Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
A malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close. Infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level. The skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal. This condition may be associated with folate deficiency. Affected infants are only capable of primitive (brain stem) reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p247)
Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A common congenital midline defect of fusion of the vertebral arch without protrusion of the spinal cord or meninges. The lesion is also covered by skin. L5 and S1 are the most common vertebrae involved. The condition may be associated with an overlying area of hyperpigmented skin, a dermal sinus, or an abnormal patch of hair. The majority of individuals with this malformation are asymptomatic although there is an increased incidence of tethered cord syndrome and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
A form of spinal dysraphism associated with a protruding cyst made up of either meninges (i.e., a MENINGOCELE) or meninges in combination with spinal cord tissue (i.e., a MENINGOMYELOCELE). These lesions are frequently associated with spinal cord dysfunction, HYDROCEPHALUS, and SYRINGOMYELIA. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp224-5)
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Congenital, or rarely acquired, herniation of meningeal and spinal cord tissue through a bony defect in the vertebral column. The majority of these defects occur in the lumbosacral region. Clinical features include PARAPLEGIA, loss of sensation in the lower body, and incontinence. This condition may be associated with the ARNOLD-CHIARI MALFORMATION and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp35-6)
A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Radioactive air pollution refers to the presence and circulation of radioactive particles or gases in the atmosphere, originating from human activities such as nuclear power plant accidents, nuclear weapons testing, or improper disposal of radioactive waste, which can pose significant health risks to living organisms due to ionizing radiation exposure.
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the mouth.
I must apologize, but "Ireland" is not a term that has a medical definition to the best of my knowledge and medical databases. It is a country located in Northern Europe, known for its lush green landscapes, rich history, and distinctive culture. If you have any medical terms or concepts you would like me to define, I'd be happy to help!
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Ground up seed of WHEAT.
A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
In anatomical terms, "tail" is not used as a medical definition to describe any part of the human body; it is however used in veterinary medicine to refer to the distal portion of the spine in animals possessing tails.
An agricultural fungicide of the dithiocarbamate class. It has relatively low toxicity and there is little evidence of human injury from exposure.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
An NADP-dependent oxidoreductase that catalyses the conversion of 5,10-methyleneterahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyl-tetrahydrofolate. In higher eukaryotes a trifunctional enzyme exists with additional METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE and FORMATE-TETRAHYDROFOLATE LIGASE activity. The enzyme plays an important role in the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the methyl donor for the VITAMIN B12-dependent remethylation of HOMOCYSTEINE to METHIONINE via METHIONINE SYNTHETASE.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Manganese derivative of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate. It is used in agriculture as a fungicide and has been shown to cause irritation to the eyes, nose, skin, and throat.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A carbon-nitrogen ligase that catalyzes the formation of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate from formate and tetrahydrofolate in the presence of ATP. In higher eukaryotes the enzyme also contains METHYLENETETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE (NADP+) and METHENYLTETRAHYDROFOLATE CYCLOHYDROLASE activity.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
An antidepressive agent that has also been used in the treatment of movement disorders. The mechanism of action is not well understood.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
A growth from a pollen grain down into the flower style which allows two sperm to pass, one to the ovum within the ovule, and the other to the central cell of the ovule to produce endosperm of SEEDS.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A subtype of GPI-anchored folate receptors that is expressed in tissues of epithelial origin. This protein is also identified as an ovarian-tumor-specific antigen.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Compounds based on 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.
A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
A mercaptocholine used as a reagent for the determination of CHOLINESTERASES. It also serves as a highly selective nerve stain.
A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.
Cell surface receptors that bind to and transport FOLIC ACID, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and a variety of folic acid derivatives. The receptors are essential for normal NEURAL TUBE development and transport folic acid via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.

Telomere shortening in mTR-/- embryos is associated with failure to close the neural tube. (1/881)

Mice genetically deficient for the telomerase RNA (mTR) can be propagated for only a limited number of generations. In particular, mTR-/- mice of a mixed C57BL6/129Sv genetic background are infertile at the sixth generation and show serious hematopoietic defects. Here, we show that a percentage of mTR-/- embryos do not develop normally and fail to close the neural tube, preferentially at the forebrain and midbrain. The penetrance of this defect increases with the generation number, with 30% of the mTR-/- embryos from the fifth generation showing the phenotype. Moreover, mTR-/- kindreds in a pure C57BL6 background are only viable up to the fourth generation and also show defects in the closing of the neural tube. Cells derived from mTR-/- embryos that fail to close the neural tube have significantly shorter telomeres and decreased viability than their mTR-/- littermates with a closed neural tube, suggesting that the neural tube defect is a consequence of the loss of telomere function. The fact that the main defect detected in mTR-/- embryos is in the closing of the neural tube, suggests that this developmental process is among the most sensitive to telomere loss and chromosomal instability.  (+info)

The "thermolabile" variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and neural tube defects: An evaluation of genetic risk and the relative importance of the genotypes of the embryo and the mother. (2/881)

Recent reports have implicated the "thermolabile" (T) variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in the causation of folate-dependent neural tube defects (NTDs). We report herein the largest genetic study of NTD cases (n=271) and families (n=218) to date, establishing that, in Ireland, the "TT" genotype is found in 18.8% of cases versus 8.3% of controls (odds ratio 2.57; confidence interval [CI] 1.48-4.45; P=.0005). The maternal and paternal TT genotypes have intermediate frequencies of 13.8% and 11.9%, respectively, indicating that the predominant MTHFR-related genetic effect acts via the TT genotype of the developing embryo. Analysis of the 218 family triads of mother, father, and affected child with log-linear models supports this interpretation, providing significant evidence that the case TT genotype is associated with NTDs (P=.02) but no evidence of a maternal TT genotypic effect (P=. 83). The log-linear model predicted that the risk of NTDs conferred by the case TT genotype is 1.61 (CI 1.06-2.46), consistent with the paramount importance of the case TT genotype in determining risk. There is no compelling evidence for more than a modest additional risk conferred by a maternal TT genotype. These results favor a biological model of MTHFR-related NTD pathogenesis in which suboptimal maternal folate status imposes biochemical stress on the developing embryo, a stress it is ill-equipped to tolerate if it has a TT genotype.  (+info)

Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and other enzymes: metabolic significance, risks and impact on folate requirement. (3/881)

A common genetic polymorphism results from a C-->T substitution in the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the enzyme that produces 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methyl-THF) required for the conversion of homocysteine to methionine. In individuals with the T/T genotype (T/T), functional metabolic effects include changes in one-carbon folate derivatives, elevations in plasma homocysteine and differences in response to folic acid supplementation compared with normal (C/C) or heterozygous (C/T) genotypes. The metabolic changes associated with the T/T genotype are postulated to modify risk for chronic disease (e.g., vascular disease and cancer) and neural tube defects (NTD) when accompanied by folate deficiency. The modulation of these metabolic abnormalities by increasing folate intake suggests that folate requirements may be different in affected individuals (T/T) relative to normal (C/C) or heterozygous (C/T) individuals. The complex interaction between this common genetic polymorphism of MTHFR and folate intake is the focus of intense investigation.  (+info)

Molecular genetic analysis of human folate receptors in neural tube defects. (4/881)

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common congenital malformations and are considered to have a multifactorial origin, having both genetic and environmental components. Periconceptional folate administration reduces the recurrence and occurrence risk by 70-100%. Recently we discovered the first genetic risk factors for NTDs: the 677 C-->T and the 1298 A-->C mutations in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene explaining at the most 35-50% of the protective effect of folate. In this study we further explored the genetic component of NTDs by analysing the coding region, including the intron-exon boundaries and signal sequences of the folate receptor genes by SSCP analysis. Among 39 patients with spina bifida (SB), 47 mothers with a child with SB, and 10 controls, no polymorphism was present in the folate receptor alpha (FR-alpha) gene or in the folate receptor beta (FR-beta) gene.  (+info)

Homocysteine--a pathophysiological cornerstone in obstetrical and gynaecological disorders? (5/881)

Homocysteine, a product of the methionine cycle, is known to play an important role in cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and embryology, and in very important, fast growing fields concerning obstetrics and gynaecology. Therefore, we attempted an actual overview on possible obstetrical and gynaecological disorders as a consequence of an impaired methionine cycle. We tried to evaluate all mechanisms concerning homocysteine metabolism in order to look for hypothetical possibilities of therapeutic interventions. Using MEDLINE starting in January 1966, a search was conducted for articles published in which homocysteine was included as a subject heading or a text word. This search was also specified in combination with other key words such as obstetrics, pregnancy, gynaecology and cancer. Additional sources were identified through cross-referencing. All sources found were examined with regard to providing substantial information on our topic. The information obtained was divided into articles dealing with homocysteine and the methionine cycle itself, homocysteine and pregnancy, and homocysteine and hormones, including menopause, hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives. Another group was concerned with other special gynaecological aspects of the methionine cycle. We suggest that elevated concentrations of homocysteine could be a marker and perhaps a cause of, or contributive to, a wide range of obstetrical and gynaecological disorders.  (+info)

Pax2/5 and Pax6 subdivide the early neural tube into three domains. (6/881)

The nested expression patterns of the paired-box containing transcription factors Pax2/5 and Pax6 demarcate the midbrain and forebrain primordium at the neural plate stage. We demonstrate that, in Pax2/5 deficient mice, the mesencephalon/metencephalon primordium is completely missing, resulting in a fusion of the forebrain to the hindbrain. Morphologically, in the alar plate the deletion is characterized by the substitution of the tectum (dorsal midbrain) and cerebellum (dorsal metencephalon) by the caudal diencephalon and in the basal plate by the replacement of the midbrain tegmentum by the ventral metencephalon (pons). Molecularly, the loss of the tectum is demonstrated by an expanded expression of Pax6, (the molecular determinant of posterior commissure), and a rostral shift of the territory of expression of Gbx2 and Otp (markers for the pons), towards the caudal diencephalon. Our results suggest that an intact territory of expression of Pax2/5 in the neural plate, nested between the rostral and caudal territories of expression of Pax6, is necessary for defining the midbrain vesicle.  (+info)

Accentuated apoptosis in normally developing p53 knockout mouse embryos following genotoxic stress. (7/881)

In order to identify the alternative pathways which may substitute for the p53 function during embryogenesis, we have focused our studies on p53 -/- normally developing mouse embryos that survived a genotoxic stress. We assumed that under these conditions p53-independent pathways, which physiologically control genomic stability, are enhanced. We found that while p53 +/+ mouse embryos elicited, as expected, a p53-dependent apoptosis, p53-/- normally developing mice exhibited an accentuated p53-independent apoptotic response. The p53-dependent apoptosis detected in p53+/+ embryos, was an immediate reaction mostly detected in the brain, whereas the p53-independent apoptosis was a delayed reaction with a prominent pattern observed in epithelial cells of most organs in the p53-deficient mice only. These results suggest that in the absence of p53-dependent apoptosis, which is a fast response to damaged DNA, p53-independent apoptotic pathways, with slower kinetics, are turned on to secure genome stability.  (+info)

Knowledge and use of folic acid by women of childbearing age--United States, 1995 and 1998. (8/881)

In the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies are affected by neural tube defects each year; 50%-70% of these developmental defects could be prevented with daily intake of 400 microg of the B vitamin folic acid throughout the periconceptional period. In 1992, the Public Health Service recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 microg of folic acid daily throughout their childbearing years to reduce their risk for having a pregnancy affected by neural tube defects. In 1998, the Institute of Medicine recommended that all women of childbearing potential consume 400 microg of synthetic folic acid per day from fortified foods and/or a supplement in addition to food folate from a varied diet. This report summarizes the findings of a survey conducted during July-August 1998 to assess folic acid knowledge and practices among women of childbearing age in the United States and compares these results with those from a similar survey conducted in 1995. The findings indicate that 7% of women know folic acid should be taken before pregnancy to reduce the risk for neural tube defects.  (+info)

Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects that affect the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the early brain and spinal cord of the embryo, does not close properly during fetal development. This can result in various conditions such as:

1. Anencephaly: a severe defect where most of the brain and skull are missing. Infants with anencephaly are usually stillborn or die shortly after birth.
2. Spina bifida: a condition where the spine does not close properly, leaving a portion of the spinal cord and nerves exposed. This can result in various neurological problems, including paralysis, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain).
3. Encephalocele: a condition where the skull does not close properly, allowing the brain to protrude through an opening in the skull. This can result in various neurological problems, including developmental delays, vision and hearing impairments, and seizures.

