Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Acetanilide derivative used as a local anesthetic.
An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase and an antagonist of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Sexual activities of animals.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The consumption of edible substances.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.

A genetic approach to visualization of multisynaptic neural pathways using plant lectin transgene. (1/7484)

The wiring patterns among various types of neurons via specific synaptic connections are the basis of functional logic employed by the brain for information processing. This study introduces a powerful method of analyzing the neuronal connectivity patterns by delivering a tracer selectively to specific types of neurons while simultaneously transsynaptically labeling their target neurons. We developed a novel genetic approach introducing cDNA for a plant lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), as a transgene under the control of specific promoter elements. Using this method, we demonstrate three examples of visualization of specific transsynaptic neural pathways: the mouse cerebellar efferent pathways, the mouse olfactory pathways, and the Drosophila visual pathways. This strategy should greatly facilitate studies on the anatomical and functional organization of the developing and mature nervous system.  (+info)

even-skipped determines the dorsal growth of motor axons in Drosophila. (2/7484)

Axon pathfinding and target choice are governed by cell type-specific responses to external cues. Here, we show that in the Drosophila embryo, motorneurons with targets in the dorsal muscle field express the homeobox gene even-skipped and that this expression is necessary and sufficient to direct motor axons into the dorsal muscle field. Previously, it was shown that motorneurons projecting to ventral targets express the LIM homeobox gene islet, which is sufficient to direct axons to the ventral muscle field. Thus, even-skipped complements the function of islet, and together these two genes constitute a bimodal switch regulating axonal growth and directing motor axons to ventral or to dorsal regions of the muscle field.  (+info)

Actions of a pair of identified cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBI-8/9) in Aplysia that contain the peptide myomodulin. (3/7484)

A combination of biocytin back-fills of the cerebral-buccal connectives and immunocytochemistry of the cerebral ganglion demonstrated that of the 13 bilateral pairs of cerebral-buccal interneurons in the cerebral ganglion, a subpopulation of 3 are immunopositive for the peptide myomodulin. The present paper describes the properties of two of these cells, which we have termed CBI-8 and CBI-9. CBI-8 and CBI-9 were found to be dye coupled and electrically coupled. The cells have virtually identical properties, and consequently we consider them to be "twin" pairs and refer to them as CBI-8/9. CBI-8/9 were identified by electrophysiological criteria and then labeled with dye. Labeled cells were found to be immunopositive for myomodulin, and, using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cells were shown to contain authentic myomodulin. CBI-8/9 were found to receive synaptic input after mechanical stimulation of the tentacles. They also received excitatory input from C-PR, a neuron involved in neck lengthening, and received a slow inhibitory input from CC5, a cell involved in neck shortening, suggesting that CBI-8/9 may be active during forward movements of the head or buccal mass. Firing of CBI-8 or CBI-9 resulted in the activation of a relatively small number of buccal neurons as evidenced by extracellular recordings from buccal nerves. Firing also produced local movements of the buccal mass, in particular a strong contraction of the I7 muscle, which mediates radula opening. CBI-8/9 were found to produce a slow depolarization and rhythmic activity of B48, the motor neuron for the I7 muscle. The data provide continuing evidence that the small population of cerebral buccal interneurons is composed of neurons that are highly diverse in their functional roles. CBI-8/9 may function as a type of premotor neuron, or perhaps as a peptidergic modulatory neuron, the functions of which are dependent on the coactivity of other neurons.  (+info)

C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (4/7484)

Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down.  (+info)

Central pattern generator for escape swimming in the notaspid sea slug Pleurobranchaea californica. (5/7484)

Escape swimming in the notaspid opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea is an episode of alternating dorsal and ventral body flexions that overrides all other behaviors. We have explored the structure of the central pattern generator (CPG) in the cerebropleural ganglion as part of a study of neural network interactions underlying decision making in normal behavior. The CPG comprises at least eight bilaterally paired interneurons, each of which contributes and is phase-locked to the swim rhythm. Dorsal flexion is mediated by hemiganglion ensembles of four serotonin-immunoreactive neurons, the As1, As2, As3, and As4, and an electrically coupled pair, the A1 and A10 cells. When stimulated, A10 commands fictive swimming in the isolated CNS and actual swimming behavior in whole animals. As1-4 provide prolonged, neuromodulatory excitation enhancing dorsal flexion bursts and swim cycle number. Ventral flexion is mediated by the A3 cell and a ventral swim interneuron, IVS, the soma of which is yet unlocated. Initiation of a swim episode begins with persistent firing in A10, followed by recruitment of As1-4 and A1 into dorsal flexion. Recurrent excitation within the As1-4 ensemble and with A1/A10 may reinforce coactivity. Synchrony among swim interneuron partners and bilateral coordination is promoted by electrical coupling among the A1/A10 and As4 pairs, and among unilateral As2-4, and reciprocal chemical excitation between contralateral As1-4 groups. The switch from dorsal to ventral flexion coincides with delayed recruitment of A3, which is coupled electrically to A1, and with recurrent inhibition from A3/IVS to A1/A10. The alternating phase relation may be reinforced by reciprocal inhibition between As1-4 and IVS. Pleurobranchaea's swim resembles that of the nudibranch Tritonia; we find that the CPGs are similar in many details, suggesting that the behavior and network are primitive characters derived from a common pleurobranchid ancestor.  (+info)

Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia. (6/7484)

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

Specification of distinct dopaminergic neural pathways: roles of the Eph family receptor EphB1 and ligand ephrin-B2. (7/7484)

Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area project to the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens/olfactory tubercle, respectively, constituting mesostriatal and mesolimbic pathways. The molecular signals that confer target specificity of different dopaminergic neurons are not known. We now report that EphB1 and ephrin-B2, a receptor and ligand of the Eph family, are candidate guidance molecules for the development of these distinct pathways. EphB1 and ephrin-B2 are expressed in complementary patterns in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons and their targets, and the ligand specifically inhibits the growth of neurites and induces the cell loss of substantia nigra, but not ventral tegmental, dopaminergic neurons. These studies suggest that the ligand-receptor pair may contribute to the establishment of distinct neural pathways by selectively inhibiting the neurite outgrowth and cell survival of mistargeted neurons. In addition, we show that ephrin-B2 expression is upregulated by cocaine and amphetamine in adult mice, suggesting that ephrin-B2/EphB1 interaction may play a role in drug-induced plasticity in adults as well.  (+info)

Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. (8/7484)

Structural maturation of fiber tracts in the human brain, including an increase in the diameter and myelination of axons, may play a role in cognitive development during childhood and adolescence. A computational analysis of structural magnetic resonance images obtained in 111 children and adolescents revealed age-related increases in white matter density in fiber tracts constituting putative corticospinal and frontotemporal pathways. The maturation of the corticospinal tract was bilateral, whereas that of the frontotemporal pathway was found predominantly in the left (speech-dominant) hemisphere. These findings provide evidence for a gradual maturation, during late childhood and adolescence, of fiber pathways presumably supporting motor and speech functions.  (+info)

