Metabolism of vertebrate amino sugars with N-glycolyl groups: elucidating the intracellular fate of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J Biol Chem. 2012 Aug 17;287(34):28865-81 ...
Abstract: Siglecs are a family of sialic acid-recognizing immunoglobulin-like lectins that exhibit multiple human-specific and human-universal differences, including changes in binding specificity (Siglec-5, -7, -9, -11, -12 and 14); changes in expression pattern (Siglec-1, -5, -6, and -11); gene conversion (SIGLEC11); gene deletion (SIGLEC13) and pseudogenization (SIGLEC17). Human-unique pseudogenes of SIGLEC12, SIGLEC14 and SIGLEC16 are also polymorphic within human populations, suggesting ongoing selection on this family of genes. The apparently higher concentration of SIGLEC changes in the human lineage may have been selected by interactions with pathogens binding Siglecs, and/or as compensatory responses to the loss of the sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) in humans. Human-specific Siglec changes of particular interest include expression of Siglec-11 in brain microglia, expression of Siglec-6 on placental trophoblast, suppression of Siglec-5 expression on adaptive immune cells, ...
Linton, D, Karlyshev, A V, Hitchen, P G, Morris, H R, Dell, A, Gregson, N A and Wren, B W (2000) Multiple N-acetyl neuraminic acid synthetase (neuB) genes in Campylobacter jejuni: identification and characterization of the gene involved in sialylation of lipo-oligosaccharide. Molecular microbiology, 35(5), pp. 1120-1134. ISSN (print) 0950-382X ...
Human carcinomas can metabolically incorporate and present the dietary non-human sialic acid Neu5Gc, which differs from the human sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) by 1 oxygen atom. Tumor-associated Neu5Gc can interact with low levels of circulating anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, thereby facilitating tumor progression via chronic inflammation in a human-like Neu5Gc-deficient mouse model. Here we show that human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies can be affinity-purified in substantial amounts from clinically approved intravenous IgG (IVIG) and used at higher concentrations to suppress growth of the same Neu5Gc-expressing tumors. Hypothesizing that this polyclonal spectrum of human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies also includes potential cancer biomarkers, we then characterize them in cancer and noncancer patients sera, using a novel sialoglycan microarray presenting multiple Neu5Gc-glycans and control Neu5Ac-glycans. Antibodies against Neu5Gcα2-6GalNAcα1-O-Ser/Thr (GcSTn) were found to be more prominent in ...
Humans and chimpanzees are more sensitive to endotoxin than are mice or monkeys, but any underlying differences in inflammatory physiology have not been fully described or understood. We studied innate immune responses in Cmah−/− mice, emulating human loss of the gene encoding production of Neu5Gc, a major cell surface sialic acid. CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (CMAH) loss occurred ∼2-3 million years ago, after the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, perhaps contributing to speciation of the genus Homo. Cmah−/− mice manifested a decreased survival in endotoxemia following bacterial LPS injection. Macrophages from Cmah−/− mice secreted more inflammatory cytokines with LPS stimulation and showed more phagocytic activity. Macrophages and whole blood from Cmah−/− mice also killed bacteria more effectively. Metabolic reintroduction of Neu5Gc into Cmah−/− macrophages suppressed these differences. Cmah−/− mice also showed enhanced bacterial clearance during ...
Sialic acids are prominent termini of mammalian glycoconjugates and are key binding determinants for cell-cell recog-nition lectins. Binding of the sialic acid-dependent lectin, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), to nerve cells is implicated in the inhibition of nerve regeneration after injury. Therefore, blocking MAG binding to nerve cell sialoglycoconjugates might enhance nerve regeneration. Previously, we reported that certain sialoglycoconjugates bearing N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) but not N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) support MAG binding (Collins et al., 1997a). We now report highly efficient conversion of sialic acids on living neural cells from exclusively NeuAc to predominantly NeuGc using a novel synthetic metabolic precursor, N-glycolylmannosamine pentaacetate (Man-NGc-PA). When NG108-15 neuroblastoma-glioma hybrid cells, which normally express only NeuAc (and bind to MAG), were cultured in the presence of 1 mM ManNGcPA, they expressed 80-90% of their sialic acid precursor pool as
0113] Free Neu5Gc can be taken up by human epithelial cells from an exogenous source and incorporated into different subcellular fractions. Evidence was presented suggesting that the small amounts of Neu5Gc found in some human tissues originated from dietary sources and showed that human Caco-2 cells (human epithelial cells from a primary colon carcinoma) in culture could metabolically incorporate free Neu5Gc, as determined by a Western blot of a total homogenate, using and anti-Neu5Gc antibody. Increasing incorporation of Neu5Gc was found in the total homogenate fraction of the cells over time, with the highest level reached after incubation with 3 mM Neu5Gc for 3 days. Moreover, Western blotting with an anti Neu5Gc antibody demonstrated metabolic incorporation of Neu5Gc into glycoproteins of these cells. The partitioning of the exogenous Neu5Gc into different subcellular fractions of these cells has now been studied. Prior to feeding, Caco-2 cells were split and cultured in human serum instead ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Vered Padler-Karavani, Adriana H Tremoulet, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Jane C Burns, Ajit Varki].
N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is the second most populous sialic acid (Sia). The only known biosynthetic pathway of Neu5Gc is the hydroxylation of cytidine-5-monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac), catalyzed by CMP-Neu5Ac hydroxylase (CMAH). Neu5Gc is abundantly found in mammals except for human, in which CMAH is inactivated due to mutation in the CMAH gene. Evidence has accumulated to show occurrence of Neu5Gc-containing glycoconjugates in sera of cancer patients, human cancerous tissues and cultured human cell lines. Recently, occurrence of natural antibodies against Neu5Gc was shown in healthy humans and is a serious problem for clinical xenotransplantation and stem cell therapies. Studying human occurrence of Neu5Gc is of importance and interest in a broad area of medical sciences. In this study, using a fluorometric high performance liquid chromatography method, we performed quantitative analyses of Sias both inside and in the external environment of the cell and found ...
Summary The neuraminidase inhibitor 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-trifluoroacetylneuraminic acid (FANA) inhibits the multicycle replication of influenza viruses in tissue culture. Influenza virus grown in the presence of FANA contains neuraminic acid on its envelope which then serves as receptor for other virus particles causing extensive aggregation. Thus, FANA inhibits influenza virus replication by preventing the enzymatic removal of neuraminic acid from the virus envelope.
Milk oligosaccharides (OS)-free complex carbohydrates-confer unique health benefits to the nursing neonate. Though human digestive enzymes cannot degrade these sugars, they provide nourishment to specific commensal microbes and act as decoys to prevent the adhesion of pathogenic micro-organisms to gastrointestinal cells. At present, the limited quantities of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) impede research on these molecules and their potential applications in functional food formulations. Considerable progress has been made in the study of OS structures; however, the synthetic pathways leading to their synthesis in the mammary gland are poorly understood. Recent studies show that complex OS with fucose and N-acetyl neuraminic acid (key structural elements of HMO bioactivity) exist in goat milk. Polymorphisms in the CSN1S1 locus, which is responsible for synthesis of αs1-casein, affect lipid and casein micelle structure in goat milk. The present study sought to determine whether CSN1S1 ...
Even though trastuzumab provides clinical benefit to breast cancer patients, resistance to trastuzumab develops. About 70% of patients who initially respond to trastuzumab eventually experience progression to metastatic disease within a year [12] and only 11-26% of Her2+ metastatic breast cancers respond to trastuzumab monotherapy [13]. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms for trastuzumab resistance and developing treatment strategies for primary and acquired resistance are important. In this study, we sought to define the molecular and functional changes driving loss of HER2/neu expression and metastatic potential by examining a spontaneously derived metastatic breast cancer cell line, TUBO-P2J, with the parental HER2/neu positive cell line, TUBO. In addition, we used this metastatic variant to establish a clinically relevant intratumoral HER2 heterogeneous tumor model to test anti-HER2/neu antibody susceptibility. Using this model, we observed that the clinical benefit of anti-neu antibody ...
December 2nd, 2013 by Naito-Matsui, Y., Takada, S., Kano, Y., Iyoda, T., Sugai, M., Shimizu, A., Inaba, K., Nitschke, L., Tsubata, T., Oka, S., Kozutsumi, Y., Takematsu, H.. Sialic acids (Sias) are often conjugated to the termini of cellular glycans and are key mediators of cellular recognition. Sias are nine-carbon acidic sugars, and, in vertebrates, the major species are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), differing in structure at the C5 position. Previously, we described a positive feedback loop involving regulation of Neu5Gc expression in mouse B cells. In this context, Neu5Gc negatively regulated B-cell proliferation and Neu5Gc expression was suppressed upon activation. Similarly, resting mouse T cells expressed principally Neu5Gc, and Neu5Ac was induced upon activation. In the present work, we used various probes to examine sialoglycan expression by activated T cells in terms of the Sia species expressed and the linkages of Sias to glycans. Upon T-cell ...