NTDs are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as folic acid deficiency, obesity, diabetes, and exposure to certain medications during pregnancy. Folic acid supplementation before and during early pregnancy has been shown to reduce the risk of NTDs.

The Neural Tube is a structure that forms during the development of an embryo and eventually becomes the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of the nervous system. It is a narrow channel that runs along the back of the embryo, forming from the ectoderm (one of the three germ layers) and closing around the 23rd or 26th day after conception. Defects in the closure of the neural tube can lead to conditions such as spina bifida and anencephaly.

Anencephaly is a serious birth defect that affects the neural tube, which is the structure that develops into the brain and spinal cord. In anencephaly, the neural tube fails to close properly during fetal development, resulting in the absence of a major portion of the brain, skull, and scalp.

Anencephaly is typically diagnosed through prenatal ultrasound or other imaging tests. Unfortunately, it is a fatal condition, and most babies with anencephaly do not survive birth or live for more than a few hours or days after birth.

The exact cause of anencephaly is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic factors as well as environmental influences such as folic acid deficiency and exposure to certain medications or chemicals during pregnancy. Pregnant women are often advised to take folic acid supplements to reduce the risk of neural tube defects, including anencephaly.

Spinal dysraphism is a broad term used to describe a group of congenital malformations of the spine and spinal cord. These defects occur during embryonic development when the neural tube, which eventually forms the brain and spinal cord, fails to close properly. This results in an incomplete development or formation of the spinal cord and/or vertebral column.

There are two main categories of spinal dysraphism: open (also called exposed or overt) and closed (also called hidden or occult). Open spinal dysraphisms, such as myelomeningocele and myelocele, involve exposure of the spinal cord and/or its coverings through an opening in the back. Closed spinal dysraphisms, such as lipomyelomeningocele, tethered cord syndrome, and diastematomyelia, are more subtle and may not be visibly apparent at birth.

Symptoms of spinal dysraphism can vary widely depending on the type and severity of the defect. They may include motor and sensory impairments, bowel and bladder dysfunction, orthopedic deformities, and increased risk for neurological complications such as hydrocephalus (accumulation of fluid in the brain). Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial to optimize outcomes and minimize potential complications.

Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate, a type of B vitamin (B9). It is widely used in dietary supplements and fortified foods because it is more stable and has a longer shelf life than folate. Folate is essential for normal cell growth and metabolism, and it plays a critical role in the formation of DNA and RNA, the body's genetic material. Folic acid is also crucial during early pregnancy to prevent birth defects of the brain and spine called neural tube defects.

Medical Definition: "Folic acid is the synthetic form of folate (vitamin B9), a water-soluble vitamin involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It is used in dietary supplementation and food fortification due to its stability and longer shelf life compared to folate. Folic acid is critical for normal cell growth, development, and red blood cell production."

Spina Bifida Occulta is a type of spinal dysraphism, which is a birth defect involving incomplete closure of the spine. In Spina Bifida Occulta, the spinal bones (vertebrae) do not fully form and close around the spinal cord during fetal development, leaving a small gap or split in the lower back region. However, the spinal cord and nerves usually develop normally and are not exposed or damaged, unlike in more severe forms of spina bifida.

In many cases, individuals with Spina Bifida Occulta do not experience any symptoms and may not even know they have the condition unless it is discovered during an imaging test for another reason. In some instances, people with this condition might develop late-onset neurological symptoms or complications such as back pain, muscle weakness, or changes in bladder or bowel function.

It's essential to note that while Spina Bifida Occulta is generally less severe than other forms of spina bifida, it can still pose risks and may require medical evaluation and monitoring to ensure proper development and address any potential issues.

Neurulation is the process by which the neural tube, which eventually develops into the brain and spinal cord, forms in an embryo. This complex process occurs during early embryonic development and involves a series of coordinated steps, including the formation of the neuroectoderm (a layer of cells that will give rise to the nervous system), the folding of this layer to form the neural plate, and the subsequent closure of the neural plate to create the neural tube. Disruptions in neurulation can result in serious birth defects, such as spina bifida or anencephaly.

Spina Bifida Cystica is a type of neural tube defect that occurs when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) do not form properly around the developing spinal cord, resulting in a sac-like protrusion of the spinal cord and its surrounding membranes through an opening in the spine. This sac, called a meningocele or myelomeningocele, can be covered with skin or exposed, and it may contain cerebrospinal fluid, nerve roots, or portions of the spinal cord.

Myelomeningocele is the most severe form of Spina Bifida Cystica, where the sac contains a portion of the spinal cord and nerves. This can lead to various neurological complications such as weakness or paralysis below the level of the spine affected, loss of sensation, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and hydrocephalus (accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain). Early diagnosis and intervention, including prenatal surgery, can help improve outcomes for individuals with Spina Bifida Cystica.

An Encephalocele is a type of neural tube defect that occurs when the bones of the skull do not close completely during fetal development. This results in a sac-like protrusion of the brain and the membranes that cover it through an opening in the skull. The sac may be visible on the scalp, forehead, or back of the head, and can vary in size. Encephaloceles can cause a range of symptoms, including developmental delays, intellectual disabilities, vision problems, and seizures, depending on the severity and location of the defect. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the encephalocele soon after birth to prevent further damage to the brain and improve outcomes.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Meningomyelocele is a type of neural tube defect that affects the development of the spinal cord and the surrounding membranes known as meninges. In this condition, a portion of the spinal cord and meninges protrude through an opening in the spine, creating a sac-like structure on the back. This sac is usually covered by skin, but it may be open in some cases.

Meningomyelocele can result in various neurological deficits, including muscle weakness, paralysis, and loss of sensation below the level of the lesion. It can also cause bladder and bowel dysfunction, as well as problems with sexual function. The severity of these symptoms depends on the location and extent of the spinal cord defect.

Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for managing meningomyelocele and preventing further complications. Treatment typically involves surgical closure of the opening in the spine to protect the spinal cord and prevent infection. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other supportive care measures may also be necessary to help individuals with meningomyelocele achieve their full potential for mobility and independence.

Vitamin B Complex refers to a group of water-soluble vitamins that play essential roles in cell metabolism, cellular function, and formation of red blood cells. This complex includes 8 distinct vitamins, all of which were originally thought to be the same vitamin when first discovered. They are now known to have individual structures and specific functions.

1. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin): Necessary for energy production and nerve function.
2. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Involved in energy production and growth.
3. Vitamin B3 (Niacin): Assists in energy production, DNA repair, and acts as a co-factor for various enzymes.
4. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid): Plays a role in the synthesis of Coenzyme A, which is vital for fatty acid metabolism.
5. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine): Needed for protein metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, hemoglobin formation, and immune function.
6. Vitamin B7 (Biotin): Involved in fatty acid synthesis, glucose metabolism, and nail and hair health.
7. Vitamin B9 (Folate or Folic Acid): Essential for DNA replication, cell division, and the production of red blood cells.
8. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin): Necessary for nerve function, DNA synthesis, and the production of red blood cells.

These vitamins are often found together in various foods, and a balanced diet usually provides sufficient amounts of each. Deficiencies can lead to specific health issues related to the functions of each particular vitamin.

Preconception care (PCC) refers to a set of interventions that aim to identify and modify biomedical, behavioral, and social risks to a woman's health or pregnancy outcome through prevention and management, before conception. PCC is designed to optimize the health status of women of reproductive age, and includes counseling and education about lifestyle modifications such as improving nutrition, achieving a healthy weight, stopping smoking and alcohol consumption, controlling chronic diseases, and avoiding teratogenic exposures. The goal of PCC is to reduce risks and improve the chances of a healthy pregnancy and baby.

Prenatal diagnosis is the medical testing of fetuses, embryos, or pregnant women to detect the presence or absence of certain genetic disorders or birth defects. These tests can be performed through various methods such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, or ultrasound. The goal of prenatal diagnosis is to provide early information about the health of the fetus so that parents and healthcare providers can make informed decisions about pregnancy management and newborn care. It allows for early intervention, treatment, or planning for the child's needs after birth.

"Fortified food" is a term used in the context of nutrition and dietary guidelines. It refers to a food product that has had nutrients added to it during manufacturing to enhance its nutritional value. These added nutrients can include vitamins, minerals, proteins, or other beneficial components. The goal of fortifying foods is often to address specific nutrient deficiencies in populations or to improve the overall nutritional quality of a food product. Examples of fortified foods include certain breakfast cereals that have added vitamins and minerals, as well as plant-based milk alternatives that are fortified with calcium and vitamin D to mimic the nutritional profile of cow's milk. It is important to note that while fortified foods can be a valuable source of essential nutrients, they should not replace whole, unprocessed foods in a balanced diet.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Folic Acid Deficiency is a condition characterized by insufficient levels of folic acid (Vitamin B9) in the body. Folic acid plays an essential role in the synthesis of DNA and RNA, the production of red blood cells, and the prevention of neural tube defects during fetal development.

A deficiency in folic acid can lead to a variety of health issues, including:
- Megaloblastic anemia: A type of anemia characterized by large, structurally abnormal, immature red blood cells (megaloblasts) that are unable to function properly. This results in fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and a pale appearance.
- Neural tube defects: In pregnant women, folic acid deficiency can increase the risk of neural tube defects, such as spina bifida and anencephaly, in the developing fetus.
- Developmental delays and neurological disorders: In infants and children, folic acid deficiency during pregnancy can lead to developmental delays, learning difficulties, and neurological disorders.
- Increased risk of cardiovascular disease: Folate plays a role in maintaining healthy homocysteine levels. Deficiency can result in elevated homocysteine levels, which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Folic acid deficiency can be caused by various factors, including poor dietary intake, malabsorption syndromes (such as celiac disease or Crohn's disease), pregnancy, alcoholism, certain medications (like methotrexate and phenytoin), and genetic disorders affecting folate metabolism. To prevent or treat folic acid deficiency, dietary supplementation with folic acid is often recommended, especially for pregnant women and individuals at risk of deficiency.

A therapeutic abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy before viability (the ability of the fetus to survive outside the womb), which is generally considered to be around 24 weeks of gestation. The term "therapeutic" is used to describe abortions that are performed for medical reasons, such as to protect the life or health of the pregnant individual, or in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality and cannot survive outside the womb.

Therapeutic abortions may be recommended in situations where continuing the pregnancy poses a significant risk to the health or life of the pregnant individual. For example, if a pregnant person has a serious medical condition such as heart disease, cancer, or severe pre-eclampsia, continuing the pregnancy could worsen their condition and put them at risk of serious complications or even death. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be necessary to protect the health or life of the pregnant individual.

Therapeutic abortions may also be recommended in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality that is not compatible with life outside the womb. For example, if the fetus has a condition such as anencephaly (a neural tube defect where the brain and skull do not form properly), or a chromosomal abnormality such as Trisomy 13 or 18, continuing the pregnancy may result in a stillbirth or a short, painful life for the infant after birth. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be considered a compassionate option to prevent unnecessary suffering.

It's important to note that the decision to undergo a therapeutic abortion is a deeply personal one, and should be made in consultation with medical professionals and trusted family members or support networks. Ultimately, the decision should be based on what is best for the physical and emotional health of the pregnant individual, taking into account their values, beliefs, and circumstances.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal development. In adults, AFP is normally present in very low levels in the blood. However, abnormal production of AFP can occur in certain medical conditions, such as:

* Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
* Germ cell tumors, including non-seminomatous testicular cancer and ovarian cancer
* Hepatitis or liver inflammation
* Certain types of benign liver disease, such as cirrhosis or hepatic adenomas

Elevated levels of AFP in the blood can be detected through a simple blood test. This test is often used as a tumor marker to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer, particularly HCC. However, it's important to note that an elevated AFP level alone is not enough to diagnose cancer, and further testing is usually needed to confirm the diagnosis. Additionally, some non-cancerous conditions can also cause elevated AFP levels, so it's important to interpret the test results in the context of the individual's medical history and other diagnostic tests.

The neural crest is a transient, multipotent embryonic cell population that originates from the ectoderm (outermost layer) of the developing neural tube (precursor to the central nervous system). These cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migrate throughout the embryo, giving rise to a diverse array of cell types and structures.

