Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Acetanilide derivative used as a local anesthetic.
An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase and an antagonist of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
Biological actions and events that constitute the functions of the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
A movement, caused by sequential muscle contraction, that pushes the contents of the intestines or other tubular organs in one direction.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Sexual activities of animals.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The consumption of edible substances.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.

A genetic approach to visualization of multisynaptic neural pathways using plant lectin transgene. (1/7484)

The wiring patterns among various types of neurons via specific synaptic connections are the basis of functional logic employed by the brain for information processing. This study introduces a powerful method of analyzing the neuronal connectivity patterns by delivering a tracer selectively to specific types of neurons while simultaneously transsynaptically labeling their target neurons. We developed a novel genetic approach introducing cDNA for a plant lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), as a transgene under the control of specific promoter elements. Using this method, we demonstrate three examples of visualization of specific transsynaptic neural pathways: the mouse cerebellar efferent pathways, the mouse olfactory pathways, and the Drosophila visual pathways. This strategy should greatly facilitate studies on the anatomical and functional organization of the developing and mature nervous system.  (+info)

even-skipped determines the dorsal growth of motor axons in Drosophila. (2/7484)

Axon pathfinding and target choice are governed by cell type-specific responses to external cues. Here, we show that in the Drosophila embryo, motorneurons with targets in the dorsal muscle field express the homeobox gene even-skipped and that this expression is necessary and sufficient to direct motor axons into the dorsal muscle field. Previously, it was shown that motorneurons projecting to ventral targets express the LIM homeobox gene islet, which is sufficient to direct axons to the ventral muscle field. Thus, even-skipped complements the function of islet, and together these two genes constitute a bimodal switch regulating axonal growth and directing motor axons to ventral or to dorsal regions of the muscle field.  (+info)

Actions of a pair of identified cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBI-8/9) in Aplysia that contain the peptide myomodulin. (3/7484)

A combination of biocytin back-fills of the cerebral-buccal connectives and immunocytochemistry of the cerebral ganglion demonstrated that of the 13 bilateral pairs of cerebral-buccal interneurons in the cerebral ganglion, a subpopulation of 3 are immunopositive for the peptide myomodulin. The present paper describes the properties of two of these cells, which we have termed CBI-8 and CBI-9. CBI-8 and CBI-9 were found to be dye coupled and electrically coupled. The cells have virtually identical properties, and consequently we consider them to be "twin" pairs and refer to them as CBI-8/9. CBI-8/9 were identified by electrophysiological criteria and then labeled with dye. Labeled cells were found to be immunopositive for myomodulin, and, using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cells were shown to contain authentic myomodulin. CBI-8/9 were found to receive synaptic input after mechanical stimulation of the tentacles. They also received excitatory input from C-PR, a neuron involved in neck lengthening, and received a slow inhibitory input from CC5, a cell involved in neck shortening, suggesting that CBI-8/9 may be active during forward movements of the head or buccal mass. Firing of CBI-8 or CBI-9 resulted in the activation of a relatively small number of buccal neurons as evidenced by extracellular recordings from buccal nerves. Firing also produced local movements of the buccal mass, in particular a strong contraction of the I7 muscle, which mediates radula opening. CBI-8/9 were found to produce a slow depolarization and rhythmic activity of B48, the motor neuron for the I7 muscle. The data provide continuing evidence that the small population of cerebral buccal interneurons is composed of neurons that are highly diverse in their functional roles. CBI-8/9 may function as a type of premotor neuron, or perhaps as a peptidergic modulatory neuron, the functions of which are dependent on the coactivity of other neurons.  (+info)

C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (4/7484)

Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down.  (+info)

Central pattern generator for escape swimming in the notaspid sea slug Pleurobranchaea californica. (5/7484)

Escape swimming in the notaspid opisthobranch Pleurobranchaea is an episode of alternating dorsal and ventral body flexions that overrides all other behaviors. We have explored the structure of the central pattern generator (CPG) in the cerebropleural ganglion as part of a study of neural network interactions underlying decision making in normal behavior. The CPG comprises at least eight bilaterally paired interneurons, each of which contributes and is phase-locked to the swim rhythm. Dorsal flexion is mediated by hemiganglion ensembles of four serotonin-immunoreactive neurons, the As1, As2, As3, and As4, and an electrically coupled pair, the A1 and A10 cells. When stimulated, A10 commands fictive swimming in the isolated CNS and actual swimming behavior in whole animals. As1-4 provide prolonged, neuromodulatory excitation enhancing dorsal flexion bursts and swim cycle number. Ventral flexion is mediated by the A3 cell and a ventral swim interneuron, IVS, the soma of which is yet unlocated. Initiation of a swim episode begins with persistent firing in A10, followed by recruitment of As1-4 and A1 into dorsal flexion. Recurrent excitation within the As1-4 ensemble and with A1/A10 may reinforce coactivity. Synchrony among swim interneuron partners and bilateral coordination is promoted by electrical coupling among the A1/A10 and As4 pairs, and among unilateral As2-4, and reciprocal chemical excitation between contralateral As1-4 groups. The switch from dorsal to ventral flexion coincides with delayed recruitment of A3, which is coupled electrically to A1, and with recurrent inhibition from A3/IVS to A1/A10. The alternating phase relation may be reinforced by reciprocal inhibition between As1-4 and IVS. Pleurobranchaea's swim resembles that of the nudibranch Tritonia; we find that the CPGs are similar in many details, suggesting that the behavior and network are primitive characters derived from a common pleurobranchid ancestor.  (+info)

Disrupted temporal lobe connections in semantic dementia. (6/7484)

Semantic dementia refers to the variant of frontotemporal dementia in which there is progressive semantic deterioration and anomia in the face of relative preservation of other language and cognitive functions. Structural imaging and SPECT studies of such patients have suggested that the site of damage, and by inference the region critical to semantic processing, is the anterolateral temporal lobe, especially on the left. Recent functional imaging studies of normal participants have revealed a network of areas involved in semantic tasks. The present study used PET to examine the consequences of focal damage to the anterolateral temporal cortex for the operation of this semantic network. We measured PET activation associated with a semantic decision task relative to a visual decision task in four patients with semantic dementia compared with six age-matched normal controls. Normals activated a network of regions consistent with previous studies. The patients activated some areas consistently with the normals, including some regions of significant atrophy, but showed substantially reduced activity particularly in the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (iTG) (Brodmann area 37/19). Voxel-based morphometry, used to identify the regions of structural deficit, revealed significant anterolateral temporal atrophy (especially on the left), but no significant structural damage to the posterior inferior temporal lobe. Other evidence suggests that the left posterior iTG is critically involved in lexical-phonological retrieval: the lack of activation here is consistent with the observation that these patients are all anomic. We conclude that changes in activity in regions distant from the patients' structural damage support the argument that their prominent anomia is due to disrupted temporal lobe connections.  (+info)

Specification of distinct dopaminergic neural pathways: roles of the Eph family receptor EphB1 and ligand ephrin-B2. (7/7484)

Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area project to the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens/olfactory tubercle, respectively, constituting mesostriatal and mesolimbic pathways. The molecular signals that confer target specificity of different dopaminergic neurons are not known. We now report that EphB1 and ephrin-B2, a receptor and ligand of the Eph family, are candidate guidance molecules for the development of these distinct pathways. EphB1 and ephrin-B2 are expressed in complementary patterns in the midbrain dopaminergic neurons and their targets, and the ligand specifically inhibits the growth of neurites and induces the cell loss of substantia nigra, but not ventral tegmental, dopaminergic neurons. These studies suggest that the ligand-receptor pair may contribute to the establishment of distinct neural pathways by selectively inhibiting the neurite outgrowth and cell survival of mistargeted neurons. In addition, we show that ephrin-B2 expression is upregulated by cocaine and amphetamine in adult mice, suggesting that ephrin-B2/EphB1 interaction may play a role in drug-induced plasticity in adults as well.  (+info)

Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. (8/7484)

Structural maturation of fiber tracts in the human brain, including an increase in the diameter and myelination of axons, may play a role in cognitive development during childhood and adolescence. A computational analysis of structural magnetic resonance images obtained in 111 children and adolescents revealed age-related increases in white matter density in fiber tracts constituting putative corticospinal and frontotemporal pathways. The maturation of the corticospinal tract was bilateral, whereas that of the frontotemporal pathway was found predominantly in the left (speech-dominant) hemisphere. These findings provide evidence for a gradual maturation, during late childhood and adolescence, of fiber pathways presumably supporting motor and speech functions.  (+info)