Sialic Acids: A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Converts endogenous N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a major component of complex carbohydrates, from lysosomal degradation or nutritional sources into GlcNAc 6-phosphate. Involved in the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) degradation pathway: although human is not able to catalyze formation of Neu5Gc due to the inactive CMAHP enzyme, Neu5Gc is present in food and must be degraded. Also has ManNAc kinase activity.
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 6s04.1. Crystal structure of an inverting family GH156 exosialidase from uncultured bacterium pG7 in complex with N-glycolylneuraminic acid
Diabetes is estimated to affect over 25 million individuals in the U.S., and 285 million people worldwide, said Jane J. Kim, M.D., a -participating researcher from the Department of Pediatrics at the University of California, San Diego in La Jolla, CA. Our study for the first time links human-specific sialic acid changes to insulin and glucose metabolism and therefore opens up a new perspective in understanding the causes of diabetes.. The researchers studied two groups of mice that lacked CMAH. They found they could not produce a type of sialic acid called NeuSGc. The second group of mice were normal. When the mice were given a high fat diet, leading them to become obese. Only the mice lacking the ability to produce sialic acid on the cell surface from absence of NeuSGc developed impaired insulin production.. Gerald Weissmann, M.D., Editor-in-Chief of the FASEB Journal wonders if humans lack the CMAH enzyme for a reason related to survival. Perhaps it is a defense against bacteria or ...
RES 1b:b-dglc-HEX-1:5 2s:n-acetyl 3b:b-dglc-HEX-1:5 4s:n-acetyl 5b:b-dman-HEX-1:5 6b:a-dman-HEX-1:5 7b:b-dglc-HEX-1:5 8s:n-acetyl 9b:b-dgal-HEX-1:5 10b:a-dgro-dgal-NON-2:6,1:a,2:keto,3:d 11s:n-glycolyl 12b:a-dman-HEX-1:5 13b:b-dglc-HEX-1:5 14s:n-acetyl 15b:b-dgal-HEX-1:5 16b:a-dgro-dgal-NON-2:6,1:a,2:keto,3:d 17s:n-acetyl 18b:a-lgal-HEX-1:5,6:d LIN 1:1d(2+1)2n 2:1o(4+1)3d 3:3d(2+1)4n 4:3o(4+1)5d 5:5o(3+1)6d 6:6o(2+1)7d 7:7d(2+1)8n 8:7o(4+1)9d 9:9o(6+2)10d 10:10d(5+1)11n 11:5o(6+1)12d 12:12o(2+1)13d 13:13d(2+1)14n 14:13o(4+1)15d 15:15o(6+2)16d 16:16d(5+1)17n 17:1o(6+1) ...
N-Acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) (CAS: 131-48-6), also known as sialic acid, is an acetyl derivative of the amino sugar neuraminic acid. It occurs in many glycoproteins, glycolipids, and polysaccharides in both mammals and bacteria. The most abundant sialic acid, NeuAc, is synthesized in vivo from N-acetylated D-mannosamine (ManNAc) or D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). NeuAc and its activated form, CMP-NeuAc, are biosynthesized in five consecutive reactions that form the intermediates UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc), ManNAc 6-phosphate, NeuAc 9-phosphate, and CMP-NeuAc. CMP-NeuAc is transported into the Golgi apparatus and, with the aid of specific sialyltransferases, added onto nonreducing positions on oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids. NeuAc is widely distributed throughout human tissues and found in several fluids, including serum, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, urine, amniotic fluid, and breast milk. It is found in high levels in the brain, adrenal ...
Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids expressed on all vertebrate cells. They are primarily positioned in the plasma membrane, with the ceramide part anchored in the membrane and the glycan part exposed on the surface of the cell. These lipids have highly diverse structures, not the least with respect to their carbohydrate chains, with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) being the two most common sialic acid residues in mammalian cells. Human healthy tissue is deficient in NeuGc, but since this molecule is expressed in tumors and in human fetal tissues, it is known as an onco-fetal antigen. Gangliosides perform important functions through carbohydrate-specific interactions with proteins, for example as receptors in cell-cell recognition, which can be exploited by viruses and other pathogens, and also by regulating signaling proteins through lateral interaction in the membrane. Through both mechanisms, tumor-associated gangliosides may affect
Rabbit-generated antithymocyte globulins (ATGs), which target human T cells, are widely used as immunosuppressive agents during treatment of kidney allograft recipients. However, ATGs can induce immune complex diseases, including serum sickness disease (SSD). Rabbit and human IgGs have various antigenic differences, including expression of the sialic acid Neu5Gc and α-1-3-Gal (Gal), which are not synthesized by human beings. Moreover, anti-Neu5Gc antibodies have been shown to preexist and be elicited by immunization in human subjects. This study aimed to assess the effect of SSD on long-term kidney allograft outcome and to compare the immunization status of grafted patients presenting with SSD following ATG induction treatment.. ...
We have produced over 30 peer-reviewed publications concerning mesenchymal stromal/stem cell (MSC) research with focus areas on e.g. MSC biodistribution and targeting and MSC markers.. Selected references:. Kerkelä E, Hakkarainen T, Mäkelä T, Raki M, Kampur O, Kilpinen L, Nikkilä J, Lehtonen S, Ritamo I, Pernu R, Pietilä M, Takalo R, Juvonen T, Bergström K, Kalso E, Valmu L, Laitinen S, Lehenkari P, Nystedt J. Transient Proteolytic Modification of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Increases Lung Clearance Rate and Targeting to Injured Tissue. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2013;2(7):510-20. (inaugural IF 3.596). PM: 23734061. Nystedt J, Anderson H, Hirvonen T, Impola U, Jaatinen T, Heiskanen A, Blomqvist M, Satomaa T, Natunen J, Saarinen J, Lehenkari P, Valmu L, Laine J. Human CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase is a novel stem cell marker linked to stem cell-specific mechanisms. Stem Cells. 2010;28(2):258-67. (IF 7.781). PM: 19890979. Nystedt J, Anderson H, Tikkanen J, Pietilä M, Hirvonen T, Takalo ...
Hydrolyzes the N-glycolyl group from N-glycolylglucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcNGc-6-P) in the N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) degradation pathway.
Sialic acid is a general term for N or O substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid (a 9-carbon backbone monosaccharide) which are widely expressed terminal carbohydrates on cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids of eukaryotic cells.
Based on a strategy previously reported by us, we have synthesized D-xylo configured cyclohexenephosphonates designed to mimic the transition state of the sialidase reaction. The double bond orientation corresponds to the benchmark inhibitor Neu5Ac2en and we could selectively introduce hydroxyalkyl substituents in order to simulate the glycerol side-chain of neuraminic acid. The inhibitory activity of a set of compounds towards bacterial sialidases was tested and interesting differences in activity were found. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
A recent study from the Varki lab has confirmed that sialic acid, Neu5Gc, is capable of incorporating into mouse cells through the consumption of red meat, which leads to increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas when administered with anti- Neu5Gc antibodies. This blog discusses the implications of red meat consumption in humans and the characterization Neu5Gc as a xeno-autoantigen capable of inducing low level inflammation leading to cancer.
For the first time, the N-glycosylation patterns of immunoglobulin G (IgGs) isolated from the serum of two varieties of knockout pigs (lacking N-glycolylneuraminic acid..
Adenocarcinoma, Animal, Ascitic-Fluid: cy, Binding-Sites-Antibody, Cells-Cultured, Complement, Cytotoxicity-Tests-Immunologic, Female, Male, Mammary-Neoplasms-Experimental, Mice, Neoplasm-Transplantation, Neuraminic-Acids: an, Neuraminidase, Vibrio: en. ...
Recombinant N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Synthase (NANS) Protein. Species: Human. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN6381569.
Two to three million years ago, our pre-human ancestors had a single genetic mutation in their CMAH gene that protected them from a deadly form of malaria but set them up for risk for heart attacks that increases when they eat a lot of meat from any kind of mammal (PNAS, July 22, 2019). No other mammals developed this genetic mutation.. Apes, gorillas, chimpanzees, and other human progenitors were dying from a type of malaria called Plasmodium reichenowi. Then along came a pre-human with a CMAH gene changed from making a cell surface sugar-protein called Neu5Gc to another molecule called Neu5Ac (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, Sept 6, 2005;102(36): 12819-12824). That pre-human did not die from malaria like other apes, monkeys and gorillas, so his or her children lived and proliferated, and today all humans have Neu5Ac instead of Neu5Gc. Chimpanzees share more than 99 percent of their genes with modern humans, but the CMAH gene is one of the areas of difference. As often happens in nature, the malaria ...
Existing data about Neu5Gc in human cells is controversial (16, 18, 19, 21, 22). Even in studies claiming its presence in malignant tissues, the cell type specificity of the presumed Neu5Gc was not defined. We have advanced understanding of this issue by using an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody against Neu5Gc. Our data support prior reports of Neu5Gc in human cancers and extends the finding to normal and fetal human tissues. Of course, despite our extensive efforts to define specificity, we cannot rule out the possibility of an unexpected epitope cross-reactive with this polyclonal antibody. Thus, we confirmed the presence of Neu5Gc in the normal human tissues with MS.. The inactivating mutation of CMAH in humans is genetically irreversible, no human genes have homology to CMAH, and evidence for an alternate biosynthetic pathway is lacking. Although human cells cultured in FCS appear to incorporate Neu5Gc (8, 24), this could be just passive adsorption. For example, glycolipids containing ...