Define interconnect. interconnect synonyms, interconnect pronunciation, interconnect translation, English dictionary definition of interconnect. v. in·ter·con·nect·ed , in·ter·con·nect·ing , in·ter·con·nects v. intr. To be connected with each other: The two buildings interconnect. v. tr.
Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) refers to the observed phenomenon that functional connectivity changes over a short time. Dynamic functional connectivity is a recent expansion on traditional functional connectivity analysis which typically assumes that functional networks are static in time. DFC is related to a variety of different neurological disorders, and has been suggested to be a more accurate representation of functional brain networks. The primary tool for analyzing DFC is fMRI, but DFC has also been observed with several other mediums. DFC is a recent development within the field of functional neuroimaging whose discovery was motivated by the observation of temporal variability in the rising field of steady state connectivity research Functional connectivity refers to the functionally integrated relationship between spatially separated brain regions. Unlike structural connectivity which looks for physical connections in the brain, functional connectivity is related to similar ...
A system automatically routes interconnect of an integrated circuit design using variable width interconnect lines. For example, a first automatically routed interconnect may have a different width from a second automatically routed interconnect. The system will vary the width of the interconnect lines based on certain factors or criteria. These factors include current or power handling, reliability, electromigration, voltage drops, self-heating, optical proximity effects, or other factors, or combinations of these factors. The system may use a gridded or a gridless (or shape-based) approach.
Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were
Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were
Looking for Neutral Interconnect? Find out information about Neutral Interconnect. Network infrastructure where network service providers can freely exchange traffic without policy restrictions. Examples are the GIX at MAE-East , and the... Explanation of Neutral Interconnect
Coupon Testing After satisfactorily passing through the electrical prescreen activities and receiving agreement from the customer to proceed, PWB Interconnect begins the IST testing on the specified quantity of IST coupons. The coupons are tested until the inception of failure, generally set at a 10% increase in elevated resistance. The resistance through the PTH Barrel and the resistance through the inner layer to PTH barrel (or buried via, blind via, micro via) interconnect are continuously and simultaneously monitored. Once testing is completed, PWB Interconnect provides a report which identifies the test results with all applicable graphs for each coupon. The results also include comparison graphs of the products performance to established baselines for products with similar technology and attributes ...
We examined cognitive flexibility in a large group of far from onset pre-HD gene carriers from the HD-YAS.28 We hypothesised that there may be a small impairment at the ED shifting stage in this early pre-HD group. We predicted that decreased intrinsic functional connectivity between fronto-striatal circuits would be associated with increased ED errors in the HC group (hypothesis 1). In the pre-HD group, we expected either a similar negative association in the same circuit as the HC (hypothesis 2) or that ED shifting would be associated with an alternative fronto-striatal circuit (hypothesis 3). Indeed, the pre-HD group exhibited mild cognitive inflexibility compared with controls. The results from the functional connectivity analysis support the first of these hypotheses in showing a negative correlation between ED errors and intrinsic functional connectivity between the ventrolateral PFC and ventral striatum in controls. By contrast, consistent with our third a priori hypothesis, the pre-HD ...
An electron beam projection system having a projection lens arranged so that upon pre-deflection of the electron beam the electron optical axis of the lens shifts to be coincident with the deflected beam. The projection system includes means for producing an electron beam, means for deflecting the beam, a magnetic projection lens having rotational symmetry for focusing the deflected beam and a pair of magnetic compensation yokes positioned within the bore of the projection lens means. The pair of correction yokes has coil dimensions such that, in combination, they produce a magnetic compensation field proportional to the first derivative of the axial magnetic field strength distribution curve of the projection lens. Upon application of current to the pair of compensation yokes the electron optical axis of the projection lens shifts to the position of the deflected beam so that the electron beam remains coincident with the shifted electron optical axis and lands perpendicular to a target.
Interconnected integrated circuits (16) packaged at a very high density are fabricated beginning with a plurality of substrates (50 or 400 or 500) where each substrate has metal edge contact sites (12 or 507). Several substrates are joined together in a stack (82 or 402 or 512) held together tightly by bolts (62) or by a thermoplastic adhesive (510). An interconnect pattern (250 or 423) electrically connects integrated circuits (16) on different substrates. Defective substrates are removable from the stack for repair by removing the bolts or by heating the adhesive to soften it sufficiently to allow removal of the individual substrate. The interconnect pattern, which is removed whenever a substrate is replaced, is reapplied after the removed substrate has been replaced.
A semiconductor device including a damascene superconducting interconnect, formed of a Ba-Cu-Ca-O superconducting material. A method of forming a superconducting damascene interconnect structure, and the structure made thereby, the method including forming a cavity in an interlevel dielectric; forming a barrier layer in the cavity; forming a seed layer in the cavity over the barrier layer; forming a Cu-Ba alloy layer; filling the cavity by depositing a Cu-Ca-O film; and annealing in oxygen flow to form a Ba-Cu-Ca-O superconductor on the barrier layer. In an alternate embodiment, no barrier layer is formed.
The present invention develops a bond pad interconnect in an integrated circuit device, by forming an aluminum pad; bonding a metal layer (such as copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), tungsten (W), gold (Au), silver (Ag) or platinum (Pt)) or a metal alloy (such as titanium nitride) to the aluminum bond pad by chemical vapor deposition or by electroless deposition; and adhering a conductive epoxy film to the metal layer, thereby forming a low resistive bond pad interconnect.
We introduce the combination of three-dimensional transient electro-thermal interconnect simulations for intrinsic thermo-mechanical stress problems. In order to study the development of thermal stresses we use a finite element simulator for the investigation on stresses of complex layered interconnect structures at different operating conditions. Together with the potential distribution we obtain the complete input data for accurate electromigration analysis.
An in situ transmission-electron-microscopy methodology is developed to observe time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in an advanced Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stack. A test structure, namely a tip-to-tip structure, was designed to localize the TDDB degradation in small dielectrics regions. A constant voltage is applied at 25 °C to the tip-to-tip structure, while structural changes are observed at nanoscale. Cu nanoparticle formation, agglomeration, and migration processes are observed after dielectric breakdown. The Cu nanoparticles are positively charged, since they move in opposite direction to the electron flow. Measurements of ionic current, using the Triangular-Voltage-Stress method, suggest that Cu migration is not possible before dielectric breakdown, unless the Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stacks are heated to 200 °C and above. ...
In order to fabricate practical free-space optical interconnect systems, a thorough understanding of the effect of optical misalignment on the power throughput of an optical link is required. Further, not only assembly tolerances (resulting in misalignment) but also component manufacturing tolerances that also introduce vignetting into the optical system need to be studied. We present a study of a wide variety of assembly and component manufacturing errors and their effect on the integrated power falling onto the detector for planar space variant optical systems. We also discuss the trends of the different misalignment sensitivities as the interconnect distance increases ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional connectivity of insular efferences. AU - Almashaikhi, Talal. AU - Rheims, Sylvain. AU - Jung, Julien. AU - Ostrowsky-Coste, Karine. AU - Montavont, Alexandra. AU - De Bellescize, Julitta. AU - Arzimanoglou, Alexis. AU - Kosal, Pascale Keo. AU - Guénot, Marc. AU - Bertrand, Olivier. AU - Ryvlin, Philippe. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Objectives: The aim of our study was to explore the functional connectivity between the insula and other cortical regions, in human, using cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) Experimental design: We performed intra-cerebral electrical stimulation in eleven patients with refractory epilepsy investigated with depth electrodes, including 39 targeting the insula. Electrical stimulation consisted of two series of 20 pulses of 1-ms duration, 0.2-Hz frequency, and 1-mA intensity delivered at each of the 39 insular bipoles. Rates of connectivity were reported whenever a noninsular cortical region was tested by at least ten ...
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A lithographic apparatus includes an illumination system configured to condition a radiation beam, a support for a patterning device, a substrate table for a substrate, a projection system, and a control system. The patterning device is capable of imparting the radiation beam with a pattern in its cross-section to form a patterned radiation beam. The projection system is configured to project the patterned radiation beam as an image onto a target portion of the substrate along a scan path. The scan path is defined by a trajectory in a scanning direction of an exposure field of the lithographic apparatus. The control system is coupled to the support, the substrate table and the projection system for controlling an action of the support, the substrate table and the projection system, respectively. The control system is configured to correct a local distortion of the image in a region along the scan path by a temporal adjustment of the image in that region, hereby reducing the intra-field overlay errors.
DEEP CRYO TREATED FOR THE ULTIMATE LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE Audio Arts cryo treated e Series takes another evolutionary leap with the IC-3 e2 interconnect. Incorporating a patented process deep cryogenic treatment designed specifically for audio cables and components, and connector parts designed to enhance cryo treated c
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-0792373148 Boundary-Scan Interconnect Diagnosis (Frontiers in Electronic Testing) Product Will Be Delivered Via
Vision systems satisfying the single viewpoint constraint are called central projection systems. The perspective camera is an example of a central projection system. The mapping of points in the scene into points in the image is linear in homogeneous coordinates, and can be described by a 3 × 4 projection matrix P (pin-hole model). Perspective projection can be modeled by intersecting a plane with a pencil of lines going through the scene points and the projection center O. There are central projection systems whose geometry can not be described using the conventional pin-hole model. Mt is composed of two lines m and l lying on the projective plane ℘2 . In this case the conic is said to be degenerate, the 3 ×3 symmetric matrix Ω is rank 2, and Equation (15) becomes ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢0 2 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 0 0 0⎥ t t ⎥. Γ(m, l) ⎢ Ω = ml + lm −→ ω = ⎢ (16) ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 2 0 0⎥ ⎣0 0 0 0 2 0⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 1 e D In a similar way a conic locus can be composed of a ...
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Development of structural connectivity and network characteristics (longitudinal analysis). Of 7 neonates, longitudinal assessment of brain development was poss
log in you can tag this publication with additional keywords A publication can refer to another publication (outgoing references) or it can be referred to by other publications (incoming references).. ...
Significantly reduced functional connectivity in depressed patients between cerebellar executive and default-mode seed regions (shown in the lower row) with cer
Grays Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, Expert Consult - Online and Print, 40e de Susan Standring PhD DSc en - ISBN 10: 0443066841 - ISBN 13: 9780443066849 - Churchill Livingstone - 2008 - Tapa dura
Great to hear. Some further explanation of your issue before. VLAN 3 was set up with DHCP, this means your Unraid server gets an IP address in the same subnet as the Docker containers. It then wants to use VLAN 3 to communicate directly with the containers, because it is the nearest connection. Docker however doesnt allow direct communication between host and containers in the same network. So when traffic leaves the tunnel at the server side, it will get blocked by Docker and cant reach the containers (this gives your 2nd hop unreachable). This is exactly the same issue when people are using br0 as their custom container network!! When no IP address is assigned to VLAN 3, the server doesnt learn a direct connection to the containers, but instead will send traffic to the default gateway (your router). The router in return can forward the traffic to the destined container and communication is established, with the condition that a static route on your router exists for the return path. That is ...
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Dear Jean-Pierre, Chris and all, just a few comments regarding the current ontology spec: Since TargetAudienceAuthority is no longer a sub class of Contributor the object property targetAudienceAuthorityIs shouldnt be a sub property of contributorIs as well. Leaving this sub property relation would infer that the domain of property targetAudienceAuthorityIs is Contributor, since Contributor is domain of property contributorIs. As Chris wrote there is no direct connection between a MediaResource and the value of TargetAudienceAuthority, the same problem/pattern exists between a MediaResource and a given rating value. Since a rating value is directly related to a RatingProvider (via data property ratingValue), it is not expressible that the same RatingProvider rates different MediaResources (or MediaFragments) including different rating values. I propose to directly connect a rating value to a MediaResource and annotate this rating value with additional information (RatingProvider, etc.). A new ...
First Link® is a program that gives persons with dementia, their care partners and family a direct connection to a wide variety of services and supports offered through the Alzheimer Society and within the community.
Strep-Tactin® Superflow® cartridges. Prepacked cartridges for direct connection to automated purification systems such as Äkta, peristaltic pumps or other FPLC/HPLC systems are availble for the different resin supports. More information here.
A Redditor found a direct connection between James Hardens play in away games and the citys quality of strip clubs. The better the strippers, the worse he plays. Hardens worst outings come against the Heat
This is a direct connection to the MS-DOS read function call, int 0x21, %ah = 0x3f. No conversion is done on the data; it is read as raw binary data. This function can be hooked by the See section File System Extensions. If you dont want this, you should use See section _dos_read. ...
The automation of business transactions can help enable savings, efficiencies and accuracy across the revenue cycle. We support both Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), for direct connection between provider and supplier, and Internet-commerce, which connects buyers and sellers via a common technology platform to place orders and receive invoices online. We are also part of the Global Healthcare Exchange (GHX), the first Internet (supplier) exchange for the healthcare industry.. ...
Perhaps others will chime in, but I cant think of anybody using the PS5 without issue through an AVR. Some with direct connections to a capable TV have...
Stellapps has really helped us in establishing the direct connection with farmers. It has helped us in improving the milk quality, transparency in collection process and monitoring through real time collection mechanism.. We want to thank Stellapps for helping us in accomplishing our mission of producing good quality dairy products for customers and economical empowerment of dairy farmers. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The mouse has become the mainstay of genetic and cancer research, and mouse imaging has allowed scientists to monitor tumor development or remission serially. The combination of mu/PET, which provides functional biological information (e.g. tumor uptake, gene expression, etc.) with mu/CT techniques, which provides the anatomical context for the functional information, has proved to be a very important tool for this. However, the radiation dose associated with these procedures can be high, and this limits their frequent use. While the radiation does not harm the animal, it may affect immune response mechanisms and change the experimental outcome. We hypothesize that 2D images may be sufficient in some scientific applications to provide the biological information necessary, in lieu of 3D image data sets that mu/CT and mu/PET provide. In this application, we propose the development of a hybrid two-dimensional imaging system for the mouse and other small animals. ...