Define interconnect. interconnect synonyms, interconnect pronunciation, interconnect translation, English dictionary definition of interconnect. v. in·ter·con·nect·ed , in·ter·con·nect·ing , in·ter·con·nects v. intr. To be connected with each other: The two buildings interconnect. v. tr.
Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) refers to the observed phenomenon that functional connectivity changes over a short time. Dynamic functional connectivity is a recent expansion on traditional functional connectivity analysis which typically assumes that functional networks are static in time. DFC is related to a variety of different neurological disorders, and has been suggested to be a more accurate representation of functional brain networks. The primary tool for analyzing DFC is fMRI, but DFC has also been observed with several other mediums. DFC is a recent development within the field of functional neuroimaging whose discovery was motivated by the observation of temporal variability in the rising field of steady state connectivity research Functional connectivity refers to the functionally integrated relationship between spatially separated brain regions. Unlike structural connectivity which looks for physical connections in the brain, functional connectivity is related to similar ...
A system automatically routes interconnect of an integrated circuit design using variable width interconnect lines. For example, a first automatically routed interconnect may have a different width from a second automatically routed interconnect. The system will vary the width of the interconnect lines based on certain factors or criteria. These factors include current or power handling, reliability, electromigration, voltage drops, self-heating, optical proximity effects, or other factors, or combinations of these factors. The system may use a gridded or a gridless (or shape-based) approach.
Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were
Whole brain resting state connectivity is a promising biomarker that might help to obtain an early diagnosis in many neurological diseases, such as dementia. Inferring resting-state connectivity is often based on correlations, which are sensitive to indirect connections, leading to an inaccurate representation of the real backbone of the network. The precision matrix is a better representation for whole brain connectivity, as it considers only direct connections. The network structure can be estimated using the graphical lasso (GL), which achieves sparsity through l1-regularization on the precision matrix. In this paper, we propose a structural connectivity adaptive version of the GL, where weaker anatomical connections are represented as stronger penalties on the corresponding functional connections. We applied beamformer source reconstruction to the resting state MEG recordings of 81 subjects, where 29 were healthy controls, 22 were single-domain amnestic Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI), and 30 were
Looking for Neutral Interconnect? Find out information about Neutral Interconnect. Network infrastructure where network service providers can freely exchange traffic without policy restrictions. Examples are the GIX at MAE-East , and the... Explanation of Neutral Interconnect
Coupon Testing After satisfactorily passing through the electrical prescreen activities and receiving agreement from the customer to proceed, PWB Interconnect begins the IST testing on the specified quantity of IST coupons. The coupons are tested until the inception of failure, generally set at a 10% increase in elevated resistance. The resistance through the PTH Barrel and the resistance through the inner layer to PTH barrel (or buried via, blind via, micro via) interconnect are continuously and simultaneously monitored. Once testing is completed, PWB Interconnect provides a report which identifies the test results with all applicable graphs for each coupon. The results also include comparison graphs of the products performance to established baselines for products with similar technology and attributes ...
From: Yassine Oudjana ,[email protected], To: [email protected], [email protected] Cc: Yassine Oudjana ,[email protected],, Andy Gross ,[email protected],, Bjorn Andersson ,[email protected],, Georgi Djakov ,[email protected],, AngeloGioacchino Del Regno ,[email protected],, Rob Herring ,[email protected],, [email protected], [email protected] Subject: [PATCH 1/5] interconnect: qcom: sdm660: Commonize RPM-QoS Date: Fri, 30 Jul 2021 12:06:39 +0000 [thread overview] Message-ID: ,[email protected], (raw) SoCs such as MSM8996 also control bus QoS in a similar fashion to SDM660, with some paths being controlled by RPM and others directly by the AP. Move relevant functions and defines to a new object so that they can be used in multiple drivers. Signed-off-by: Yassine Oudjana ,[email protected], --- drivers/interconnect/qcom/Kconfig , 5 +- drivers/interconnect/qcom/Makefile , 2 + ...
We examined cognitive flexibility in a large group of far from onset pre-HD gene carriers from the HD-YAS.28 We hypothesised that there may be a small impairment at the ED shifting stage in this early pre-HD group. We predicted that decreased intrinsic functional connectivity between fronto-striatal circuits would be associated with increased ED errors in the HC group (hypothesis 1). In the pre-HD group, we expected either a similar negative association in the same circuit as the HC (hypothesis 2) or that ED shifting would be associated with an alternative fronto-striatal circuit (hypothesis 3). Indeed, the pre-HD group exhibited mild cognitive inflexibility compared with controls. The results from the functional connectivity analysis support the first of these hypotheses in showing a negative correlation between ED errors and intrinsic functional connectivity between the ventrolateral PFC and ventral striatum in controls. By contrast, consistent with our third a priori hypothesis, the pre-HD ...
An electron beam projection system having a projection lens arranged so that upon pre-deflection of the electron beam the electron optical axis of the lens shifts to be coincident with the deflected beam. The projection system includes means for producing an electron beam, means for deflecting the beam, a magnetic projection lens having rotational symmetry for focusing the deflected beam and a pair of magnetic compensation yokes positioned within the bore of the projection lens means. The pair of correction yokes has coil dimensions such that, in combination, they produce a magnetic compensation field proportional to the first derivative of the axial magnetic field strength distribution curve of the projection lens. Upon application of current to the pair of compensation yokes the electron optical axis of the projection lens shifts to the position of the deflected beam so that the electron beam remains coincident with the shifted electron optical axis and lands perpendicular to a target.
Interconnected integrated circuits (16) packaged at a very high density are fabricated beginning with a plurality of substrates (50 or 400 or 500) where each substrate has metal edge contact sites (12 or 507). Several substrates are joined together in a stack (82 or 402 or 512) held together tightly by bolts (62) or by a thermoplastic adhesive (510). An interconnect pattern (250 or 423) electrically connects integrated circuits (16) on different substrates. Defective substrates are removable from the stack for repair by removing the bolts or by heating the adhesive to soften it sufficiently to allow removal of the individual substrate. The interconnect pattern, which is removed whenever a substrate is replaced, is reapplied after the removed substrate has been replaced.
A semiconductor device including a damascene superconducting interconnect, formed of a Ba-Cu-Ca-O superconducting material. A method of forming a superconducting damascene interconnect structure, and the structure made thereby, the method including forming a cavity in an interlevel dielectric; forming a barrier layer in the cavity; forming a seed layer in the cavity over the barrier layer; forming a Cu-Ba alloy layer; filling the cavity by depositing a Cu-Ca-O film; and annealing in oxygen flow to form a Ba-Cu-Ca-O superconductor on the barrier layer. In an alternate embodiment, no barrier layer is formed.
The present invention develops a bond pad interconnect in an integrated circuit device, by forming an aluminum pad; bonding a metal layer (such as copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), tungsten (W), gold (Au), silver (Ag) or platinum (Pt)) or a metal alloy (such as titanium nitride) to the aluminum bond pad by chemical vapor deposition or by electroless deposition; and adhering a conductive epoxy film to the metal layer, thereby forming a low resistive bond pad interconnect.
We introduce the combination of three-dimensional transient electro-thermal interconnect simulations for intrinsic thermo-mechanical stress problems. In order to study the development of thermal stresses we use a finite element simulator for the investigation on stresses of complex layered interconnect structures at different operating conditions. Together with the potential distribution we obtain the complete input data for accurate electromigration analysis.
An in situ transmission-electron-microscopy methodology is developed to observe time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in an advanced Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stack. A test structure, namely a tip-to-tip structure, was designed to localize the TDDB degradation in small dielectrics regions. A constant voltage is applied at 25 °C to the tip-to-tip structure, while structural changes are observed at nanoscale. Cu nanoparticle formation, agglomeration, and migration processes are observed after dielectric breakdown. The Cu nanoparticles are positively charged, since they move in opposite direction to the electron flow. Measurements of ionic current, using the Triangular-Voltage-Stress method, suggest that Cu migration is not possible before dielectric breakdown, unless the Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stacks are heated to 200 °C and above. ...
In order to fabricate practical free-space optical interconnect systems, a thorough understanding of the effect of optical misalignment on the power throughput of an optical link is required. Further, not only assembly tolerances (resulting in misalignment) but also component manufacturing tolerances that also introduce vignetting into the optical system need to be studied. We present a study of a wide variety of assembly and component manufacturing errors and their effect on the integrated power falling onto the detector for planar space variant optical systems. We also discuss the trends of the different misalignment sensitivities as the interconnect distance increases ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional connectivity of insular efferences. AU - Almashaikhi, Talal. AU - Rheims, Sylvain. AU - Jung, Julien. AU - Ostrowsky-Coste, Karine. AU - Montavont, Alexandra. AU - De Bellescize, Julitta. AU - Arzimanoglou, Alexis. AU - Kosal, Pascale Keo. AU - Guénot, Marc. AU - Bertrand, Olivier. AU - Ryvlin, Philippe. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Objectives: The aim of our study was to explore the functional connectivity between the insula and other cortical regions, in human, using cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs) Experimental design: We performed intra-cerebral electrical stimulation in eleven patients with refractory epilepsy investigated with depth electrodes, including 39 targeting the insula. Electrical stimulation consisted of two series of 20 pulses of 1-ms duration, 0.2-Hz frequency, and 1-mA intensity delivered at each of the 39 insular bipoles. Rates of connectivity were reported whenever a noninsular cortical region was tested by at least ten ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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A lithographic apparatus includes an illumination system configured to condition a radiation beam, a support for a patterning device, a substrate table for a substrate, a projection system, and a control system. The patterning device is capable of imparting the radiation beam with a pattern in its cross-section to form a patterned radiation beam. The projection system is configured to project the patterned radiation beam as an image onto a target portion of the substrate along a scan path. The scan path is defined by a trajectory in a scanning direction of an exposure field of the lithographic apparatus. The control system is coupled to the support, the substrate table and the projection system for controlling an action of the support, the substrate table and the projection system, respectively. The control system is configured to correct a local distortion of the image in a region along the scan path by a temporal adjustment of the image in that region, hereby reducing the intra-field overlay errors.
The Three-dimensional Integrated Circuit And Through-Silicon Via Interconnect Market report is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, inputs from industry experts and industry participants across the value … Read More. ...
DEEP CRYO TREATED FOR THE ULTIMATE LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE Audio Arts cryo treated e Series takes another evolutionary leap with the IC-3 e2 interconnect. Incorporating a patented process deep cryogenic treatment designed specifically for audio cables and components, and connector parts designed to enhance cryo treated c
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This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-0792373148 Boundary-Scan Interconnect Diagnosis (Frontiers in Electronic Testing) Product Will Be Delivered Via
Vision systems satisfying the single viewpoint constraint are called central projection systems. The perspective camera is an example of a central projection system. The mapping of points in the scene into points in the image is linear in homogeneous coordinates, and can be described by a 3 × 4 projection matrix P (pin-hole model). Perspective projection can be modeled by intersecting a plane with a pencil of lines going through the scene points and the projection center O. There are central projection systems whose geometry can not be described using the conventional pin-hole model. Mt is composed of two lines m and l lying on the projective plane ℘2 . In this case the conic is said to be degenerate, the 3 ×3 symmetric matrix Ω is rank 2, and Equation (15) becomes ⎤ ⎡ 1 0 0 0 0 0 ⎢0 2 0 0 0 0⎥ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢0 0 1 0 0 0⎥ t t ⎥. Γ(m, l) ⎢ Ω = ml + lm −→ ω = ⎢ (16) ⎥ ⎢0 0 0 2 0 0⎥ ⎣0 0 0 0 2 0⎦ 0 0 0 0 0 1 e D In a similar way a conic locus can be composed of a ...
Welcome to the collection of documents for CONN : functional connectivity toolbox.. Adding Documents: Members of CONN : functional connectivity toolbox may submit documents to the folders below; however, an administrator will decide whether or not to publish a document.. Deleting Documents: If you find an out-dated document, please send a request to the tool/resource administrator. ...
Development of structural connectivity and network characteristics (longitudinal analysis). Of 7 neonates, longitudinal assessment of brain development was poss
log in you can tag this publication with additional keywords A publication can refer to another publication (outgoing references) or it can be referred to by other publications (incoming references).. ...
Significantly reduced functional connectivity in depressed patients between cerebellar executive and default-mode seed regions (shown in the lower row) with cer
Grays Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice, Expert Consult - Online and Print, 40e de Susan Standring PhD DSc en Iberlibro.com - ISBN 10: 0443066841 - ISBN 13: 9780443066849 - Churchill Livingstone - 2008 - Tapa dura