Ganglioside GM1 (18:1/12:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. It is a component the cell plasma membrane which modulates cell signal transduction events. Gangliosides have been found to be highly important in immunology. Ganglioside GM1 carries a net-negative charge at pH 7.0 and is acidic. Gangliosides can amount to 6% of the weight of lipids from brain, but they are found at low levels in all animal tissues. Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids. There are four types of glycosphingolipids, the cerebrosides, sulfatides, globosides and gangliosides. Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. The specific names for the gangliosides provide information about their structure. The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, ...
Li, Y.T.; Mazzotta, M.Y.; Wan, C.C.; Orth, R.; Li, S.C., 1973: Hydrolysis of Tay-Sachs ganglioside by beta-hexosaminidase A of human liver and urine
This week, Dr. Ajit Varki of the University of California at San Diego showed for the first time that feeding genetically-engineered mice a sugar called Neu5Gc, found in red meat, caused them to produce anti-Neu5Gc antibodies that caused spontaneous cancers (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, published online Dec. 29, 2014).. Several previous studies have shown that eating red meat is associated with increased risk for cancers, diabetes and heart attacks (JAMA Internal Medicine, June 2013). Substituting other protein sources, such as fish, poultry, nuts or legumes, is associated with a reduced risk of death (Archives of Internal Medicine, March 12, 2012). However, epidemiological studies only show an association between eating red meat and cancers; they do not show that eating red meat causes cancer. This new study is the first to show that feeding a component of red meat to mice causes cancers. If future studies confirm this finding, I believe that Ajit Varki will be a strong ...
Neuraminidase, 1 ml. Neuraminidases or sialidases are exoglycosidases that catalyze the cleavage of a glycosidically linked terminal N acetyl neuraminic acid from sialylated glycoconjugates.
We have found that the entrapment of neuraminidase-treated lymphocytes in the liver leads to the induction of autoimmune cellular cytotoxic reactions.. Lymphocytes from mouse spleen and thymus were incubated with neuraminidase in vitro and injected i.v. into syngeneic recipients. Lymphocytic infiltrations into the liver were seen 7 days later with both types of cells. After repeated weekly injections of asialo-lymphocytes, destruction of liver tissue became apparent. Electronmicroscopic studies showed that hepatocytes, fat storage cells, and endothelial cells were affected, mainly at the hepatic periphery.. It is concluded that the adhesion of asialo-lymphocytes to liver cells induces their cytotoxic activity. Similar reactions may occur after paramyxovirus infection due to the action of viral neuraminidase.. ...
Video articles in JoVE about sambucus nigra include Chemically-blocked Antibody Microarray for Multiplexed High-throughput Profiling of Specific Protein Glycosylation in Complex Samples, Using Unfixed, Frozen Tissues to Study Natural Mucin Distribution, A Lectin HPLC Method to Enrich Selectively-glycosylated Peptides from Complex Biological Samples, Profiling Anti-Neu5Gc IgG in Human Sera with a Sialoglycan Microarray Assay .
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Although earlier studies claimed the absence of Neu5Gc from normal human tissues, we showed thatit is also present in smaller amounts in normal human epithelial and endothelial cells in vivo (Tangvoranuntakul et al. 2003). Furthermore, we recently demonstrated that mice with a human-likedefect in the CMAH gene had no detectable Neu5Gc (Hedlund et al. 2007), effectively ruling out an alternate mammalian pathway for synthesis. This paradox is explained by our finding that humans can metabolically incorporate Neu5Gc via oral intake (Tangvoranuntakul et al. 2003). We have therefore suggested that the well-known epidemiological association of human cancers with consumption of red meat and milk (which happen to be the richest dietary sources of Neu5Gc) (Rose et al. 1986; Norat et al. 2002; Lewin et al. 2006) might be related to this unusual metabolic accumulation. Here, we have demonstrated another required component for this hypothesis - circulating antibodies that can recognize Neu5Gc on human ...
Iwata, Y., Suzuki, O. and Wakabayashi, S. (2013), Decreased surface sialic acid content is a sensitive indicator of muscle damage. Muscle Nerve, 47: 372-378. doi: 10.1002/mus.23632 ...
Tumor cells of various origins feature increased expression of sialic acid sugars on membrane glycoproteins and glycolipids and their secretion into the tumor microenvironment. Sialic acids are synthesized in and expressed by essentially every vertebrate cell, and are involved in multiple different physiologic processes. However, hypersialylation of tumor cells relative to their untransformed normal counter parts specifically benefits tumor cell growth and correlates with a poor prognosis for patients with cancer (1, 2). Sialic acids comprise a family of more than 50 carbohydrates that share a nine-carbon backbone (C1-9) to which specific chemical modifications are enzymatically attached inside the cell. The most common sialic acid derivate found in mammals is N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) which bears an acetyl group on the fifth carbon atom (C5). In general, sialic acids terminate the outer end of glycans (sialoglycans), where they are enzymatically linked to other carbohydrates, such as the ...
In N-acetylneuraminic acid, apart from O9 and O8, a possible glycosylation site is the O4 position. For example, gangliosides HLG-2 and HPG-7 are considered to be potential lead compounds for carbohydrate-based drug development to treat neural disorders. However, the construction of their α(1 → 4) fucosyl sialic acid and α(2 → 4) linkages between sialic acids is difficult because of the regioselec ...
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Plasmodium falciparum malaria merozoites require erythrocyte sialic acid for optimal invasion of human erythrocytes. Since mouse erythrocytes have the form of sialic acid found on human erythrocytes (N-acetyl neuraminic acid), mouse erythrocytes were tested for invasion in vitro. The Camp and 7G8 strains of P. falciparum invaded mouse erythrocytes at 17-45% of the invasion rate of human erythrocytes. Newly invaded mouse erythrocytes morphologically resembled parasitized human erythrocytes as shown on Giemsa-stained blood films and by electron microscopy. The rim of parasitized mouse erythrocytes contained the P. falciparum 155-kD protein, which is on the rim of ring-infected human erythrocytes. Camp but not 7G8 invaded rat erythrocytes, indicating receptor heterogeneity. These data suggest that it may be possible to adapt the asexual erythrocytic stage of P. falciparum to rodents. The development of a rodent model of P. falciparum malaria could facilitate vaccine development. ...
We isolated a high-purity carp glycophorin from carp erythrocyte membranes and prepared the oligosaccharide fraction from glycophorin by β-elimination [1]. The oligosaccharide fraction was separated into two components (P-1 and P-2) using a Glyco-Pak DEAE column. These O-linked oligosaccharides (P-1 and P-2) were composed of glucose, galactose, fucose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc). The P-1 and P-2 contained one and two NeuGc residues, respectively, and the P-1 exhibited bacteriostatic activity [1]. Using NMR and GC-MS, we determined that the structure of the bacteriostatic P-1 was NeuGcα2→6 (Fucα1→4) (Glcα1→3) Galβ1→4GalNAc-ol. This O-linked oligosaccharide was unique for a vertebrate with respect to the hexosamine and hexose linkages and its non-chain structure.
Abstract:Background: The metabolic syndrome comprises an array of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; the clustering of CVD risk factors in the metabolic syndrome suggests a common underlying mechanism. Circulating serum sialic acid, an inflammatory marker has recently been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality, and obesity-related diseases. Objective: is to study the relationship between serum total sialic acid and metabolic variables in type 2 diabetes with and without metabolic syndrome.Subject and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetic mellitus patients (52 of them had metabolic syndrome and 48 without it) were recruited from the National Diabetic Center, Al-Mustansiriya University during the period from June 2011 to January 2012. One hundred apparently healthy control matched for age and sex were participated in this study. Fasting venous blood samples were collected from all participants, the level of HbA1c was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography. Total ...
4AHO: Structural Insights Into the Recovery of Aldolase Activity in N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Lyase by Replacement of the Catalytically Active Lysine with Gamma-Thialysine by Using a Chemical Mutagenesis Strategy.
4AMA: Structural Insights Into the Recovery of Aldolase Activity in N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Lyase by Replacement of the Catalytically Active Lysine with Gamma-Thialysine by Using a Chemical Mutagenesis Strategy.
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Complete information for NANS gene (Protein Coding), N-Acetylneuraminate Synthase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/CXXXX/C-6008-25.pdf]N-AcetyIneuraminic Acid, Sialic acid; NANA; Neu5Ac, 25mg
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Substances: 4-Formylaminoantipyrin (4-FAA) (WSJBSKRPKADYRQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 5-Fluoro Cytosine (XRECTZIEBJDKEO-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 2-4-dimethylphenylformamide (JOFDPSBOUCXJCC-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 4-Acetamidoantipyrin ( N-Acetyl-4-Aminoantipyrin 4-AAA) (OIAGWXKSCXPNNZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N) Acetochlor-ESA (HXAIQOCRALNGKB-UHFFFAOYSA-N) Filter Results ...