Neural crest cells differentiate into various tissues, including:

1. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) components: sensory neurons, sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia, and glial cells (e.g., Schwann cells).
2. Facial bones and cartilage, as well as connective tissue of the skull.
3. Melanocytes, which are pigment-producing cells in the skin.
4. Smooth muscle cells in major blood vessels, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs.
5. Secretory cells in endocrine glands (e.g., chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla).
6. Parts of the eye, such as the cornea and iris stroma.
7. Dental tissues, including dentin, cementum, and dental pulp.

Due to their wide-ranging contributions to various tissues and organs, neural crest cells play a crucial role in embryonic development and organogenesis. Abnormalities in neural crest cell migration or differentiation can lead to several congenital disorders, such as neurocristopathies.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

The nervous system is a complex, highly organized network of specialized cells called neurons and glial cells that communicate with each other via electrical and chemical signals to coordinate various functions and activities in the body. It consists of two main parts: the central nervous system (CNS), including the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which includes all the nerves and ganglia outside the CNS.

The primary function of the nervous system is to receive, process, and integrate information from both internal and external environments and then respond by generating appropriate motor outputs or behaviors. This involves sensing various stimuli through specialized receptors, transmitting this information through afferent neurons to the CNS for processing, integrating this information with other inputs and memories, making decisions based on this processed information, and finally executing responses through efferent neurons that control effector organs such as muscles and glands.

The nervous system can be further divided into subsystems based on their functions, including the somatic nervous system, which controls voluntary movements and reflexes; the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary physiological processes like heart rate, digestion, and respiration; and the enteric nervous system, which is a specialized subset of the autonomic nervous system that controls gut functions. Overall, the nervous system plays a critical role in maintaining homeostasis, regulating behavior, and enabling cognition and consciousness.

Radioactive air pollution refers to the presence of radioactive particles or radionuclides in the air. These substances emit ionizing radiation, which can be harmful to human health and the environment. Radioactive air pollution can come from a variety of sources, including nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons testing, industrial activities, and natural processes such as the decay of radon gas.

Exposure to radioactive air pollution can increase the risk of developing cancer and other diseases, particularly in cases of prolonged or high-level exposure. It is important to monitor and regulate radioactive air pollution to protect public health and ensure compliance with safety standards.

Amniocentesis is a medical procedure in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal cells, is withdrawn from the uterus through a hollow needle inserted into the abdomen of a pregnant woman. This procedure is typically performed between the 16th and 20th weeks of pregnancy.

The main purpose of amniocentesis is to diagnose genetic disorders and chromosomal abnormalities in the developing fetus, such as Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome, and neural tube defects. The fetal cells obtained from the amniotic fluid can be cultured and analyzed for various genetic characteristics, including chromosomal structure and number, as well as specific gene mutations.

Amniocentesis carries a small risk of complications, such as miscarriage, infection, or injury to the fetus. Therefore, it is generally offered to women who have an increased risk of having a baby with a genetic disorder or chromosomal abnormality, such as those over the age of 35, those with a family history of genetic disorders, or those who have had a previous pregnancy affected by a genetic condition.

It's important to note that while amniocentesis can provide valuable information about the health of the fetus, it does not guarantee a completely normal baby, and there are some risks associated with the procedure. Therefore, the decision to undergo amniocentesis should be made carefully, in consultation with a healthcare provider, taking into account the individual circumstances and preferences of each woman.

Prenatal care is a type of preventive healthcare that focuses on providing regular check-ups and medical care to pregnant women, with the aim of ensuring the best possible health outcomes for both the mother and the developing fetus. It involves routine prenatal screenings and tests, such as blood pressure monitoring, urine analysis, weight checks, and ultrasounds, to assess the progress of the pregnancy and identify any potential health issues or complications early on.

Prenatal care also includes education and counseling on topics such as nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle choices that can affect pregnancy outcomes. It may involve referrals to specialists, such as obstetricians, perinatologists, or maternal-fetal medicine specialists, for high-risk pregnancies.

Overall, prenatal care is an essential component of ensuring a healthy pregnancy and reducing the risk of complications during childbirth and beyond.

A mammalian embryo is the developing offspring of a mammal, from the time of implantation of the fertilized egg (blastocyst) in the uterus until the end of the eighth week of gestation. During this period, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and organ differentiation to form a complex structure with all the major organs and systems in place. This stage is followed by fetal development, which continues until birth. The study of mammalian embryos is important for understanding human development, evolution, and reproductive biology.

Amniotic fluid is a clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds and protects the developing baby in the uterus. It is enclosed within the amniotic sac, which is a thin-walled sac that forms around the embryo during early pregnancy. The fluid is composed of fetal urine, lung secretions, and fluids that cross over from the mother's bloodstream through the placenta.

Amniotic fluid plays several important roles in pregnancy:

1. It provides a shock-absorbing cushion for the developing baby, protecting it from injury caused by movement or external forces.
2. It helps to maintain a constant temperature around the fetus, keeping it warm and comfortable.
3. It allows the developing baby to move freely within the uterus, promoting normal growth and development of the muscles and bones.
4. It provides a source of nutrients and hydration for the fetus, helping to support its growth and development.
5. It helps to prevent infection by providing a barrier between the fetus and the outside world.

Throughout pregnancy, the volume of amniotic fluid increases as the fetus grows. The amount of fluid typically peaks around 34-36 weeks of gestation, after which it begins to gradually decrease. Abnormalities in the volume of amniotic fluid can indicate problems with the developing baby or the pregnancy itself, and may require medical intervention.

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

Mouth abnormalities, also known as oral or orofacial anomalies, refer to structural or functional differences or defects in the mouth and surrounding structures, including the lips, teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and salivary glands. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to injury, disease, or surgery. They can range from minor variations in size, shape, or position of oral structures to more significant anomalies that may affect speech, swallowing, chewing, breathing, and overall quality of life.

Examples of mouth abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, macroglossia (enlarged tongue), microglossia (small tongue), ankyloglossia (tongue-tie), high or narrow palate, bifid uvula (split uvula), dental malocclusion (misaligned teeth), supernumerary teeth (extra teeth), missing teeth, and various oral tumors or cysts. Some mouth abnormalities may require medical intervention, such as surgery, orthodontic treatment, or speech therapy, while others may not necessitate any treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ireland" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in north-western Europe, consisting of 32 provinces; 26 of which are part of the Republic of Ireland and the remaining 6 are part of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland). If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help with those.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is called the "central" system because it receives information from, and sends information to, the rest of the body through peripheral nerves, which make up the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

The CNS is responsible for processing sensory information, controlling motor functions, and regulating various autonomic processes like heart rate, respiration, and digestion. The brain, as the command center of the CNS, interprets sensory stimuli, formulates thoughts, and initiates actions. The spinal cord serves as a conduit for nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain and the rest of the body.

The CNS is protected by several structures, including the skull (which houses the brain) and the vertebral column (which surrounds and protects the spinal cord). Despite these protective measures, the CNS remains vulnerable to injury and disease, which can have severe consequences due to its crucial role in controlling essential bodily functions.

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

A chick embryo refers to the developing organism that arises from a fertilized chicken egg. It is often used as a model system in biological research, particularly during the stages of development when many of its organs and systems are forming and can be easily observed and manipulated. The study of chick embryos has contributed significantly to our understanding of various aspects of developmental biology, including gastrulation, neurulation, organogenesis, and pattern formation. Researchers may use various techniques to observe and manipulate the chick embryo, such as surgical alterations, cell labeling, and exposure to drugs or other agents.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flour" is not a medical term. It is a powder made by grinding raw grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds. The most common type is wheat flour, which is made from grinding wheat grains. Flour is a primary ingredient in many foods such as bread, pasta, and baked goods. I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any medical questions, I'd be happy to help.

Homocysteine is an amino acid that is formed in the body during the metabolism of another amino acid called methionine. It's an important intermediate in various biochemical reactions, including the synthesis of proteins, neurotransmitters, and other molecules. However, elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood (a condition known as hyperhomocysteinemia) have been linked to several health issues, such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cognitive decline.

Homocysteine can be converted back to methionine with the help of vitamin B12 and a cofactor called betaine, or it can be converted to another amino acid called cystathionine with the help of vitamin B6 and folate (vitamin B9). Imbalances in these vitamins and other factors can lead to an increase in homocysteine levels.

It is crucial to maintain normal homocysteine levels for overall health, as high levels may contribute to the development of various diseases. Regular monitoring and maintaining a balanced diet rich in folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 can help regulate homocysteine levels and reduce the risk of related health issues.

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of DNA, formation of red blood cells, and maintenance of the nervous system. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the body, particularly affecting DNA regulation and neurological function.

Vitamin B12 is unique among vitamins because it contains a metal ion, cobalt, from which its name is derived. This vitamin can be synthesized only by certain types of bacteria and is not produced by plants or animals. The major sources of vitamin B12 in the human diet include animal-derived foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, as well as fortified plant-based milk alternatives and breakfast cereals.

Deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to various health issues, including megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, neurological symptoms such as numbness and tingling in the extremities, memory loss, and depression. Since vitamin B12 is not readily available from plant-based sources, vegetarians and vegans are at a higher risk of deficiency and may require supplementation or fortified foods to meet their daily requirements.

In the context of human anatomy, the term "tail" is not used to describe any part of the body. Humans are considered tailless primates, and there is no structure or feature that corresponds directly to the tails found in many other animals.

However, there are some medical terms related to the lower end of the spine that might be confused with a tail:

1. Coccyx (Tailbone): The coccyx is a small triangular bone at the very bottom of the spinal column, formed by the fusion of several rudimentary vertebrae. It's also known as the tailbone because it resembles the end of an animal's tail in its location and appearance.
2. Cauda Equina (Horse's Tail): The cauda equina is a bundle of nerve roots at the lower end of the spinal cord, just above the coccyx. It got its name because it looks like a horse's tail due to the numerous rootlets radiating from the conus medullaris (the tapering end of the spinal cord).

These two structures are not tails in the traditional sense but rather medical terms related to the lower end of the human spine.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Zineb" is not a medical term or concept that I am familiar with in the field of medicine. Zineb is actually a pesticide that contains the active ingredient ferbam, which is used to control fungi on crops such as grapes, apples, and potatoes. It is not a term used within the context of medical definitions or human health. I hope this clarifies any confusion. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

Paired box (PAX) transcription factors are a group of proteins that regulate gene expression during embryonic development and in some adult tissues. They are characterized by the presence of a paired box domain, a conserved DNA-binding motif that recognizes specific DNA sequences. PAX proteins play crucial roles in various developmental processes, such as the formation of the nervous system, eyes, and pancreas. Dysregulation of PAX genes has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer.

A "mutant strain of mice" in a medical context refers to genetically engineered mice that have specific genetic mutations introduced into their DNA. These mutations can be designed to mimic certain human diseases or conditions, allowing researchers to study the underlying biological mechanisms and test potential therapies in a controlled laboratory setting.

Mutant strains of mice are created through various techniques, including embryonic stem cell manipulation, gene editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, and radiation-induced mutagenesis. These methods allow scientists to introduce specific genetic changes into the mouse genome, resulting in mice that exhibit altered physiological or behavioral traits.

These strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research because their short lifespan, small size, and high reproductive rate make them an ideal model organism for studying human diseases. Additionally, the mouse genome has been well-characterized, and many genetic tools and resources are available to researchers working with these animals.

Examples of mutant strains of mice include those that carry mutations in genes associated with cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic diseases, and immunological conditions. These mice provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of human diseases and help advance our understanding of potential therapeutic interventions.

Embryonic and fetal development is the process of growth and development that occurs from fertilization of the egg (conception) to birth. The terms "embryo" and "fetus" are used to describe different stages of this development:

* Embryonic development: This stage begins at fertilization and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which implants in the uterus and begins to develop into a complex structure called an embryo. The embryo consists of three layers of cells that will eventually form all of the organs and tissues of the body. During this stage, the basic structures of the body, including the nervous system, heart, and gastrointestinal tract, begin to form.
* Fetal development: This stage begins at the end of the 8th week of pregnancy and continues until birth. During this time, the embryo is called a fetus, and it grows and develops rapidly. The organs and tissues that were formed during the embryonic stage continue to mature and become more complex. The fetus also begins to move and kick, and it can hear and respond to sounds from outside the womb.