Great to hear. Some further explanation of your issue before. VLAN 3 was set up with DHCP, this means your Unraid server gets an IP address in the same subnet as the Docker containers. It then wants to use VLAN 3 to communicate directly with the containers, because it is the nearest connection. Docker however doesnt allow direct communication between host and containers in the same network. So when traffic leaves the tunnel at the server side, it will get blocked by Docker and cant reach the containers (this gives your 2nd hop unreachable). This is exactly the same issue when people are using br0 as their custom container network!! When no IP address is assigned to VLAN 3, the server doesnt learn a direct connection to the containers, but instead will send traffic to the default gateway (your router). The router in return can forward the traffic to the destined container and communication is established, with the condition that a static route on your router exists for the return path. That is ...
The TLE987X EVALB_TQFP offers complete evaluation of all functions and peripherals of the TLE987x product family and allows direct connection to a BLDC motor via MOSFETs in B6-Bridge configuration. It includes: B6-Bridge for BLDC motor drive, UART and LIN for communication, direct access to all device I/Os and an onboard debugger. ...
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Youll learn: How you can use Active Dreaming to perceive your future more accurately and receive valuable guidance for decision-making How your dreams can open direct connection with spiritual guides How you can re-enter a dreamscape and continue the journey to gain access to wisdom and healing Shamanic perspectives on how to use dreams as a form of medicine, to illuminate and heal what is going on in your body and your life. This event is the portal to a depth seven-week teleseminar on DREAMING THE SOUL BACK HOME. Please join us! https://shiftnetwork.isrefer.com/go/poadRM/mossdreams/ ...
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Dear Jean-Pierre, Chris and all, just a few comments regarding the current ontology spec: Since TargetAudienceAuthority is no longer a sub class of Contributor the object property targetAudienceAuthorityIs shouldnt be a sub property of contributorIs as well. Leaving this sub property relation would infer that the domain of property targetAudienceAuthorityIs is Contributor, since Contributor is domain of property contributorIs. As Chris wrote there is no direct connection between a MediaResource and the value of TargetAudienceAuthority, the same problem/pattern exists between a MediaResource and a given rating value. Since a rating value is directly related to a RatingProvider (via data property ratingValue), it is not expressible that the same RatingProvider rates different MediaResources (or MediaFragments) including different rating values. I propose to directly connect a rating value to a MediaResource and annotate this rating value with additional information (RatingProvider, etc.). A new ...
First Link® is a program that gives persons with dementia, their care partners and family a direct connection to a wide variety of services and supports offered through the Alzheimer Society and within the community.
Strep-Tactin® Superflow® cartridges. Prepacked cartridges for direct connection to automated purification systems such as Äkta, peristaltic pumps or other FPLC/HPLC systems are availble for the different resin supports. More information here.
A Redditor found a direct connection between James Hardens play in away games and the citys quality of strip clubs. The better the strippers, the worse he plays. Hardens worst outings come against the Heat
This is a direct connection to the MS-DOS read function call, int 0x21, %ah = 0x3f. No conversion is done on the data; it is read as raw binary data. This function can be hooked by the See section File System Extensions. If you dont want this, you should use See section _dos_read. ...
Robust access management with direct connection to Verify SaaS to enable a hybrid IAM approach and simplify a gradual migration to IDaaS ...
The automation of business transactions can help enable savings, efficiencies and accuracy across the revenue cycle. We support both Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), for direct connection between provider and supplier, and Internet-commerce, which connects buyers and sellers via a common technology platform to place orders and receive invoices online. We are also part of the Global Healthcare Exchange (GHX), the first Internet (supplier) exchange for the healthcare industry.. ...
Perhaps others will chime in, but I cant think of anybody using the PS5 without issue through an AVR. Some with direct connections to a capable TV have...
Stellapps has really helped us in establishing the direct connection with farmers. It has helped us in improving the milk quality, transparency in collection process and monitoring through real time collection mechanism.. We want to thank Stellapps for helping us in accomplishing our mission of producing good quality dairy products for customers and economical empowerment of dairy farmers. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The mouse has become the mainstay of genetic and cancer research, and mouse imaging has allowed scientists to monitor tumor development or remission serially. The combination of mu/PET, which provides functional biological information (e.g. tumor uptake, gene expression, etc.) with mu/CT techniques, which provides the anatomical context for the functional information, has proved to be a very important tool for this. However, the radiation dose associated with these procedures can be high, and this limits their frequent use. While the radiation does not harm the animal, it may affect immune response mechanisms and change the experimental outcome. We hypothesize that 2D images may be sufficient in some scientific applications to provide the biological information necessary, in lieu of 3D image data sets that mu/CT and mu/PET provide. In this application, we propose the development of a hybrid two-dimensional imaging system for the mouse and other small animals. ...
2. Clock Synchronization for Multi-Die Systems Multi-Die Systems (MDS) have leveraged the high interconnect performance on active and passive interposers to design Network-on-Chips (NoC). However, synchronizing the MDS with a single clocking domain has never been explored. We design a single clocking domain over the active interposer leveraging the high quality interconnect performance, specifically targeting cross-die synchronization. The underlying theme for the work in this project is to synchronize chiplets that are in the same clock domain, regardless of homogeneous v.s. heterogeneous integration. Initial work and results of this work was presented at ISLPED19. An extension of the ISLPED19 work with a complete methodology is published in TCAS-I. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Resting state functional connectivity and task-related effective connectivity changes after upper extremity rehabilitation. T2 - a pilot study.. AU - Saleh, Soha. AU - Adamovich, Sergei V.. AU - Tunik, Eugene. PY - 2012/12/1. Y1 - 2012/12/1. N2 - In this study we investigated the effect of 2 weeks of robot-aided virtual reality therapy for the paretic upper limb in stroke patients on changes in brain activation. Brain activation was acquired during the resting state and during visually-guided hand movement. fMRI analysis focused on characterizing functional connectivity with ipsilesional primary motor cortex (iM1) at rest and during execution of paretic hand movement. Two subjects who sustained a stroke more than 6 months ago participated. Before and after the training period, motor function was evaluated (Wolf Motor Function Test [WMFT], Jebsen Test of Hand Function [JTHF]). After the training period, clinical outcomes (WMFT and JTHF) improved in both subjects. The resting state ...
In the absence of external stimuli or task demands, correlations in spontaneous brain activity (functional connectivity) reflect patterns of anatomical connectivity. Hence, resting-state functional connectivity has been used as a proxy measure for structural connectivity and as a biomarker for brain changes in disease. To relate changes in functional connectivity to physiological changes in the brain, it is important to understand how correlations in functional connectivity depend on the physical integrity of brain tissue. The causal nature of this relationship has been called into question by patient data suggesting that decreased structural connectivity does not necessarily lead to decreased functional connectivity. Here we provide evidence for a causal but complex relationship between structural connectivity and functional connectivity: we tested interhemispheric functional connectivity before and after corpus callosum section in rhesus monkeys. We found that forebrain commissurotomy severely reduced
TY - JOUR. T1 - Default mode network alterations in individuals with high-trait-anxiety: An EEG functional connectivity study. AU - Della Marca, Giacomo. AU - Imperatori, Claudio. AU - Farina, Benedetto. AU - Adenzato, Mauro. AU - Valenti, Enrico Maria. AU - Murgia, Cristina. AU - Brunetti, Riccardo. AU - Fontana, Elena. AU - Ardito, Rita B.. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - Background: Although several researches investigated Default Mode Network (DMN) alterations in individuals with anxiety disorders, up to now no studies have investigated DMN functional connectivity in non-clinical individuals with high-trait-anxiety using quantitative electroencephalography (EEG). Here, the main aim was to extend previous findings investigating the association between trait anxiety and DMN EEG functional connectivity. Methods: Twenty-three individuals with high-trait-anxiety and twenty-four controls were enrolled. EEG was recorded during 5 min of resting state (RS). EEG analyses were conducted by means of the ...
There is striking overlap between the spatial distribution of amyloid-β pathology in patients with Alzheimers disease and the spatial distribution of high intrinsic functional connectivity in healthy persons. This overlap suggests a mechanistic link between amyloid-β and intrinsic connectivity, and indeed there is evidence in patients for the detrimental effects of amyloid-β plaque accumulation on intrinsic connectivity in areas of high connectivity in heteromodal hubs, and particularly in the default mode network. However, the observed spatial extent of amyloid-β exceeds these tightly circumscribed areas, suggesting that previous studies may have underestimated the negative impact of amyloid-β on intrinsic connectivity. We hypothesized that the known positive baseline correlation between patterns of amyloid-β and intrinsic connectivity may mask the larger extent of the negative effects of amyloid-β on connectivity. Crucially, a test of this hypothesis requires the within-patient comparison of
Three regions of the macaque inferior parietal lobule and adjacent lateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are distinguished by the relative strengths of their connections with the superior colliculus, parahippocampal gyrus, and ventral premotor cortex. It was hypothesized that connectivity information could therefore be used to identify similar areas in the human parietal cortex using diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography. Unusually, the subcortical routes of the 3 projections have been reported in the macaque, so it was possible to compare not only the terminations of connections but also their course. The medial IPS had the highest probability of connection with the superior colliculus. The projection pathway resembled that connecting parietal cortex and superior colliculus in the macaque. The posterior angular gyrus and the adjacent superior occipital gyrus had a high probability of connection with the parahippocampal gyrus. The projection pathway resembled the macaque inferior
A polymer film interconnect forms an electrical interconnect between a first pattern of electrical conductors on a first electrical component and a second pattern of electrical conductors on a second electrical component. The polymer film interconnect includes a thin, flexible, self-supporting dielectric polymeric film having a pattern of spaced apart thru-holes containing separate quantities of an electrically conductive bonding material capable of heat bonding to the first electrical conductors adjacent the first surface of the film and to the second conductors adjacent the second surface of the film. This provides a plurality of discrete electrically isolated conductive paths from the first pattern of electrical conductors through the film to the second pattern of electrical conductors on the opposite side of the film. The polymer film interconnect can be used for forming interconnects between a number of electrical components, including connections between an IC chip and a leadframe or
IMPORTANCE: Autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) is caused by rare genetic mutations in 3 specific genes in contrast to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD), which has a more polygenetic risk profile. OBJECTIVE: To assess the similarities and differences in functional connectivity changes owing to ADAD and LOAD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed functional connectivity in multiple brain resting state networks (RSNs) in a cross-sectional cohort of participants with ADAD (n = 79) and LOAD (n = 444), using resting-state functional connectivitymagnetic resonance imaging at multiple international academic sites. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: For both types of AD, we quantified and compared functional connectivity changes in RSNs as a function of dementia severity measured by the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. In ADAD, we qualitatively investigated functional connectivity changes with respect to estimated years from onset of symptoms within 5 RSNs. RESULTS: A decrease in functional
A direct connection multi-chip semiconductor element structure is proposed. A plurality of semiconductor chips are mounted and supported on a metal heat sink, such that heat generated by the chips during operation can be dissipated via the heat sink. A circuit structure is extended from the chips to provide direct electrical extension for the chips and improve the electrical performances. And exposed electrical connection terminals can be formed in the circuit structure extended from the chips to be directly electrically connected to an external electronic device.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Strategy-based reasoning training modulates cortical thickness and resting-state functional connectivity in adults with chronic traumatic brain injury. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most useful methods to generate functional connectivity networks of the brain. However, conventional network generation methods ignore dynamic changes of functional connectivity between brain regions. Previous studies proposed constructing high-order functional connectivity networks that consider the time-varying characteristics of functional connectivity, and a clustering method was performed to decrease computational cost. However, random selection of the initial clustering centers and the number of clusters negatively affected classification accuracy, and the network lost neurological interpretability. Here we propose a novel method that introduces the minimum spanning tree method to high-order functional connectivity networks. As an unbiased method, the minimum spanning tree simplifies high-order network structure while preserving its core framework. The dynamic characteristics of time series are not lost with this approach, and the