2. Clock Synchronization for Multi-Die Systems Multi-Die Systems (MDS) have leveraged the high interconnect performance on active and passive interposers to design Network-on-Chips (NoC). However, synchronizing the MDS with a single clocking domain has never been explored. We design a single clocking domain over the active interposer leveraging the high quality interconnect performance, specifically targeting cross-die synchronization. The underlying theme for the work in this project is to synchronize chiplets that are in the same clock domain, regardless of homogeneous v.s. heterogeneous integration. Initial work and results of this work was presented at ISLPED19. An extension of the ISLPED19 work with a complete methodology is published in TCAS-I. ...
2. Clock Synchronization for Multi-Die Systems Multi-Die Systems (MDS) have leveraged the high interconnect performance on active and passive interposers to design Network-on-Chips (NoC). However, synchronizing the MDS with a single clocking domain has never been explored. We design a single clocking domain over the active interposer leveraging the high quality interconnect performance, specifically targeting cross-die synchronization. The underlying theme for the work is to synchronize chiplets that are in the same clock domain, regardless of homogeneous v.s. heterogeneous integration. Initial work and results of this work was presented at ISLPED19. An extension of the ISLPED19 work with a complete methodology is published in TCAS-I. ...
Axon Cable is a specialist manufacturer of high specification space-grade interconnect with extensive heritage across a huge number of space applications. Axons space approved wires, cables, Mil-Bus networks, and micro-D connectors are present on an impressive list of launchers, satellite platforms, payloads, and rovers. Axons latest developments showcased at SmallSat, include their fast-latching, tool-less, miniature Micro-D and Versatys® Power D-Click connectors, already in orbit on the OneWeb mega-constellation; along with the latest and greatest in SpaceWire technology, the all-new MicroMach® High Data Rate range, capable of coping with SpaceWire rates in excess of 3.0 Gb/s. When combined with Axons already approved Low Mass SpaceWire cable, the MicroMach® SpaceWire links deliver an unbeatable combination of speed, mass (less than 0.5oz/ft) and flexibility. Axon continuously innovates in the field of Space interconnect - lookout for new products appearing regularly at ...
Sanmina designed the 78 connector ATM cable inter-connect system and helped the customer accelerate time to market by reducing the system design cycle from 14 months to 5.. ...
As a specialist in interconnect and process automation, Axon mechatronics, offers interconnect solutions such as continuous and piece part moulded and overmoulded. Axon mechatronics is ISO/TS 16949 approved. ...
As I am slowly coming back to life, I am re-firing and reconnecting various neural pathways. Its kind of hard to explain but some of me works and some of me doesnt. Anyhow, I am doing lots of hand eye coordination crafts and memory/organizational tasks (i. e.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Resting state functional connectivity and task-related effective connectivity changes after upper extremity rehabilitation. T2 - a pilot study.. AU - Saleh, Soha. AU - Adamovich, Sergei V.. AU - Tunik, Eugene. PY - 2012/12/1. Y1 - 2012/12/1. N2 - In this study we investigated the effect of 2 weeks of robot-aided virtual reality therapy for the paretic upper limb in stroke patients on changes in brain activation. Brain activation was acquired during the resting state and during visually-guided hand movement. fMRI analysis focused on characterizing functional connectivity with ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) at rest and during execution of paretic hand movement. Two subjects who sustained a stroke more than 6 months ago participated. Before and after the training period, motor function was evaluated (Wolf Motor Function Test [WMFT], Jebsen Test of Hand Function [JTHF]). After the training period, clinical outcomes (WMFT and JTHF) improved in both subjects. The resting state ...
In the absence of external stimuli or task demands, correlations in spontaneous brain activity (functional connectivity) reflect patterns of anatomical connectivity. Hence, resting-state functional connectivity has been used as a proxy measure for structural connectivity and as a biomarker for brain changes in disease. To relate changes in functional connectivity to physiological changes in the brain, it is important to understand how correlations in functional connectivity depend on the physical integrity of brain tissue. The causal nature of this relationship has been called into question by patient data suggesting that decreased structural connectivity does not necessarily lead to decreased functional connectivity. Here we provide evidence for a causal but complex relationship between structural connectivity and functional connectivity: we tested interhemispheric functional connectivity before and after corpus callosum section in rhesus monkeys. We found that forebrain commissurotomy severely reduced
TY - JOUR. T1 - Default mode network alterations in individuals with high-trait-anxiety: An EEG functional connectivity study. AU - Della Marca, Giacomo. AU - Imperatori, Claudio. AU - Farina, Benedetto. AU - Adenzato, Mauro. AU - Valenti, Enrico Maria. AU - Murgia, Cristina. AU - Brunetti, Riccardo. AU - Fontana, Elena. AU - Ardito, Rita B.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Background: Although several researches investigated Default Mode Network (DMN) alterations in individuals with anxiety disorders, up to now no studies have investigated DMN functional connectivity in non-clinical individuals with high-trait-anxiety using quantitative electroencephalography (EEG). Here, the main aim was to extend previous findings investigating the association between trait anxiety and DMN EEG functional connectivity. Methods: Twenty-three individuals with high-trait-anxiety and twenty-four controls were enrolled. EEG was recorded during 5 min of resting state (RS). EEG analyses were conducted by means of the ...
There is striking overlap between the spatial distribution of amyloid-β pathology in patients with Alzheimers disease and the spatial distribution of high intrinsic functional connectivity in healthy persons. This overlap suggests a mechanistic link between amyloid-β and intrinsic connectivity, and indeed there is evidence in patients for the detrimental effects of amyloid-β plaque accumulation on intrinsic connectivity in areas of high connectivity in heteromodal hubs, and particularly in the default mode network. However, the observed spatial extent of amyloid-β exceeds these tightly circumscribed areas, suggesting that previous studies may have underestimated the negative impact of amyloid-β on intrinsic connectivity. We hypothesized that the known positive baseline correlation between patterns of amyloid-β and intrinsic connectivity may mask the larger extent of the negative effects of amyloid-β on connectivity. Crucially, a test of this hypothesis requires the within-patient comparison of
Three regions of the macaque inferior parietal lobule and adjacent lateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are distinguished by the relative strengths of their connections with the superior colliculus, parahippocampal gyrus, and ventral premotor cortex. It was hypothesized that connectivity information could therefore be used to identify similar areas in the human parietal cortex using diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography. Unusually, the subcortical routes of the 3 projections have been reported in the macaque, so it was possible to compare not only the terminations of connections but also their course. The medial IPS had the highest probability of connection with the superior colliculus. The projection pathway resembled that connecting parietal cortex and superior colliculus in the macaque. The posterior angular gyrus and the adjacent superior occipital gyrus had a high probability of connection with the parahippocampal gyrus. The projection pathway resembled the macaque inferior
A polymer film interconnect forms an electrical interconnect between a first pattern of electrical conductors on a first electrical component and a second pattern of electrical conductors on a second electrical component. The polymer film interconnect includes a thin, flexible, self-supporting dielectric polymeric film having a pattern of spaced apart thru-holes containing separate quantities of an electrically conductive bonding material capable of heat bonding to the first electrical conductors adjacent the first surface of the film and to the second conductors adjacent the second surface of the film. This provides a plurality of discrete electrically isolated conductive paths from the first pattern of electrical conductors through the film to the second pattern of electrical conductors on the opposite side of the film. The polymer film interconnect can be used for forming interconnects between a number of electrical components, including connections between an IC chip and a leadframe or
IMPORTANCE: Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is caused by rare genetic mutations in 3 specific genes in contrast to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), which has a more polygenetic risk profile. OBJECTIVE: To assess the similarities and differences in functional connectivity changes owing to ADAD and LOAD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed functional connectivity in multiple brain resting state networks (RSNs) in a cross-sectional cohort of participants with ADAD (n = 79) and LOAD (n = 444), using resting-state functional connectivitymagnetic resonance imaging at multiple international academic sites. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: For both types of AD, we quantified and compared functional connectivity changes in RSNs as a function of dementia severity measured by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. In ADAD, we qualitatively investigated functional connectivity changes with respect to estimated years from onset of symptoms within 5 RSNs. RESULTS: A decrease in functional
A direct connection multi-chip semiconductor element structure is proposed. A plurality of semiconductor chips are mounted and supported on a metal heat sink, such that heat generated by the chips during operation can be dissipated via the heat sink. A circuit structure is extended from the chips to provide direct electrical extension for the chips and improve the electrical performances. And exposed electrical connection terminals can be formed in the circuit structure extended from the chips to be directly electrically connected to an external electronic device.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Strategy-based reasoning training modulates cortical thickness and resting-state functional connectivity in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most useful methods to generate functional connectivity networks of the brain. However, conventional network generation methods ignore dynamic changes of functional connectivity between brain regions. Previous studies proposed constructing high-order functional connectivity networks that consider the time-varying characteristics of functional connectivity, and a clustering method was performed to decrease computational cost. However, random selection of the initial clustering centers and the number of clusters negatively affected classification accuracy, and the network lost neurological interpretability. Here we propose a novel method that introduces the minimum spanning tree method to high-order functional connectivity networks. As an unbiased method, the minimum spanning tree simplifies high-order network structure while preserving its core framework. The dynamic characteristics of time series are not lost with this approach, and the
Motor tasks, in our daily life, could be performed through execution and imagination. The brain response underlying these movements has been investigated by many studies. Neuroimaging studies have reported that both execution and imagination could activate several brain regions including supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor area (PMA), primary sensorimotor area (M1/S1), posterior parietal lobe (PPL), striatum, thalamus and cerebellum. These findings were based on the regional activation, and brain regions have been indicated to functionally interact with each other when performing tasks. Therefore further investigation in these brain regions with functional connectivity measurements may provide new insights into the neural mechanism of execution and imagination. As a fundamental measurement of functional connectivity, connection strength of graph theory has been used to identify the key nodes of connection and their strength-priorities. Thus, we performed a comparative investigation between ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cortical connectivity and memory performance in cognitive decline. T2 - A study via graph theory from EEG data. AU - Vecchio, F.. AU - Miraglia, F.. AU - Quaranta, D.. AU - Granata, G.. AU - Romanello, R.. AU - Marra, C.. AU - Bramanti, P.. AU - Rossini, P. M.. N1 - The article has been reported in 2015. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Functional brain abnormalities including memory loss are found to be associated with pathological changes in connectivity and network neural structures. Alzheimers disease (AD) interferes with memory formation from the molecular level, to synaptic functions and neural networks organization. Here, we determined whether brain connectivity of resting-state networks correlate with memory in patients affected by AD and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). One hundred and forty-four subjects were recruited: 70 AD (MMSE Mini Mental State Evaluation 21.4), 50 MCI (MMSE 25.2) and 24 healthy subjects (MMSE 29.8). Undirected and weighted ...
A semiconductor device has a substrate and semiconductor die disposed over a first surface of the substrate. A wire stud is attached to the first surface of the substrate. The wire stud includes a base portion and stem portion. A bonding pad is formed over a second surface of the substrate. An encapsulant is deposited over the substrate, semiconductor die, and wire stud. A portion of the encapsulant is removed by LDA to expose the wire stud. A portion of the encapsulant is removed by LDA to expose the substrate. An interconnect structure is formed over the encapsulant and electrically connected to the wire stud and semiconductor die. A bump is formed over the interconnect structure. A semiconductor package is disposed over the encapsulant and electrically connected to the substrate. A discrete semiconductor device is disposed over the encapsulant and electrically connected to the substrate.
The number of resting state functional connectivity MRI studies continues to expand at a rapid rate along with the options for data processing. Of the ...
article{MaScClMo07, author = {J{\o}rg Mayer and Heinz Georg Schuster and Jens Christian Claussen and Matthias M{\o}lle}, title = {Corticothalamic projections control synchronization in locally coupled bistable thalamic oscillators}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, pages = {068102}, volume = {99}, year = {2007}, abstract = {Thalamic circuits are able to generate state-dependent oscillations of different frequencies and degrees of synchronization. However, little is known about how synchronous oscillations, such as spindle oscillations in the thalamus, are organized in the intact brain. Experimental findings suggest that the simultaneous occurrence of spindle oscillations over widespread territories of the thalamus is due to the corticothalamic projections, as the synchrony is lost in the decorticated thalamus. In this Letter we study the influence of corticothalamic projections on the synchrony in a thalamic network, and uncover the underlying control mechanism, leading to a control method ...
A paper in the journal Heliyon titled: Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity is associated with eating behaviors and adiposity in children. The authors write: We hypothesized that unhealthy eating habits and adiposity among children are associated with functional connectivity between brain regions associated with impulsivity, response inhibition, and reward. You can find a good summary…
Liu, J.; Wannier, T.; Rouiller, E.M.; Jeanmonod, D.; Morel, A., 2000: Organization of thalamic projections to frontal motor areas m1, PMd, SMA and pre-SMA in relation to pallidothalamic pathways a multiple tracer study in monkey
In other words. . . . I always speak of the duality which exists everywhere. We put it towards technology-educationally, let us say-rather than towards humanity. And slowly I think many people are beginning to realize the importance of human beings. And a starving human being is a very important person, whether we know them or not. And I feel this greatly towards people.. PK: Well this. . . . Youre talking right now about a world view and a philosophy and I would like very much to wrap up later with that.. BW: Oh.. PK: Really what right now I was asking was about you specifically and the work itself and its connection to you; and basically I was trying to confirm what I think we were saying earlier-or what you were saying-that there is a direct connection, very direct connection between these things that you make. . . .. BW: Oh, yeah.. PK: . . . and your own life and experience.. BW: But definitely so. Because I feel we are what our life has been, and. . . .. PK: But we dont necessarily have ...