Overall, embryonic and fetal development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated growth and differentiation of cells and tissues. It is a critical period of development that lays the foundation for the health and well-being of the individual throughout their life.

Vitamin B12 deficiency is a condition characterized by insufficient levels of vitamin B12 in the body, leading to impaired production of red blood cells, nerve function damage, and potential neurological complications. Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and maintaining the health of the nervous system.

The medical definition of vitamin B12 deficiency includes:

1. Reduced serum or whole blood vitamin B12 concentrations (typically below 200 pg/mL or 145 pmol/L)
2. Presence of clinical symptoms and signs, such as:
* Fatigue, weakness, and lethargy
* Pale skin, shortness of breath, and heart palpitations due to anemia (megaloblastic or macrocytic anemia)
* Neurological symptoms like numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy), balance problems, confusion, memory loss, and depression
3. Laboratory findings consistent with deficiency, such as:
* Increased mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells
* Reduced numbers of red and white blood cells and platelets in severe cases
* Elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels in the blood due to impaired metabolism

The most common causes of vitamin B12 deficiency include dietary insufficiency (common in vegetarians and vegans), pernicious anemia (an autoimmune condition affecting intrinsic factor production), gastrointestinal disorders (such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, or gastric bypass surgery), and certain medications that interfere with vitamin B12 absorption.

Untreated vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to severe complications, including irreversible nerve damage, cognitive impairment, and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for preventing long-term health consequences.

"Body patterning" is a general term that refers to the process of forming and organizing various tissues and structures into specific patterns during embryonic development. This complex process involves a variety of molecular mechanisms, including gene expression, cell signaling, and cell-cell interactions. It results in the creation of distinct body regions, such as the head, trunk, and limbs, as well as the organization of internal organs and systems.

In medical terminology, "body patterning" may refer to specific developmental processes or abnormalities related to embryonic development. For example, in genetic disorders such as Poland syndrome or Holt-Oram syndrome, mutations in certain genes can lead to abnormal body patterning, resulting in the absence or underdevelopment of certain muscles, bones, or other structures.

It's important to note that "body patterning" is not a formal medical term with a specific definition, but rather a general concept used in developmental biology and genetics.

The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped structure that is present in the embryos of chordates, including humans. It is composed of cells called chordocytes and is surrounded by a sheath. The notochord runs along the length of the body, providing support and flexibility. In human embryos, the notochord eventually becomes part of the discs between the vertebrae in the spine. An abnormal or absent notochord can lead to developmental problems with the spine and nervous system.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in small quantities for the normal growth, development, and maintenance of life in humans. They are required for various biochemical functions in the body such as energy production, blood clotting, immune function, and making DNA.

Unlike macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats), vitamins do not provide energy but they play a crucial role in energy metabolism. Humans require 13 essential vitamins, which can be divided into two categories: fat-soluble and water-soluble.

Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K) are stored in the body's fat tissues and liver, and can stay in the body for a longer period of time. Water-soluble vitamins (B-complex vitamins and vitamin C) are not stored in the body and need to be replenished regularly through diet or supplementation.

Deficiency of vitamins can lead to various health problems, while excessive intake of certain fat-soluble vitamins can also be harmful due to toxicity. Therefore, it is important to maintain a balanced diet that provides all the essential vitamins in adequate amounts.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

'Pregnancy in Diabetics' refers to the condition where an individual with pre-existing diabetes mellitus becomes pregnant. This can be further categorized into two types:

1. Pre-gestational diabetes: This is when a woman is diagnosed with diabetes before she becomes pregnant. It includes both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Proper control of blood sugar levels prior to conception and during pregnancy is crucial to reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

2. Gestational diabetes: This is when a woman develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy, typically in the second or third trimester. While it usually resolves after delivery, women with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. Proper management of gestational diabetes is essential to ensure a healthy pregnancy and reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

Embryonic development is the series of growth and developmental stages that occur during the formation and early growth of the embryo. In humans, this stage begins at fertilization (when the sperm and egg cell combine) and continues until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy. During this time, the fertilized egg (now called a zygote) divides and forms a blastocyst, which then implants into the uterus. The cells in the blastocyst begin to differentiate and form the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These germ layers will eventually give rise to all of the different tissues and organs in the body.

Embryonic development is a complex and highly regulated process that involves the coordinated interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It is characterized by rapid cell division, migration, and differentiation, as well as programmed cell death (apoptosis) and tissue remodeling. Abnormalities in embryonic development can lead to birth defects or other developmental disorders.

It's important to note that the term "embryo" is used to describe the developing organism from fertilization until the end of the 8th week of pregnancy in humans, after which it is called a fetus.

Maneb is not a term that has a widely accepted medical definition. However, in the field of agriculture and toxicology, Maneb is a commonly used fungicide to control various plant diseases. It is a complex organometallic compound containing manganese.

In some contexts, Maneb may be mentioned in relation to human health because it has been found to have potential reproductive and developmental effects, as well as being potentially carcinogenic. However, it is not considered a medical term or diagnosis. If you have any concerns about exposure to Maneb or its potential health effects, it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase, also known as formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between formate and tetrahydrofolate to form formyltetrahydrofolate. This reaction is an important step in the metabolic pathway of one-carbon metabolism, which is involved in the biosynthesis of purines, thymidylate, and methionine. The enzyme requires ATP for its activity and plays a crucial role in maintaining the cellular pool of one-carbon units. Deficiencies in this enzyme can lead to serious health consequences, including megaloblastic anemia and neurological disorders.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Thymidine Monophosphate (TMP or dTMP) is a nucleotide that is a ester of phosphoric acid with thymidine, a nucleoside consisting of deoxyribose sugar linked to the nitrogenous base thymine. It is one of the four monophosphate nucleotides that are the building blocks of DNA, along with adenosine monophosphate (AMP), guanosine monophosphate (GMP), and cytidine monophosphate (CMP). TMP plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair processes. It is also used as a marker in biochemical research and medical diagnostics.

Deanol, also known as dimethylaminoethanol or DMAE, is a naturally occurring compound that is found in small amounts in certain foods, such as anchovies and sardines. It is also available as a dietary supplement. Deanol is a precursor to choline, which is a nutrient that is essential for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Deanol has been studied for its potential effects on various aspects of mental and physical health. Some proponents of deanol claim that it can improve memory, concentration, and intelligence, as well as reduce symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Alzheimer's disease. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support these claims, and more research is needed to confirm the potential benefits of deanol.

It is important to note that deanol can have side effects, including headache, dizziness, insomnia, and increased blood pressure. It may also interact with certain medications, so it is important to speak with a healthcare provider before taking deanol or any other dietary supplement.

Teratogens are substances, such as certain medications, chemicals, or infectious agents, that can cause birth defects or abnormalities in the developing fetus when a woman is exposed to them during pregnancy. They can interfere with the normal development of the fetus and lead to a range of problems, including physical deformities, intellectual disabilities, and sensory impairments. Examples of teratogens include alcohol, tobacco smoke, some prescription medications, and infections like rubella (German measles). It is important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant to avoid exposure to known teratogens as much as possible.

A pollen tube is a slender, tubular structure that grows out from the germinated grain of pollen and transports the male gametes (sperm cells) to the female reproductive organ in seed plants. This process is known as double fertilization, which occurs in angiosperms (flowering plants).

The pollen tube elongates through the stigma and style of the pistil, following a path towards the ovule. Once it reaches the ovule, the generative cell within the pollen tube divides to form two sperm cells. One sperm fertilizes the egg cell, forming a zygote, while the other sperm fuses with the central cell of the embryo sac, leading to the formation of endosperm - a nutritive tissue for the developing embryo.

In summary, a pollen tube is a crucial component in the reproductive process of seed plants, facilitating the transfer of male gametes to female gametes and ultimately resulting in fertilization and seed development.

Morphogenesis is a term used in developmental biology and refers to the process by which cells give rise to tissues and organs with specific shapes, structures, and patterns during embryonic development. This process involves complex interactions between genes, cells, and the extracellular environment that result in the coordinated movement and differentiation of cells into specialized functional units.

Morphogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process that involves several mechanisms, including cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. These processes are controlled by genetic programs and signaling pathways that respond to environmental cues and regulate the behavior of individual cells within a developing tissue or organ.

The study of morphogenesis is important for understanding how complex biological structures form during development and how these processes can go awry in disease states such as cancer, birth defects, and degenerative disorders.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Folate Receptor 1 (FR-α or FOLR1) is a protein that is encoded by the folate receptor 1 gene in humans. It is a member of the folate receptor family, which are responsible for the transport of folate (vitamin B9) into cells. FR-α is primarily expressed in the epithelial cells of various organs, including the lungs, kidneys, and choroid plexus.

FR-α has a high affinity for folic acid and reduced folates, which it internalizes through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these molecules are converted to tetrahydrofolate (THF), an essential cofactor in various metabolic processes such as DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation.

In addition to its physiological role, FR-α has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer. Many tumors, particularly ovarian and lung cancers, overexpress FR-α, making it an attractive target for targeted therapy using folate-conjugated drugs or radiolabeled folic acid for imaging and treatment.

"Maternal exposure" is a medical term that refers to the contact or interaction of a pregnant woman with various environmental factors, such as chemicals, radiation, infectious agents, or physical environments, which could potentially have an impact on the developing fetus. This exposure can occur through different routes, including inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact, or even transplacentally. The effects of maternal exposure on the fetus can vary widely depending on the type, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the stage of pregnancy at which it occurs. It is important to monitor and minimize maternal exposure to potentially harmful substances or environments during pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and developing fetus.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a rather broad and vague phrase that combines several concepts: prenatal (occurring before birth), nutritional (relating to nutrition), physiological (relating to the functioning of living organisms and their parts), and phenomena (observable events or occurrences).

If you're interested in a specific aspect of maternal and fetal nutrition, physiology, or related processes during pregnancy, I would be happy to help further if you could provide a more precise term or question. For example, prenatal nutritional physiological phenomena could refer to the process of how certain nutrients are transported across the placenta, how maternal nutrition affects fetal growth and development, or how various hormonal and metabolic changes occur during pregnancy.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Tetrahydrofolates (THFs) are a type of folate, which is a form of vitamin B9. Folate is essential for the production and maintenance of new cells, especially in DNA synthesis and methylation. THFs are the active forms of folate in the body and are involved in various metabolic processes, including:

1. The conversion of homocysteine to methionine, an amino acid required for protein synthesis and the formation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a major methyl donor in the body.
2. The transfer of one-carbon units in various metabolic reactions, such as the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines, which are essential components of DNA and RNA.
3. The remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, a process that helps maintain normal homocysteine levels in the body. Elevated homocysteine levels have been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

THFs can be obtained from dietary sources, such as leafy green vegetables, legumes, and fortified cereals. They can also be synthesized endogenously in the body through the action of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), which reduces dihydrofolate (DHF) to THF using NADPH as a cofactor.

Deficiencies in folate or impaired THF metabolism can lead to various health issues, including megaloblastic anemia, neural tube defects during fetal development, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to elevated homocysteine levels.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

Cleft lip is a congenital birth defect that affects the upper lip, causing it to develop incompletely or split. This results in an opening or gap in the lip, which can range from a small split to a significant separation that extends into the nose. Cleft lip is often accompanied by cleft palate, which is a similar condition affecting the roof of the mouth.

The medical definition of cleft lip is as follows:

A congenital deformity resulting from failure of fusion of the maxillary and medial nasal processes during embryonic development, leading to a varying degree of separation or split in the upper lip, ranging from a minor notch to a complete cleft extending into the nose. It may occur as an isolated anomaly or in association with other congenital defects, such as cleft palate.

Cleft lip can be surgically corrected through various reconstructive procedures, typically performed during infancy or early childhood. The specific treatment plan depends on the severity and location of the cleft, as well as any associated medical conditions. Early intervention and comprehensive care from a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals are crucial for optimal outcomes in cleft lip repair.

Transcobalamins are a group of proteins in the human body that are responsible for the transport of vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin. There are three main types of transcobalamins:

1. Transcobalamin I (also known as haptocorrin or R-binders): This is a protein produced in various tissues, including the salivary glands and gastric mucosa. It binds to vitamin B12 in the stomach and protects it from degradation by digestive enzymes. However, this form of vitamin B12 is not available for absorption and must be converted to other forms.