SMP-L Secure-Lok™ Interconnect Series. The introduction of push-on blind-mateable connectors, such as the SMP, galvanized the RF/Microwave industry as their use enabled designers to increase package density. This created the ability to stack PC boards while also simplifying the assembly and test of these designs.. Carlisle Interconnect Technologies (CarlisleIT) has advanced the design of traditional push-on connectors even further with our line of SMP-L connectors. These connectors feature Secure-Lok™, a patented locking mechanism incorporated into the standard SMP interface. Susceptibility to vibration and other environmental factors has historically limited designers to the use of threaded connectors such as the SMA, Type N, etc. The Secure-Lok mechanism enhances the mated retention force typically found in push-on connectors, making the SMP-L series of push-on connectors ideal for rugged military and commercial applications.. ...
Motor tasks, in our daily life, could be performed through execution and imagination. The brain response underlying these movements has been investigated by many studies. Neuroimaging studies have reported that both execution and imagination could activate several brain regions including supplementary motor area (SMA), premotor area (PMA), primary sensorimotor area (M1/S1), posterior parietal lobe (PPL), striatum, thalamus and cerebellum. These findings were based on the regional activation, and brain regions have been indicated to functionally interact with each other when performing tasks. Therefore further investigation in these brain regions with functional connectivity measurements may provide new insights into the neural mechanism of execution and imagination. As a fundamental measurement of functional connectivity, connection strength of graph theory has been used to identify the key nodes of connection and their strength-priorities. Thus, we performed a comparative investigation between ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cortical connectivity and memory performance in cognitive decline. T2 - A study via graph theory from EEG data. AU - Vecchio, F.. AU - Miraglia, F.. AU - Quaranta, D.. AU - Granata, G.. AU - Romanello, R.. AU - Marra, C.. AU - Bramanti, P.. AU - Rossini, P. M.. N1 - The article has been reported in 2015. PY - 2016/3/1. Y1 - 2016/3/1. N2 - Functional brain abnormalities including memory loss are found to be associated with pathological changes in connectivity and network neural structures. Alzheimers disease (AD) interferes with memory formation from the molecular level, to synaptic functions and neural networks organization. Here, we determined whether brain connectivity of resting-state networks correlate with memory in patients affected by AD and in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). One hundred and forty-four subjects were recruited: 70 AD (MMSE Mini Mental State Evaluation 21.4), 50 MCI (MMSE 25.2) and 24 healthy subjects (MMSE 29.8). Undirected and weighted ...
A semiconductor device has a substrate and semiconductor die disposed over a first surface of the substrate. A wire stud is attached to the first surface of the substrate. The wire stud includes a base portion and stem portion. A bonding pad is formed over a second surface of the substrate. An encapsulant is deposited over the substrate, semiconductor die, and wire stud. A portion of the encapsulant is removed by LDA to expose the wire stud. A portion of the encapsulant is removed by LDA to expose the substrate. An interconnect structure is formed over the encapsulant and electrically connected to the wire stud and semiconductor die. A bump is formed over the interconnect structure. A semiconductor package is disposed over the encapsulant and electrically connected to the substrate. A discrete semiconductor device is disposed over the encapsulant and electrically connected to the substrate.
The number of resting state functional connectivity MRI studies continues to expand at a rapid rate along with the options for data processing. Of the ...
article{MaScClMo07, author = {J{\o}rg Mayer and Heinz Georg Schuster and Jens Christian Claussen and Matthias M{\o}lle}, title = {Corticothalamic projections control synchronization in locally coupled bistable thalamic oscillators}, journal = {Physical Review Letters}, pages = {068102}, volume = {99}, year = {2007}, abstract = {Thalamic circuits are able to generate state-dependent oscillations of different frequencies and degrees of synchronization. However, little is known about how synchronous oscillations, such as spindle oscillations in the thalamus, are organized in the intact brain. Experimental findings suggest that the simultaneous occurrence of spindle oscillations over widespread territories of the thalamus is due to the corticothalamic projections, as the synchrony is lost in the decorticated thalamus. In this Letter we study the influence of corticothalamic projections on the synchrony in a thalamic network, and uncover the underlying control mechanism, leading to a control method ...
A paper in the journal Heliyon titled: Imbalance in resting state functional connectivity is associated with eating behaviors and adiposity in children. The authors write: We hypothesized that unhealthy eating habits and adiposity among children are associated with functional connectivity between brain regions associated with impulsivity, response inhibition, and reward. You can find a good summary…
Liu, J.; Wannier, T.; Rouiller, E.M.; Jeanmonod, D.; Morel, A., 2000: Organization of thalamic projections to frontal motor areas m1, PMd, SMA and pre-SMA in relation to pallidothalamic pathways a multiple tracer study in monkey
In other words. . . . I always speak of the duality which exists everywhere. We put it towards technology-educationally, let us say-rather than towards humanity. And slowly I think many people are beginning to realize the importance of human beings. And a starving human being is a very important person, whether we know them or not. And I feel this greatly towards people.. PK: Well this. . . . Youre talking right now about a world view and a philosophy and I would like very much to wrap up later with that.. BW: Oh.. PK: Really what right now I was asking was about you specifically and the work itself and its connection to you; and basically I was trying to confirm what I think we were saying earlier-or what you were saying-that there is a direct connection, very direct connection between these things that you make. . . .. BW: Oh, yeah.. PK: . . . and your own life and experience.. BW: But definitely so. Because I feel we are what our life has been, and. . . .. PK: But we dont necessarily have ...
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The LightCONEX active blind mate optical interconnect for VPX systems includes a fixed plug-in module connector and a floating backplane connector.
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Reliability computer-aided design tool for full-chip electromigration analysis and comparison with different interconnect metallizations ...
We try to fit in one charity project a year at interconnect/it and this year it was the turn of the Plaza community cinema in Waterloo. Read on for the design…
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On stage at InterConnect 2017, IBM welcomes Twitters Chris Moody, IBMs Arvind Krishna and David Kenny as they discuss cloud technologies and the future.
Background Establishing appropriate neuronal circuitry is essential to proper function from the vertebrate nervous program. At E13.5(+1 DIV), the commissural projections shaped fascicles and crossed the midline in the handles. Enzyme treatment evidently did not influence the pioneer axons that got advanced as heavy fascicles normal towards the midline and beyond, on the contralateral VN. Projections Later, nevertheless, traversed the enzyme-treated matrix as unfasciculated fibers, deviated from the normal course crossing the midline at various angles and extending beyond the contralateral VN. This suggests that CSs also limit the course of the later projections, which otherwise would be attracted to alternative targets. Conclusions CS moieties in the early hindbrain therefore control the course and fasciculation of axonal projections and the timing of axonal arrival at the target. Background The establishment of correct neuronal circuitry is crucial for proper function of the vertebrate nervous ...
Diffusion-weighted imaging is often used as a starting point for in vivo white matter (wm) connectivity to reconstruct potential wm pathways between brain areas. In this study, we investigate the reproducibility of the connectivity matrix, resulting from different tractography parameters. We vary the number of streamlines used to construct the matrix in cortical to cortical connectivity and analyze its effects. We also compare the effect of probabilistic and deterministic local streamline tractography algorithms, seeding both from the wm and from wm-grey matter interface.
The brains of adults with autism may be wired differently from people without the disorder, and this abnormal pattern of connectivity may be
Explaining the work which is being published in Cerebral Cortex, Dr Kaiser, Reader in Neuroinformatics at Newcastle University, says: Long-distance connections are difficult to establish and maintain but are crucial for fast and efficient processing. If you think about a social network, nearby friends might give you very similar information - you might hear the same news from different people. People from different cities or countries are more likely to give you novel information. In the same way, some information flow within a brain module might be redundant whereas information from other modules, say integrating the optical information about a face with the acoustic information of a voice is vital in making sense of the outside world.. Brain pruned. The researchers at Newcastle, Glasgow and Seoul Universities evaluated the scans of 121 healthy participants between the ages of 4 and 40 years as this is where the major connectivity changes can be seen during this period of maturation and ...
A fault-tolerant, high-speed wafer scale system comprises a plurality of functional modules, a parallel hierarchical bus which is fault-tolerant to defects in an interconnect network, and one or more bus masters. This bus includes a plurality of bus lines segmented into sections and linked together by programmable bus switches and bus transceivers or repeaters in an interconnect network. By: 1) use of small block size (512K bit) for the memory modules; 2) use of programmable identification register to facilitate dynamic address mapping and relatively easy incorporation of global redundancy; 3) Use of a grid structure for the bus to provide global redundancy for the interconnect network; 4) Use of a relatively narrow bus consisting of 13 signal lines to keep the total area occupied by the bus small; 5) Use of segmented bus lines connected by programmable switches and of bus defects; 6) use of special circuit for bus transceivers and asynchronous handshakes to facilitate dynamic bus configuration; 7) use
Our results identify a novel set of regions in the rostral and dorsal striatum that concurrently exhibit structural and functional connectivity to orbitofrontal, lateral prefrontal, and posterior parietal regions of cortex. The location of these convergence zones is anatomically consistent with previous reports of parietal (Selemon and Goldman-Rakic, 1985, 1988; Cavada and Goldman-Rakic, 1991) and frontal (Haber et al., 1995; Averbeck et al., 2014) white matter projections, based on ex vivo nonhuman primate histology. Although the distribution of cortical regions associated with the striatal convergence zones differed to some degree between structural and functional connectivity measures, reflecting methodological limitations of each approach, a majority of cortical areas structurally connected to the convergence zones also showed strong functional connectivity. This supports the notion that these corticostriatal projections form an integrative functional circuit.. The current findings support a ...
0025] In FIG. 2A, interconnect transitional component 210 may include a microstrip line 212, a via 214, and a strip line 216. Microstrip line 212 may include a portion of the interconnect transitional component 210 that is disposed on an outer surface of a conductive plane, such as conductive plane 202, but electrically insulated from the conductive plane by non-conductive material (not shown). In some embodiments, microstrip line 212 may be disposed at least partially on a top or bottom surface of the electronic packaging structure 200. Microstrip line 212 may be used to connect the electronic packaging structure 200 with external signal sources/destinations and/or other electronic units. Via 214 may be a portion of the interconnect transitional component 210 that passes through one or more conductive planes, such as plane 202 of FIG. 2A, but electronically insulated from the conductive plane(s) being passed through by non-conductive material. For example, via 214 may pass conductive plane 202 ...
The enhancement of the original SC matrix is based on the addition of new links for pairs of nodes according to the corresponding FC between those nodes. The algorithm starts by first normalizing the maximal value of the empirical FC matrix (FCe) to 1. Then, the initial tolerance level is set to 1 and, starting with the original empirical SC matrix at the corresponding bifurcation (instability of the spontaneous state), the simulated FC matrix (FCs) is created. In doing this, the global scaling parameter G is adjusted such that the system works at the edge of the bifurcation where the spontaneous state loses stability (as shown by Deco et al., 2013, at that particular point the system optimally fits the FC and maximally reflects the underlying SC). Then, the tolerance is reduced (in our case by steps of 0.025, i.e., T = T − 0.025) and the simulated and empirical FC is checked for all connections. For all connections where ,FCeij − FCsij, , T, the identified SC links are redefined to be equal ...
To study the anatomy of the fiber tracts and their relevance for the structural connectivity of the brain, we investigate different organizational levels, from large fiber bundles up to the fanning of these bundles into single fibers in the cortex. This is achieved by combining different in-vivo and post-mortem imaging techniques. We particularly focus on the investigation of connectivity in the posterior part of the brain, i.e. parietal and occipital cortex, for understanding the paths for information processing from the visual system into the multimodal association cortices of the parietal lobe and subsequently, into areas of the frontal lobe. To integrate effects of genetic and environmental influences on connectivity, we use data from large epidemiological population studies with thousands of subjects, to which the Connectivity group is contributing (1000BRAINS; German National Cohort ...
Researchers report too many connections form between neurons in the cerebellum and learning difficulties are expressed in mice who lack the RNF8 gene.
What: Novel ways to probe brain function: beyond stationary functional connectivity measurements Where: BCBL auditorium Who: Thomas Bolton. École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, School of Life Sciences, Lausanne, Switzerland When: 12 PM
Extreme Networks designs, builds and implements sophisticated Ethernet solutions for the toughest challenges in network connectivity and IP-based communications.
ABSTRACT: Although the amygdala complex is a brain area critical for human behavior, knowledge of its subspecialization is primarily derived from experiments in animals. We here employed methods for large-scale data mining to perform a connectivity-derived parcellation of the human amygdala based on whole-brain coactivation patterns computed for each seed voxel. Voxels within the histologically defined human amygdala were clustered into distinct groups based on their brain-wide coactivation maps. Using this approach, connectivity-based parcellation divided the amygdala into three distinct clusters that are highly consistent with earlier microstructural distinctions. Meta-analytic connectivity modelling then revealed the derived clusters brain-wide connectivity patterns, while meta-data profiling allowed their functional characterization. These analyses revealed that the amygdalas laterobasal nuclei group was associated with coordinating high-level sensory input, whereas its centromedial nuclei ...