Sobeslavsky O, Prescott B, Chanock RM (September 1968). "Adsorption of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to neuraminic acid receptors of ... Among them are sialoglycoconjugates, sulfated glycolipids, glycoproteins, fibronectin, and neuraminic acid receptors. Lectins ... and biosynthesis pathways for amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol and purines and pyrimidines. These limitations make M. ... nalidixic acid, and rifampin. Antimicrobial drug resistance rates for Mycoplasma pneumoniae were determined in clinical ...
... (Sialidase) enzymes are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave (cut) the glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids ... The unsaturated sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid [Neu5ac]) derivative 2-deoxy-2, 3-didehydro-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid ( ... acids Neuraminidases, also called sialidases, catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal sialic acid residues from the newly formed ... There are two major classes of Neuraminidase that cleave exo or endo poly-sialic acids: Exo hydrolysis of α-(2→3)-, α-(2→6)-, α ...
... enzymes that cleave glycosidic linkages of neuraminic acids. Elution of the proteins from the column was effectuated using ...
Neuraminic acid Sialic acid Legionaminic acid Pseudaminic acid Paul G. Engelkirk and Gwendolyn R. Wilson Burton. (2006) ...
Neuraminidases are enzymes that cleave sialic acid (also called neuraminic acid) groups from glycoproteins. Neuraminidase ... Sialic acids are found on various glycoproteins at the host cell surface. The virus then moves from sialic acid group to sialic ... Neuraminidases cleave the terminal sialic acid residues from carbohydrate chains in glycoproteins. Sialic acid is a negatively ... The cause was determined to be a histidine-to-tyrosine (amino acid) substitution at position 274 in its neuraminidase protein. ...
Neuraminic acid Anne Neu, an American politician first elected 2017 This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the ...
N = neuraminidase, an enzyme that cleaves the glycosidic bonds of the monosaccharide sialic acid (previously called neuraminic ... Swine influenza viruses have the ability to bind both types of sialic acid receptors. Human flu symptoms usually include fever ... HA: (hemagglutinin): Avian influenza HA binds alpha 2-3 sialic acid receptors, while human influenza HA binds alpha 2-6 sialic ... single-stranded nucleic acid called RNA. Unusually for a virus, though, the influenza type A virus genome is not a single piece ...
"Alkaline biocatalysis for the direct synthesis of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc)". ... Sialic acid becomes "activated" by CMP-sialic acid synthetase in the nucleus. CMP-sialic acid acts as a sialic acid donor to ... ManNAc is the first committed biological precursor of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, sialic acid) (Figure 1). Sialic acids ... By aldolase treatment of sialic acid. to produce ManNAc and pyruvic acid. By base catalysed epimerization of N-acetyl ...
Polylactosamine chains on O-linked glycans are often capped by the addition of a sialic acid residue (similar to neuraminic ... such as neuraminic acid. Processing and modification of N-linked glycans within the Golgi does not follow a linear pathway. As ... neuraminic acid, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose, mannose, and other monosaccharides. In eukaryotes, N-linked glycans are derived ... The sequon is an Asn-X-Ser or Asn-X-Thr sequence, where X is any amino acid except proline and the glycan may be composed of N- ...
... keto-acids such as pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate and the sugar acid, N-acetyl neuraminic acid (or sialic acid). Other ... "Characterization of the N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid-binding site of the extracytoplasmic solute receptor (SiaP) of nontypeable ... Severi E, Randle G, Kivlin P, Whitfield K, Young R, Moxon R, Kelly D, Hood D, Thomas GH (2005). "Sialic acid transport in ... To date, most substrates for TRAP transporters contain a common feature which is that they are organic acids. This includes C4- ...
... by proteolytic enzymes and neuraminidase and concluded that its makeup must be mostly glycoproteid with some neuraminic acid ...
... the bifunctional enzyme in neuraminic acid biosynthesis". FEBS Lett. 454 (3): 341-4. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(99)00837-6. PMID ... a precursor of sialic acids. UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase activity is rate-limiting for the biosynthesis of sialic acid and is ... Modification of cell surface molecules with sialic acid is crucial for their function in many biologic processes, including ... "A bifunctional enzyme catalyzes the first two steps in N-acetylneuraminic acid biosynthesis of rat liver. Molecular cloning and ...
... the basis for neuraminic acid) Ketoses and aldoses can be chemically differentiated through Seliwanoff's test, where the sample ... is heated with acid and resorcinol. The test relies on the dehydration reaction which occurs more quickly in ketoses, so that ...
... and arginine is essential for binding the N-acetyl-neuraminic acid residue of GM2 gangliosides. The GM2 activator protein ... A glutamate residue (alpha Glu-323/beta Glu-355) works as an acid by donating its hydrogen to the glycosidic oxygen atom on the ... and a loop structure that forms from the amino acid sequence in the alpha subunit. The loop in the alpha subunit, consisting of ...
... neuraminic aldolase, N-acetylneuraminate aldolase, neuraminic acid aldolase, N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase, neuraminate ... COMB DG, ROSEMAN S (1960). "The sialic acids. I. The structure and enzymatic synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid". J. Biol. ... Other names in common use include N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase, acetylneuraminate lyase, sialic aldolase, sialic acid ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the oxo-acid-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. The systematic ...
N-acetyl-alpha-neuraminic acid aNeu5Ac9Ac = N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid bDGalp = beta-D-galactopyranose bDGalpNAc = N- ... n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain. NeuNAc, an acetylated derivative of the carbohydrate sialic acid, ... A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. ...
Neuraminidase is an enzyme which hydrolyses that bond to produce a free neuraminic acid and a glycoprotein or a sugar chain. ... N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is one of the two most common sialic acid in mammals. It is a monosaccharide with a backbone ... Including a glutamic acid residue binding the C7 and C9 alcohol groups on the glycerol side-chain (at C6) with hydrogen bonds ... The three arginine residues that bind the C1 acid-group with salt bridges in vNEU are also present in hNEU. Active site ...
... (5-amino-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid) is an acidic (in particular ulusonic) amino sugar ... The N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid are collectively known as sialic acids, the predominant form in ... Sialic acid N-Acetylneuraminic acid N-Glycolylneuraminic acid Blanco, Antonio; Blanco, Gustavo (2017-01-01), Blanco, Antonio; ... Neuraminic acid may also be visualized as the product of an aldol-condensation of pyruvic acid and D-mannosamine (2-amino-2- ...
Xylonic acid (5C) Gluconic acid (6C) Ascorbic acid (6C, unsaturated lactone) Ulosonic acids Neuraminic acid (5-amino-3,5- ... Iduronic acid (6C) Aldaric acids Tartaric acid (4C) meso-Galactaric acid (Mucic acid) (6C) D-Glucaric acid (Saccharic acid) (6C ... Ketodeoxyoctulosonic acid (KDO or 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) Uronic acids Glucuronic acid (6C) Galacturonic acid (6C ... Aldaric acids, in which both ends (−CHO and −CH2(OH)) of an aldose are oxidized. Examples of sugar acids include: Aldonic acids ...
The sialic acid family includes many derivatives of the nine-carbon sugar neuraminic acid, but these acids rarely appear free ... More than 50 kinds of sialic acid are known, all of which can be obtained from a molecule of neuraminic acid by substituting ... Sialic acids are a class of alpha-keto acid sugars with a nine-carbon backbone. The term "sialic acid" (from the Greek for ... turning sialic acid into cytidine monophosphate-sialic acid (CMP-sialic acid). This compound is synthesized in the nucleus of ...
Neuraminic acid N-Glycolylneuraminic acid Sialic acid Severi E, Hood DW, Thomas GH (2007). "Sialic acid utilization by ... N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac or NANA) is the predominant sialic acid found in human cells, and many mammalian cells. Other ... Severi E, Randle G, Kivlin P, Whitfield K, Young R, Moxon R, Kelly D, Hood D, Thomas GH (2005). "Sialic acid transport in ... Post DM, Mungur R, Gibson BW, Munson RS Jr (2005). "Identification of a novel sialic acid transporter in Haemophilus ducreyi". ...
Neuraminic acid Sialic acid N-Acetylneuraminic acid Chou, Hsun-Hua; Takematsu, Hiromu; Diaz, Sandra; Iber, Jane; Nickerson, ... N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is a sialic acid molecule found in most non-human mammals. Humans cannot synthesize Neu5Gc ... "Mechanism of Uptake and Incorporation of the Non-human Sialic Acid N-Glycolylneuraminic Acid into Human Cells". Journal of ... Sialic acids are negatively charged and hydrophilic, so they don't readily cross the hydrophobic regions of cellular membranes ...
Mennink-Kersten MA, Warris A, Verweij PE (2006). "1,3-β-D-Glucan in patients receiving intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanic acid ... increasing fecal bulk and producing short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities.[14] This ...
They are normally present as glycans: oligosaccharide chains linked to lipids or to compatible amino acid side chains in ... where X can be any amino acid except for proline, although it is rare to see Asp, Glu, Leu, or Trp in this position. ...