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The LightCONEX active blind mate optical interconnect for VPX systems includes a fixed plug-in module connector and a floating backplane connector.
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Reliability computer-aided design tool for full-chip electromigration analysis and comparison with different interconnect metallizations ...
We try to fit in one charity project a year at interconnect/it and this year it was the turn of the Plaza community cinema in Waterloo. Read on for the design…
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On stage at InterConnect 2017, IBM welcomes Twitters Chris Moody, IBMs Arvind Krishna and David Kenny as they discuss cloud technologies and the future.
Background Establishing appropriate neuronal circuitry is essential to proper function from the vertebrate nervous program. At E13.5(+1 DIV), the commissural projections shaped fascicles and crossed the midline in the handles. Enzyme treatment evidently did not influence the pioneer axons that got advanced as heavy fascicles normal towards the midline and beyond, on the contralateral VN. Projections Later, nevertheless, traversed the enzyme-treated matrix as unfasciculated fibers, deviated from the normal course crossing the midline at various angles and extending beyond the contralateral VN. This suggests that CSs also limit the course of the later projections, which otherwise would be attracted to alternative targets. Conclusions CS moieties in the early hindbrain therefore control the course and fasciculation of axonal projections and the timing of axonal arrival at the target. Background The establishment of correct neuronal circuitry is crucial for proper function of the vertebrate nervous ...
Diffusion-weighted imaging is often used as a starting point for in vivo white matter (wm) connectivity to reconstruct potential wm pathways between brain areas. In this study, we investigate the reproducibility of the connectivity matrix, resulting from different tractography parameters. We vary the number of streamlines used to construct the matrix in cortical to cortical connectivity and analyze its effects. We also compare the effect of probabilistic and deterministic local streamline tractography algorithms, seeding both from the wm and from wm-grey matter interface.
The brains of adults with autism may be wired differently from people without the disorder, and this abnormal pattern of connectivity may be
Explaining the work which is being published in Cerebral Cortex, Dr Kaiser, Reader in Neuroinformatics at Newcastle University, says: Long-distance connections are difficult to establish and maintain but are crucial for fast and efficient processing. If you think about a social network, nearby friends might give you very similar information - you might hear the same news from different people. People from different cities or countries are more likely to give you novel information. In the same way, some information flow within a brain module might be redundant whereas information from other modules, say integrating the optical information about a face with the acoustic information of a voice is vital in making sense of the outside world.. Brain pruned. The researchers at Newcastle, Glasgow and Seoul Universities evaluated the scans of 121 healthy participants between the ages of 4 and 40 years as this is where the major connectivity changes can be seen during this period of maturation and ...
A fault-tolerant, high-speed wafer scale system comprises a plurality of functional modules, a parallel hierarchical bus which is fault-tolerant to defects in an interconnect network, and one or more bus masters. This bus includes a plurality of bus lines segmented into sections and linked together by programmable bus switches and bus transceivers or repeaters in an interconnect network. By: 1) use of small block size (512K bit) for the memory modules; 2) use of programmable identification register to facilitate dynamic address mapping and relatively easy incorporation of global redundancy; 3) Use of a grid structure for the bus to provide global redundancy for the interconnect network; 4) Use of a relatively narrow bus consisting of 13 signal lines to keep the total area occupied by the bus small; 5) Use of segmented bus lines connected by programmable switches and of bus defects; 6) use of special circuit for bus transceivers and asynchronous handshakes to facilitate dynamic bus configuration; 7) use
Our results identify a novel set of regions in the rostral and dorsal striatum that concurrently exhibit structural and functional connectivity to orbitofrontal, lateral prefrontal, and posterior parietal regions of cortex. The location of these convergence zones is anatomically consistent with previous reports of parietal (Selemon and Goldman-Rakic, 1985, 1988; Cavada and Goldman-Rakic, 1991) and frontal (Haber et al., 1995; Averbeck et al., 2014) white matter projections, based on ex vivo nonhuman primate histology. Although the distribution of cortical regions associated with the striatal convergence zones differed to some degree between structural and functional connectivity measures, reflecting methodological limitations of each approach, a majority of cortical areas structurally connected to the convergence zones also showed strong functional connectivity. This supports the notion that these corticostriatal projections form an integrative functional circuit.. The current findings support a ...
0025] In FIG. 2A, interconnect transitional component 210 may include a microstrip line 212, a via 214, and a strip line 216. Microstrip line 212 may include a portion of the interconnect transitional component 210 that is disposed on an outer surface of a conductive plane, such as conductive plane 202, but electrically insulated from the conductive plane by non-conductive material (not shown). In some embodiments, microstrip line 212 may be disposed at least partially on a top or bottom surface of the electronic packaging structure 200. Microstrip line 212 may be used to connect the electronic packaging structure 200 with external signal sources/destinations and/or other electronic units. Via 214 may be a portion of the interconnect transitional component 210 that passes through one or more conductive planes, such as plane 202 of FIG. 2A, but electronically insulated from the conductive plane(s) being passed through by non-conductive material. For example, via 214 may pass conductive plane 202 ...
The enhancement of the original SC matrix is based on the addition of new links for pairs of nodes according to the corresponding FC between those nodes. The algorithm starts by first normalizing the maximal value of the empirical FC matrix (FCe) to 1. Then, the initial tolerance level is set to 1 and, starting with the original empirical SC matrix at the corresponding bifurcation (instability of the spontaneous state), the simulated FC matrix (FCs) is created. In doing this, the global scaling parameter G is adjusted such that the system works at the edge of the bifurcation where the spontaneous state loses stability (as shown by Deco et al., 2013, at that particular point the system optimally fits the FC and maximally reflects the underlying SC). Then, the tolerance is reduced (in our case by steps of 0.025, i.e., T = T − 0.025) and the simulated and empirical FC is checked for all connections. For all connections where ,FCeij − FCsij, , T, the identified SC links are redefined to be equal ...
To study the anatomy of the fiber tracts and their relevance for the structural connectivity of the brain, we investigate different organizational levels, from large fiber bundles up to the fanning of these bundles into single fibers in the cortex. This is achieved by combining different in-vivo and post-mortem imaging techniques. We particularly focus on the investigation of connectivity in the posterior part of the brain, i.e. parietal and occipital cortex, for understanding the paths for information processing from the visual system into the multimodal association cortices of the parietal lobe and subsequently, into areas of the frontal lobe. To integrate effects of genetic and environmental influences on connectivity, we use data from large epidemiological population studies with thousands of subjects, to which the Connectivity group is contributing (1000BRAINS; German National Cohort ...
Researchers report too many connections form between neurons in the cerebellum and learning difficulties are expressed in mice who lack the RNF8 gene.
What: Novel ways to probe brain function: beyond stationary functional connectivity measurements Where: BCBL auditorium Who: Thomas Bolton. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, School of Life Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland When: 12 PM
Extreme Networks designs, builds and implements sophisticated Ethernet solutions for the toughest challenges in network connectivity and IP-based communications.
ABSTRACT: Although the amygdala complex is a brain area critical for human behavior, knowledge of its subspecialization is primarily derived from experiments in animals. We here employed methods for large-scale data mining to perform a connectivity-derived parcellation of the human amygdala based on whole-brain coactivation patterns computed for each seed voxel. Voxels within the histologically defined human amygdala were clustered into distinct groups based on their brain-wide coactivation maps. Using this approach, connectivity-based parcellation divided the amygdala into three distinct clusters that are highly consistent with earlier microstructural distinctions. Meta-analytic connectivity modelling then revealed the derived clusters brain-wide connectivity patterns, while meta-data profiling allowed their functional characterization. These analyses revealed that the amygdalas laterobasal nuclei group was associated with coordinating high-level sensory input, whereas its centromedial nuclei ...
Ken Mogi1) & Yoshi Tamori2) In this paper, we discuss two fundamental aspects of cortical information processing. The first aspect concerns the principles of neural coding. We argue that unlike todays digital computer, the elementary coding units in the brain should be a cluster of bits connected via synaptic interaction (interaction-connected bits) rather than a set of bits which may not be interaction-connected. Specifically, it is not the mapping between patterns of neural firings and some concepts or objects but the internal relation between the neural activities that characterise the neural code. In other words, the code should be embedded in the dynamics of the system, rather than in an abstract lookup table. In order to establish this point, we review recent research directions in brain science, especially as regards cortical information representation, with an emphasis on the non-local character of the neural code. The second aspect concerns more systematic features of cortical ...
Neurosurgical management of brain tumours has entered a new paradigm where resection is extended into the peri-tumoural margin to minimise the potential for recurrence or malignant transformation. Maximising the resection whilst minimising harm is complicated by difficulty in determining the edge of the tumour and limitations in mapping the function of apparently normal brain tissue surrounding the tumour.. Our group aim to address the problem of accurately mapping cognitive functions in a way that is of value to surgeons by using connectomics to create functional and structural wiring diagrams of the brain. Connectomics uses white matter connectivity and the synchronicity of brain signals measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to model the brain as a continuously interacting communication networks. The way these brain networks are organized is intimately related to cognitive functions, and is believed to be sensitive to changes in these networks due to injury or surgery. Consequently, ...
To understand the importance of this improvement, we need to make a short excursion into network theory. This field of study maps various objects and the relationships among them into nodes and edges respectively: the nodes are points on a graph, the edges are lines connecting them. The resulting network can then be analyzed without reference to how those objects relate, considering only which objects relate (are connected by an edge) to which, how many relationships (edges) each object has, looking at averages, loops, path lengths between nodes without direct connections, and so on. Obviously, creating a bunch of new edges, connecting previously unconnected nodes, will change the characteristics of the network. It will be more tightly connected, and potentially modules that were only distantly connected will now be cross-talking ...
We appreciate the opportunity to help further Mayor Jacksons vision for properly connecting downtown to Clevelands greatest natural resource, the lake, Dee and Jimmy Haslam said. Lakefront connectivity has long been a complicated issue for our region, and a long-term solution has been elusive. Our preliminary vision, led by a landscape architect with experience around the world, intends to create a transformational pedestrian pathway unlocking public spaces and significant development opportunities on the lakefront. It would create year-round destinations accessible to our entire region, provide direct connections to nature and result in substantial economic development while driving density and engagement in the lakefront neighborhood our community shares. We recognize that there is a long road ahead for a project of this magnitude. ...
Extracranial brain tissue without a direct connection to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneous embryonic defect, usually on occipital or parietal areas of the scalp. It is also known as heterotopic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain (CEB).
Neural pathways and circuits of the cerebellum[edit]. Neural pathways and circuits in the cerebellum ... Eccles JC, Ito M, Szentagothai J (1967). The cerebellum as a neural machine. Springer-Verlag. p. 56. doi:10.1007/978-3-662- ...
Neural pathway anatomy[edit]. The pupillary light reflex neural pathway on the each side has an afferent limb and two efferent ... Referring to the neural pathway schematic diagram, the entire pupillary light reflex system can be visualized as having eight ... The rest of the pupillary light reflex neural pathway on both sides are otherwise intact.) *The ipsilateral direct reflex is ... Left direct light reflex involves neural segments 1, 5, and 7. Segment 1 is the afferent limb, which includes the retina and ...
See also: Neural pathways. The major neurotransmitter systems are the noradrenaline (norepinephrine) system, the dopamine ... Kandel, Eric R (1991). Principles of Neural Science. East Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton & Lang. pp. 872-873. ISBN 978-0-8385- ... Kandel, Eric R (1991). Principles of Neural Science. East Norwalk, Connecticut: Appleton & Lang. pp. 872-873. ISBN 978-0-8385- ... The dopamine or dopaminergic system consists of several pathways, originating from the ventral tegmentum or substantia nigra as ...
Kow LM, Pfaff DW (May 1998). "Mapping of neural and signal transduction pathways for lordosis in the search for estrogen ... "Estrogen masculinizes neural pathways and sex-specific behaviors". Cell. 139 (1): 61-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.07.036. PMC ... Häggström, Mikael; Richfield, David (2014). "Diagram of the pathways of human steroidogenesis". WikiJournal of Medicine. 1 (1 ... This diagram illustrates the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of estrogens (i.e., estradiol, estrone, and estriol ...
The efferent neural pathway then follows, with relevant signals transmitted back from the cerebral cortex and medulla via the ... This is the afferent neural pathway. Unlike other areas responsible for involuntary actions like swallowing, there is no ...
Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Rueger MA, Mkhikian H, Korb E, McKay RD (2008). "Signaling pathways controlling neural stem cells ... "Neural Stem Cells May Rescue Memory In Advanced Alzheimer's, Mouse Study Suggests". ScienceDaily.. ... Mesenchymal stem cells that are induced to a neural cell fate are loaded onto a porous scaffold and are then implanted at the ... Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. ...
Fuxe K, Manger P, Genedani S, Agnati L (2006). "The nigrostriatal DA pathway and Parkinson's disease". J. Neural Transm. Suppl ... Further information: Dopaminergic pathways. Dopamine receptors control neural signaling that modulates many important behaviors ... Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementa. 70 (70): 71-83. doi:10.1007/978-3-211-45295-0_13. ISBN 978-3-211-28927-3. PMID ... Neves SR, Ram PT, Iyengar R (2002). "G protein pathways". Science. 296 (5573): 1636-9. Bibcode:2002Sci...296.1636N. doi:10.1126 ...
"The biochemical pathways of central nervous system neural degeneration in niacin deficiency". Neural Regeneration Research. 9 ( ... BDNF can promote protective pathways and inhibit damaging pathways in the NSCs and NPCs that contribute to the brain's ... The activation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway is important in the development of short-term memory and the growth of neurons.[ ... BDNF mediates more pathways involved in these enrichment-induced processes than any other molecule and is strongly regulated by ...
Ren R, Racaniello V (1992). "Poliovirus spreads from muscle to the central nervous system by neural pathways". J Infect Dis. ... TgPVR1 mice are susceptible to poliovirus through the intraspinal, intracerebral, intramuscular, and intravenous pathways, but ... to the spinal cord through nerve pathways via retrograde axonal transport.[41][42][43] A third hypothesis is that the virus is ... "Poliovirus cell entry: common structural themes in viral cell entry pathways". Annu Rev Microbiol. 56: 677-702. doi:10.1146/ ...