Ken Mogi1) & Yoshi Tamori2) In this paper, we discuss two fundamental aspects of cortical information processing. The first aspect concerns the principles of neural coding. We argue that unlike todays digital computer, the elementary coding units in the brain should be a cluster of bits connected via synaptic interaction (interaction-connected bits) rather than a set of bits which may not be interaction-connected. Specifically, it is not the mapping between patterns of neural firings and some concepts or objects but the internal relation between the neural activities that characterise the neural code. In other words, the code should be embedded in the dynamics of the system, rather than in an abstract lookup table. In order to establish this point, we review recent research directions in brain science, especially as regards cortical information representation, with an emphasis on the non-local character of the neural code. The second aspect concerns more systematic features of cortical ...
Neurosurgical management of brain tumours has entered a new paradigm where resection is extended into the peri-tumoural margin to minimise the potential for recurrence or malignant transformation. Maximising the resection whilst minimising harm is complicated by difficulty in determining the edge of the tumour and limitations in mapping the function of apparently normal brain tissue surrounding the tumour.. Our group aim to address the problem of accurately mapping cognitive functions in a way that is of value to surgeons by using connectomics to create functional and structural wiring diagrams of the brain. Connectomics uses white matter connectivity and the synchronicity of brain signals measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to model the brain as a continuously interacting communication networks. The way these brain networks are organized is intimately related to cognitive functions, and is believed to be sensitive to changes in these networks due to injury or surgery. Consequently, ...
To understand the importance of this improvement, we need to make a short excursion into network theory. This field of study maps various objects and the relationships among them into nodes and edges respectively: the nodes are points on a graph, the edges are lines connecting them. The resulting network can then be analyzed without reference to how those objects relate, considering only which objects relate (are connected by an edge) to which, how many relationships (edges) each object has, looking at averages, loops, path lengths between nodes without direct connections, and so on. Obviously, creating a bunch of new edges, connecting previously unconnected nodes, will change the characteristics of the network. It will be more tightly connected, and potentially modules that were only distantly connected will now be cross-talking ...
We appreciate the opportunity to help further Mayor Jacksons vision for properly connecting downtown to Clevelands greatest natural resource, the lake, Dee and Jimmy Haslam said. Lakefront connectivity has long been a complicated issue for our region, and a long-term solution has been elusive. Our preliminary vision, led by a landscape architect with experience around the world, intends to create a transformational pedestrian pathway unlocking public spaces and significant development opportunities on the lakefront. It would create year-round destinations accessible to our entire region, provide direct connections to nature and result in substantial economic development while driving density and engagement in the lakefront neighborhood our community shares. We recognize that there is a long road ahead for a project of this magnitude. ...
These are archetypal examples of neural pathways.[citation needed] Neural pathways in the basal ganglia in the cortico-basal ... Therefore, most neural pathways are made up of axons.[citation needed] If the axons have myelin sheaths, then the pathway ... It has been proposed that the dopamine system of pathways is the overall organiser of the neural pathways that are seen to be ... In the hippocampus there are neural pathways involved in its circuitry including the perforant pathway, that provides a ...
Bernstein, LE; Liebenthal, E (2014). "Neural pathways for visual speech perception". Front Neurosci. 8: 386. doi:10.3389/fnins. ... Machine-based speechreading is now making successful use of neural-net based algorithms which use large databases of speakers ... Van Wassenhove, V; Grant, KW; Poeppel, D (Jan 2005). "Visual speech speeds up the neural processing of auditory speech". ... Following the discovery that auditory brain regions, including Heschl's gyrus, were activated by seen speech, the neural ...
An example is neural KCNQ/M (Kv7) potassium channelosome (see Delmas & Brown, 2005). Delmas, P.; Brown, D. A. (2005). "Pathways ... modulating neural KCNQ/M (Kv7) potassium channels". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 6 (11): 850-62. doi:10.1038/nrn1785. PMID ...
"The Amygdala and the Neural Pathways of Fear". Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: 23-38. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-329-9_2. ISBN 978 ...
Wild JM (1997). "Neural pathways for the control of birdsong production". Journal of Neurobiology. 33 (5): 653-670. doi:10.1002 ... Humans also have a vocal pathway that is analogous to the avian anterior pathway. This pathway is a cortico-basal ganglia- ... Parallel to the avian posterior vocal pathway mentioned above is the motor cortico-brainstem pathway. Within this pathway, the ... the posterior pathway communicates with the anterior pathway via projections from the HVC to Area X; the anterior pathway sends ...
It's painful, because you're redirecting your neural pathways. It's all about working towards kindness." After his work at ...
Kow LM, Pfaff DW (May 1998). "Mapping of neural and signal transduction pathways for lordosis in the search for estrogen ... October 2009). "Estrogen masculinizes neural pathways and sex-specific behaviors". Cell. 139 (1): 61-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... The pathway of estrogen biosynthesis in extragonadal tissues is different. These tissues are not able to synthesize C19 ... Nadkarni S, Cooper D, Brancaleone V, Bena S, Perretti M (November 2011). "Activation of the annexin A1 pathway underlies the ...
"Merkel Cells Activate Sensory Neural Pathways through Adrenergic Synapses". Neuron. 100 (6): 1401-1413.e6. doi:10.1016/j.neuron ...
Multiple neural pathways relay information integral to interoceptive processing from the body to the brain. these include the ... lamina I spinothalamic pathway, the visceroceptive pathway, and the somatosensory pathway. The lamina I spinothalamic pathway ... Interoceptive signals are projected to the brain via a diversity of neural pathways, in particular from the lamina I of the ... Davenport, Paul W.; Vovk, Andrea (2009). "Cortical and subcortical central neural pathways in respiratory sensations". ...
Earlier, Raz had tampered with the character's neural pathways. The level requires Raz to correct his mistakes. Collectibles ...
The efferent neural pathway then follows, with relevant signals transmitted back from the cerebral cortex and medulla via the ... This is the afferent neural pathway. Unlike other areas responsible for involuntary actions like swallowing, there is no ...
Poulet, JFA; Hedwig B (2006). "New insights into corollary discharges mediated by identified neural pathways". Trends in ... The inhibitory commands originate at the same time as the motor command and target the sensory pathway that would report any ... This is unique from the efference copy, since the corollary discharge is actually fed into the sensory pathway to cancel out ... However, these fish display corollary discharges that inhibit the ascending sensory pathway at the first CNS relay point. These ...
Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Rueger MA, Mkhikian H, Korb E, McKay RD (2008). "Signaling pathways controlling neural stem cells ... recent work suggests that pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells or neural precursor cells results in ... Neural stem cells (NSC) reside in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult human brain and the dentate gyrus of the adult ... August 2009). "Targeting neural precursors in the adult brain rescues injured dopamine neurons". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ...
The neural pathways to these neurons are called delay lines. Jeffress claimed that the neurons that the delay lines link act as ... and forming associations between separate neural events. This concept has led to a greater understanding of neural processes ... Consider a basic neural circuit with two input neurons, A and B, that have excitatory synaptic terminals converging on a single ... Coincidence detection in the context of neurobiology is a process by which a neuron or a neural circuit can encode information ...
Eisenberger, N.I.; Taylor, S.E.; Gable, S.L.; Hilmert, C.J.; Lieberman, M.D. (2007). "Neural pathways link social support to ... Many studies have tried to identify biopsychosocial pathways for the link between social support and health. Social support has ... "Neural correlates of giving support to a loved one". Psychosomatic Medicine. 74 (1): 3-7. doi:10.1097/psy.0b013e3182359335. ...
Eisenberger, N. I.; Taylor, S. E.; Gable, S. L.; Hilmert, C. J.; Lieberman, M. D. (2007). "Neural pathways link social support ... Taylor, S. E.; Eisenberger, N. I.; Saxbe, D.; Lehman, B. J.; Lieberman, M. D. (2006). "Neural responses to emotional stimuli ... "Neural bases of moderation of cortisol stress responses by psychosocial resources". Journal of Personality and Social ... and environments have deficits in emotion regulation in response to stressful circumstance that can be seen at the neural level ...
"Neural pathways link social support to attenuated neuroendocrine stress responses". NeuroImage. 35 (4): 1601-1612. doi:10.1016/ ... and neural responses to threat, as well as longevity and physical health. The presence of others is theorized to help ...
Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Rueger MA, Mkhikian H, Korb E, McKay RD (2008). "Signaling pathways controlling neural stem cells ... August 2009). "Targeting neural precursors in the adult brain rescues injured dopamine neurons". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. ... Mesenchymal stem cells that are induced to a neural cell fate are loaded onto a porous scaffold and are then implanted at the ... Ryu HH, Lim JH, Byeon YE, Park JR, Seo MS, Lee YW, Kim WH, Kang KS, Kweon OK (2009). "Functional recovery and neural ...
"Social Anxiety, Chemical Imbalances, and Neural Pathways in the Brain". Social Anxiety Institute. Shim RS, Compton MT, Rust G, ... in the brain is one of the causes that happen when there is a disequilibrium of chemicals inside the brain's neural pathways, ...
November 2009). "FoxOs Cooperatively Regulate Diverse Pathways Governing Neural Stem Cell Homeostasis". Cell Stem Cell. 5 (5): ... His laboratory established the concept of tumor maintenance, discovered a core pathway of aging and demonstrated that aging is ... October 2008). "p53 and Pten control neural and glioma stem/progenitor cell renewal and differentiation". Nature. 455 (7216): ... "Glutamine supports pancreatic cancer growth through a KRAS-regulated metabolic pathway". Nature. 496 (7443): 101-105. Bibcode: ...
"Neural pathways link social support to attenuated neuroendocrine stress responses". NeuroImage. 35 (4): 1601-1612. doi:10.1016/ ... Another pathway by which social connection positively affects health is through the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), the " ... While it appears that social isolation triggers a "neural alarm system" of threat-related regions of the brain (including the ... One way social connection reduces our stress response is by inhibiting activity in our pain and alarm neural systems. Brain ...
... "β1 integrins activate a MAPK signalling pathway in neural stem cells that contributes to their maintenance". Development. 131 ( ... Human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (hmNPCs) have the ability to differentiate down multiple neural cell lineages ... Because FOX proteins regulate neural stem cell homeostasis, FOX proteins have been used to protect neural stem cells by ... "FoxOs cooperatively regulate diverse pathways governing neural stem cell homeostasis". Cell Stem Cell. 5 (5): 540-553. doi: ...
Two possible neural pathways enable the basal ganglia to produce movement. When activated, the direct pathway sends sensory and ... including in the motor pathways that involve hypokinesia. In one pathway, glutamate in the substantia nigra excites the release ... In the indirect pathway, the basal ganglia send GABA to the globus pallidus which then sends it to the subthalamic nucleus, ... The dopamine pathway in the substantia nigra is essential to motor function, and commonly a lesion in this area correlates with ...
SCN has neural multiple pathways to control and modulate endocrine activity. VIP and vasopressin are both important for neurons ... Pathway at biocarta.com Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 6/6ch2/s6ch2_34". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original ... Then it will activate gene expression pathways such as Per1 and Per2 in circadian rhythm. In addition, GABA levels are ... Application of VIP also phase shifts the circadian rhythm of vasopressin release and neural activity. The ability of the ...
Neural pathways and memory codes may still have been formed, however subsequent forgetting of learned information implies that ... When we repeatedly think about knowledge we have learned, our brain strengthens the existing neural pathways which embeds this ... When we learn something new, our brain creates new neural pathways. Therefore, repetition when engaging in learning is ... During this process, the brain relays a specific pattern of neural activity that echoes the original perception of that event. ...
The growth cone is necessary for the construction of neural pathways. Although pioneer axons and follower axons both possess ... An investigation was conducted looking into the role of pioneer axons in the formation of both CNS and PNS axon pathways in a ... have shown that certain cells that interact with pioneer axons are also crucial in the eventual development of neural pathways ... Ultimately, like in the PNS, the longitudinal pathways formed in about 80% of observed segments. Thus, it was shown that the ...
October 2014). "CHD8 regulates neurodevelopmental pathways associated with autism spectrum disorder in neural progenitors". ... The knockdown of CHD8 in human neural stem cells results in dysregulation of ASD risk genes that are targeted by CHD8. GRCh38: ... Ronan JL, Wu W, Crabtree GR (May 2013). "From neural development to cognition: unexpected roles for chromatin". Nature Reviews ... "Histone H1 recruitment by CHD8 is essential for suppression of the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway". Molecular and Cellular ...
McKinley, M. J; Allen, A. M; May, C. N; McAllen, R. M; Oldfield, B. J; Sly, D; Mendelsohn, F. A (2001). "Neural pathways from ... Johnson, A. K; Gross, P. M (1993). "Sensory circumventricular organs and brain homeostatic pathways". FASEB Journal. 7 (8): 678 ... Its relationship with the subfornical organ and neural systems involved in maintaining body fluid homeostasis". Brain Research ...