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose[1]) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosaccharides, disaccharides are soluble in water. Three common examples are sucrose, lactose,[2] and maltose. Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides). The most common types of disaccharides-sucrose, lactose, and maltose-have 12 carbon atoms, with the general formula C12H22O11. The differences in these disaccharides are due to atomic arrangements within the molecule.[3] The joining of simple sugars into a double sugar happens by a condensation reaction, which involves the elimination of a water molecule from the functional groups only. Breaking apart a double sugar into its two simple sugars is accomplished by hydrolysis with the help of a type of enzyme called a disaccharidase. As building the larger sugar ejects a water molecule, ...
Garot (1850) "De la matière colorante rouge des rhubarbes exotiques et indigènes et de son application (comme matière colorante) aux arts et à la pharmacie" (On the red coloring material of exotic and indigenous rhubarb and on its application (as a coloring material) in the arts and in pharmacy), Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3rd series, 17 : 5-19. Erythrose is named on p. 10: "Celui que je propose, sans y attacher toutefois la moindre importance, est celui d'érythrose, du verbe grec 'ερυθραινω, rougir (1)." (The one [i.e., name] that I propose, without attaching any importance to it, is that of erythrose, from the Greek verb ερυθραινω, to redden (1).) ...
... burns with chloric acid, formed by the reaction of hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate: 8 HClO3 + C12H22O11 → 11 H ... As the concentration of uric acid in the body increases, so does the concentration of uric acid in the joint liquid and beyond ... fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 323. Archived from the ... into lactic acid. The resultant lactic acid lowers the pH of the tooth's surface, stripping it of minerals in the process known ...
Hyaluronic acid[edit]. The fourth class of GAG, hyaluronan (or hyaluronic acid), is not sulfated and is synthesized by three ... Hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid is a major component of synovial tissues and fluid, as well as other soft tissues, and endows ... Distinguished from chondroitin sulfate by the presence of iduronic acid, although some hexuronic acid monosaccharides may be ... glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose.[3] Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract water. They are therefore ...
... /ˌæmɪloʊˈpɛktɪn/ is a water-soluble[1][2] polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylose. Amylopectin bears a straight/linear chain along with a number of side chains which may be branched further. Glucose units are linked in a linear way with α(1→4) Glycosidic bonds. Branching usually occurs at intervals of 25 residues. At the places of origin of a side chain, the branching that takes place bears an α(1→6) Glycosidic bond , resulting in a soluble molecule that can be quickly degraded as it has many end points onto which enzymes can attach. Wolform and Thompson (1956) have also reported α(1→3)linkages in case of Amylopectin. Amylopectin contains a larger number of Glucose units (2000 to 200,000) as compared to Amylose containing 200 to 1000 α-Glucose units. In contrast, amylose contains very few α(1→6) bonds, or even none at all. This causes amylose to be hydrolyzed ...
This earlier study also found that dihydroxyacetone also has an effect on the amino acids and nucleic acids which is bad for ... Both acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans use glycerol as a carbon source to form dihydroxyacetone ... Different amino acids react to DHA in different ways, producing different tones of coloration from yellow to brown. The ... DHA reacts chemically with the amino acids in the protein keratin, the major component of the skin surface. ...
"Role of Fatty Acid Composition in the Development of Metabolic Disorders in Sucrose-Induced Obese Rats". Exp. Biol. Med. 229 ...
Octose · Nonose (Neuraminic acid). Multiple. Disaccharides. Sucrose · Lactose · Maltose · Trehalose · Turanose · Cellobiose ...
Short-chain fatty acids[edit]. When fermentable fiber is fermented, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced. SCFAs are ... Almost all of these short-chain fatty acids will be absorbed from the colon. This means that fecal short-chain fatty acid ... The production of short-chain fatty acids has several possible actions on the gut mucosa. All of the short-chain fatty acids ... Lignin in fiber adsorbs bile acids, but the unconjugated form of the bile acids are adsorbed more than the conjugated form. In ...
Short-chain fatty acids[edit]. When fermentable fiber is fermented, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced.[14] SCFAs are ... Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (2005), ... One action of some fibers is to reduce the reabsorption of bile acids in the ileum and hence the amount and type of bile acid ... Almost all of these short-chain fatty acids will be absorbed from the colon. This means that fecal short-chain fatty acid ...
The furanose ring is a cyclic hemiacetal of an aldopentose or a cyclic hemiketal of a ketohexose. A furanose ring structure consists of four carbon and one oxygen atom with the anomeric carbon to the right of the oxygen. The highest numbered chiral carbon (typically to the left of the oxygen in a Haworth projection) determines whether or not the structure has a ...
... fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-08525-0. . ...
Periodic acid-Schiff stain (PAS)[edit]. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding ... "Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids ( ... 4-linked D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid residues, and is responsible for the mucoid phenotype of late-stage cystic ... Pectins are a family of complex polysaccharides that contain 1,4-linked α-D-galactosyl uronic acid residues. They are present ...
Pigman, William Ward; Anet, E. F. L. J. (1972). "Chapter 4: Mutarotations and Actions of Acids and Bases". In Pigman and Horton ...
Heptose (Sedoheptulose) · Octose · Nonose (Neuraminic acid). பன்மைச் சர்க்கரைகள். இரட்டைச்சர்க்கரைகள். Sucrose · Lactose · ...
... is an aldohexose sugar. It is a monosaccharide that is very rare in nature, but has been found in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes.[2] It also exists as a syrup with a sweet taste. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in methanol. Neither the ...
Neuraminic acid (5-amino-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid) is an acidic (in particular ulusonic) amino sugar ... The N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid are collectively known as sialic acids, the predominant form in ... Sialic acid N-Acetylneuraminic acid N-Glycolylneuraminic acid Blanco, Antonio; Blanco, Gustavo (2017-01-01), Blanco, Antonio; ... Neuraminic acid may also be visualized as the product of an aldol-condensation of pyruvic acid and D-mannosamine (2-amino-2- ...
"Neuraminic Acids" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Neuraminic Acids" was a major or minor topic of ... "Neuraminic Acids" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Neuraminic Acids" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Neuraminic Acids". ...
N-Acetyl-Neuraminic Acid , C11H19NO9 , CID 439197 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification ...
Content and distribution of the different sialic acids on human lymphocytes, isolated from 7-10 ml of fresh human blood, were ... Previous Document: Activity of natural killer cells after postoperative amino acid infusion.. Next Document: Trauma peptide ... Comparison of the data of patients with melanoma with those of healthy persons shows an evident increase of the sialic acid ... Content and distribution of the different sialic acids on human lymphocytes, isolated from 7-10 ml of fresh human blood, were ...
The release of N-acetyl- and N-glycolloyl-neuraminic acid from soluble complex carbohydrates and erythrocytes by bacterial, ... The release of N-acetyl- and N-glycolloyl-neuraminic acid from soluble complex carbohydrates and erythrocytes by bacterial, ... The release of N-acetyl- and N-glycolloyl-neuraminic acid from soluble complex carbohydrates and erythrocytes by bacterial, ... The release of N-acetyl- and N-glycolloyl-neuraminic acid from soluble complex carbohydrates and erythrocytes by bacterial, ...
BACTERIAL OLIGOSACCHARIDES CONTAINING NEURAMINIC ACID OR PYRUVIC-ACID ACETAL GROUPS. ... BACTERIAL OLIGOSACCHARIDES CONTAINING NEURAMINIC ACID OR PYRUVIC-ACID ACETAL GROUPS. ... BACTERIAL OLIGOSACCHARIDES CONTAINING NEURAMINIC ACID OR PYRUVIC-ACID ACETAL GROUPS ... one acetamido hexose and one N-acetyl neuraminic acid. The analysis of oligosaccharides containing N-acetylated sugars was ...
Sialic acid patterns in N-linked carbohydrate chains. Structural analysis of the N-acetyl-/N-glycolyl-neuraminic-acid- ... Sialic acid patterns in N-linked carbohydrate chains. Structural analysis of the N-acetyl-/N-glycolyl-neuraminic-acid- ...
Multiple N-acetyl neuraminic acid synthetase (neuB) genes in Campylobacter jejuni: identification and characterization of the ... Multiple N-acetyl neuraminic acid synthetase (neuB) genes in Campylobacter jejuni: identification and characterization of the ...
... specifically the oxo-acid-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. This product with the indicated enzyme activity was brief ... neuraminic aldolase; N-acetylneuraminate aldolase; neuraminic acid aldolase; N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase; neuraminate ... N-acetylneuraminic acid aldolase; acetylneuraminate lyase; sialic aldolase; sialic acid aldolase; sialate lyase; N- ... This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the oxo-acid-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. This product ...
... sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, are normal components of the plasma membrane of vertebrate cells and are ... Veh RW, Corfield AP, Sander M, Schaver R (1977) Neuraminic acid-specific modification and tritium labelling of gangliosides. ... Sialic Acid Specific Radioactivity Redistilled Water Chain Base Oligosaccharide Moiety These keywords were added by machine and ... Gangliosides, sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, are normal components of the plasma membrane of vertebrate cells and ...