2. Transcobalamin II: This is a protein produced mainly in the kidneys and intestines. It binds to vitamin B12 that has been freed from its binding proteins in the stomach and facilitates its absorption in the intestine. Once absorbed, transcobalamin II transports vitamin B12 to tissues throughout the body.

3. Transcobalamin III (also known as intrinsic factor): This is a protein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. It binds to vitamin B12 and protects it from degradation in the acidic environment of the stomach. Intrinsic factor is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 in the intestine, as it facilitates its transport across the intestinal wall.

Deficiencies in transcobalamins can lead to vitamin B12 deficiency, which can result in a range of health problems, including anemia, fatigue, neurological symptoms, and developmental delays in children.

I apologize, but "bread" is a common food item and not a medical term. It is typically made from flour, water, yeast, and salt, and is baked at high temperatures. There is no medical definition for bread. If you have any specific concerns about bread or its ingredients in relation to your health, I would be happy to try to help address those.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Craniofacial abnormalities refer to a group of birth defects that affect the development of the skull and face. These abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may involve differences in the shape and structure of the head, face, and jaws, as well as issues with the formation of facial features such as the eyes, nose, and mouth.

Craniofacial abnormalities can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Some common examples of craniofacial abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis (premature fusion of the skull bones), and hemifacial microsomia (underdevelopment of one side of the face).

Treatment for craniofacial abnormalities may involve a team of healthcare professionals, including plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, orthodontists, speech therapists, and other specialists. Treatment options may include surgery, bracing, therapy, and other interventions to help improve function and appearance.

Homeodomain proteins are a group of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the development and differentiation of cells in animals and plants. They are characterized by the presence of a highly conserved DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain, which is typically about 60 amino acids long. The homeodomain consists of three helices, with the third helix responsible for recognizing and binding to specific DNA sequences.

Homeodomain proteins are involved in regulating gene expression during embryonic development, tissue maintenance, and organismal growth. They can act as activators or repressors of transcription, depending on the context and the presence of cofactors. Mutations in homeodomain proteins have been associated with various human diseases, including cancer, congenital abnormalities, and neurological disorders.

Some examples of homeodomain proteins include PAX6, which is essential for eye development, HOX genes, which are involved in body patterning, and NANOG, which plays a role in maintaining pluripotency in stem cells.

The second trimester of pregnancy is the period between the completion of 12 weeks (the end of the first trimester) and 26 weeks (the beginning of the third trimester) of gestational age. It is often considered the most comfortable period for many pregnant women as the risk of miscarriage decreases significantly, and the symptoms experienced during the first trimester, such as nausea and fatigue, typically improve.

During this time, the uterus expands above the pubic bone, allowing more space for the growing fetus. The fetal development in the second trimester includes significant growth in size and weight, formation of all major organs, and the beginning of movement sensations that the mother can feel. Additionally, the fetus starts to hear, swallow and kick, and the skin is covered with a protective coating called vernix.

Prenatal care during this period typically includes regular prenatal appointments to monitor the mother's health and the baby's growth and development. These appointments may include measurements of the uterus, fetal heart rate monitoring, and screening tests for genetic disorders or other potential issues.

The first trimester of pregnancy is defined as the period of gestational development that extends from conception (fertilization of the egg by sperm) to the end of the 13th week. This critical phase marks significant transformations in both the mother's body and the growing embryo/fetus.

During the first trimester, the fertilized egg implants into the uterine lining (implantation), initiating a series of complex interactions leading to the formation of the placenta - an organ essential for providing nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus while removing waste products. Simultaneously, the embryo undergoes rapid cell division and differentiation, giving rise to various organs and systems. By the end of the first trimester, most major structures are present, although they continue to mature and grow throughout pregnancy.

The mother may experience several physiological changes during this time, including:
- Morning sickness (nausea and vomiting)
- Fatigue
- Breast tenderness
- Frequent urination
- Food aversions or cravings
- Mood swings

Additionally, hormonal shifts can cause various symptoms and prepare the body for potential changes in lactation, posture, and pelvic alignment as pregnancy progresses. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this period to monitor both maternal and fetal wellbeing, identify any potential complications early on, and provide appropriate guidance and support throughout the pregnancy.

Thiocholine is not a medical term per se, but it is a chemical compound that has applications in the medical and biological fields. Thiocholine is the reduced form of thiochrome, which is a derivative of vitamin B1 (thiamine). It is often used as a reagent in biochemical assays to measure the activity of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

In this context, thiocholine iodide (S-[2-(hydroxyethyl)thio]ethan-1-oniuim iodide) is commonly used as a substrate for acetylcholinesterase. When the enzyme hydrolyzes thiocholine iodide, it produces thiocholine, which can be detected and quantified through its reaction with ferric chloride to form a colored complex. This assay is useful in diagnosing certain neurological conditions or monitoring the effectiveness of treatments that target the cholinergic system.

A meningocele is a type of neural tube defect that results in the herniation of the meninges (the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord) through a defect in the vertebral column. The meninges protrude as a sac-like structure, which may be covered by skin or a thin layer of tissue. Meningoceles usually do not contain neural tissue, but cerebrospinal fluid is present within the sac. They are typically asymptomatic unless there is compression of surrounding structures or infection. Treatment generally involves surgical repair to prevent potential complications such as meningitis or neurological damage.

Folate receptors (FRs) are a group of cell surface proteins that bind and transport folate (vitamin B9) into cells. The subtype referred to as "GPI-anchored" refers to the type of anchoring that these receptors have in the cell membrane.

GPI stands for glycosylphosphatidylinositol, which is a molecule that acts as an anchor for certain proteins in the cell membrane. GPI-anchored folate receptors are attached to the outer layer of the cell membrane through this GPI anchor, rather than being embedded within the membrane like many other proteins.

GPI-anchored folate receptors are found on various types of cells, including some cancer cells, and they play a role in the uptake of folate into those cells. Folate is an essential nutrient that plays a critical role in DNA synthesis and methylation, among other processes. Abnormalities in folate metabolism have been linked to various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Quail" is typically used to refer to a group of small birds that belong to the family Phasianidae and the subfamily Perdicinae. There is no established medical definition for "quail."

However, if you're referring to the verb "to quail," it means to shrink back, draw back, or cower, often due to fear or intimidation. In a medical context, this term could be used metaphorically to describe a patient's psychological response to a threatening situation, such as receiving a difficult diagnosis. But again, "quail" itself is not a medical term.

Estriol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is produced in the placenta during pregnancy and is used as a marker for fetal growth and development. Estriol levels can be measured in the mother's urine or blood to assess fetal well-being during pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic forms of estriol are sometimes used in hormone replacement therapy to treat symptoms of menopause.

Hydrocephalus is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure and potentially causing damage to the brain tissues. This excessive buildup of CSF can result from either overproduction or impaired absorption of the fluid, which typically causes the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces) inside the brain to expand and put pressure on surrounding brain structures.

The condition can be congenital, present at birth due to genetic factors or abnormalities during fetal development, or acquired later in life as a result of injuries, infections, tumors, or other disorders affecting the brain's ability to regulate CSF flow and absorption. Symptoms may vary depending on age, severity, and duration but often include headaches, vomiting, balance problems, vision issues, cognitive impairment, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for hydrocephalus typically involves surgically implanting a shunt system that diverts the excess CSF from the brain to another part of the body where it can be absorbed, such as the abdominal cavity. In some cases, endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) might be an alternative treatment option, creating a new pathway for CSF flow within the brain. Regular follow-ups with neurosurgeons and other healthcare professionals are essential to monitor the condition and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is characterized by intellectual and developmental disabilities, distinctive facial features, and sometimes physical growth delays and health problems. The condition affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. They may also have delayed development, including late walking and talking, and may require additional support and education services throughout their lives.

People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain health conditions, such as congenital heart defects, respiratory infections, hearing loss, vision problems, gastrointestinal issues, and thyroid disorders. However, many individuals with Down syndrome live healthy and fulfilling lives with appropriate medical care and support.

The condition is named after John Langdon Down, an English physician who first described the syndrome in 1866.

Maternal nutritional physiological phenomena refer to the various changes and processes that occur in a woman's body during pregnancy, lactation, and postpartum periods to meet the increased nutritional demands and support the growth and development of the fetus or infant. These phenomena involve complex interactions between maternal nutrition, hormonal regulation, metabolism, and physiological functions to ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes and offspring health.

Examples of maternal nutritional physiological phenomena include:

1. Adaptations in maternal nutrient metabolism: During pregnancy, the mother's body undergoes various adaptations to increase the availability of essential nutrients for fetal growth and development. For instance, there are increased absorption and utilization of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, as well as enhanced storage of glycogen and lipids in maternal tissues.
2. Placental transfer of nutrients: The placenta plays a crucial role in facilitating the exchange of nutrients between the mother and fetus. It selectively transports essential nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals from the maternal circulation to the fetal compartment while removing waste products.
3. Maternal weight gain: Pregnant women typically experience an increase in body weight due to the growth of the fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, and maternal tissues such as the uterus and breasts. Adequate gestational weight gain is essential for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and reducing the risk of adverse perinatal complications.
4. Changes in maternal hormonal regulation: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in hormonal profiles, including increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and other hormones that regulate various physiological functions such as glucose metabolism, appetite regulation, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance.
5. Lactation: Following childbirth, the mother's body undergoes further adaptations to support lactation and breastfeeding. This involves the production and secretion of milk, which contains essential nutrients and bioactive components that promote infant growth, development, and immunity.
6. Nutrient requirements: Pregnancy and lactation increase women's nutritional demands for various micronutrients such as iron, calcium, folate, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Meeting these increased nutritional needs is crucial for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and supporting maternal health during the postpartum period.

Understanding these physiological adaptations and their implications for maternal and fetal health is essential for developing evidence-based interventions to promote positive pregnancy outcomes, reduce the risk of adverse perinatal complications, and support women's health throughout the reproductive lifespan.

The cerebral aqueduct, also known as the aqueduct of Sylvius, is a narrow canal that connects the third and fourth ventricles (cavities) of the brain. It allows for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle. The cerebral aqueduct is a critical component of the ventricular system of the brain, and any obstruction or abnormality in this region can result in an accumulation of CSF and increased pressure within the brain, which can lead to serious neurological symptoms and conditions such as hydrocephalus.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Neurologic mutant mice are genetically engineered or spontaneously mutated rodents that are used as models to study various neurological disorders and conditions. These mice have specific genetic modifications or mutations that affect their nervous system, leading to phenotypes that resemble human neurological diseases.

Some examples of neurologic mutant mice include:

1. Alzheimer's disease models: Mice that overexpress genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, such as the amyloid precursor protein (APP) or presenilin 1 (PS1), to study the pathogenesis and potential treatments of this disorder.
2. Parkinson's disease models: Mice that have genetic mutations in genes associated with Parkinson's disease, such as alpha-synuclein or parkin, to investigate the mechanisms underlying this condition and develop new therapies.
3. Huntington's disease models: Mice that carry an expanded CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene to replicate the genetic defect seen in humans with Huntington's disease and study disease progression and treatment strategies.
4. Epilepsy models: Mice with genetic mutations that cause spontaneous seizures or increased susceptibility to seizures, used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of epilepsy and develop new treatments.
5. Stroke models: Mice that have surgical induction of stroke or genetic modifications that increase the risk of stroke, used to study the pathophysiology of stroke and identify potential therapeutic targets.

Neurologic mutant mice are essential tools in biomedical research, allowing scientists to investigate the complex interactions between genes and the environment that contribute to neurological disorders. These models help researchers better understand disease mechanisms, develop new therapies, and test their safety and efficacy before moving on to clinical trials in humans.

Cleft palate is a congenital birth defect that affects the roof of the mouth (palate). It occurs when the tissues that form the palate do not fuse together properly during fetal development, resulting in an opening or split in the palate. This can range from a small cleft at the back of the soft palate to a complete cleft that extends through the hard and soft palates, and sometimes into the nasal cavity.

A cleft palate can cause various problems such as difficulty with feeding, speaking, hearing, and ear infections. It may also affect the appearance of the face and mouth. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the cleft palate, often performed during infancy or early childhood. Speech therapy, dental care, and other supportive treatments may also be necessary to address related issues.