"The biochemical pathways of central nervous system neural degeneration in niacin deficiency". Neural Regeneration Research. 9 ( ... pathway, as PARP is a nuclear enzyme involved in DNA repair, but in the absence of NAD+ can lead to cell death; D) reduced ...
Miller CA and Marshall JF (2005). Altered Fos expression in neural pathways involved in cue-elicited drug seeking. European ... Miller, Courtney A.; Marshall, John F. (March 2005). "Altered Fos expression in neural pathways underlying cue-elicited drug ... Miller first dissected the neural circuits that are activated during re-exposure to an environment previously associated with ...
Ten-m3 molecule is the first to be reported to regulate connectivity in the thalamostriatal pathway. Ten-m3 guides some of the ... At day 7.5 in mouse embryonic development (E7.5), in situ hybridisation shows Ten-m3 mRNA expression at the neural plate, ... They are expressed in distinct, but often interconnected, areas of the developing nervous system and in some non-neural tissues ... Similarly, there is a graded expression of Ten-m3 in the visual pathway, especially during embryonic and early postnatal ...
When a tumor blocks the pathway of the cerebrospinal fluid, this will cause headaches in the patient. Often when hydrocephalus ... neural cell adhesion molecule) → ++ S100 → ++ Transthyretin → - Vimentin → +++ Desmin → - SMA (smooth muscle actin) → + The ...
Once MAG (or Nogo) has bound to NgR, NgR activates the rho kinase (ROCK) pathway. The activation of the rho kinase pathway ... Gage FH, Temple S (October 2013). "Neural stem cells: generating and regenerating the brain". Neuron. 80 (3): 588-601. doi: ...
... is shown to regulate neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells, and neuronal ... By inhibiting the Cdc42/PAK signalling pathway, miR-137 decreases proliferation, invasion and G0/G1 cell cycle progression of ... This is proposed to be the mechanism whereby miR-137 induces differentiation and inhibits proliferation of adult mouse neural ...
Another study used HSV type1 and type2 to investigate the optical pathway: by injecting the virus into the eye, the pathway ... The complementary technique is retrograde tracing, which is used to trace neural connections from their termination to their ... WGA enters the cell by binding to oligosaccharides, and is then taken up via endocytosis via a caveolae-dependent pathway. ... Broadwell RD, Balin BJ (December 1985). "Endocytic and exocytic pathways of the neuronal secretory process and trans-synaptic ...
May 2016). "Deep biomarkers of human aging: Application of deep neural networks to biomarker development". Aging. 8 (5): 1021- ... Study of these organisms has revealed the presence of at least two conserved aging pathways. Gene expression is imperfectly ...
It also functions as a signal transducer/integrator to regulate the MAPK pathway, reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as ... ISBN 978-0-470-57095-1. Howarth C, Gleeson P, Attwell D (July 2012). "Updated energy budgets for neural computation in the ... Calderon DP, Fremont R, Kraenzlin F, Khodakhah K (March 2011). "The neural substrates of rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism". ... can control the same means of coordinating ATP use by this ion pump with the rates of the ATP generation by catabolic pathways ...
... and learning in neural networks. Schulten identified the goal of the life sciences as being to characterize biological systems ... resistance may arise from disruption of the binding process due to electrostatic attraction in charged neuraminidase pathways, ...
... fMRI is used to determine the specific neural pathways of activation across two conditions, narrative-level comprehension and ... In general, neuroimaging studies have found that reading involves three overlapping neural systems: networks active in visual, ... ISBN 978-1-60623-356-6. Speer, Nicole; Yarkoni, Tal; Zacks, Jeffrey (2008). "Neural substrates of narrative comprehension and ... these neural networks are not discrete, meaning these areas have several other functions as well. The Broca's area involved in ...
From a neurological perspective, dissociation during times of extreme stress or trauma can invoke neural mechanisms resulting ... Delker, Brianna; Freyd, Jennifer (2014). "From Betrayal to the Bottle: Investigating Possible Pathways from Trauma to ...
The crossed synchrony may be partially due to a shared neural pathway between upper and lower limbs. While the function of this ... The general pathway of a spinal reflex is one which involves neurons contained within the spinal cord. However, the brain may ... The reflex pathway (reflex arc) is a sequence of neurons connecting the sensory input (afferent neuron) to the motor output ( ... There are also reflex pathways involved in more dynamic activities such as walking and running, helping to ensure a smooth gait ...
Studies show that cortisol production correlates with heightened activity in the neural reward pathways of the brain, which ... "Developmental pathways towards mood disorders in adult life: Is there a role for sleep disturbances?". Journal of Affective ...
In 2016, his lab identified the role of aberrant NF-κB pathway activation within CPNs which leads to under-developed dendrites ... He also received an NIH Director's Pioneer Award in 2017 The Macklis lab studies neural development in the cerebral cortex, ... as well as for therapeutic screening of pathways involved in different neurological diseases. Macklis's lab was first to show ...
There are four stages of the spinal cord that arises from the neural tube: The neural plate, neural fold, neural tube, and the ... This pathway initially follows the dorsal spino-cerebellar pathway. It is arranged as follows: proprioceptive receptors of ... Neural differentiation occurs within the spinal cord portion of the tube. As the neural tube begins to develop, the notochord ... As the dorsal and ventral column cells proliferate, the lumen of the neural tube narrows to form the small central canal of the ...
In the way that the dorsal pathway processes the moving pattern and in turn suppresses the ventral pathway's representation of ... Donner, T. H.; Sagi, D.; Bonneh, Y. S.; Heeger, D. J. (2008). "Opposite neural signatures of motion-induced blindness in human ... specifically V4 of the ventral pathway and V3A, V3B, and the posterior intraparietal sulcus in the dorsal pathway. ... the brain structures involved during motion-induced blindness found there to be activation in the ventral and dorsal pathways, ...
The EF hypothesis postulates that it has selective value to have short neural pathways between areas of the brain that receive ... that the particular architecture of the primate visual system largely evolved to establish rapid neural pathways between ... the EF hypothesis is that evolutionary transformation in OC will affect the length and thereby speed of these neural pathways. ... The evolution has resulted in small, and gradual fluctuations to the direction of the nerve pathways in the OC. This ...
More recently, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have been constructed and trained that can replicate human auditory ... For care providers, it can provide actionable knowledge and tools for automating part of the clinical pathway. The field is ... Although inspired by the interconnectivity of biological neural networks, the architecture of CNNs is distinct from the ... Baby, Deepak; Van Den Broucke, Arthur; Verhulst, Sarah (February 2021). "A convolutional neural-network model of human cochlear ...
Journal of Neural Transmission. 109 (4): 443-53. doi:10.1007/s007020200036. PMID 11956964. S2CID 32434148. Wellendorph P, ... activating some G-protein coupled pathways but not others) Imbutamine (also H4 agonist) Immepip Imetit Immethridine Methimepip ...
This area links auditory and motor representations of speech through a pathway that starts in the superior temporal cortex, ... The translation phase involves afferent codes that uses the auditory system and neural networks. The choice phase involves ...
Recent development in deep learning and convolutional neural network techniques have made it possible to analyze and quantify ... Appropriate radioisotopes of elements within chemical compounds of the metabolic pathway being examined are used to make the ...
Sialic acid is known to play a crucial part in cell signaling pathways and interaction processes. The loss of this gene is ... Simulations show that hCONDELs are enriched near genes involved in hormone receptor signaling and neural function, and near ...
This hard anarchic scalability thus provides a pathway forward to fully realize the potential of Internet-of-things solutions ... and random forest to advanced ones such as convolutional neural networks, LSTM, and variational autoencoder. In the future, the ...
β-catenin of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway plays a role in cell fate determination, as it is critical for ... Conditional inactivation of TGF-βr2 of osteochondroprogenitor cells in the cranial neural crest resulted in faster ... Knock out of the entire pathway results in early embryonic death, therefore most research of this nature utilised conditional ... However the exact mechanism and signalling pathways are still unclear. Studies have shown that embryonic stem cells are more ...
1998). Neural substrates for species recognition in the time-coding electrosensory pathway of mormyrid electric fish. J ...
Modern advancements in analytical technology have made it clear the importance of biometals in signalling pathways and the ... Magnesium has also been noted as a possible secondary messenger for neural transmissions. Magnesium acts as an allosteric ... with sodium in maintaining resting cell membrane potential and in cell-cell communication via repolarization of axon pathways ...
Hsu (2013). "Reduction in muscular motility by selective focused cold therapy". Journal of Neural Transmission. 121 (1): 15-20 ... is a medical procedure that temporarily blocks nerve conduction along peripheral nerve pathways. The procedure, which inserts a ...
WNT9A and WNT9B signal through the beta-catenin/Tcf pathway but do not play related roles as WNT3A and WNT3 in the same ... Ikeya M, Lee SM, Johnson JE, McMahon AP, Takada S (October 1997). "Wnt signalling required for expansion of neural crest and ... Wnt-3a promotes the beta-catenin/Tcf pathway which is tumor inducing and can cause cancer when expressed in particular cell ... Hocevar BA, Mou F, Rennolds JL, Morris SM, Cooper JA, Howe PH (June 2003). "Regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by disabled ...
In consequence of this action, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 causes cells to engage the pathway of Programmed cell death termed ... receptor coupled to Gs alpha subunit-dependent increases in cellular cAMP levels and the suppression of cell injury in neural ... It (they) regulates signaling by: a) inhibiting the STAT3-Janus kinase pathway to block cellular pro-inflammatory responses; b ... Rossitto M, Ujjan S, Poulat F, Boizet-Bonhoure B (2015). "Multiple roles of the prostaglandin D2 signaling pathway in ...
... neural adaptation due to induction of ΔFosB expression). Taken orally, 20 mg of immediate-release oxycodone is considered to be ... with many minor pathways and resulting metabolites. Around 10% (range 8-14%) of a dose of oxycodone is excreted essentially ... they are thought to produce reward and addiction via activation of the MOR in the mesolimbic reward pathway, including in the ... N-demethylation of oxycodone to noroxycodone by CYP3A4 is the major metabolic pathway, accounting for 45% ± 21% of a dose of ...
... migration and differentiation of the neural crest. In this context, Gli2 is responding to the Indian Hedgehog signaling pathway ... Hardcastle Z, Mo R, Hui CC, Sharpe PT (August 1998). "The Shh signalling pathway in tooth development: defects in Gli2 and Gli3 ... Gli2 null mice embryos develop neural tube defects which, can be rescued by overexpression of Gli1 (Jacob and Briscoe, 2003). ... Overexpression of this Gli2 splice variant may lead to the upregulation of the Shh signalling pathway, thereby inducing BCCs. ...
Filed Under: Technology & Innovation Tagged With: brain, Connectome, neural, neural pathways, Neurons ... neural pathways. To lower stress levels (ours and others), practice cognitive reframing instead of venting. August 19, 2021. ... neural pathways, Stress, venting. Next: Dealing with opportunities and challenges from mood-altering consumer wearables. ... point-to-point spa-tial con-nec-tiv-i-ty of neur-al path-ways in the brain," accord-ing to Arthur W. Toga, PhD, and col-leagues ...
Mount Sinai researchers have identified a neural pathway through which the brain detects errors and guides subsequent ... Mount Sinai Researchers Uncover a Neural Pathway that is Critical to Correcting Behavioral Errors Relevant to Many Psychiatric ... Mount Sinai Researchers Uncover a Neural Pathway that is Critical to Correcting Behavioral Errors Relevant to Many Psychiatric ... Mount Sinai researchers have identified a neural pathway through which the brain detects errors and guides subsequent ...
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... ... A retinoic acid-neural tube/axial patterning adverse outcome pathway (RA-NTA AOP) framework was designed. The framework was ... Against this background, we ... read more have explored the usefulness of retinoic acid mediated regulation of neural tube and ... It is suggested that the RA-NTA framework may provide a general tool to define mechanistic pathways and biomarkers of ...
Title:A Directionally Selective Neural Network with Separated ON and OFF Pathways for Translational Motion Perception in a ... Neural and Evolutionary Computing (cs.NE); Neurons and Cognition (q-bio.NC). ... In this research, we highlight the functionality of ON and OFF pathways, separating motion information for parallel computation ... First, we thoroughly mimic the flys preliminary motion-detecting pathways with newly revealed flys physiology. Second, we ...
Furthermore, two representative neural cells, neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH) and astrocytoma cell line (CCF-STTG1), were ... Here, we investigated ER stress and the regulating model of UPR in ZIKV-infected neural cells in vitro and in vivo. Mice ... Findings in this study demonstrated that ZIKV infection activates ER stress in neural cells. The results offer clues to further ... we investigated the activation and regulation of three UPR pathways in neural cells. We found that ZIKV infection in neural ...
... we create a neural pathway. The more we re-choose that same belief and resulting behavior and feeling, the more efficient the ...
A neural mA/Ythdf pathway is required for learning and memory in Drosophila.. Title. A neural mA/Ythdf pathway is required for ... Assays of short term memory in mA mutants reveal neural-autonomous requirements of mA writers working via Ythdf, but not Ythdc1 ... analyses and tissue-specific mA maps reveal selective behavioral and regulatory defects for the Drosophila Mettl3/Ythdf pathway ...
Functional organization of autonomic neural pathways. / Gibbins, Ian.. In: Organogenesis, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2013, p. 169-175.. ... Dive into the research topics of Functional organization of autonomic neural pathways. Together they form a unique ... Functional organization of autonomic neural pathways. In: Organogenesis. 2013 ; Vol. 9, No. 3. pp. 169-175. ... title = "Functional organization of autonomic neural pathways",. abstract = "There is now abundant functional and anatomical ...
canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in neural plate anterior/posterior pattern formation Show first 5 Terms ... regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in neural plate anterior/posterior pattern formation. Search Ontology: ... negative regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in neural plate anterior/posterior pattern formation Show first ... canonical Wnt signaling pathway involved in neural plate anterior/posterior pattern formation ...