Glc, D-glucose; Gal, D-galactose; GlcNAc, N-acetylglucosamine; Fuc, L-fucose; Neu5Ac, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. ... Fucose and sialic acids both have distinct masses that can be readily obtained from the accurate mass. A mass profile of the ... HMOs are terminated by fucose and sialic acid, and even in this aspect vary in the range of 50-70% fucosylated and 5-15% ... and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Fig. 2). The estimated number of oligosaccharides ranges from a few hundred to the thousands (20 ...
Neuraminic acid miguelferig.png 582 × 1,353; 22 KB. *. Nl-Poedersuiker-article.ogg 31 s; 314 KB. ...
... "LOCATION OF THE N-ACETYL-D-NEURAMINIC ACID BINDING SITE IN WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININ. A CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STUDY AT 2.8 A RESOLUTION ... "LOCATION OF THE N-ACETYL-D-NEURAMINIC ACID BINDING SITE IN WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININ. A CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STUDY AT 2.8 A RESOLUTION ... "LOCATION OF THE N-ACETYL-D-NEURAMINIC ACID BINDING SITE IN WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININ. A CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC STUDY AT 2.8 A RESOLUTION ...
Solution Phase Synthesis of Amide-Linked N-Acetyl Neuraminic Acid, α-Amino Acid, and Sugar Amino Acid Conjugates. Journal of ... Solution Phase Synthesis of Amide-Linked N-Acetyl Neuraminic Acid, α-Amino Acid, and Sugar Amino Acid Conjugates. In: Journal ... Solution Phase Synthesis of Amide-Linked N-Acetyl Neuraminic Acid, α-Amino Acid, and Sugar Amino Acid Conjugates. / Ramamoorthy ... title = "Solution Phase Synthesis of Amide-Linked N-Acetyl Neuraminic Acid, α-Amino Acid, and Sugar Amino Acid Conjugates", ...
N-acetyl neuraminic acid level in the erythrocyte membrane and serum of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. Indian ... N-acetyl neuraminic acid level in the erythrocyte membrane and serum of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. ...
An exceptionally rare case of spontaneous allergic sensitization to a glycoprotein rich in sialic acid and present in human ... Neuraminic Acids / adverse effects* * Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis * Semen* * Skin Tests * Urticaria / etiology ... An exceptionally rare case of spontaneous allergic sensitization to a glycoprotein rich in sialic acid and present in human ...
... and sialic acid (e.g., N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (NANA)). The processing of the sugar groups occurs cotranslationally in the ... unnatural amino acids such as α-, α-disubstituted amino acids, N-alkyl amino acids, and other unconventional amino acids may ... A "conservative amino acid substitution" is one in which an amino acid residue is substituted by another amino acid residue ... amino acids, even more preferably at least 50 or 60 amino acids long, and even more preferably at least 70 amino acids long. ...
N-acetyl-alpha-neuraminic acid. C11 H19 N O9. SQVRNKJHWKZAKO-YRMXFSIDSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... N-acetyl-alpha-neuraminic acid-(2-3)-beta-D-galactopyranose-(1-4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose. E ... N-acetyl-alpha-neuraminic acid-(2-3)-beta-D-galactopyranose-(1-3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose. G ... N2 neuraminidase D151G mutant of A/Tanzania/205/2010 H3N2 in complex with avian sialic acid receptor. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4GZW/pdb ...
N-acetyl-alpha-neuraminic acid-(2-3)-beta-D-galactopyranose-(1-4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranose. U. 3. N/A. ... N-acetyl-alpha-neuraminic acid-(2-3)-beta-D-galactopyranose. V. 2. N/A. Oligosaccharides Interaction. ... N-acetyl-alpha-neuraminic acid. C11 H19 N O9. SQVRNKJHWKZAKO-YRMXFSIDSA-N. Ligand Interaction. ... Structures of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus VP1 Complexes Define a Sialic Acid Binding Site Required for Infection.. Neu, U., Hengel ...
N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. LC. liquid chromatography. ESI. electrospray ionization. BPC. base peak chromatogram. EIC. extracted ... To verify the sialic acid linkages, 5 μl N-glycans (∼30 μg of membrane proteins) were digested with 2 μl of α 2-3 sialidase S ( ... Mock control cells were treated with 50% (v/v) acetic acid at a dilution identical to that of 5-Aza treated cells. The histone ... For the above N-glycan isomers, the α 2-6 linked sialic acid glycan isomers were shown to elute from the porous graphitized ...
... free sialic acid accumulates in the cytoplasm and gram quantities of neuraminic acid are secreted in the urine. The metabolic ... a precursor of sialic acids. It is a rate-limiting enzyme in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. Sialic acid modification of ... neuraminic acid. *5-(Acetylamino)-3,5-dideoxy-beta-L-erythro-2-nonulopyranosonate ... Regulates and initiates biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), a precursor of sialic acids. Plays an essential role ...
Neuraminic Acids / chemistry * Neuraminic Acids / metabolism* * Pan troglodytes * Parvovirus, Canine / metabolism* * Species ... Canine and feline parvoviruses preferentially recognize the non-human cell surface sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid ... We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) ... but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. Overexpression of α2-6 ...
... α-D-N-acetyl neuraminic acid; 4-methylumbelliferyl α-L-arabinofuranoside; 4-methylumbelliferyl α-L-arabinoside; 4- ... Acid or Alkaline phosphataseSodium 1-naphthyl phosphate Acid or Alkaline phosphataseSodium 2-naphthyl phosphate Acid or ... phenolphthalein glucuronic acid; phenolphthalein mono-β-glucosiduronic acid; phenolphthalein mono-β-glucuronic acid; and ... Acid or Alkaline phosphatasePhenolphthalein diphosphate Acid and AlkalinepentaNa salt phosphatasePhenolphthalein-β-D- β-D- ...
F: glycans with fucose; B: glycans with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine; S: glycans with N-acetyl neuraminic acid; G: glycans ... IgA1 possesses a 23-amino acid hinge region, while the hinge region of IgA2 is 10 amino acids in length. The extended hinge ... The N-acetylneuraminic acid of sialylated IgA antibody N-glycans is mainly in α(2-6) configuration [24]. While CHO expression ... In addition, while CHO-derived N-glycans exclusively possess α2,3-linked sialic acid, the majority of human serum IgA is linked ...
Safety of synthetic N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Following a request from ... was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on synthetic N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid (NANA) as a novel food (NF) submitted ...
Safety of synthetic N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. Number of Pages: 28 N- ... acetyl-D-neuraminic acid, NANA, novel food, ingredient, safety First published in the EFSA Journal: 25 July 2017 Adopted: 28 ...
Gal, galactose; GalNac, N-acetylgalactosamine; Man, mannose; GlcNAc, N-acetylglucosamine; Fuc, fucose; NeuAc, neuraminic acid ( ... Their amino acid sequences have several tandem repeats that serve as sites for O-glycosylation. In addition, they also bear ... The role diet can play in this process is of interest as the composition of dietary intake, namely folic acid content, can ... The link between diet and cancer is widely recognized, and the role of folic acid as a methylation cofactor certainly has broad ...
Total sialic acid content [as N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA)] of HPLC fractions was monitored to track the relative abundance ... Polysialic acid in human milk. CD36 is a new member of mammalian polysialic acid-containing glycoprotein. J. Biol. Chem. 278: ... Polysialic acid (polySia)3 is an unusual glycan by almost any definition. Structurally, it comprises repeating sialic acid ... Antibodies to poly[(2 → 8)-α-N-acetylneuraminic acid] and poly[(2 → 9)-α-N-acetylneuraminic acid] are elicited by immunization ...
n. A hydrolytic enzyme that removes sialic acid from glycoproteins and is found in many cells and viruses. It occurs on the ... neuramin(ic acid) (neur(o)- + amin(e)) + -id(e) + -ase.]. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition ... C20: from neuramin(ic acid) (from neuro- + amine + -ic) + -ide + -ase]. Collins English Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged, ... Related to neuraminidase: sialic acid, Neuraminidase inhibitor. neu·ra·min·i·dase. (no͝or′ə-mĭn′ĭ-dās′, -dāz′, nyo͝or′-). n.. A ...