Trisomy is a genetic condition where there is an extra copy of a particular chromosome, resulting in 47 chromosomes instead of the typical 46 in a cell. This usually occurs due to an error in cell division during the development of the egg, sperm, or embryo.

Instead of the normal pair, there are three copies (trisomy) of that chromosome. The most common form of trisomy is Trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome, where there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. Other forms include Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), which are associated with more severe developmental issues and shorter lifespans.

Trisomy can also occur in a mosaic form, where some cells have the extra chromosome while others do not, leading to varying degrees of symptoms depending on the proportion of affected cells.

A homozygote is an individual who has inherited the same allele (version of a gene) from both parents and therefore possesses two identical copies of that allele at a specific genetic locus. This can result in either having two dominant alleles (homozygous dominant) or two recessive alleles (homozygous recessive). In contrast, a heterozygote has inherited different alleles from each parent for a particular gene.

The term "homozygote" is used in genetics to describe the genetic makeup of an individual at a specific locus on their chromosomes. Homozygosity can play a significant role in determining an individual's phenotype (observable traits), as having two identical alleles can strengthen the expression of certain characteristics compared to having just one dominant and one recessive allele.

"Neural Tube Defects". MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Preventing Neural Tube Birth Defects: A Prevention Model ... A deficiency of folate itself does not cause neural tube defects. The association seen between reduced neural tube defects and ... Multiple other genes related to neural tube defects exist which are candidates for folate insensitive neural tube defects. ... Folic acid supplementation reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects by approximately 70% of neural tube defects indicating ...
Doherty, D.; Walker, W. O. (1 January 2014). "Neural Tube Defects". Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences (Second ed.). ... owing to failure of the neural plate to form a complete neural tube or to rupture of the neural tube after closure. Diplomyelia ... with the skin intact or association with any serious neural tube defects. Progressive neurological lesions may result from the ... Tethered spinal cord syndrome appears to be the result of improper growth of the neural tube during fetal development, and is ...
Neural tube defects can present in a number of ways as a result of the improper closure at various points of the neural tube. ... Botto, Lorenzo D.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Khoury, Muin J.; Erickson, J. David (1999). "Neural-Tube Defects". New England Journal of ... Maternal folic acid intake around the time of conception prevents neural tube defects. Furthermore, folic acid intake was ... or a combination of the two in order to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. These major anomalies in the nervous system can ...
Lastly, NTD, neural tube defect, is a defect that forms in the brain and spine during early development. If the spinal cord is ... "Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) (for Parents) - Nemours KidsHealth". Retrieved 2023-04-05. "Neural Tube Defects ... The most common congential diseases are heart defects, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Trisomy 21 is the most common ... VSD, ventricular septal defect, is the most common type of heart defect in infants. If an infant has a large VSD it can result ...
The children's neurosurgical diseases treated at the hospital include: 1. Hydrocephalus 2. Neural tube defects 3. Spina bifida ...
Neural tube defect are abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord in the embryo resulting from failure of the neural tube to ... It caused neural tube defects. Folic acid uptake was dramatically inhibited. Treatment after exposure with folic acid reduced ... "Neural Tube Defects and the Texas-Mexico Border". Archived from the original on February 20, 2011. Retrieved April 1, 2011. ... Regions in China and South Africa with high corn consumption also have a high prevalence of neural tube defects. It is thought ...
Giacoia, G.P.; Say, B. (1991). "Spondylocostal dysplasia and neural tube defects". Journal of Medical Genetics. 28 (1): 51-3. ... Intrinsic rib anomalies include defects such as bifurcation, broadening and fusion that are not directly related to the ... Wadia, R.S.; Shirole, D.B.; Dikshit, M.S. (1978). "Recessively inherited costovertebral segmentation defect with mesomelia and ... Norum, R.A.; McKusick, V.A. (1969). "Costovertebral anomalies with apparent recessive inheritance". Birth Defects Original ...
Sutton LN (February 2008). "Fetal surgery for neural tube defects". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology ... These uterine scar defects are associated with increased risk of uterine rupture and scar separation. Scar defects may increase ... It is also used to gain access and perform surgery on a fetus during pregnancy to correct birth defects, and it is an option to ... Following the repair of the incision, a scar defect may form, which is defined as a thinning of uterine muscle at the incision ...
Indeed his most notable research in his career, was the establishing link between folic acid deficiency and neural tube defects ... Smithells was most notable for research into neural tube defects, congenital abnormality registers, genetic counselling, and ... "Vitamin dificiencies and neural tube defects". Archives of Disease in Childhood. 51 (12): 944-950. doi:10.1136/adc.51.12.944. ... Research Award of the Joseph P Kennedy Foundation for research into the role of folic acid in preventing neural tube defects. " ...
Dark-skinned women suffer the lowest level of neural tube defects. Folate plays an important role in DNA production and gene ... Low folate levels are correlated with neural tube defects, such as anencephaly and spina bifida. UV rays can strip away folate ... Minns, R.A. (1996). "Folic acid and neural tube defects". Spinal Cord. 34 (8): 460-465. doi:10.1038/sc.1996.79. PMID 8856852. ... Buccimazza SS, Molteno CD, Dunnem TT, Viljoen DL (1994). "Prevalence of neural tube defects in Cape Town, South Africa". ...
Vitamins to prevent neural-tube defects. N Engl J Med. 1993 Jun 3;328(22):1641-2. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199306033282217. PMID: ...
Neural tube defects (NTD), which begin to become observable at the 28th day of pregnancy, occur when the embryonic neural tube ... Sutton LN (February 2008). "Fetal surgery for neural tube defects". Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 22 (1): 175-88. doi: ... Born twice': Baby removed for surgery, returned to womb". Sutton LN (February 2008). "Fetal surgery for neural tube defects". ... New techniques have allowed additional defects to be treated and for less invasive forms of fetal surgical intervention. The ...
... neural tube defects, and microcephaly". European Journal of Medical Genetics. 61 (9): 556-563. doi:10.1016/j.ejmg.2018.06.005. ... teams promptly detected an epidemic of spina bifida and associated malformations collectively known as neural tube defects (NTD ... Higher birth-defect rate seen in Chernobyl area - ... Birth Defects Res. 2021 Apr 24. doi:10.1002/bdr2.1901. Epub ahead of print. PMID 33893758. Coles CD, Kable JA, Granovska IV, ...
Juriloff DM, Harris MJ (2000). "Mouse models for neural tube closure defects". Hum. Mol. Genet. 9 (6): 993-1000. doi:10.1093/ ... Hildebrand JD, Soriano P (1999). "Shroom, a PDZ domain-containing actin-binding protein, is required for neural tube ...
SPINK5 Neural tube defect; 182940; VANGL1 Neuroblastoma; 256700; NME1 Neurodegeneration due to cerebral folate transport ... KCNA5 Atrial septal defect 4; 611363; TBX20 Atrial septal defect 5; 612794; ACTC1 Atrial septal defect 6; 613087; TLL1 Atrial ... HR Atrioventricular canal defect; 600309; AVSD1 Atrioventricular septal defect; 600309; GJA1 Atrioventricular septal defect, ... septal defect with atrioventricular conduction defects; 108900; NKX2E Atrial septal defect-2; 607941; GATA4 Atrichia with ...
van der Put NM, van Straaten HW, Trijbels FJ, Blom HJ (April 2001). "Folate, homocysteine and neural tube defects: an overview ... Hereditary defects in production of the transcobalamins and their receptors may produce functional deficiencies in B12 and ... This allows pernicious anemia and certain other defects in B12 absorption to be treated with oral megadoses of B12, even ... without any correction of the underlying absorption defects. See the section on supplements above. How fast B12 levels change ...
Lei YP, Zhang T, Li H, Wu BL, Jin L, Wang HY (June 2010). "VANGL2 mutations in human cranial neural-tube defects". N. Engl. J. ... Lei YP, Zhang T, Li H, Wu BL, Jin L, Wang HY (June 2010). "VANGL2 mutations in human cranial neural-tube defects". N. Engl. J. ... "Contribution of VANGL2 mutations to isolated neural tube defects". Clin. Genet. 80 (1): 76-82. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0004.2010. ... "Loss of membrane targeting of Vangl proteins causes neural tube defects". Biochemistry. 50 (5): 795-804. doi:10.1021/bi101286d ...
2013). "Neural tube defects, folic acid and methylation". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 10 ... Low maternal intake of choline is associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects. Higher maternal intake of choline ... This is a neurotransmitter which plays a necessary role in muscle contraction, memory and neural development, for example. ...
In humans, mutations in VANGL1 have been associated with neural tube defects including spina bifida, and with some forms of ... "Mutations in VANGL1 associated with neural-tube defects". N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (14): 1432-7. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa060651. PMID ...
These birth defects included neural tube defects, malformations of the cardiac septa, anomalies of arteries and veins, and ... The types with the greatest death are congenital heart defects (323,000), followed by neural tube defects (69,000). Many ... such as neural tube defects, hypospadias, epispadia, and abdominal wall defects, such as gastroschisis and exomphalos. A study ... ventricular septal defect, and tetralogy of Fallot. Congenital anomalies of the nervous system include neural tube defects such ...
... including neural tube defects and spina bifida. The chances of having neural tube defects in the newborn of an obese woman has ... Poor glycemic control can lead to neural tube defects. The usual increase in insulin resistance seen in late pregnancy is ... Each year, nearly 2,500 babies are born[where?] with these defects, and many other affected pregnancies end in miscarriage and ...
Wang M, Wang ZP, Gong R, Zhao ZT (January 2014). "Maternal smoking during pregnancy and neural tube defects in offspring: a ... It slightly increases the risk of neural tube defects. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and maternal smoking during ... where bronchial tubes branch, that tar from cigarette smoke is resistant to dissolving in lung fluid and that radioactive ...
Folate/folic acid: which prevents neural tube defects (NTDs). Children who do not receive adequate nutrition in the first 1000 ...
1999). "Neural Tube Defects: an Evaluation of Genetic Risk". American Journal of Human Genetics. 64 (4): 1045-1055. doi:10.1086 ... to predict someone's having a disease or even a birth defect. It can also be used to determine ethnic diversity. Genotype ...
... and neural tube defects in offspring". Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology. 97 (2): 115-122. doi: ... Rasmussen SA, Chu SY, Kim SY, Schmid CH, Lau J (June 2008). "Maternal obesity and risk of neural tube defects: a metaanalysis ... offspring at a heightened risk for neural tube defects (e.g. spina bifida). Breastfeeding in women taking olanzapine is advised ...
Wald, Nicholas (1976). "The detection of neural tube defects by screening maternal blood.". Prenatal Diagnosis. Vol. Les ... testing is used to screen for a neural tube defect (NTD) during the second trimester of pregnancy. If the median AFP result at ...
Deficiencies in folic acid may cause neural tube defects (NTDs). Women who had 0.4 mg of folic acid in their systems due to ... Wald NJ, Morris JK, Blakemore C (2018). "Public health failure in the prevention of neural tube defects: time to abandon the ... to prevent development of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. It should be taken as at least 0.4 mg/day throughout the ... Intake of large amounts of retinol has been linked to birth defects and abnormalities. During pregnancy, a woman's mass ...
It is associated with neural tube defects and folate sensitivity. ZSCAN32 - is a human cervical cancer suppressor gene. It has ... Many transcription factors predicted to bind to the promoter region were related to the following categories: Neural and growth ...
Certain variants of the MTHFD1L are associated neural tube defects. Different alleles of SNP rs7646 in the 3′ UTR of MTHFD1L ... 2009). "A common variant in MTHFD1L is associated with neural tube defects and mRNA splicing efficiency". Hum. Mutat. 30 (12): ... "A common variant in MTHFD1L is associated with neural tube defects and mRNA splicing efficiency". Hum. Mutat. 30 (12): 1650-6. ... Neural Transm. Suppl. Journal of Neural Transmission Supplement 67. 67 (67): 85-93. doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-6721-2_7. ISBN 978-3 ...
Similarly, folate deficiency has been linked to neural tube defects. Iodine deficiency is "the most common preventable cause of ... Patients who do not drink may require fluids by nasogastric tube. Intravenous fluids are recommended only in those who have ... Denis Campbell (October 14, 2014). "Folic acid to be added to UK flour in effort to reduce birth defects". The Guardian. ... Otherwise, they should receive glucose by intravenous or nasogastric tube. If seizures occur (and continue after glucose is ...
Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month of pregnancy. Learn ... The exact causes of neural tube defects arent known. Youre at greater risk of having an infant with a neural tube defect if ... before and during pregnancy prevents most neural tube defects.. Neural tube defects are usually diagnosed before the infant is ... Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month of pregnancy, often ...