Mapping Neural Pathways. Researchers are using advanced imaging techniques to attempt to trace the neural pathways that visual ... Such neural plasticity could well create pathways for blindsight that are not present in the normally sighted people who are ... The pathway connects the pulvinar nucleus and superior colliculus to the amygdala, which plays a key role in processing ... Research has not yet fully determined the neural structures responsible for blindsight in the cortically blind, but the most ...
Posts about neural pathways written by Sally Harris Mindfulness ... Tag: neural pathways. A simple trick to balance out your ... at a time like this but every time you do so youll be strengthening new neural pathways in your brain, training yourself to be ...
Filed Under: Walking out of dyspraxia Tagged With: dyspraxia, health, neural pathways, neuroscience, walking into wellness ...
Heres an interesting piece someone sent me: ATHENS, Ohio, Dec. 24 (UPI) - New research suggests muscles respond to simple thoughts of exercise; simply imagining exercise can trick the muscles into delaying atrophy and even getting stronger. Its further proof that brain and body, which evolved together, are more intwined than separate. To demonstrate the power of the brain, researchers at Ohio University wrapped a single wrist of two sets of study participants in a cast - immobilizing their mus
GUIMARAES, Leonídia Alfredo. The neural pathway of the image beyond the shadows. Rev. bras. psicodrama [online]. 2012, vol.20, ... Palavras-chave : Neural connections; mental images; psychodramatic images; psychotherapy. · resumo em Português · texto em ... This article explores the neural process of mental image formation, highlighting how information is processed in the brain, ... it also promotes the development of new mental patterns within the neural circuits, this leading to new cognitive, emotional ...
The information on this website is not intended to be fully systematic or complete, nor does inclusion on our website imply any endorsement or recommendation by The Science of Psychotherapy/Dahlitz Media, advisors, or moderators. We make no warranties, express or implied, about the value or utility for any purpose of the information and resources contained on this site.. ...
PRIMITIVE NEURAL PATHWAYSNew full length album out December 13, 2010Limited to 500 copiesPre-orderTNUC is pressed for time at ... 1 Comments on "STEVE MOORES PRIMITIVE NEURAL PATHWAYS + LIVE REVIEW." * Anonymous. December 19, 2010, 7:31 pm. ...
by Lynne Franklin Wordsmith , Jul 14, 2022 , Leadership, Video. Know How to Identify This and Get Beyond It There can be something almost shameful in admitting to having imposter syndrome. Maybe that has a bit to to with its origins. Professor Pauline Clance and psychologist Suzanne Imes at Georgia State University came up with ...
On 11/11/19 at approximately 4 PM Pacific Time, I had an epiphany moment. It presented itself simultaneously as a loud snap with light. (No, it was not a stroke!) I had read that 11/11/19 was to be an auspicious day, yet this exceeded anything I could have imagined. I ...
The neural pathways of the connectome. The Northwestern University study draws on a 10-year project that produced the ... the first full map of neural pathways in an animal.. The connectome allowed the researchers to analyze all the possible neural ...
The Neural Pathways for Vomiting After Consuming Contaminated Meals Abstract: After consuming contaminated meals, toxins ... The Neural Pathways for Vomiting After Consuming Contaminated Meals. Abstract: After consuming contaminated meals, toxins ... The Neural Pathways for Vomiting After Eating Infected Food. * November 2, 2022 ... For the primary time, researchers have mapped the detailed neural pathway of defensive responses from the intestine to the mind ...
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Dbiec, J., & Ledoux, J. (2009). The amygdala and the neural pathways of fear. In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Basic Science ... Dbiec, J & Ledoux, J 2009, The amygdala and the neural pathways of fear. in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Basic Science and ... Dive into the research topics of The amygdala and the neural pathways of fear. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ... The amygdala and the neural pathways of fear. In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Basic Science and Clinical Practice. Humana ...
A research team in Japan has found a new neural pathway that links the circadian regulation, stress, and sleep in in mammals. ... New Neural Pathway Found for Circadian Regulation, Stress and Sleep The optogenetic tool "Channelrhodopsin2" expresses CRF ... "We identified this neural pathway in mice, which are nocturnal animals. Further studies are required to elucidate how the ... "It is well-known that the circadian clock and stress have an effect on sleep, but it was unclear which neural pathway is ...
"Role of Fanconi DNA repair pathway in neural stem cell homeostasis". Cell Cycle. 7 (13): 1911-5. doi:10.4161/cc.7.13.6235. PMID ... Neural stem cell homeostasis[edit]. Microphthalmia and microcephaly are frequent congenital defects in FA patients. The loss of ... This pathway was proven by the presence of radioresistant DNA synthesis, the hallmark of a defect in the S phase checkpoint, in ... This leads to depletion of the neural stem cell pool with aging.[41] Much of the Fanconi anemia phenotype might be interpreted ...
Now a team of European researchers has identified a neural pathway that induces forgetting by actively erasing memories. The ... The hippocampus contains neural circuits that loop through three of its sub-regions - the dentate gyrus and the CA3 and CA1 ... "This is the first time that a pathway in the brain has been linked to forgetting, to actively erasing memories," said Gross, a ...
  • With respect to biological findings underlying fly's physiology in the past decade, we present a directionally selective neural network, with a feed-forward structure and entirely low-level visual processing, so as to implement direction selective neurons in the fly's visual system, which are mainly sensitive to wide-field translational movements in four cardinal directions. (arxiv.org)
  • These neurons were found to be part of the neural pathway that is crucial for the circadian regulation of sleep and wakefulness. (todayspractitioner.com)
  • In particular, the CHD8 protein and the genes it regulates likely help control the development of neural progenitor cells, which give rise to nerve cells (neurons), and the growth and division (proliferation) and maturation (differentiation) of neurons. (medlineplus.gov)
  • On day 9 of the study, developing neurons from typical people formed "neural rosettes" (an intricate, dandelion-like shape indicative of typically developing neurons). (bigthink.com)
  • These neurons are grouped together in something called a neural pathway, which sends signals from one part of the brain to another. (wearemindlabs.com)
  • An intimate knowledge of the flexibility of stem/progenitor cell differentiation pathways is key in understanding normal cell differentiation and the development of cancer, and in identifying and designing treatments for various injuries and disorders, such as those of neurons, glia, muscles and skin. (uth.edu)
  • We are currently using this system to examine the flexibility of the differentiation pathway in various types of stem/progenitor cells and whether such manipulations can be utilized to generate large amount of functional neurons for transplantation. (uth.edu)
  • Because the brain has a hard time processing input from different sensory systems at the same time, Dr. Liu said that lowering activity in the neurons in this pathway may be a way to manage some of these competing messages. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They write, "For neu-ro-sci-en-tists and the lay pub-lic alike, the abil-i-ty to assess, mea-sure, and explore this wealth of lay-ered infor-ma-tion con-cern-ing how the brain is wired is a much sought after prize. (sharpbrains.com)
  • Mount Sinai researchers have identified a neural pathway through which the brain detects errors and guides subsequent behavioral improvement. (nih.gov)
  • The team's research, published February 19 in Neuron, also suggests that neurostimulation of this brain pathway could provide an important mechanism for attention adjustments following behavioral errors. (nih.gov)
  • Today research into blindsight seeks to understand the range of perceptual abilities that may be retained by the cortically blind and to determine which brain regions and neuronal pathways are responsible. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It may feel trivial to 'stop and smell the roses' at a time like this but every time you do so you'll be strengthening new neural pathways in your brain, training yourself to be someone who notices and appreciates small pleasures even when times are really really hard. (mindfulnessinoxford.com)
  • neural pathways in the brain are the key to change and manifestation. (mikacali.com)
  • Brain imaging showed changes suggesting neural pathways were strengthened as well. (mindbodymedicine.com)
  • The connectome allowed the researchers to analyze all the possible neural connections for every fruit fly brain cell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This article explores the neural process of mental image formation, highlighting how information is processed in the brain, especially with regard to the formation of mental images and their development into symbolic images. (bvsalud.org)
  • The repetitive action of bringing your attention back to your focal point builds new neural pathways in your brain. (brainhackers.com)
  • This is the first time that a pathway in the brain has been linked to forgetting, to actively erasing memories," said Gross, a co-senior author of the study. (neuronewsnow.com)
  • In the body's brain , Perforant Pathway (Perforating Fasciculus) , a neural pathway in the limbic system , is a pathway of fibers that originates in the lateral part of the entorhinal cortex , perforates the subiculum of the hippocampus , and runs into the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, where these fibers synapse with others terminating at the dentate gyrus . (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • The neural pathway of 2020 is the Grand Canyon in our brain. (dailybreadyoga.life)
  • the beliefs, stories, and versions of reality that we think over and over again, until they shape the neural pathways of our brain into deep grooves. (dailybreadyoga.life)
  • A well-worn neural pathway in my brain is that I am bad at math. (dailybreadyoga.life)
  • And people that we have more experience with, get a deeper, more well-worn, even more easily accessible neural pathway in our brain. (dailybreadyoga.life)
  • It started out as funny (maybe) but I wonder if our jokes and memes about how wretched 2020 is have by now reshaped the neural pathways of our brain, making the "new normal", that everyone keeps talking about, a culture of disappointment, disdain, and despair. (dailybreadyoga.life)
  • Therapy includes cranial sacral work, meditation, visualization, and working to train her brain to learn new neural pathways. (cdc.gov)
  • New research has discovered that active neural pathways in the brain can be stimulated by holding a magnetic coil up to a patient's skull, which could help determine if a person is truly brain dead or just paralyzed.This technique involves measuring. (fooyoh.com)
  • The spinal cord uses neural pathways to communicate with the brain and muscles. (flintrehab.com)
  • Deep down in the neural pathways of a brain, an idea is formed. (siliconslopes.com)
  • Whilst the neural pathways developed as children are critical in shaping our nervous system, the neuroplasticity of our brain means this process is ongoing. (innerbodyfreedom.com)
  • When you entertain worrying thoughts, you set up stronger neural connections in the brain for the worrying to exist. (blisspot.com)
  • It can help to reduce stress and increase the neural pathways in your brain. (trueorganicofsweden.com)
  • There are billions of neural pathways sending signals to your brain right now - and you're making new ones all the time. (wearemindlabs.com)
  • Learn how to reprogram your brain and neural pathways to end the cycle of negative thought patterns and emotions. (bluemorphoretreats.world)
  • While some clients resist completing the exercise longhand, writing by hand actually increases neural activity, helps us learn, and forces us to slow down and be intentional, according to Nancy Olson in her Forbes article " Three Ways that Handwriting With A Pen Positively Affects Your Brain . (talentactivators.com)
  • Touching, pressing and squeezing parts of the body stimulates nerves and this can strengthen neural pathways between the brain and different parts of the body. (nacwellbeing.org)
  • Do this everyday for at least 21-28 days that's how long it takes for the brain to form new neural pathways of positive change. (renaissancevitality.com)
  • Overall, the brain receives input via afferent pathways that ascend from the bladder and provide feedback on how full the bladder is. (medscape.com)
  • As you continue to play these brain training games often, your brain will stay active and actually grow more dendrites and make even more neural pathways. (cognifit.com)
  • Study of virus pathway following ingestion suggested predominant neural spread to brain and centrifugal spread to non neural organs like heart and kidneys. (who.int)
  • Brain imaging studies in humans show that music can affect areas in the brain related to pain processing but not which specific neural networks are involved. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They discovered a direct pathway between the part of the brain that receives and processes information about sound (called the auditory cortex) and the thalamus, which also receives information about sensations such as pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, because they originate near critical intracranial structures (eg, visual pathways, pituitary gland, hypothalamus), both the tumor and complications of curative therapy can cause significant morbidity. (medscape.com)
  • This increases neural pathways and improves everything you do. (spinsucks.com)
  • Yoga increases neural pathways. (medium.com)
  • One project is to examine the differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neuronal pathway. (uth.edu)
  • Our current studies suggested that the transfer of this single recombinant molecule in proliferating neural stem cells and in myoblasts is sufficient to cause their differentiation into functional neuronal phenotype. (uth.edu)
  • Treatments will encompass manually releasing the specific fascial pathway of each nerve, treating the proximal spinal nerve for each peripheral nerve, and direct neural manipulation. (hermanwallace.com)
  • When neural pathways become damaged or destroyed by a spinal cord injury, it can result in loss of sensation, immobility, and other secondary effects . (flintrehab.com)
  • However, with an incomplete injury the spinal cord is only partially severed and there are spared neural pathways remaining. (flintrehab.com)
  • The level of spinal cord injury (the lowest region where movement and sensation exist) determines which muscles and neural pathways are recoverable. (flintrehab.com)
  • Practicing a skill consistently helps train the nervous system to recognize that skill and strengthen its neural pathways. (flintrehab.com)
  • The more you reach for a drink when you're sad, the more you strengthen the neural pathway that associates being sad with drinking. (wearemindlabs.com)
  • The more classes you take, the more you will strengthen these neural pathways and hone these skills. (wearemindlabs.com)
  • Spared neural pathways can be strengthened by neuroplasticity, the nervous system's ability to heal and rewire itself . (flintrehab.com)