Central visual pathways". Principles of neural science. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 533-540. ISBN 978-0-8385-7701-1. OCLC ... These are divided into anterior and posterior pathways. The anterior visual pathway refers to structures involved in vision ... After that, the visual pathway is roughly separated into a ventral and dorsal pathway). ... The posterior visual pathway refers to structures after this point. EyeEdit. Main articles: Eye and Anterior segment of eyeball ...
"Notch and EGFR pathway interaction regulates neural stem cell number and self-renewal". Nature. 467 (7313): 323-7. doi:10.1038/ ... it was shown that the balance between neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is maintained by an interaction ... Along with the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, the subventricular zone serves as a source of neural stem cells (NSCs) in ... Additionally, the neural stem cell population within the SVZ is likely responsible for this injury response.[17] ...
Bernstein, LE; Liebenthal, E (2014). "Neural pathways for visual speech perception". Front Neurosci. 8: 386. doi:10.3389/fnins. ... Machine-based speechreading is now making successful use of neural-net based algorithms which use large databases of speakers ... Van Wassenhove, V; Grant, KW; Poeppel, D (Jan 2005). "Visual speech speeds up the neural processing of auditory speech". ... Following the discovery that auditory brain regions, including Heschl's gyrus, were activated by seen speech, the neural ...
"Role of Fanconi DNA repair pathway in neural stem cell homeostasis". Cell Cycle. 7 (13): 1911-5. doi:10.4161/cc.7.13.6235. PMID ... Sii-Felice et al., 2008). This effect persists in adulthood leading to depletion of the neural stem cell pool with aging. The ... Castillo P, Bogliolo M, Surralles J (2011). "Coordinated action of the Fanconi anemia and ataxia telangiectasia pathways in ... 2001). "Direct interactions of the five known Fanconi anaemia proteins suggest a common functional pathway". Hum. Mol. Genet. ...
Is object permanence really an inbred response to the neural pathways developing in young minds? Studies suggest that a ... "The neural mechanisms of object working memory: What is where in the infant brain?". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. ...
An example is neural KCNQ/M (Kv7) potassium channelosome (see Delmas & Brown, 2005). Delmas, P.; Brown, D. A. (2005). "Pathways ... modulating neural KCNQ/M (Kv7) potassium channels". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 6 (11): 850-62. doi:10.1038/nrn1785. PMID ...
Wild JM (1997). "Neural pathways for the control of birdsong production". Journal of Neurobiology. 33 (5): 653-670. doi:10.1002 ... Humans also have a vocal pathway that is analogous to the avian anterior pathway. This pathway is a cortico-basal ganglia- ... Parallel to the avian posterior vocal pathway mentioned above is the motor cortico-brainstem pathway. Within this pathway, the ... the posterior pathway communicates with the anterior pathway via projections from the HVC to Area X; the anterior pathway sends ...
Kow LM, Pfaff DW (May 1998). "Mapping of neural and signal transduction pathways for lordosis in the search for estrogen ... October 2009). "Estrogen masculinizes neural pathways and sex-specific behaviors". Cell. 139 (1): 61-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... The pathway of estrogen biosynthesis in extragonadal tissues is different. These tissues are not able to synthesize C19 ... Nadkarni S, Cooper D, Brancaleone V, Bena S, Perretti M (November 2011). "Activation of the annexin A1 pathway underlies the ...
The neural layout and pathways within the hippocampal formation are very similar in all mammals.[3] ... The Neural Basis of Navigation: Evidence from Single Cell Recording. Springer. ISBN 978-0-7923-7579-1.. CS1 maint: Extra text: ... The glutamatergic pathways have been seen to be largely affected. The subfield CA1 is seen to be the least involved of the ... This place-related neural activity in the hippocampus has also been reported in monkeys that were moved around a room whilst in ...
An important example is the Notch signaling pathway, notably involved in neural development.[2] ... It has a critical role in development, particularly of cardiac and neural function. Other types of cell signaling include ...
Multiple neural pathways relay information integral to interoceptive processing from the body to the brain. these include the ... lamina I spinothalamic pathway, the visceroceptive pathway, and the somatosensory pathway. The lamina I spinothalamic pathway ... Interoceptive signals are projected to the brain via a diversity of neural pathways that allow for the sensory processing and ... Davenport, Paul W.; Vovk, Andrea (2009). "Cortical and subcortical central neural pathways in respiratory sensations". ...
This shows that the neural pathways have predetermined features that allow for such a phenomenon to occur. The pathways are ... Not only are songbird and human language parallel regarding neural and molecular factors, they also are similar in how their ...
Conduction velocity, the speed at which an electrochemical impulse propagates down a neural pathway ...
Poulet, JFA; Hedwig B (2006). "New insights into corollary discharges mediated by identified neural pathways". Trends in ... The inhibitory commands originate at the same time as the motor command and target the sensory pathway that would report any ... This is unique from the efference copy, since the corollary discharge is actually fed into the sensory pathway to cancel out ... However, these fish display corollary discharges that inhibit the ascending sensory pathway at the first CNS relay point. These ...
Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Rueger MA, Mkhikian H, Korb E, McKay RD (2008). "Signaling pathways controlling neural stem cells ... recent work suggests that pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells or neural precursor cells results in ... Neural stem cells (NSC) reside in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult human brain and the dentate gyrus of the adult ... August 2009). "Targeting neural precursors in the adult brain rescues injured dopamine neurons". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
The neural pathways to these neurons are called delay lines. Jeffress claimed that the neurons that the delay lines link act as ... and forming associations between separate neural events. This concept has led to a greater understanding of neural processes ... Consider a basic neural circuit with two input neurons, A and B, that have excitatory synaptic terminals converging on a single ... Coincidence detection in the context of neurobiology is a process by which a neuron or a neural circuit can encode information ...
Eisenberger, N.I.; Taylor, S.E.; Gable, S.L.; Hilmert, C.J.; Lieberman, M.D. (2007). "Neural pathways link social support to ... Many studies have tried to identify biopsychosocial pathways for the link between social support and health. Social support has ... "Neural correlates of giving support to a loved one". Psychosomatic Medicine. 74 (1): 3-7. doi:10.1097/psy.0b013e3182359335. ...
Eisenberger, N. I.; Taylor, S. E.; Gable, S. L.; Hilmert, C. J.; Lieberman, M. D. (2007). "Neural pathways link social support ... Taylor, S. E.; Eisenberger, N. I.; Saxbe, D.; Lehman, B. J.; Lieberman, M. D. (2006). "Neural responses to emotional stimuli ... "Neural bases of moderation of cortisol stress responses by psychosocial resources". Journal of Personality and Social ... and environments have deficits in emotion regulation in response to stressful circumstance that can be seen at the neural level ...
"Neural pathways link social support to attenuated neuroendocrine stress responses". NeuroImage. 35 (4): 1601-1612. doi:10.1016/ ... and neural responses to threat, as well as longevity and physical health. The presence of others is theorized to help ...
Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Rueger MA, Mkhikian H, Korb E, McKay RD (2008). "Signaling pathways controlling neural stem cells ... August 2009). "Targeting neural precursors in the adult brain rescues injured dopamine neurons". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... Mesenchymal stem cells that are induced to a neural cell fate are loaded onto a porous scaffold and are then implanted at the ... Ryu HH, Lim JH, Byeon YE, Park JR, Seo MS, Lee YW, Kim WH, Kang KS, Kweon OK (2009). "Functional recovery and neural ...
"FoxOs cooperatively regulate diverse pathways governing neural stem cell homeostasis". Cell Stem Cell. 5 (5): 540-53. doi: ... He established the concept of tumor maintenance, discovered a core pathway of aging and demonstrated that aging is a reversible ... "p53 and Pten control neural and glioma stem/progenitor cell renewal and differentiation". Nature. 455 (7216): 1129-1133. ... "Glutamine supports pancreatic cancer growth through a KRAS-regulated metabolic pathway". Nature. 496 (7443): 101-105. Bibcode: ...
... such as neural modeling, brain theory and neural networks. The proceedings of this definitional meeting were published in 1990 ... Some models are also tracking biochemical pathways at very small scales such as spines or synaptic clefts. ... Browne, A. (1997-01-01). Neural Network Perspectives on Cognition and Adaptive Robotics. CRC Press. ISBN 9780750304559.. ... Michael A. Arbib; Shun-ichi Amari; Prudence H. Arbib (2002). The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge, ...
... beneficial to identify the gene responsible by a cross-validation of genes within the interacting loci with metabolic pathway- ...
A further source of research upon the neural processes of subitizing compared to counting comes from positron emission ... Robertson, L.; Treisman, A.; Freidman-Hill, S. & Grabowecky, M. (1997). "The interaction of spatial and object pathways: ...
The exact causes of listener fatigue and the associated pathways and mechanisms are still being studied. Some of the popular ... "Fatigue sensation induced by the sounds associated with mental fatigue and its related neural activities: revealed by ... Impact of Temporary and Permanent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss on Neuronal Cell Density in the Mouse Central Auditory Pathway. [ ...
Different emetic pathways exist, and substance P/NK1R appears to be within the final common pathway to regulate vomiting.[36] ... Park SW, Yan YP, Satriotomo I, Vemuganti R, Dempsey RJ (Sep 2007). "Substance P is a promoter of adult neural progenitor cell ... Because these regions are related to complexed signal transduction pathways mediated by cytokines, it has been proposed that ... "Delineation of the endocytic pathway of substance P and its seven-transmembrane domain NK1 receptor". Molecular Biology of the ...
Immordino-Yang MH, McColl A, Damasio H, Damasio A. (2009). «Neural correlates of admiration and compassion». Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Rapid interactions between the ventral visual stream and emotion-related structures rely on a two-pathway architecture» (PDF). ... Meyer K, Damasio A. (2009). «Convergence and divergence in a neural architecture for recognition and memory». Trends in ... Parvizi J, Van Hoesen G, Buckwalter J, Damasio A. (2006). «Neural connections of the posteromedial cortex in the macaque: ...
It was discovered that there are parallel pathways for vision - one classic rod and cone-based pathway arising from the outer ... Kandel, E. R.; Schwartz, J.H.; Jessell, T.M. (2000). Principles of Neural Science (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 507-513 ... The signal transduction pathway is the mechanism by which the energy of a photon signals a mechanism in the cell that leads to ... The steps, or signal transduction pathway, in the vertebrate eye's rod and cone photoreceptors are then: *The rhodopsin or ...
β-catenin of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway plays a role in cell fate determination, as it is critical for ... Conditional inactivation of TGF-βr2 of osteochondroprogenitor cells in the cranial neural crest resulted in faster ... Knock out of the entire pathway results in early embryonic death, therefore most research of this nature utilised conditional ... Loss of the regulator, Pten, of the Phophatidylinositol3' kinase pathway results in skeletal overgrowth and growth plate ...
Neural injections of Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) were applied to males of both groups to test for neurogenesis. Analysis showed ... Häggström, Mikael; Richfield, David (2014). "Diagram of the pathways of human steroidogenesis". WikiJournal of Medicine. 1 (1 ... Androgens have potential roles in relaxation of the myometrium via non-genomic, androgen receptor-independent pathways, ... results indicate androgens inhibit the ability of some fat cells to store lipids by blocking a signal transduction pathway that ...
There are three major types of bladder dysfunction due to neural lesions: (1) the type due to interruption of the afferent ... the type due to interruption of facilitatory and inhibitory pathways descending from the brain. In all three types the bladder ... even though the neural activity associated with a full bladder comes from the bladder itself, and can be felt there as well. In ...
... vs tricyclic antidepressants and vs placebo in depressive states". Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum. 28 ... The unchanged drug (less than 1%) as well as the metabolites are excreted renally (in urine). The main degradation pathway of ... less pronounced than the inhibition of the metabolite of noradrenaline which suggest there are other major metabolic pathways ...
Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM (2000). Principles of Neural Science (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 182-185. ISBN 978 ... bipolar and ganglion cells pass those signals from S cones and there is evidence that they have a separate signal pathway ...
canonical Wnt signaling pathway. • dorsal/ventral neural tube patterning. • neural retina development. • positive regulation of ... Wnt signaling pathway[edit]. Wnt signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in several critical steps in embryogenesis and ... Notch signaling pathway[edit]. In Notch signaling, critical proteolytic reactions takes place during maturation and activation ... Notch signaling pathway. • negative regulation of protein phosphorylation. • myeloid leukocyte differentiation. • neuron ...
The CNS regulates the immune system through neuroendocrine pathways, such as the HPA axis. The HPA axis is responsible for ... Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 10: Neural and Neuroendocrine Control of the Internal Milieu". In Sydor A, ... though via different pathways.[16] Several monoamine neurotransmitters are important in regulating the HPA axis, especially ... At least one human study has identified maternal neural activity patterns in response to video stimuli of mother-infant ...
Recently, John Aitken and Otakaro Pathways have discovered a method to culture MAP from human blood. Testing is ongoing. ... Common Neural and Immune Pathogenicities". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 45 (12): 3883-3890. doi:10.1128/JCM.01371-07. ISSN ...
Swartz Center for the Neural Mechanisms of Cognition studies cognition in the normal brain as a baseline for understanding ... "Optimization of crop productivity in tomato using induced mutations in the florigen pathway". Nature Genetics. 46: 1337-1342. ... Other research foci: autism genetics; mapping of the mammalian brain; neural correlates of decision making. ...
Multiple pathways for the conversion of different biofuel feedstocks are being used. In the next few years, the cost data of ...
... they showed that both pure monetary rewards and charitable donations activated the mesolimbic reward pathway, a primitive part ... provided the first evidence for the neural bases of altruistic giving in normal healthy volunteers, using functional magnetic ...
One neuron may have as many as 20,000 connections; there is between 100 trillion and 500 trillion neural connections in the ... "Childhood trauma and psychosis: evidence, pathways, and implications". J Postgrad Med 54: 287-293. PMID 18953148. http://www. ... and they are connected by neural networks which is like the brain's wiring. It is believed that there are problems with the ...
Odor molecules can enter the peripheral pathway and reach the nasal cavity either through the nostrils when inhaling (olfaction ... How the bulbar neural circuit transforms odor inputs to the bulb to the bulbar responses that are sent to the olfactory cortex ... Stria terminalis, specifically bed nuclei (BNST), act as the information pathway between the amygdala and hypothalamus, as well ... "The Journal of NeuroscienceSociety for Neuroscience." Parallel Mitral and Tufted Cell Pathways Route Distinct Odor Information ...
Sachs JL, Simms EL (2006). "Pathways to mutualism breakdown". TREE. 21 (10): 585-592.. ... simulations with artificial neural networks". Proc. Biol. Sci. 274 (1611): 827-32. doi:10.1098/rspb.2006.3760. PMC 2093981. ...
The pathway by which SOD-catalyzed dismutation of superoxide may be written, for Cu,Zn SOD, with the following reactions : ... Hence, high levels of free radicals can cause damage to them and induce dysraphic anomalies (neural tube defects).[citation ... Overexpression of SOD1 has been linked to the neural disorders seen in Down syndrome.[38] In patients with thalassemia, SOD ... SOD and Oxidative Stress Pathway Image. *Historical information on SOD research"The evolution of Free Radical Biology & ...
Both OECs and neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) have been successfully transplanted in the central nervous system of adult ... "Human herpesvirus-6 entry into the central nervous system through the olfactory pathway". Proceedings of the National Academy ... One study has investigated the use of peptide modified gellan gum as the biomaterial with OECs and neural stem/progenitor cells ... Transplantation of OECs into the spinal cord has become a possible therapy for spinal cord damage and other neural diseases in ...