  • and confirming that the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of Escherichia coli serotype K9 is composed of two hexoses, one acetamido hexose and one N-acetyl neuraminic acid. (ubc.ca)
  • Multiple N-acetyl neuraminic acid synthetase (neuB) genes in Campylobacter jejuni: identification and characterization of the gene involved in sialylation of lipo-oligosaccharide. (kingston.ac.uk)
  • Chigorno V, Pitto M, Cardace G, Acquotti D, Kirschner G, Sonnino S, Ghidoni R, Tettamanti G (1985) Association of gangliosides to fibroblasts in culture: a study performed with GM1 ["C]-labelled at the sialic acid acetyl group. (springer.com)
  • Ghidoni R, Sonnino S, Tettamanti G, Baumann N, Reuter G, Schauer R (1980) Isolation and characterization of a trisialoganglioside from mouse brain, containing 9-0-acetyl-Nacetylneuraminic acid. (springer.com)
  • s:9:\"\u0000*\u0000aucorp\";s:0:\"\";s:7:\"\u0000*\u0000isbn\";s:0:\"\";s:8:\"\u0000*\u0000coden\";s:0:\"\";s:8:\"\u0000*\u0000genre\";s:7:\"article\";s:7:\"\u0000*\u0000part\";s:0:\"\";s:9:\"\u0000*\u0000btitle\";s:0:\"\";s:8:\"\u0000*\u0000title\";s:126:\"LOCATION OF THE N-ACETYL-D-NEURAMINIC ACID BINDING SITE IN WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININ. (inist.fr)
  • Ramamoorthy, PS & Gervay-Hague, J 1997, ' Solution Phase Synthesis of Amide-Linked N-Acetyl Neuraminic Acid, α-Amino Acid, and Sugar Amino Acid Conjugates ', Journal of Organic Chemistry , vol. 62, no. 22, pp. 7801-7805. (elsevier.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: N-acetyl neuraminic acid level in the erythrocyte membrane and serum of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. (who.int)
  • Sialic acid 3 is now more often called N-acetyl neuraminic acid , and hence the name of RDE was changed yet again, this time to neuraminidase. (everything2.com)
  • N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) or sialic acid is an acetyl derivative of the amino sugar neuraminic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • Gangliosides are very similar to globosides except that they also contain N-acetyl neuraminic acid (NANA) in varying amounts. (hmdb.ca)
  • N-Acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) (CAS: 131-48-6), also known as sialic acid, is an acetyl derivative of the amino sugar neuraminic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • An N -acylneuraminic acid where the N -acyl group is specified as acetyl. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Biosynthesis of N-acetyl-neuraminic acid and cytidine-5'-monophospho-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid in Neisseria meningitidis. (harvard.edu)
  • Agglutination of Rh O (D) erythrocytes by specific antiserum was inhibited by crude and crystalline N-acetylneuraminic acid, less inhibited by its glycoyl derivative, and weakly inhibited by its degradation product, N-acetyl-mannosamine, and by D-mannose. (sciencemag.org)
  • some coronaviruses can bind neuraminic N-acetyl acid thanks to the expression of E3 glycoprotein. (conservapedia.com)
  • Varki, A. and Diaz, S. (1984) The release and purification of sialic acids from glycoconjugates: methods to minimize the loss and migration of O -acetyl groups. (springer.com)
  • A) acetyl CoA B) Fatty acids C) pyruvate D) A and B E) B and C F) All of the above So. (wyzant.com)
  • Structure of poly alpha (2®8) N-acetyl neuraminic acid, also known as polysialic acid (PSA). (chori.org)
  • Chemoenzymatic synthesis of N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid from N-acetyl-d-glucosamine using the spore surface-displayed N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid aldolase at a high concentration (53.9 g liter(-1)) was achieved in this study. (jove.com)
  • Barnett JEG, Coring DL, Rasool G (1971) Studies on N-acetyl neuraminic acid aldolase. (biology-online.org)
  • According to the European Food Safety Authority's (EFSA) register of questions, a novel food application is now under consideration for N-Acetyl-D-neuramicin acid after being forwarded on by the European Commission. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Described as an endogenous human and ubiquitous nutritional monosaccharide, N-Acetyl-D-neuraminic acid is most commonly referred to as sialic acid. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Discussing the profile of free N-Acetyl-D-neuraminic acid or sialic acid, a 2015 paper ​ ​said there was "emerging data" ​ demonstrating it is linked to "positive nutritional effects including pronounced anti-oxidative properties" ​and past research has suggested it is important for brain health. (nutraingredients.com)
  • "These data and the extremely high safety profile of N-Acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (NANA) justify dietary enrichment at levels that correspond to the dietary intake of NANA in infants through breast milk," ​ the researchers wrote. (nutraingredients.com)
  • M]oreover, I haven't seen a study in infants showing the effect of the free N-Acetyl-D-neuraminic acid and so a strong statement on the benefit of this compound cannot be made until clinical proof in infants is provided. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Comparison of the data of patients with melanoma with those of healthy persons shows an evident increase of the sialic acid content combined with a shift of the sialic acid distribution to higher O-acetylated derivatives. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neuraminic acid does not occur naturally, but many of its derivatives are found widely distributed in animal tissues and in bacteria, especially in glycoproteins and gangliosides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid are collectively known as sialic acids, the predominant form in mammalian cells being N-acetylneuraminic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001) Diversity of sialic acids revealed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of heptafluorobutyrate derivatives. (springer.com)
  • Alcohol, acid, and amine derivatives of carbohydrates which are formed by an alcohol, carboxylic acid, or amine function replacing the oxygen of the carbonyl group of an acyclic carbohydrate are not provided for in this class, but are classified elsewhere. (uspto.gov)
  • A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. (drugbank.ca)
  • As a family, these residues are known as sialic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among their many biological functions, these structures are substrates for neuraminidase enzymes which cleave neuraminic acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mannose and sialic acid residues appear to play a role in initial interactions between host and pathogen following environmental exposure, whereas fucose and galactose based interactions are likely to be required for prolonged colonization. (frontiersin.org)
  • The noncellular layers contained collagen fibres and glycoconjugates with abundant N-acetylgalactosamine, galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and neuraminic acid residues. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Glycoconjugates showed decreased amounts of fucose, neuraminic acid and galactose, and increased amounts of N-acetylglucosamine residues. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids that contain one or more sialic acid residues and are involved in a wide variety of biological events that occur in the cell membranes of vertebrates. (hindawi.com)
  • The effect of induction and repression on the rate of synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid. (harvard.edu)
  • synthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid from N-acetylglucosamine and pyruvate by constructing and co-expressing a polycistronic plasmid encoding an N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase gene from Synechocystis sp. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • Characterization of the sialic acid synthase from Aliivibrio salmonicida suggests a novel pathway for bacterial synthesis of 7-O-acetylated sialic acids. (uit.no)
  • Sialylation (sialic acid linked to galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, or linked to another sialic acid) represents one of the most frequently occurring terminations of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (hmdb.ca)
  • P. aeruginosa adherence was not affected by the presence of proline, trans-hydroxyproline, glycine, galactose, N -acetylneuraminic acid, N -acetylglucosamine or Arachis hypogea . (ersjournals.com)
  • This enzyme is a modified sialidase which has transglycosidase activity and transfers sialic acid from host glycoconjugates to β-galactose on a parasite surface [4] . (proteopedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a bifunctional enzyme that initiates and regulates the biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), a precursor of sialic acids. (genecards.org)
  • Regulates and initiates biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), a precursor of sialic acids. (genecards.org)
  • Biosynthesis and metabolism of sialic acids. (harvard.edu)
  • Biosynthesis of sialic acids by Neisseria meningitidis. (harvard.edu)
  • The biosynthesis of cytidine 5'-monophospho-n-acetylneuraminic acid by an enzyme from Neisseria meningitidis. (harvard.edu)
  • 1992) Nature and biosynthesis of sialic acids in the starfish Asterias rubens . (springer.com)
  • A hydrolytic enzyme that removes sialic acid from glycoproteins and is found in many cells and viruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Normal human serum SA is largely bound to glycoproteins or glycolipids (Total sialic acid, TSA, 1.5-2.5 mmol/L), with small amounts of free SA (1-3 umol/L). Negatively charged SA units stabilize glycoprotein conformation in cell surface receptors to increase cell rigidity. (hmdb.ca)
  • We show that hemagglutination involves selective recognition of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) but not N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which differs by only one oxygen atom from Neu5Gc. (nih.gov)
  • The gene CMAH encodes for CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase, which is the enzyme responsible for CMP-Neu5Gc from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic (CMP-Neu5Ac) acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neu5Gc is closely related to the commonly known N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gangliosides, sialic acid containing glycosphingolipids, are normal components of the plasma membrane of vertebrate cells and are particularly abundant in the nervous system. (springer.com)
  • Apparently Vibrio cholerae uses it to remove the sialic acid from the gangliosides of nerve cells to unmask GM1 , the receptor that the cholera toxin attacks. (everything2.com)
  • Sialic acid is indispensable for the neuritogenic activities of gangliosides constituents which are unique in that a sialic acid directly binds to the glucose of the cerebroside, they are mutually connected in tandem, and some are located in the internal parts of the sugar chain. (hmdb.ca)
  • Gangliosides are sialic acid-enriched glycosphingolipids that contain at least one monosaccharide residue associated with a ceramide chain [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It was inactive towards Neu5Ac2,6lac, colomic acid and the gangliosides GM1, and GDI. (nih.gov)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of lyases, specifically the oxo-acid-lyases, which cleave carbon-carbon bonds. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • It is a rate-limiting enzyme in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. (genecards.org)