Neural tube defects are severe birth defects of the brain and spine ... to help prevent neural tube defects (NTDs).. NTDs occur when the neural tube does not close properly. The neural tube forms the ... Preventing Birth Defectsplus icon *5 Ways to Lower the Risk of Neural Tube Defects ... Neural tube defects are severe birth defects of the brain and spine.. ...
Since the anterior and posterior neuropores close last, they are the most vulnerable to defects. ... occur because of a defect in the neurulation process. ... Neural Tube Defects * Neural Tube Defects in the Neonatal ... encoded search term (Neural Tube Defects) and Neural Tube Defects What to Read Next on Medscape ... Neural tube defects (NTD) are significant birth deformities of the central nervous system that occur due to a defect in the ...
"Neural Tube Defects". MedlinePlus. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Preventing Neural Tube Birth Defects: A Prevention Model ... A deficiency of folate itself does not cause neural tube defects. The association seen between reduced neural tube defects and ... Multiple other genes related to neural tube defects exist which are candidates for folate insensitive neural tube defects. ... Folic acid supplementation reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects by approximately 70% of neural tube defects indicating ...
Maternal ethnicity and risk of neural tube defects: a population-based study. Joel G. Ray, Marian J. Vermeulen, Chris Meier, ... Background: Maternal body mass and the presence of diabetes mellitus are probable risk factors for neural tube defects (NTDs). ... Maternal ethnicity and risk of neural tube defects: a population-based study ... Maternal ethnicity and risk of neural tube defects: a population-based study ...
Online download statistics by month: November 2008 to August ...
Neural Tube Defects, Such as Spina Bifida, on the Decline: CDC. by Feel Good Natural , Jan 18, 2015 , Uncategorized ...
Bioengineering Early CNS Morphogenesis for a Scalable Neural Tube Defect Risk and Developmental Neurotoxicity Assay with ...
Maternal serum zinc deficiency in cases of neural tube defect in Gorgan, north Islamic Republic of Iran ... Neural tube defects (NTD) are severe congenital malformations which occur due to abnormalities in neural tube formation [1]. ... Maternal serum zinc deficiency in cases of neural tube defect in Gorgan, north Islamic Republic of Iran ... Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. MRC Vitamin Study Research Group. ...
Prevalence of neural tube defects in 20 regions of Europe and the impact of prenatal diagnosis, 1980-1986. EUROCAT Working ... Prevalence of neural tube defects in 20 regions of Europe and the impact of prenatal diagnosis, 1980-1986. EUROCAT Working ...
Neural tube defects strongly associated with low vitamin D - 2016 1967 visitors, last modified 10 Oct, 2016, Copy URL. ... Neural tube defects strongly associated with low vitamin D - 2016. Maternal serum vitamin D levels in pregnancies complicated ... We aimed to evaluate maternal serum vitamin D levels in pregnancies complicated by neural tube defects (NTDs) and compared them ... Neural tube defects - ALL of the women had low vitamin D - May 2016 ...
Neural Tube Defects and Spina Bifida - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Other neural tube and associated defects Anencephaly is the most severe neural tube defect. In anencephaly, the brain tissue ... Symptoms of Neural Tube Defects Many children who have minor neural tube defects have no symptoms. ... Causes of Neural Tube Defects There are many causes of neural tube defects. ...
"Global prevention of neural tube defects" (2017). Crider, Krista S. et al. "Global prevention of neural tube defects" , 2017. ... Neural tube defects are serious birth defects of the brain and spine. They are a major cause of death and lifelong disability ... Up to 85 percent of neural tube defects can be prevented if women consume enough folic acid before and during early pregnancy. ... Congenital Abnormalities/prevention & Control Folic Acid Global Health Neural Tube Defects/prevention & Control Prenatal Care ...
"Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in Europe: A Public Health Failure.", Birth Defects Res Clin Mol Teratol, 91 Suppl 1(Suppl 1 ... Neural Tube Defects (NTD) (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocoele) affect approximately one in a thousand pregnancies in ... 2021), "Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in Europe: A Public Health Failure.", Frontiers in Pediatrics, Vol 9 ... 2015), " Long term trends in prevalence of neural tube defects in Europe: population based study", BMJ, Vol 351 ...
Neural Tube Defects Neural tube defects are birth defects affecting a babys spine, spinal cord, or brain… What are neural tube ... defects? Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects. They affect a babys spine, spinal cord, or brain. Very early in ... Acute bronchitis is a contagious viral infection that causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that carry air ... Acute bronchitis is a contagious viral infection that causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes. These are the airways that ...
If a neural tube defect become apparent on delivery, what are the clinical presentations? ... If a neural tube defect become apparent on delivery, what are the clinical presentations? ... Common to all these patients is a fully epithelialized lesion and no visible neural tissue. ...
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are considered complex, with both genetic and environmental factors implicated. To date ... High-density single nucleotide polymorphism screen in a large multiplex neural tube defect family refines linkage to loci at ... "High-density single nucleotide polymorphism screen in a large multiplex neural tube defect family refines linkage to loci at ... High-density single nucleotide polymorphism screen in a large multiplex neural tube defect family refines linkage to loci at ...
download neural tube defects: I would ask to Remember individual reason Krishna and Arjuna page computer on the expertise, ... Download Neural Tube Defects Prevalence Pathogenesis And Prevention. ... meine Passion - die Fotografie. Download Neural Tube ... The download neural tube defects prevalence allows NOT read. Wolters Kluwer This download is forces. By studying to be this ... Khalifa Committee download neural tube defects. needsUsing on the collection of Association Manager in 2010, Nick is well been ...
Folic acid and the prevention of neural tube defects : report from an expert advisory group / Dept. of Health ... [et al.] by ... Birth defects surveillance training : facilitators guide.Availability: Items available for reference: WHO HQ: Not For Loan (1) ...
Topic: Neural Tube Defects. (Please note that the documents listed below are sorted by date.). Knowledge About Folic Acid and ... Recommendations for the Use of Folic Acid to Reduce the Number of Cases of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects; 1992:09: ... Effectiveness in Disease and Injury Prevention Use of Folic Acid for Prevention of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects ... Effectiveness in Disease and Injury Prevention Use of Folic Acid for Prevention of Spina Bifida and Other Neural Tube Defects ...
Neural Tube Defects. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects of the spine, spinal cord or brain. Learn everything you need ... to know about neural tube defects at ...
Comparisons of pregnancies affected by a neural tube defect 2009-2010 were made with pregnancies affected by a neural tube ... An increase in neural tube defects in South Australia, 2009-2010 Authors. * Louise Flood South Australian Department for Health ... Neural tube defect trend data 1966-2010 were reviewed. Statistical analysis was undertaken using chi squared or Fishers exact ... Flood L, Scheil W, Nguyen A-M, Sage L, Scott J. An increase in neural tube defects in South Australia, 2009-2010. Western Pac ...
... like the heterogeneous class of neural tube defects (NTDs). NTDs constitute a major health burden (0.5-2/1000 pregnancies ... Prevention of neural-tube defects with folic acid in China. China-U.S. collaborative project for neural tube defect prevention ... Neural tube defects prevention: supplementation and/or food fortification?. The exact etiology of many birth defects remains ... National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Neural tube defects and maternal folate intake among pregnancies conceived after folic ...
CDC report highlights birth defect risks of Zika virus during pregnancy. ... CDC report highlights birth defect risks of Zika virus during pregnancy. ... brain abnormalities and/or microcephaly regardless of the presence of additional birth defects, and 2) neural tube defects and ... and neural tube defects and other early brain malformations.. Results: During the analysis period, 1,297 pregnant women in 44 ...
... research should also focus on non-folate alternatives in preventing neural tube defects, since only 30% of neural tube defected ... During neural tube formation, cells destined to becoming the neural tube undergo a primary and secondary neurulation phase. In ... Blom H.J., Trijbels F.J.M., Van Der Put N.M.J., & Van Straaten H.W.M. (2001). Folate, Homocysteine and Neural Tube Defects: An ... 1997), it was observed that this gene was more prevalent in mothers who gave birth to infants with neural tube defects. In fact ...
Survey of Specific Childhood Cancers and Birth Defects Among Children Whose Mothers Were Pregnant While Living at U.S. Marine ... The birth defects of interest were spina bifida and anencephaly, which are neural tube defects of the central nervous system ... central nervous system defects other than neural tube defects, and blood disorders other than leukemia). Therefore, the ... Instead, they provided only descriptions of the birth defects (e.g., a parent might describe what the birth defect looked like ...
Neural tube defects. One of the advances that changed the way we look at vitamins was the discovery that too little folate is ... Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. The Lancet. 1991 Jul 20;338(8760):131 ... Folate and neural tube defects. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2007 Jan 1;85(1):285S-8S. ... Vitamin dificiencies and neural tube defects. Archives of disease in childhood. 1976 Dec 1;51(12):944-50. ...
Neural tube defects *10. . PREVETION OF HMD IN PRETERM NEONATES  The high riskpregnancy associated with risk of preterm ... The most common defect is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH) deficiency, which accounts for ,90% of all cases of CAH. Classic 21- ... there are no known markers that will predict which fetus will develop an AV conduction defect. Little evidence suggests that ...
  • Getting enough folic acid , a type of B vitamin, before and during pregnancy prevents most neural tube defects. (
  • CDC urges all women of reproductive age to get 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid every day, in addition to consuming food with folate from a varied diet, to help prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). (
  • Women who have already had a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect should consume 400 micrograms of folic acid every day. (
  • Folate ( folic acid ) taken by the mother before conception and during the first trimester can help prevent these defects. (
  • Up to 85 percent of neural tube defects can be prevented if women consume enough folic acid before and during early pregnancy. (
  • Birth defects registries are vital to monitor the impact of strategies to raise the folic acid status of women periconceptionally in order to prevent NTDs. (
  • This phenomenon has been extensively researched in relation to the regular dietary consumption of folic acid and the prevention of neural tube defects during embryogenesis in humans. (
  • 1] Eventually, two large trials in which women were randomly assigned to take folic acid or a placebo showed that getting too little folate increased a woman's chances of having a baby with spina bifida or anencephaly and that getting enough folate could greatly reduce the incidence of these birth defects. (
  • 4] Since the advent of mandatory folic acid fortification in 1998, neural tube birth defects have dropped by 28%, and studies have shown that far fewer people have low levels of folate in their blood. (
  • The finding in 1991 that women who took folic acid supplements prior to conception reduced their risk for having a child with spina bifida or other neural tube defects (NTDs) by more than 50% stimulated an immediate effort to implement this discovery at the population level. (
  • 1 This effort proved difficult because the neural tube closes by the 28th day after conception, before many women know they are pregnant, and so women may need to begin taking folic acid well before conception. (
  • Mandatory fortification of bread with folic acid (in Australia) and iodine (in Australia and New Zealand) was introduced in 2009 to address two important public health issues: to reduce the prevalence of neural tube defects (serious birth defects such as spina bifida) in Australia and to deal with the re-emergence of iodine deficiency in both Australia and New Zealand. (
  • There was a significant (14.4%) overall decrease in the rate of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Australia following mandatory folic acid fortification. (
  • Studies have also indicated that a lack of folic acid in the mother's diet during pregnancy heightens the risk of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. (
  • Folic acid deficiency in very early pregnancy significantly increases the risk for neural tube defects in the developing fetus. (
  • They were kind of like folic acid-deficient neural tube defects, and now we have pictures to show the neural tube defects and brain defects and that vitamin E is right on the closing edges of the cells that are forming the brain," Traber said. (
  • Folic acid can help prevent certain birth irregularities called neural tube defects in babies. (
  • In 1992, the U.S. Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid daily to prevent neural tube defects. (
  • Research has shown that a woman's intake of folic acid prior to conception and throughout the first few weeks of pregnancy can prevent many neural tube defects. (
  • Since folic acid fortification began, the yearly number of pregnancies affected by neural tube defects has dropped to about 3,000, and the related deaths have declined to about 800. (
  • During a woman's pregnancy, taking folic acid and getting enough iodine in the diet can help prevent some types of birth defects. (
  • How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Neural Tube Defects (NTDs)? (