This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory system.[111] ...
"The kisspeptin-GnRH pathway in human reproductive health and disease". Human Reproduction Update. 20 (4): 485-500. doi:10.1093 ... Neural hearing impairment[2]. *Absence of one of the kidneys (unilateral renal agenesis)[2] ...
In this neutralisation pathway, TRIM21 (a protein of the tripartite motif family) binds with immunoglobulin G to direct the ... Dysregulation of the ubiquitin proteasome system may contribute to several neural diseases. It may lead to brain tumors such as ... The proteasomal degradation pathway is essential for many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, the regulation of gene ... Orlowski RZ (April 1999). "The role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in apoptosis". Cell Death and Differentiation. 6 (4): ...
Neural regulation[edit]. The innate immune response to infectious and sterile injury is modulated by neural circuits that ... Both pathways converge in the recruitment and activation of the IKKε/TBK-1 complex, inducing dimerization of transcription ... The inflammatory reflex is a prototypical neural circuit that controls cytokine production in the spleen.[13] Action potentials ... The motor arc of the inflammatory reflex is termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. ...
... knockout mice do not acquire compensatory gene expression changes or develop neural lesions over time". Neurobiol. Dis. 14 (1 ... "Pathways towards and away from Alzheimer's disease". Nature 430 (7000): 631-9. PMC 3091392. PMID 15295589. doi:10.1038/ ... "A paravascular pathway facilitates CSF flow through the brain parenchyma and the clearance of interstitial solutes, including ...
Much smaller cable size-important where pathway is limited, such as networking an existing building, where smaller channels can ...
These are archetypal examples of neural pathways.[citation needed] Basal ganglia pathways and dopamine[edit]. Neural pathways ... Therefore, most neural pathways are made up of axons.[citation needed] If the axons have myelin sheaths, then the pathway ... It has been proposed that the dopamine system of pathways is the overall organiser of the neural pathways that are seen to be ... In the hippocampus there are neural pathways involved in its circuitry including the perforant pathway, that provides a ...
Create a weekly email alert for: Neural pathways You can change these options by clicking profile then "Alerts and ... Inferring neural circuit properties from optogenetic stimulation Michael Avery, Jonathan Nassi, John Reynolds ... Does emotion regulation engage the same neural circuit as working memory? A meta-analytical comparison between cognitive ... Get an email alert for Neural pathways * Get the RSS feed for Neural pathways ...
Researchers discover a neural circuit that controls appetite in mice. Switching it off or on causes full mice to eat as if ... Appetite-regulating neural pathway identified. Research Update April 27, 2015. A team including NIDDK researchers discovered a ... A neural basis for melanocortin-4 receptor regulated appetite. Nature Neuroscience. 2015;18(6):863-871. ... neural circuit that controls appetite in the brains of mice. Using a wide array of multidisciplinary techniques, the team found ...
... distinct neural pathways. In general, the sympathetic nervous system is perhaps best known for mediating the neuronal and ... The newly discovered pathway has a key role in controlling bone density during adolescence, which in turn determines the ... As in the bone and the heart, the new pathway might have an important function as well in other organs controlled by the ... The sympathetic pathway, on the other hand, generally works to promote maintenance of the body at rest. ...
... Am J Physiol. 1991 Jul;261(1 Pt 1):E18-25. doi: ...
... but so can neural pathways and even gene expression itself. ... Chopra, Tanzi Share How To Change Neural Pathways And Even Gene ... but so can neural pathways and even gene expression itself. And our first line of healing lies inside of us. ... Your neural network creates your personality and how you see the world. You have hundreds of billions of neurons and tens of ... When you form a new habit, not only are their changes in the neurocircuitry or neural network but also in the genes or ...
University of Michigan researchers are unlocking the secrets of neural pathways in the brain. ... Mapping the brain: Probes with tiny LEDs shed light on neural pathways. University of Michigan ... Mapping the brain: Probes with tiny LEDs shed light on neural pathways ... University of Michigan researchers are unlocking the secrets of neural pathways in the brain. ...
Subthalamic Neurons Coordinate Basal Ganglia Function through Differential Neural Pathways. Yasunobu Yasoshima, Nobuyuki Kai, ... Subthalamic Neurons Coordinate Basal Ganglia Function through Differential Neural Pathways. Yasunobu Yasoshima, Nobuyuki Kai, ... Subthalamic Neurons Coordinate Basal Ganglia Function through Differential Neural Pathways Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Subthalamic Neurons Coordinate Basal Ganglia Function through Differential Neural Pathways. Yasunobu Yasoshima, Nobuyuki Kai, ...
The results provide a clear diagram of the stimulus-to-behavior neural process that is frequently carried out by human brains, ... They monitored the brain cells in the females auditory pathway and could observe her neural activity from the moment a male ... Fly brains reveal the neural pathway by which outside stimuli become behavior by Morgan Kelly, Office of Communications ... Though seemingly instantaneous, our responses to lifes many sights and sounds are the result of neural pathways that select ...
... neural pathways include An Introduction to Neuroanatomy, Revealing Neural Circuit Topography in Multi-Color, Anatomically ... Measuring and Manipulating Functionally Specific Neural Pathways in the Human Motor System with Transcranial Magnetic ... A Useful Tool As a Marker of Central Pathways Involved in Specific Physiological Responses In Vivo and Ex Vivo, Measurement ... Multi-Fiber Photometry to Record Neural Activity in Freely-Moving Animals, A Simple Way to Measure Alterations in Reward- ...
These signatures may be useful for diagnostics and for the resolution of infection pathways that can be used to harvest ... of technical and inferential variance we were able to pinpoint Zika infection affected pathways that highlight Zikas neural ... refining pathway predictions and revealing isoform-specific dynamics. Methodology/Principal findings We analyzed data published ... infected human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) revealed transcriptional dysregulation and identified cell cycle-related ...
SOX2-LIN28/let-7 pathway regulates proliferation and neurogenesis in neural precursors. Flavio Cimadamore, Alejandro Amador- ... SOX2-LIN28/let-7 pathway regulates proliferation and neurogenesis in neural precursors ... Wnt1-Cre mice resulted in conditional deletion of SOX2 in embryonic dorsal neural tubes and neural crest derivatives. This ... SOX2-LIN28/let-7 pathway regulates NPC biology. Flavio Cimadamore, Alejandro Amador-Arjona, Connie Chen, Chun-Teng Huang, ...
... Nature. 2013 Apr 11;496(7444):219-23. ... Here we investigate if and how defined neural projections arising from a single coordinating brain region in mice could mediate ...
Neural pathways of stress integration: relevance to alcohol abuse. by Alcohol Research: Current Reviews; Health, general ... APA style: Neural pathways of stress integration: relevance to alcohol abuse.. (n.d.) >The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Sep ... MLA style: "Neural pathways of stress integration: relevance to alcohol abuse.." The Free Library. 2012 U.S. Government ... In addition to neural pathways, information on changes in physiological state also may be relayed via circulating factors that ...
... neural networks, neural pathways, neurologist, neurons, neurosurgeon, Newsy Guts, People With Guts ...
Neural microcircuits across various species and brain regions are similar in terms of their repertoire of neurotransmitters, ... The functions performed by different neural microcircuits depend on the anatomical and physiological properties of the various ... Synaptic pathways in neural microcircuits Silberberg, G. ; Grillner, S. ; LeBeau, F. E. ; Maex, R.[...] ... Neural microcircuits across various species and brain regions are similar in terms of their repertoire of neurotransmitters, ...
... exploring neural pathophysiological pathways and improving diagnostic strategies. Leiden Repository. Obesity: exploring neural ... pathophysiological pathways and improving diagnostic strategies. Type: Doctoral Thesis. Title: Obesity: exploring neural ... This thesis describes investigations in the neural pathophysiological mechanisms leading to obesity with a specific focus on ...
In this re-view, it is attempted to newly delineate the underlying neural pathways for this post-sensory nociceptive- ... Based on the con-temporary feedback neural circuits of pain transmission in spinal cord, it is summarized that the Aδ- and C- ... Cai, Z. (2019) The Neural Pathways for the Hypothetic Nociceptive-Sympathetic Coupling of NBA for Pain Sensation. Open Access ... The Neural Pathways for the Hypothetic Nociceptive-Sympathetic Coupling of NBA for Pain Sensation ...
... such as a gene within the cytokeratins pathway) and visualizing how the perturbation impacts a particular dependent variable. ... ... Sensitivity Analysis of Transition Phases of Perturbed Gene Pathways with a Neural Network. Website Address:https:// ... such as a gene within the cytokeratins pathway) and visualizing how the perturbation impacts a particular dependent variable. ...
Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) domains and intracellular signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of astrocyte ... Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) domains and intracellular signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of astrocyte ... Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) domains and intracellular signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of astrocyte ... Neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) domains and intracellular signaling pathways involved in the inhibition of astrocyte ...
Thats because learning new stuff builds shiny new neural pathways, synaptic connections that compensate for brain cells lost ... Does having babies make new neural pathways? (If so, are there any remaining brain cells to traverse the pathways?!) After two ... My Shiny New Neural Pathways by Harley. The best way to stay mentally young, as you probably know, is to learn new stuff. ... Thats gold! You cant buy those neural pathways.. All it takes is the willingness to look like an idiot. You could learn the ...
... to identify the disrupted neural pathways (paths made up of brain cells that communicate with one another) in patients with ...
... Tingting Dou, Mengling Yan ... "Nrf2/ARE Pathway Involved in Oxidative Stress Induced by Paraquat in Human Neural Progenitor Cells," Oxidative Medicine and ...
In this study, we investigated the oxidative stress effect of Paraquat (PQ) on immortalized human embryonic neural progenitor ... The results suggested that Nrf2/ARE pathway is involved in mild to moderate PQ-induced oxidative stress which is evident from ... Nrf2/ARE Pathway Involved in Oxidative Stress Induced by Paraquat in Human Neural Progenitor Cells. ... In the apoptosis pathway, caspase-dependent mitochondria pathway plays a decisive role. Divergent cellular stresses promote the ...
In an age when genetics and genomics research is progressing so fast that not even new teachers are up to date, two Web sites created at the University of Utahs Genetic Science Learning Center are providing an excellent source of new material while educating a hugely diverse audience of users.. Because of their value as educational tools, Learn.Genetics and Teach.Genetics are being honored with the Science Prize for Online Resources in Education.. ...
It not only took Destin eight months to learn to ride the backward bike; he also struggled to recreate the neural pathway that ... Second, we know we can considerably speed up the process of creating a new neural pathway if we are constantly refreshing the ... It took Destin working every day for 8 months, 5-10 minutes a day, to finally reprogram his neural pathways to successfully ... Google "IKKOS" for some pretty amazing research and products regarding altering neural pathways "permanently." The product was ...
... Ji-hye Paik,1 Zhihu Ding,1 Rujuta ... The FoxO transcriptome is also notable for regulatory factors of the Wnt pathway, a pathway whose stringent control is required ... l) Expression of FoxO1 and 3 in Nestin+ neural progenitors of VZ from boxed region of panel (j-k) is examined. Note that FoxO 1 ... Morshead CM, Reynolds BA, Craig CG, McBurney MW, Staines WA, Morassutti D, Weiss S, van der Kooy D. Neural stem cells in the ...
MECP2 Duplication Causes Aberrant GABA Pathways, Circuits and Behaviors in Transgenic Monkeys: Neural Mappings to Patients with ... MECP2 Duplication Causes Aberrant GABA Pathways, Circuits and Behaviors in Transgenic Monkeys: Neural Mappings to Patients with ... MECP2 Duplication Causes Aberrant GABA Pathways, Circuits and Behaviors in Transgenic Monkeys: Neural Mappings to Patients with ... MECP2 Duplication Causes Aberrant GABA Pathways, Circuits and Behaviors in Transgenic Monkeys: Neural Mappings to Patients with ...
... with frontal neural crest derived osteoblasts benefitting from greater osteogenic potential. We outline how this model has been ... Furthermore, we explore recent studies which have provided a tantalizing insight into way these pathways interact, with ... pathways which govern the osteoblast lineage including FGF, BMP, Wnt and TGFβ signaling. ... The cranial neural crest (CNC), which originates in the portion of the neural tube from the neural fold anterior to rhombomere ...
  • For circuits of neurons, see Neural circuit . (
  • A neural pathway is the connection formed by axons that project from neurons to make synapses onto neurons in another location, to enable a signal to be sent from one region of the nervous system to another. (
  • ANN ARBOR -- With the help of light-emitting diodes as small as neurons, University of Michigan researchers are unlocking the secrets of neural pathways in the brain. (
  • These results suggest that the STN neurons suppress spontaneous behavior through their direct projection to the output neurons and that, in response to DA, they contribute to expression of behavior by acting on the output neurons mainly through the GP-mediated pathways. (
  • Our results provide evidence that the STN neurons act to coordinate basal ganglia function through differential neural pathways dependent on the state of DA transmission. (
  • They attached small electrodes to individual neurons in the auditory pathway of a female fly's brain to record electrical activity as she heard male mating songs, which the male generates by vibrating his wings. (
  • The researchers used these behavioral data along with electrical recordings from neurons in female flies' auditory pathway to construct a computer model of the fruit fly brain that correctly predicted the song length that females would respond to. (
  • The functions performed by different neural microcircuits depend on the anatomical and physiological properties of the various synaptic pathways connecting neurons. (
  • In a process termed 'neuroplasticity', the more we activate any sequence of neurons the more we strengthen that particular active neural pathway. (
  • Processes including the proliferation, differentiation and fate determination of NSC and progenitor cells, and the survival, maturation, and integration of newborn neurons into existing neural circuits have been shown to be necessary steps in adult neurogenesis. (
  • Neurons use a variety of mechanisms to homeostatically regulate neural network activity in order to maintain firing in a bounded range. (
  • Here we determine the relative contribution of transcriptional and translational control in the regulation of Arc, the signaling pathways responsible for the activity-dependent production of Arc, and the time course of these signaling events as they relate to the homeostatic adjustment of network activity in hippocampal neurons. (
  • The new optogenetic method, named Optobow, allows probing the pathways along which information flows by targeted activation of individual neurons and monitoring the responses of neighboring cells. (
  • However, it is almost impossible to record activity from very small, densely clustered or deep-lying neurons, and it is also difficult to trace long connection pathways between neurons. (
  • Neurons and glia in the central nervous system originate from common precursor cells (neural precursor cells, or NPCs) that proliferate in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the fetal brain and spinal cord ( Temple, 2001 ). (
  • The researchers discovered that the Activin pathway controls the ability of cocaine to induce this change in the neurons and determined that the Activin receptor may control this response to cocaine by regulating the expression of a number of genes. (
  • These neural progenitor cells then go on to become neurons and glial cells that make up the brain and nervous system. (
  • The finding that many of the genes up-regulated in CCSK are involved with neural differentiation, development, or function may be an important reflection of the cell of origin of CCSK. (
  • In order to elucidate the mechanism of APP-induced glial differentiation, we examined the effects of sAPPα on the IL-6/gp130 signaling pathway. (
  • This study suggests that the IL-6/gp130 signaling pathway is involved in sAPPα-induced glial differentiation of NPCs. (
  • Brannen CL, Sugaya K (2000) In vitro differentiation of multipotent human neural progenitors in serum-free medium. (