  • Neuraminidase is a viral enzyme that cleaves the neuraminic acid component of sialic acid in the respiratory epithelial cell hemagglutinin receptors. (cmaj.ca)
  • Sialic acid (SA) is an N-acetylated derivative of neuraminic acid that is an abundant terminal monosaccharide of glycoconjugates. (hmdb.ca)
  • N-Glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is a sialic acid molecule found in most non-human mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialic acid is the moiety most actively recycled for metabolic purposes in the salvage pathways in glycosphingolipid metabolism. (hmdb.ca)
  • Kamerling, J. P. and Vliegenthart, J. F. G. (1982) Gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of sialic acids, in Sialic Acids/Chemistry, Metabolism and Function (Schauer, R., ed. (springer.com)
  • which of the following is not a direct product of fatty acid metabolism? (wyzant.com)
  • Acetly CoA NADH FADH2 ATP None of the above, all are directly produced by the fatty acid metabolism I. (wyzant.com)
  • Strong oxidation turns aldehyde and terminal hydroxyls to carboxylic acids, and other hydroxyls to ketones. (no-pasaran.mobi)
  • Neuraminic acid may also be visualized as the product of an aldol-condensation of pyruvic acid and D-mannosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-mannose). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, engagement of sialic acid does not interfere with initial attachment of MCPyV to cells, consistent with a previous proposal that attachment is mediated by a class of non-sialylated carbohydrates called glycosaminoglycans. (rcsb.org)
  • Although 9-carbon sugars do not occur naturally, neuraminic acid may be regarded as a theoretical 9-carbon ketose in which the first link of the chain (the -CH2OH at position 1) is oxidised into a carboxyl group (-C(=O)OH), the hydroxyl group at position 3 is deoxidised (oxygen is removed from it), and the hydroxyl group at position 5 is substituted with an amino group (-NH2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialic acids are structurally unique nine-carbon keto sugars occupying the interface between the host and commensal or pathogenic microorganisms. (hmdb.ca)
  • Schauer, R. (2004) Sialic acids: fascinating sugars in higher animals and man. (springer.com)
  • Peracetylated N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) was efficiently coupled to esters of glycine, alanine, and serine using BOP and HOBT in the presence of DIEA. (elsevier.com)
  • Deprotection of the esters readied the NeuAc-α-amino acid conjugates for further elaboration. (elsevier.com)
  • Coupling of the NeuAc-gly adduct with β-O-methoxy neuraminic acid methyl ester afforded a selectively protected glycine linked sialic acid dimer. (elsevier.com)
  • The most abundant sialic acid, NeuAc, is synthesized in vivo from N-acetylated D-mannosamine (ManNAc) or D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). (hmdb.ca)
  • Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) cleaves off sialic acid from cellular receptors of hemagglutinin (HA) to enable progeny escape from infected cells. (rcsb.org)
  • These reagents and methods disclosed in the present invention enable simple, rapid, specific and sensitive detection of influenza virus types A and B. These reagents are N-acetylneuraminic acid-firefly luciferin conjugates which can be cleaved by influenza virus neuraminidase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Neuraminidase or sialidase (NAN) is a viral neuraminidase which cleaves the glycosidic bonds of neuraminic acid [1] . (proteopedia.org)
  • endo-neuraminidase is a phage neuraminidase which cleaves α-2,8-polysialic acid [2] . (proteopedia.org)
  • Poly(arabitol phosphate) teichoic acid in the cell wall of agromyces cerinus subsp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • While the wild-type NA efficiently cleaves sialic acid from both α2-6- and α2-3-linked glycans, the mutant exhibits much reduced enzymatic activity toward both types of sialosides. (rcsb.org)
  • Polysialic acid (polySia) is a large glycan with restricted expression, typically found attached to the protein scaffold neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). (jimmunol.org)
  • Polysialic acid (polySia) 3 is an unusual glycan by almost any definition. (jimmunol.org)
  • A series of substrates, sialyl(2 leads to 6)GalNAc and ganglioside GM3, containing either N-acetylneuraminic acid (AcNeu) or N-glycolloylneuraminic acid (GcNeu), has been prepared. (biochemj.org)
  • Ganglioside GD2 (d18:1/18:0) is a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide)or oligoglycosylceramide with one or more sialic acids (i.e. n-acetylneuraminic acid) linked on the sugar chain. (hmdb.ca)
  • The letter G refers to ganglioside, and the subscripts M, D, T and Q indicate that the molecule contains mono-, di-, tri and quatra-sialic acid. (hmdb.ca)
  • A brain ganglioside containing neuraminic acid and a Pseudomonas polysaccharide were even more inhibitory. (sciencemag.org)
  • 100,000), an acidic component usually consisting of hexuronic acid or pyruvate, a low charge density and electrophoretic mobility, and stability at pH 5 to 6 at 100°C. Group I capsules may protect against desiccation and may contribute to adherence in enteric disease-producing isolates of E. coli ( 17 , 27 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • N-glycolylneuraminic acid knockout reduces erythrocyte sequestration and thromboxane elaboration in an ex vivo pig-to-human xenoperfusion model. (harvard.edu)
  • Characterization of the N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase (NeuB) from the psychrophilic fish pathogen Moritella viscosa. (uit.no)
  • Two members of the Siglec (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin) family, CD22 and Siglec-G have been shown to inhibit the BCR signal. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aplysia gonad lectin isolated from the mollusc Aplysia depilans was successfully conjugated to colloidal gold and used for ultrastructural detection of galacturonic acids in some pathogenic fungi (Benhamou et al . (ispub.com)
  • Activity of natural killer cells after postoperative amino acid infusion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. (uniprot.org)
  • In N-glycans, the carbohydrate N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is linked to the amide group of an asparagine amino acid in the consensus peptide sequence Asn-X-Ser/Thr where X denotes any amino acid except proline. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Such variations include the length, the saturation, and the hydroxylation of both the fatty acid chain and the long chain base. (hindawi.com)
  • Polyclonal human antibodies against glycans bearing red meat-derived non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid are stable, reproducible, complex and vary between individuals: Total antibody levels are associated with colorectal cancer risk. (harvard.edu)
  • In O-glycans, the sugar N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is linked to the hydroxyl groups of serine (Ser) or threonine (Thr) amino acids. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A mucin is a large glycoprotein that carries multiple O-glycans (O-GalNAc glycans) clustered in central domains composed of tandem repeats of amino acids rich in Ser and Thr. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Discussing Glycom's latest applications, Einerhand said this was a "very nice addition" ​ because sialic acids had been "lacking" ​ in most prebiotics on the infant formula market to date and likewise Glycom's two recently approved human milk oligosaccharides do not contain sialic acid either. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Most studies established that the sugar-dependent gating effects were imposed by the terminal residue attached to carbohydrate structures, sialic acid. (pnas.org)
  • Neuraminic Acids" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Neuraminic acid (5-amino-3,5-dideoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid) is an acidic (in particular ulusonic) amino sugar with a backbone formed by nine carbon atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • RDE was found to leave behind sialic acid after doing its thing, and RDE became known as sialidase . (everything2.com)
  • The T. vivax sialidase was inhibited competitively by both 2,3 dideoxy neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac2,3en) and para-hydroxy oxamic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Trans-sialidase transfers sialic acid from Trypanosoma cruzi to a host cell [3] . (proteopedia.org)
  • A novel sialidase which releases 2,7-anhydro-alpha-N-acetylneuraminic acid from sialoglycoconjugates. (proteopedia.org)
  • Alterations of acyl-neuraminic acids on T-lymphocytes in cases of melanoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Content and distribution of the different sialic acids on human lymphocytes, isolated from 7-10 ml of fresh human blood, were determined using microanalytical methods, such as HPLC and a colorimetric test. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Macrophage-restricted adhesion molecule that mediates sialic-acid dependent binding to lymphocytes, including granulocytes, monocytes, natural killer cells, B-cells and CD8 T-cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Structurally, it comprises repeating sialic acid monomers with α2,8 linkages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent findings indicate that the ability of these two receptors to bind sialic acids might be important to induce tolerance to self-antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Feingold C, Mirelman D, Lotan D, Lotan R (1984) Enhancement by retinoic acid of sensitivity of different cell lines to the sialic acid-specific toxin of E. histolytica. (biology-online.org)
  • The IUPAC symbol used for neuraminic acid is Neu, and the residue is typically found with additional chemical modifications in biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reuter, G. and Schauer, R. (1994) Determination of sialic acids. (springer.com)
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), total glycosaminoglycans (TGAGs), total sialic acid (TSA), free glucosamine (FGA), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), 5′-nucleotidase (5′-NU) activities, and AFP were estimated in sera, in addition to liver histology. (springer.com)
  • 5. An ophthalmic molding according to claim 3 , wherein the radical (saccharide) is selected from the group consisting of a lactose, lactobionic acid, N-acetyllactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine. (google.com)
  • CH1 (anAGE) and the Escherichia coli N-acetylneuraminic acid lyase gene. (brenda-enzymes.org)
  • "This is certainly of interest and it will be another step to bringing infant formula closer to human breast milk, because human milk ​ contains a large amount of sialic acid compared with bovine milk," ​ said Einerhand, who worked previously as scientific programme director at Danone Nutricia Early Life Nutrition. (nutraingredients.com)