  • What Are the Treatments for Neural Tube Defects (NTDs)? (
  • Are There Disorders or Conditions Associated with Neural Tube Defects (NTDs)? (
  • How Many People Are at Risk for Neural Tube Defects (NTDs)? (
  • NTDs occur when the neural tube does not close properly. (
  • The two most common NTDs are spina bifida (a spinal cord defect) and anencephaly (a brain defect). (
  • NTDs can be classified as "open" or "closed" types, based on embryological considerations and the presence or absence of exposed neural tissue (i.e., failure of incomplete fusion of the neural plate). (
  • Open NTDs frequently involve multiple aspects of the CNS (e.g., associated hydrocephalus, Chiari II malformation) and are due to failure of primary neurulation, thus the neural tube fails to appropriately close along the dorsal midline. (
  • Closed NTDs are localized and confined to the spine (the brain is rarely affected) and result from a defect in secondary neurulation. (
  • Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spine or cranium remains from early in human development. (
  • NTDs are one of the most common birth defects, affecting over 300,000 births each year worldwide. (
  • Open NTDs occur when the brain and/or spinal cord are exposed at birth through a defect in the skull or vertebrae (spinal column). (
  • Closed NTDs occur when the spinal defect is covered by skin. (
  • Maternal body mass and the presence of diabetes mellitus are probable risk factors for neural tube defects (NTDs). (
  • We aimed to evaluate maternal serum vitamin D levels in pregnancies complicated by neural tube defects (NTDs) and compared them with healthy pregnant women. (
  • The Mediterranean dietary pattern, in particular, has been associated with the highest risk reduction of major congenital anomalies, like the heterogeneous class of neural tube defects (NTDs). (
  • The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. (
  • Anencephaly (without brain) is a severe neural tube defect that occurs when the anterior-most end of the neural tube fails to close, usually during the 23rd and 26th days of pregnancy. (
  • Neural Tube Defects (NTD) (anencephaly, spina bifida and encephalocoele) affect approximately one in a thousand pregnancies in Europe (equating to over 5,000 pregnancies annually). (
  • Improper closure during the fourth week of pregnancy can result in neural tube defects such as spina bifida, anencephaly, and encephalocele (Dehner & Stocker, 2001). (
  • One of the advances that changed the way we look at vitamins was the discovery that too little folate is linked to birth defects of the spine (spina bifida) and brain (anencephaly). (
  • Anencephaly is a fatal birth defect. (
  • Anencephaly is a birth defect (congenital disorder) where a baby is born without parts of their brain and skull. (
  • That's why anencephaly is a type of cephalic disorder called a neural tube defect . (
  • Anencephaly is a common type of neural tube defect. (
  • A problem with how the neural tube forms and closes causes anencephaly. (
  • Anencephaly happens when the top part of the neural tube doesn't close during embryonic development. (
  • But if you had a child with a neural tube defect (NTD) before, like spina bifida , you have a higher chance of having a baby with anencephaly. (
  • Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. (
  • Neural tube defects are severe birth defects of the brain and spine. (
  • The neural tube forms the early brain and spine. (
  • Patients with spina bifida have a wide variety of symptoms and physical findings, depending on the extent of the defect in the spine. (
  • In this mild form, the lack of closure of the neural tube affects only a small area of the spine and is found on X-rays. (
  • A couple of decades ago, about 4,000 babies were born each year with neural tube defects, which are major birth defects of a baby's brain or spine that can cause severe disability or death. (
  • National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (
  • These types of birth defects develop very early during pregnancy, often before a woman knows she is pregnant. (
  • In the third week of pregnancy called gastrulation, specialized cells on the dorsal side of the embryo begin to change shape and form the neural tube. (
  • The neural tube closes in the sixth week of the pregnancy, so hydranencephaly develops during these weeks of the pregnancy. (
  • infections: during the pregnancy, a woman can develop an infection in the uterus what can lead to problems with the neural tube. (
  • Women who consume more dietary methionine during pregnancy seem to have a lower risk of neural tube birth defects. (
  • Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly with severe brain damage in the fetus (referred to here as Zika virus-associated microcephaly [ZAM]) and is linked to pregnancy loss and to problems in infants, including eye defects, hearing loss, and impaired growth ( 1 ). (
  • Normally, the neural tube folds and closes to form the brain and spinal cord around the third or fourth week of pregnancy, before most women even know they are pregnant. (
  • Encephalocele happens when the tube does not fully close during pregnancy. (
  • It happens when the neural tube (which is responsible for growing the brain, skull, backbones and spinal cord) doesn't develop or fails to close as it should in the first month of pregnancy. (
  • Infections during pregnancy can cause a variety of birth defects. (
  • Many birth defects can't be prevented, but a woman can do some things before and during pregnancy to help lower the chances of having a baby with a birth defect. (
  • Your download neural tube defects prevalence pathogenesis and prevention will find to your showed browser n't. (
  • Introduction: An investigation was undertaken to determine the aetiology of increased notifications of neural tube defects, South Australia, 2009-2010, to assist with prevention efforts. (
  • Overall, the underlying purpose of this report is to distinguish the relationship between folate consumption and neural tube formation and to discuss many of today's accepted mechanisms describing the role of folate in the prevention of neural tube defects. (
  • The realization of the Primary Prevention Program of Neural Tube Defects leaves much to be desired. (
  • Paternal and joint parental occupational pesticide exposure and spina bifida in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997 to 2002. (
  • Birth defects of the brain and spinal cord can occur in. (
  • Neural tube defects (NTD) are severe congenital malformations which occur due to abnormalities in neural tube formation [1]. (
  • Prevalence of neural tube defects in 20 regions of Europe and the impact of prenatal diagnosis, 1980-1986. (
  • Birth defect registries are essential to monitor the prevalence of terminations of pregnancies with an NTD, as routine health care databases in Europe do not accurately record this information and over 70% of NTD diagnoses result in a termination 7 . (
  • If he got themed a download neural tube defects prevalence account shortly than a documentary, he'd slightly be down in recidivism as one of America's more online precise hands. (
  • This download neural tube defects prevalence pathogenesis is three self-adjoint alumni about Brilliant stain as a sustainable band of Sodium. (
  • The download neural tube defects prevalence allows NOT read. (
  • With a positive download neural tube defects prevalence pathogenesis of reagents at her file, Susan can get properties also that they have 62x39 and Category for a holy frequency's readers. (
  • COMPLETE FETAL A - V BLOCK AA A A A In the presence of maternal anti-Ro/La antibodies , there are no known markers that will predict which fetus will develop an AV conduction defect. (
  • Previous studies have shown a high rate of neural tube defects (NTD) in Gorgan, northern Islamic Republic of Iran. (
  • Spina bifida occulta usually causes no symptoms but can be associated with other birth defects or with abnormalities of the spinal cord (occult spinal dysraphism). (
  • Over the past decade, there has been growing evidence that even a moderately elevated increase in homocysteine can increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities, particularly neural tube defects (Herrmann, 2001). (
  • The number of deaths in the US each year due to neural tube defects also declined from 1,200 before folate fortification was started to 840. (
  • Since the introduction of fortification, neural tube defect rates have decreased . (
  • Before fortification began in 1998, about 4,000 babies were affected by neural tube defects each year in the U. S., and nearly 1,200 died. (
  • Fetoscopic two-layer closure of NTD may improve the quality of the tissue covering the defect, diminishing the need for postnatal surgical revision , and preserving the well-documented beneficial effects of prenatal closure on the neural tissue and hindbrain herniation. (
  • Many birth defects are diagnosed even before a baby is born through prenatal tests. (
  • Because the neural tube is ultimately formed from the migration and fusion of the neural plate, the type and severity of malformation varies based on the location of the defect. (
  • Maternal serum vitamin D levels in pregnancies complicated by neural tube defects. (
  • The neural groove develops by the third gestational week and the neural folds subsequently form bilaterally. (
  • The neural folds elevate, approximate each other, and start fusing along the dorsal midline, thus forming the neural tube. (
  • Despite the wide range in its implications, encephaloceles are most likely to be caused by improper separation of the surface ectoderm and the neuroectoderm after the closure of the neural folds in the fourth week of gastrulation. (
  • develop as a groove that folds over to become a tube called the neural tube. (
  • Neural tissue is not exposed and the defect is fully covered by epithelium, although the skin covering the defect may be dysplastic (i.e., tuft of hair, dimple, birthmark, or other superficial abnormality). (
  • This skin layer typically appears normal, but sometimes it is a different color than the surrounding skin, or there may be a small tuft of hair overlying the defect. (
  • Since rostral and caudal neuropore closure is the last phase of neurulation, they are particularly vulnerable to defects. (
  • Fetoscopic two-layer closure of open neural tube defects. (
  • Fetoscopy for closure of open neural tube defects (NTD) remains controversial, as the use of patches or single-layer closure is not considered to meet the standards of good neurosurgical reconstruction. (
  • G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and neural tube closure defects. (
  • In most cases, doctors don't know what caused a baby's birth defect. (
  • [ 6 ] The neural plate and the notochord are formed during early embryonic development. (
  • Another type of defect, Chiari malformation , causes the brain tissue to extend into the spinal canal. (
  • Neural tissue is completely exposed, or covered by a membrane, with associated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. (
  • Common to all these patients is a fully epithelialized lesion and no visible neural tissue. (
  • The closed defect was watertight with good quality tissue in all cases. (
  • The neural tube is a flat piece of tissue that grows into a tube shape. (
  • For example, spina bifida is one type of neural tube defect and may cause physical and mental disabilities that range from mild to severe . (
  • Due to the range in its location, encephaloceles are classified by the location as well as the type of defect it causes. (
  • In most cases, babies with spina bifida and other neural tube defects are born into families with no history of these disorders. (
  • CDC has played a major role in changes that dramatically decreased the number of babies born with neural tube defects. (
  • According to the March of Dimes, one out of every 33 babies born each year in the United States has a birth defect. (
  • But it's also important to realize that most babies born with birth defects are born to two healthy parents with no obvious health problems or risk factors. (
  • With parents' permission, babies are tested after birth to screen for certain birth defects that need to be treated soon after birth. (
  • Both of these measures helped to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in newborns. (
  • For more information on the classification of neural tube defects, see Medscape Reference article Imaging in Spinal Dysraphism and Myelomeningocele . (
  • Birth Defects Res, 2017 Jan 30. (
  • There are more than 4,000 different kinds of birth defects, ranging from minor ones that need no treatment to serious ones that cause disabilities or require medical or surgical treatment. (
  • The association between vitamin D deficiency and abnormal neural development has been proposed previously. (
  • Without vitamin E, the zebrafish embryos showed neural tube defects and brain defects. (
  • Spina bifida results when the neural tube fails to close completely and remains an open channel. (
  • The skin is undermined by blunt dissection and the defect is sutured to the midline in two layers (myofascial and skin ) using a running 4/0 resorbable barbed suture . (
  • They are among the most common type of birth defects and are thought to have multifactorial etiology, including multigenetic and environmental influences. (
  • This common defect is called "occulta" because it is hidden (covered) by a layer of skin. (
  • Spina bifida is the most common neural tube defect in the United States. (
  • Sometimes the neural tube does not develop normally, which may affect the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. (
  • A neural tube is an early embryonic precursor of the central nervous system, comprising of the brain and spinal cord. (
  • Fifty years ago, no one knew what caused these birth defects, which occur when the early development of tissues that eventually become the spinal cord, the tissues surrounding it, or the brain goes awry. (
  • One of the first things that appears as an embryo forms is a brain primordium and the neural tube, which will form the nervous system and "innervate" - supply with nerves - all organs and body structures. (
  • Neural tube defects are serious as they affect the spinal cord or brain. (
  • Brain and skull (top of the neural tube). (
  • Neural tube defects (NTD) are significant birth deformities of the central nervous system that occur due to a defect in the neurulation process of embryogenesis. (
  • In healthy organisms, neural crest cells drive the creation of facial bones and cartilage and innervate the body, building the peripheral nervous system. (