  • In this study, we showed that Pou3f1 is essential for the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), specifically during the transition from epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) to neural progenitor cells (NPCs). (
  • In this seminar, discover how the classic descriptions of major psychopathology - from autism to bipolar disorder - reveal blockages to neural differentiation and linkage in regions of the brain involved in social cognition and self-regulation. (
  • This strategy involves stimulation of multiple stages of adult neural stem cell development, including proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation. (
  • Here we show that metformin, an FDA-approved diabetes drug, promotes proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation of adult neural precursors (NPCs). (
  • Specifically, we show that metformin enhances adult NPC proliferation and self-renewal dependent upon the p53 family member and transcription factor TAp73, while it promotes neuronal differentiation of these cells by activating the AMPK-aPKC-CBP pathway. (
  • Thus, metformin represents an optimal candidate neuro-regenerative agent that is capable of not only expanding the adult NPC population but also subsequently driving them toward neuronal differentiation by activating two distinct molecular pathways. (
  • Neural microcircuits across various species and brain regions are similar in terms of their repertoire of neurotransmitters, their synaptic kinetics, their short-term and long-term plasticity, and the target-specificity of their synaptic connections. (
  • However, the temporal dynamics and signaling pathways regulating Arc during homeostatic plasticity are not well understood. (
  • In addition, we find that while mTOR signaling is regulated by network activity on a similar time scale, mTOR-dependent translational control is not a major regulator of Arc production or degradation suggesting that the signaling pathways underlying homeostatic plasticity are distinct from those mediating synapse-specific forms of synaptic depression. (
  • Developmental pathway genes and neural plasticity underlying emotional learning and stress-related disorders. (
  • Describe 3 essential aspects of neural plasticity. (
  • Thanks to the brain's plasticity, repetition/practice helps to strengthen neural pathways so you don't continually have your own "Groundhog Day" when you learn something new. (
  • They emphasize that understanding the mechanisms connecting the brain and the bones could have implications for possible future therapies to better deal with osteoporosis and various neural disorders. (
  • This thesis describes investigations in the neural pathophysiological mechanisms leading to obesity with a specific focus on the relation of brainstructure and function with behaviour and genetics. (
  • In this review, based on the achievements in neurobiology of pain up to now, it is attempted to delineate the underlying neural mechanisms for this post-sensory nociceptive-sympathetic coupling of pain sensation in vertebrates. (
  • We outline how this model has been used to elucidate some of the molecular mechanisms which underlie these differences and place these findings into the context of our current understanding of the key, highly conserved, pathways which govern the osteoblast lineage including FGF, BMP, Wnt and TGFβ signaling. (
  • Elucidating context-specific mechanisms is crucial for understanding how cellular diversity is generated and for defining potential avenues of pathway misregulation during disease. (
  • However, the mechanisms underlying the context-specific use of the Hippo pathway in postmitotic fate decisions remain unclear. (
  • it's the Cerebrum where the imprints, thought loops, defense mechanisms, as well as memories of all kinds are stored in actual physical pathways in the brain. (
  • The present review summarizes the mechanisms that control neural crest migration and focuses on the role of non-canonical Wnt or PCP signalling in this process. (
  • Here we applied our new strategy to manipulate specific neural types and pathways and to characterize dynamic changes of the neural circuit and aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development and transition of neural circuit during learning processes and the functional compensation of the circuit against neural injury. (
  • In addition, we investigated the roles of specific cell types or neural pathways constituting the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic network in behavioral acquisition, performance, and switching, and challenged to identify the brain regions in which the activity changes during the learning processes to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the functional shift of neural circuit. (
  • You will explore how these systems share similar neural mechanisms and the implications that this has for both attaining a state of well-being and transforming the brain. (
  • Our results thus not only establish the presence of multiple neural pathways for forgetting in Drosophila but also suggest the existence of diverse circuit mechanisms of forgetting in different contexts. (
  • Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) have been noted to migrate towards the site of glioblastomas, however, the detailed mechanisms underlying glioblastoma-mediated NPCs' alteration remain unkown. (
  • Our data demonstrate that nucleotides and EGF induce converging, but also differential, intracellular signaling pathways and suggest that they carry the potential to act synergistically in the control of cell proliferation and cell survival in adult neurogenesis. (
  • When you form a new habit, not only are their changes in the neurocircuitry or neural network but also in the genes or epigenetics. (
  • In addition, the proteins expression of PKC and CKII was also increased significantly even at 1 μ M. The results suggested that Nrf2/ARE pathway is involved in mild to moderate PQ-induced oxidative stress which is evident from dampened Nrf2 activity and low expression of antioxidant genes in PQ induced oxidative damage. (
  • Thus, the FoxO family coordinately regulates diverse genes and pathways to govern key aspects of NSC homeostasis in the mammalian brain. (
  • Genome-wide ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analyses indicated that Pou3f1 is an upstream activator of neural lineage genes, and also is a repressor of BMP and Wnt signaling. (
  • Gene expression studies revealed that Pou3f1 promoted the formation of neural progenitor cells by activating the expression of pro-neuronal genes inside the stem cells, and by blocking anti-neuronal pathways called Wnt/BMP signaling cascades initiated outside the cells. (
  • Here, we provide the first evidence that TRBP is required for efficient neurosphere formation, and expression of neural stem cell markers and Notch target genes in primary neural progenitor cells in vitro Consistent with this, introduction of TRBP into the mouse embryonic brain in utero increased the fraction of cells expressing Sox2 in the ventricular zone (VZ). (
  • In 1994, knockouts of the Edn3 and Ednrb genes revealed their crucial function during development of the enteric nervous system and melanocytes, two neural-crest derivatives. (
  • Herein, we demonstrate that among the FoxO3‐regulated genes in NPCs are a host of enzymes in central carbon metabolism that act to combat reactive oxygen species (ROS) by directing the flow of glucose and glutamine carbon into defined metabolic pathways. (
  • Based on the con-temporary feedback neural circuits of pain transmission in spinal cord, it is summarized that the Aδ- and C-fibers relay the sensory noxious signals to the laminae I, II and V of dorsal spinal horn, and in turn activate the peria-queductal grey (PAG) in midbrain, which feedbacks via raphe to inhibit the nociceptive transmission of spinal cord. (
  • The dual-pathway model has been proposed to explain the heterogeneity in symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by two independent psychological pathways based on distinct brain circuits. (
  • If they are not connected in neural circuits, they will shrivel up and die. (
  • Forgetting over time and the acute forgetting of conflicting memory during reversal learning rely on separable neural circuits. (
  • Our results suggest that aromatization of testosterone into estrogen is important for the development and activation of neural circuits that control male territorial behaviors. (
  • Self-renewing, multipotent neural precursor cells (NPCs) are capable of terminally differentiating into neuronal and glial lineages during development and in the adult nervous system ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Neural precursor cells (NPCs) have the ability to self-renew and to give rise to neuronal and glial lineages. (
  • In this article, we propose that α-cleaved ectodomain of APP (sAPPα) stimulates the IL-6/gp130 signaling pathway for induction of gliogenesis within neural progenitor cells (NPCs). (
  • In the hippocampus there are neural pathways involved in its circuitry including the perforant pathway , that provides a connectional route from the entorhinal cortex [2] to all fields of the hippocampal formation , including the dentate gyrus , all CA fields (including CA1), [3] and the subiculum . (
  • Using micro-LED probes, we may tease out how the signals propagate inside the neural circuitry so that we can understand how memories are formed, retrieved and replaced," said Euisik Yoon, a professor of electrical engineering and computer science at U-M and project leader. (
  • However, the mechanism by which the STN regulates motor functions in the neural circuitry is not fully understood. (
  • The findings enrich existing models of the neural circuitry involved in visual perception and help to further unravel the computational code for solving object recognition in the primate brain. (
  • The main goal of this study was to test how the back-and-forth information processing of this circuitry-that is, this recurrent neural network -is essential to rapid object identification in primates. (
  • Monkey subjects in that study were able to identify objects more accurately than engineered "feed-forward" computational models, called deep convolutional neural networks, that lacked recurrent circuitry. (
  • Neural probes developed at the University of Michigan are helping researchers understand the brain's circuitry. (
  • Our previous study in vitro suggested that PQ could reduce viability of human embryonic neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis [ 9 ]. (
  • In the apoptosis pathway, caspase-dependent mitochondria pathway plays a decisive role. (
  • To determine whether microwave (MW) radiation induces neural cell apoptosis, differentiated PC12 cells and Wistar rats were exposed to 2.856GHz for 5min and 15min, respectively, at an average power density of 30 mW/cm 2 . (
  • In conclusion, microwave radiation induced neural cell apoptosis via the classical mitochondria-dependent caspase-3 pathway. (
  • Maternal diabetes is a substantial risk factor for neural tube defects, and available evidence suggests that the mechanism that links hyperglycemia to neural tube defects involves oxidative stress and apoptosis. (
  • We demonstrated that maternal hyperglycemia correlated with activation of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in the developing neural tube, and Ask1 gene deletion was associated with reduced neuroepithelial cell apoptosis and development of neural tube defects. (
  • Hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis and the development of neural tube defects were reduced with genetic ablation of either FoxO3a or Casp8 or inhibition of ASK1 by thioredoxin. (
  • That's because learning new stuff builds shiny new neural pathways, synaptic connections that compensate for brain cells lost through aging and too many martinis. (
  • Forgetting is regulated by multiple neural pathways that impinge upon a memory center. (
  • These tools will contribute to elucidating relationships between multiple neural pathways for different taste modalities. (
  • In this study, we investigated the oxidative stress effect of Paraquat (PQ) on immortalized human embryonic neural progenitor cells by treating them with various concentrations of PQ. (
  • NSC resides within the ventricular zone of the embryonic neural tube and, in adult brain, primarily in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). (
  • TRBP maintains mammalian embryonic neural stem cell properties by enhancing the Notch signaling pathway as a novel transcriptional coactivator. (
  • FoxO deficient mice show initial increased brain size and proliferation of neural progenitor cells during early postnatal life, followed by precocious significant decline in the NSC pool and accompanying neurogenesis in adult brains. (
  • This regenerative capacity derives from resident neural stem cells (NSC) which contribute directly to neurogenesis throughout development and adulthood. (
  • Here, using human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) as a model system for in vitro human neurogenesis, we show that Bangle extracts activate canonical WNT/β-catenin signaling. (
  • Hirabayashi Y, Gotoh Y (2005) Stage-dependent fate determination of neural precursor cells in mouse forebrain. (
  • Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have discovered that a neuronal pathway -- part of the autonomic nervous system -- reaches the bones and participates in the control of bone development. (
  • They further found that the newly discovered neuronal pathway, which includes interleukin-1 in the brain and the parasympathetic subsystem, also controls the heart rate. (
  • The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 plays a key role in nervous system development including neuronal migration, neurite growth, and axonal fasciculation. (
  • Homeostasis is particularly important in the nervous system as neuronal activity must be tightly regulated to preserve stable information flow in neural networks. (
  • As such, it seems to be susceptible to genetic changes also seen in a variety of other neuroectodermal and neuronal tumors, including activation of Sonic hedgehog and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways. (
  • However, recent studies implicate TRBP in a variety of biological processes as a mediator for cross-talk between signal transduction pathways. (
  • Present study was intended to understand signal transduction pathways of GM-CSF in human neuroblastoma (SK-N-(BE)2) and glioblastoma (A172) cell lines. (
  • The results revealed the signal transduction pathways activated by GM-CSF in neural cells and suggested that GM-CSF might affect the neural functions via these signal pathways. (
  • Yavich and Tiihonen 2000) and activation of central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) pathways (Heilig and Koob 2007). (
  • Signaling pathways stimulated by growth factors include activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase. (
  • Examination of human neural tissues affected by neural tube defects revealed increased activation or abundance of ASK1, FoxO3a, TRADD, and caspase 8. (
  • Thus, activation of an ASK1-FoxO3a-TRADD-caspase 8 pathway participates in the development of neural tube defects, which could be prevented by inhibiting intermediates in this cascade. (
  • The neural fate commitment of pluripotent stem cells requires the repression of extrinsic inhibitory signals and the activation of intrinsic positive transcription factors. (
  • Activation of neural pathways associated with sexual arousal in non-hu" by Craig F. Ferris, Charles T. Snowdon et al. (
  • The GM-CSF-activated cellular signal pathways were specifically inhibited by the pretreatment of GM-CSF receptor α antibody, suggesting the specificity of the signal activation. (
  • The experiment using specific inhibitors (AG490) to the JAK/STAT pathway showed that JAK2/STAT5 cascade was well preserved and activated by GM-CSF in A172 cells, while STAT5 was activated by GM-CSF without JAK2 activation in SK-N-(EB)2 cells. (
  • Inhibition of the tumorgenic EVs-mediated PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway activation might be a novel strategy to shed light on glioblastoma therapy. (
  • Neural cell adhesion molecule L1: signaling pathways and growth cone motility. (
  • The PI3K-AKT-FoxO signaling pathway plays a central role in diverse physiological processes relevant to aging and cancer. (
  • Mammalian calvarial development and homeostasis are tightly regulated processes, dependent on the interplay of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and orchestrated by key, highly conserved, signaling pathways. (
  • Much progress has been made in recent years in defining the multiple signaling pathways, which confer osteogenic potential and regenerative capacity on the embryologically disparate calvarial bones. (
  • In this review we will explain how it has been possible to progress from a deeper understanding of the embryonic origin of the mammalian skull vault to rigorous in vivo and in vitro analysis of the differences in activity of key signaling pathways between the neural crest-derived frontal bones and the paraxial mesoderm-derived parietal bones. (
  • A finite number of signaling pathways are repurposed during animal development to regulate an extraordinary array of cellular decisions. (
  • The MAPK signaling pathway is a three-component module with the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) as the initiator, MAPK kinase (MAPKK), and MAPK. (
  • These findings may reveal broader and stage-specific physiological roles of Wnt signaling during neural development. (
  • It is therefore important to gain insight into the underlying downstream signaling pathways. (
  • Here, we investigated signaling pathways elicited by ADPβS, UTP and epidermal growth factor (EGF). (
  • the potential multiplicity of relevant intercellular signaling pathways and the fine tuning of epigenetic gene regulation is still largely undefined ( Hsieh and Gage, 2004 ). (