  • Neuroplasticity strengthens existing neural pathways and creates new ones, allowing for better communication between the central nervous system and the body. (flintrehab.com)
  • Activity in autonomic motor pathways can be modulated by diverse sensory inputs, including the visual, auditory and vestibular systems, in addition to various functional populations of visceral afferents. (edu.au)
  • Recently, such chromatin-mediated modulation of genes has been suggested to accompany the differentiation of various stem/progenitor cells and also the formation of neural tumors. (uth.edu)
  • We are currently studying mechanisms of chromatin modification during normal differentiation and cancerous development of stem/progenitor cells of neural, muscle and skin origins. (uth.edu)
  • Here, we investigated ER stress and the regulating model of UPR in ZIKV-infected neural cells in vitro and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, two representative neural cells, neuroblastoma cell line (SK-N-SH) and astrocytoma cell line (CCF-STTG1), were selected to verify the ER stress in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Findings in this study demonstrated that ZIKV infection activates ER stress in neural cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently your mind lessens your burden by making a default pathway to the state of stress for you! (webonlinecare.com)
  • Each state of affairs in your life will now robotically run by the filter of that neural pathway to mild up the stress middle in your mind as if it received a prize! (webonlinecare.com)
  • A Nagoya University-led research team in Japan has found a new neural pathway that links the circadian regulation, stress, and sleep in in mammals. (todayspractitioner.com)
  • It is well-known that the circadian clock and stress have an effect on sleep, but it was unclear which neural pathway is crucial for the circadian regulation of sleep and wakefulness," says Dr. Daisuke Ono of the Research Institute of Environmental Medicine at Nagoya University. (todayspractitioner.com)
  • ii) Stress hormones such as Cortisol can negatively influence the Cox-2 inflammatory pathway, a known precursor to certain cancers and illnesses like arthritis. (canceractive.com)
  • Through a literature survey, we have identified key genes in the regulation of retinoic acid homeostasis, as well as marker genes of neural tube and axial patterning, that may be used to detect developmental toxicants in in vitro systems. (uu.nl)
  • iii) Furthermore, research from Yale has shown that this pathway influences two cancer-causing genes. (canceractive.com)
  • Association between genes regulating neural pathways for quantitative traits of speech and language disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • FROM BEARS(Barry Neil Kaufman): Option Process/Happiness/Practice - Every time we choose a belief and the accompanying behavior, we create a neural pathway. (option.org)
  • Their seeds form neural pathways that lead to either suffering or happiness. (lionsroar.com)
  • There is now abundant functional and anatomical evidence that autonomic motor pathways represent a highly organized output of the central nervous system. (edu.au)
  • Identifying the central pathways responsible for coordinated autonomic activity has made considerable progress, but much more needs to be done. (edu.au)
  • Our autonomic (involuntary) nervous system regulates many aspects of our physiology without our conscious awareness - neural pathways initiate responses automatically. (innerbodyfreedom.com)
  • The Northwestern University study draws on a 10-year project that produced the connectome , the first full map of neural pathways in an animal. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Doing this repeatedly strengthens the neural pathways associated with focus and concentration , meaning that we can focus better in all aspects of our lives. (wearemindlabs.com)
  • I guess I'm saying that maybe we need to catch ourselves in the default, tip of our tongue, casually catastrophic thoughts we have (about masks, mosquitoes, school districts, ZOOM, politics) and give ourselves a moment to stop digging the neural pathway of disdain for 2020. (dailybreadyoga.life)
  • Altogether, our molecular genetic analyses and tissue-specific mA maps reveal selective behavioral and regulatory defects for the Drosophila Mettl3/Ythdf pathway. (princeton.edu)
  • Previous studies have shown a high rate of neural tube defects (NTD) in Gorgan, northern Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • Neural tube defects (NTD) are severe congenital malformations which occur due to abnormalities in neural tube formation [1]. (who.int)
  • Leonard J. Paulozzi, MD early pregnancy dramatically reduces the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs). (bvs.br)
  • Students will practice interactively mapping the pathway of each nerve and neuro-fascial techniques to decompress the nerve along the path, including common sites of entrapment and impingement. (hermanwallace.com)
  • And this pathway, etched deep with practice, is linked to our overall success in learning and memory. (talentactivators.com)
  • A genetically modified mice model suggests that low-level electroacupuncture at hindlegs reduced inflammation not though the spleen, but a different neural pathway involving the vagus nerves and the adrenal glands. (integrativepractitioner.com)
  • Aim: We sought to define the mechanism of total body irradiation (TBI)-induced seizures in NOS1 -/- mice and amelioration by intra-esophageal manganese superoxide dismutase-plasmid liposomes (MnSOD-PL). Materials and Methods: We evaluated the role of vagus nerve pathways in irradiation-induced seizures using biochemical, physiologic, and histopathologic techniques. (wustl.edu)
  • For the primary time, researchers have mapped the detailed neural pathway of defensive responses from the intestine to the mind in mice. (dream-league-soccer-kits.com)
  • Now a team of European researchers has identified a neural pathway that induces forgetting by actively erasing memories. (neuronewsnow.com)
  • To find out, the researchers used imaging to trace neural activity in the mice's brains when they heard the sounds. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is suggested that the RA-NTA framework may provide a general tool to define mechanistic pathways and biomarkers of developmental toxicity that may be used in alternative in vitro assays for the detection of embryotoxic compounds. (uu.nl)
  • Our other studies indicate a mechanistic link between neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation and cancer. (uth.edu)
  • In our body's nervous system , Neural Pathways are the neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • Deficits in error monitoring and attentional function are common to many psychiatric problems, including schizophrenia, ADHD, and autism spectrum disorder, but little is known about the specific neural pathways that are linking these processes," says senior author Hirofumi Morishita, MD, PhD, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. (nih.gov)
  • Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of Wnt signaling through beta-catenin that results in the formation of the neural plate anterior/posterior pattern. (zfin.org)
  • 3] Mutations in the beta-catenin pathway, i.e. (medscape.com)
  • 4, 5] Beta-catenin is a downstream component of the Wnt signal transduction pathway. (medscape.com)
  • That an invisible world exists that controls our destiny (but that people around the globe interpret in vastly different ways) or that all humans have similar neural networks that, under certain circumstances, engender a feeling of the divine? (scienceblogs.com)
  • Mutation in piRNA pathway causes sterility in many animals, including humans. (pasteur.fr)
  • A neural mA/Ythdf pathway is required for learning and memory in Drosophila. (princeton.edu)
  • Neural pathways get stronger the extra you reinforce them by repeating sure ideas, habits or behaviors. (webonlinecare.com)
  • Every time you behave deliberately or observe a significant job, your neural pathways are bolstered and turn into stronger. (webonlinecare.com)
  • Repeated exposure creates stronger neural pathways which means deeper processing of information as well as greater recall of that information. (lanterngroup.com)
  • have explored the usefulness of retinoic acid mediated regulation of neural tube and axial patterning as a general mechanism that, when perturbed, may result in manifestations of developmental toxicity that may cover a large part of malformations known to occur in experimental animals and in man. (uu.nl)
  • Moreover, the crew investigated whether or not chemotherapy medication, which additionally induce defensive responses like nausea and vomiting in recipients, activate the identical neural pathway. (dream-league-soccer-kits.com)
  • Interestingly, cutaneous endothelial responses remained similar between subjects and controls, suggesting that neural pathways rather than cutaneous vascular function are responsible for regulating blushing. (thailandmedical.news)
  • Neural structures addressed in this course include the lumbar plexus nerves (Iliohypogastric, Ilioinguinal, Genitofemoral, Lateral Femoral Cutaneous Nerve, Femoral Nerve, and Obturator Nerve and Foramen), This course will be very lab heavy, around 65% of the course will be interactive, hands-on learning. (hermanwallace.com)
  • Male behaviors require both testosterone and estrogen , but it is unclear how the two hormonal pathways intersect. (bvsalud.org)
  • This article also addresses the limitations of pure-tone air-conduc tion audiometry when assessing chemical-induced hearing loss and proposes a more complete approach to evaluate the auditory neurosensory hearing receptor and the neural pathways involved in the stapedial reflex. (cdc.gov)
  • It concludes that the transformation of mental images into psychodramatic ones, beyond of leading to hidden meaning, it also promotes the development of new mental patterns within the neural circuits, this leading to new cognitive, emotional and behavioral learning. (bvsalud.org)
  • The hippocampus contains neural circuits that loop through three of its sub-regions - the dentate gyrus and the CA3 and CA1 areas - and it's widely believed that memories form by the strengthening and weakening of synaptic connections within these circuits. (neuronewsnow.com)
  • Our results suggest that aromatization of testosterone into estrogen is important for the development and activation of neural circuits that control male territorial behaviors . (bvsalud.org)
  • Her research focuses on the behavioral and neural bases of decision-making and their perturbations in diseases states, such as addiction. (sfn.org)
  • Recent advances elucidating the organization of the neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms of fear provide new insights in normal as well as pathological fear. (nyu.edu)
  • Our ongoing studies also suggested that several other known mechanisms of medulloblastoma in fact converge on this pathway. (uth.edu)
  • To determine the pathway, a Nagoya University research team led by Prof. Akihiro Yamanaka and Dr. Ono, in collaboration with Takashi Sugiyama at Olympus Corporation in Japan, conducted a study using mice. (todayspractitioner.com)
  • We identified this neural pathway in mice, which are nocturnal animals. (todayspractitioner.com)
  • The low-intensity sound appeared to disrupt pain signaling in this pathway, making the mice less sensitive to pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gary Small, director of the UCLA Longevity Center at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, and author of several books on Alzheimer's prevention, including 'The Memory Bible' and more recently, 'The Alzheimer's Prevention Program,' was quoted in the June 2012 issue of Prevention magazine informing us that "research shows that travel helps build vital neural pathways. (naturalsociety.com)
  • Identify the advantages and disadvantages of optogenetic techniques compared to other techniques that explore the neural basis of behavior. (sfn.org)
  • After watching this presentation, you should be able to gain a general understanding on what optogenetics offers when exploring neural bases of behavior. (sfn.org)
  • In this research, we highlight the functionality of ON and OFF pathways, separating motion information for parallel computation corresponding to light-on and light-off selectivity. (arxiv.org)
  • Recent neuroscientific research has uncovered a distinct neural pathway that is only activated when we physically draw out our letters," she writes. (talentactivators.com)
  • Astrocytic Ca 2+ signalling has been proposed to modulate neural circuit activity, but the pathways that regulate these events are poorly defined and in vivo evidence linking changes in astrocyte Ca 2+ levels to alterations in neurotransmission or behaviour is limited. (nih.gov)
  • I even play videos in a secondary window as a visual distraction to further relax the exercise while developing the neural pathways. (thedarnedestthing.com)
  • It's your neural pathways creating default patterns in your mind. (webonlinecare.com)
  • Listed below are three workouts supposed to provide you a head begin on creating new pathways and more healthy mind patterns. (webonlinecare.com)
  • Keep doing this on a regular schedule to form the new neural pathways for responding and not reacting to triggers. (theautismmomcoach.com)
  • Once the nerve path is addressed, neural mobilization with movement (gliding), manual regional integration with the nervous system, and a home program to maintain neural strength and mobility will be provided in easy to use handouts for your patients. (hermanwallace.com)
  • The identical approach any unfavourable pathways are created within the first place is similar approach they can be rewired. (webonlinecare.com)
  • The excellent news is that the identical approach any unfavourable pathways may be created within the first place is similar approach they can be rewired to mild a brand new, optimistic path! (webonlinecare.com)
  • For instance, if you're continually wired about what to do, what to say, what to put on, learn how to act, what individuals will consider you, what's going to occur, and many others, then your mind goes to bodily rewire itself by neural pathways. (webonlinecare.com)
  • The use of iPSCs allows us to examine more precisely the differences in cell fates and gene pathways that occur in neural cells from autistic and typical individuals. (bigthink.com)
  • First, we thoroughly mimic the fly's preliminary motion-detecting pathways with newly revealed fly's physiology. (arxiv.org)
  • Pelvic neural pain can be mimic or be the actual cause of vulvodynia, labial pain, gluteal and low back pain, SI pain, lower abdominal and bladder pain, pubic symphysis pain, groin pain, IT band pain, as well as many other syndromes and weakness, such as weakness in the transverse abdominus. (hermanwallace.com)
  • Sympathetic or parasympathetic pathways to specific target tissues generally can be activated tonically or phasically, depending on current physiological requirements. (edu.au)
  • Estrogen masculinizes neural pathways and sex-specific behaviors. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sex hormones are essential for neural circuit development and sex -specific behaviors . (bvsalud.org)
  • The Pathways of Mind: A Neural Theory of Mental time where, Mine Hill, or Sterling Hill? (techempire.de)
  • And, for me, it seems those pathways are lined with memories and I never know when a stray electrical impulse is going to set a memory in motion. (smilesideoflife.com)
  • Clinical assessment and differential diagnosis will include history, symptoms, strength and sensation changes, and differential neural tension testing for each major peripheral nerve of the lumbar plexus. (hermanwallace.com)