  • Our data indicate that TRBP is a novel transcriptional coactivator of the Notch signaling pathway playing an important role in neural stem cell regulation during mammalian brain development. (
  • Since then, human and mouse genetics, combined with cellular and developmental studies, have helped to unravel the role of this signaling pathway during development and adulthood. (
  • Together, these findings indicate that homophilic N-CAM binding leads to inhibition of astrocyte proliferation via a pathway involving the glucocorticoid receptor and that the ability of N-CAM to influence astrocyte proliferation and neurite outgrowth involves different signal pathways. (
  • C) inhibition of D) nuclei located along a sensory pathway. (
  • The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. (
  • PCP signalling controls contact inhibition of locomotion between neural crest cells by localizing different PCP proteins at the site of cell contact during collision and locally regulating the activity of Rho GTPases. (
  • hence, inhibition of DPP-4 activity enables yet another pathway for potentiation of incretin action and the therapy for type 2 diabetes. (
  • We conclude that the STN coordinates motor behavior through differential neural pathways depending on the state of DA transmission. (
  • Though seemingly instantaneous, our responses to life's many sights and sounds are the result of neural pathways that select the information that ultimately determines our behavior. (
  • Princeton University researchers tracked the neural activity of female fruit flies being courted by males to capture the process through which an outside stimulus causes a change in behavior. (
  • These results provide a clear and relatively simpler diagram of the stimulus-to-behavior neural process frequently carried out by more complicated brains such as that in humans, explained Mala Murthy , a professor of molecular biology and the Princeton Neuroscience Institute . (
  • Now, we have a better understanding of how the full circuit is laid out, and what are the key underlying neural components of this behavior. (
  • A well-worn neural pathway equals a default to an unconscious behavior. (
  • The pathways present a challenge when you are ready to change a habit or behavior. (
  • Our emotions and behavior stimulate and shape the formation of neural pathways (neural networks) in our brains that reinforce existing patterns or begin new ones. (
  • Loss of atonia is a cardinal sign of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) that precedes many neural degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease by a decade. (
  • Dysfunction of atonia during REM (rapid-eye-movement) sleep is a hallmark of human REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), an earlier sign of many neural degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. (
  • The latter so-called "psychogenic" response is anticipatory in nature and involves brain pathways responsible for innate defense programs or memory of aversive events (Herman et al. (
  • A team including NIDDK researchers discovered a neural circuit that controls appetite in the brains of mice. (
  • The newly discovered pathway has a key role in controlling bone density during adolescence, which in turn determines the skeletal resistance to fracture throughout one's entire life, say the researchers. (
  • The researchers have built and tested in mice neural probes that hold what are believed to be the smallest implantable LEDs ever made. (
  • Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have reported using a new imaging technique called High-Definition Fiber Tracking (HDFT) to identify the disrupted neural pathways (paths made up of brain cells that communicate with one another) in patients with traumatic brain injury. (
  • Researchers have identified a pathway near the midbrain where neural messages for taste and pain converge, a new study reports. (
  • MIT researchers have identified a brain pathway critical in enabling primates to effortlessly identify objects in their field of vision. (
  • Researchers at the University at Buffalo have discovered a previously unknown neural pathway that can regulate changes made in the brain due to cocaine use, providing new insight into the molecular basis of cocaine addiction. (
  • A neural pathway connects one part of the nervous system to another using bundles of axons called tracts. (
  • As in the bone and the heart, the new pathway might have an important function as well in other organs controlled by the autonomic nervous system. (
  • Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another. (
  • Neurulation, a key process during embryogenesis, leads to formation of the neural tube, which eventually develops into the central nervous system. (
  • Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology, 8e (Martini) Chapter 15 Neural Integration I: Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous Multiple Choice Questions 1) S y s t e m The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following, except A) temperature. (
  • In this review, we will summarize the known functions of the EDN3/EDNRB pathway during neural crest development, with a specific focus on recent scientific advances, and the enteric nervous system in normal and pathological conditions. (
  • In the developing retina, ATP was found to be essential for the coordinate proliferation and migration of neural precursors ( Martins and Pearson, 2008 ). (
  • We have previously shown that the nucleotides ADPβS and UTP induce rapid Ca 2+ transients in cultured SVZ-derived adult neural progenitors and augment growth-factor-mediated progenitor cell proliferation. (
  • Cells with elevated Pou3f1 mostly became neural progenitors, whereas those with reduced levels rarely did so. (
  • Disruption of the pathways controlling NPC biology has been implicated in various pathologies, including autism ( 3 ), Treacher Collins syndrome ( 4 ), and neural tube defects ( 5 ), emphasizing the importance of gaining a better understanding of the underlying molecular events and how they may be manipulated to treat and prevent such pathologies. (
  • Neural tube defects result from failure to completely close neural tubes during development. (
  • The failure of neurulation or neural tube closure results in neural tube defects (NTDs), with anencephaly and spina bifida being the two most common types in humans. (
  • For 20 years, scientists have known of a gene involved in neural tube defects (such as spina bifida), but until now it was not known exactly what causes this gene to malfunctions during diabetic pregnancies. (
  • Although it would appear that the way to prevent neural tube defects would be to stop Dnmt3b, Dr. Loeken cautions against such radical treatment. (
  • Neural tube defects happen in non-diabetic pregnancies as well, affecting about 1,500 births in the US every year and around 300,000 worldwide. (
  • Dr. Loeken's research has already caught the attention of other scientists working on neural tube defects. (
  • Mary R. Loeken, Ph.D., Investigator in the Section on Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology at Joslin Diabetes Center and Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, has discovered a molecular pathway responsible for neural tube defects in diabetic pregnancies. (
  • Here we investigate if and how defined neural projections arising from a single coordinating brain region in mice could mediate diverse features of anxiety. (
  • A genetically modified mice model suggests that low-level electroacupuncture at hindlegs reduced inflammation not though the spleen, but a different neural pathway involving the vagus nerves and the adrenal glands. (
  • In conclusion, remote limb ischaemic preconditioning reduced myocardial infarct size in the mice in a manner which implicates both a neural and humoral pathway. (
  • Each of these subsystems has its own, distinct neural pathways. (
  • Our laboratory has demonstrated that this distinct embryonic origin of frontal and parietal bones confer differences in embryonic and postnatal osteogenic potential and skeletal regenerative capacity, with frontal neural crest derived osteoblasts benefitting from greater osteogenic potential. (
  • Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway plays a major role in neural crest migration. (
  • The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. (
  • Wei, D & Loeken, M. Increased DNA methyltransferase 3b (dnmt3b)-mediated CpG island methylation stimulated by oxidative stress inhibits expression of a gene required for neural tube and neural crest development in diabetic pregnancy. (
  • The behaviors we have learned since childhood have pathways in our brain-deep, well traveled ruts. (
  • Sex hormones are essential for neural circuit development and sex-specific behaviors. (
  • Male behaviors require both testosterone and estrogen, but it is unclear how the two hormonal pathways intersect. (
  • The sympathetic pathway, on the other hand, generally works to promote maintenance of the body at rest. (
  • In this re-view, it is attempted to newly delineate the underlying neural pathways for this post-sensory nociceptive-sympathetic coupling. (
  • The neural crest is an embryonic stem cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to malignant invasion. (
  • Currently, there is a lack of a single therapeutic approach that can act on these multiple stages of adult neural stem cell development to enhance neural regeneration. (
  • In Drosophila eyes, two alternative fates of blue- versus green-sensitive R8 photoreceptors are regulated by antagonism between the growth regulator Melted and the Hippo pathway. (
  • Neural basis for looming size and velocity encoding in the Drosophila giant fiber escape pathway. (
  • As with other organs, intestinal immune responses and the development of immunity seems to be modulated by neural reflexes. (
  • The discovery of SOX2-LIN28/let-7 pathway that maintains both NPC proliferation and neurogenic potential will enhance our understanding and therapeutic development relevant to neurodegeneration and brain tumors. (
  • To achieve this purpose, our planned group focused on the development of the technology for the neural circuit control, in particular, through the application of optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches with viral vector system. (
  • The endothelin system is a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles in regulating the cardiovascular system and renal and pulmonary processes, as well as the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. (
  • As a result, the developing child requires positive influences that will foster neural development and the desired emotional skills which will help them throughout their life. (
  • Here, we report the impact of combined FoxO1, 3 and 4 deficiencies on mammalian brain physiology with a particular emphasis on the study of the neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) pool. (
  • 15_TestBank - &Physiology,8e(Martini Chapter15 Neural. (
  • Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) along with psychophysiological interaction analysis, we investigated the neural determinants of this nonconscious preference bias, either induced by static (i.e., pictures) or dynamic (i.e., videos) facial expressions. (
  • We found that while static expressions activated primarily the ventral visual pathway (including task-related functional connectivity between the fusiform face area and the amygdala), dynamic expressions triggered the dorsal visual pathway (i.e., posterior partietal cortex) and the substantia innominata, a structure that is contiguous with the dorsal amygdala. (
  • We have previously shown that neural progenitor cells cultured as neurospheres from the adult mouse SVZ express functional P2Y 1 and P2Y 2 receptors and that the two respective receptor agonists, ADPβS and UTP, activate rapid intracellular Ca 2+ transients. (
  • Zurück zum Zitat Gibbins I (2013) Functional organization of autonomic neural pathways. (
  • In the new study, Caligiore and colleagues adjusted the model to replicate the main functional and anatomical elements of the neural system examined in animal studies: the basal ganglia, the thalamus, the primary motor cortex, and the cerebellum. (
  • Nrf2/ARE Pathway Involved in Oxidative Stress Induced by Paraquat in Human Neural Progenitor Cells," Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity , vol. 2016, Article ID 8923860, 8 pages, 2016. (
  • After microinjection into embryos at the time of neural crest migration, uncoated latex polystyrene beads were found to translocate to ventral sites and to settle in the vicinity of endogenous neural crest derivatives. (
  • The results suggest that the cell-binding domain is primarily responsible for restriction of fibronectin beads from the ventral neural crest pathway. (
  • The PI3K-AKT-FoxO pathway is integral to lifespan regulation in lower organisms and essential for the stability of long-lived cells in mammals. (
  • Mechanistic studies identify that EVs achieve their functions via activating PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in recipient cells. (
  • Blissings to one and all for the comfort, ease and joyFull creation [reinforcement, stimulation, embodiment] of [new] neural pathways embodying LOVE Consciousness. (
  • The authors sought to test whether the hypothesized cognitive and motivational pathways have separable neural correlates.In a longitudinal community-based cohort of 1,963 adolescents, the neuroanatomical correlates of ADHD were identified by a voxel-wise association analysis and then validated using an independent clinical sample (99 never-medicated patients with ADHD, 56 medicated patients with ADHD, and 267 healthy control subjects). (
  • The baseline gray matter volume of the posterior occipital cluster predicted the inattention symptoms in a 2-year follow-up and was associated with the genetic risk for ADHD.The dual-pathway model has both shared and separable neuroanatomical correlates, and the shared correlate in the occipital cortex has the potential to serve as an imaging trait marker of ADHD, especially the inattention symptom domain. (
  • In primate brains, temporally blocking the vlPFC (green shaded area) disrupts the recurrent neural network comprising vlPFC and IT, inducing specific deficits and implicating its role in rapid object identification. (
  • Previous studies from this laboratory have utilized latex beads as probes of embryonic migratory pathways. (
  • Marianne Bronner-Fraser, Effects of different fragments of the fibronectin molecule on latex bead translocation along neural crest migratory pathways, Developmental Biology, Volume 108, Issue 1, 1985, Pages 131-145, ISSN 0012-1606, (
  • The migratory neural crest streams are kept in shape by the presence of negative signals in their vicinity. (
  • Recent insights into modalities and regulatory pathways involved in brain endothelial cell death will be described. (
  • In this proposal, we aim to develop genetic tools that will greatly contribute to our understanding by concurrently elucidating precise gustatory neural pathways within the same animal, and then use these tools to test our hypothesis that gustatory information for different taste modalities is transmitted via specific ascending neural pathways. (
  • These mutually exclusive cell fates are established by the Hippo pathway kinase warts and the growth regulator gene melted , which repress each other's expression. (
  • a ) a wide variety of neural markers, ( b ) members of the Sonic hedgehog pathway, ( c ) members of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt cell proliferation pathway, and ( d ) known therapeutic targets. (
  • Additionally, two pathways activated in CCSK (Sonic hedgehog and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt) have also been implicated in other pediatric neural tumors. (
  • These findings support the notion that spinal opioid receptors stimulate a neural pathway that uses nonopioid neurotransmitters to confer cardioprotection from ischemia reperfusion injury. (
  • We find that an ERK1/2-dependent transcriptional pathway active within 1-2 h of up-regulated network activity induces Arc leading to a restoration of network spiking rates within 12 h. (
  • The Hippo tumor suppressor pathway has been primarily studied in growth control where it inhibits the oncogenic transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki) (YAP/TAZ in vertebrates). (
  • The Hippo pathway uses negative feedback through its transcriptional effector Yki for homeostatic control of proliferation. (
  • Involvement of these pathways in CCSKs implicates their widening role in tumorigenesis. (
  • The recruitment of endogenous adult neural stem cells for brain repair is a promising regenerative therapeutic strategy. (
  • The other main pathway is from the climbing fibers and these project to Purkinje cells and also send collaterals directly to the deep nuclei. (
  • In their new book The Healing Self , due to be released tomorrow, Deepak Chopra, M.D. and Rudolph Tanzi, Ph.D. are telling the world that habits can be changed, but so can neural pathways and even gene expression itself. (
  • This approach permits singling out critical 'catastrophe points', simply perturbing an independent variable (such as a gene within the cytokeratins pathway) and visualizing how the perturbation impacts a particular dependent variable. (
  • Understanding this critical pathway will help us pursue new directions in potential pharmacological and gene therapies to prevent drug relapses," Dietz says. (
  • Since the early 1990's, scientists have known that the gene Pax3 is required for closure of the neural tube. (
  • The overactive enzyme keeps adding methyl groups to the cytosines near the Pax3 gene and prevents Pax3 from turning on so that it can close the neural tube. (
  • However, how these two events are integrated to ensure appropriate neural conversion remains unclear. (