The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A mild form of LIMITED SCLERODERMA, a multi-system disorder. Its features include symptoms of CALCINOSIS; RAYNAUD DISEASE; ESOPHAGEAL MOTILITY DISORDERS; sclerodactyly, and TELANGIECTASIS. When the defect in esophageal function is not prominent, it is known as CRST syndrome.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
Congenital MEGACOLON resulting from the absence of ganglion cells (aganglionosis) in a distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE. The aganglionic segment is permanently contracted thus causing dilatation proximal to it. In most cases, the aganglionic segment is within the RECTUM and SIGMOID COLON.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
An early growth response transcription factor that controls the formation of the MYELIN SHEATH around peripheral AXONS by SCHWANN CELLS. Mutations in EGR2 transcription factor have been associated with HEREDITARY MOTOR AND SENSORY NEUROPATHIES such as CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
Synthetic analogs of NUCLEIC ACIDS composed of morpholine ring derivatives (MORPHOLINES) linked by phosphorodimidates. One standard DNA nucleic acid base (ADENINE; GUANINE; CYTOSINE; OR THYMINE) is bound to each morpholine ring.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Neuropilins are 140-kDa vertebrate cell surface receptors that bind neuronal guidance molecules during neural development and axonal outgrowth, and modulate VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. NEUROPILIN-1 and NEUROPILIN-2 differ in their binding specificities, and are distributed complementarily in regions of the developing nervous system. Neuropilins are receptors for secreted CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS as well as for vascular endothelial growth factors, and may form hetero- or homodimers. They may also interact synergistically with plexins and with VEGF RECEPTORS to form receptor complexes with distinct affinities and specificities. Neuropilin binding specificity is determined by CUB and coagulation-factor-like domains in the extracellular portion of the molecule, while a MAM domain is essential for SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including the absence of the THYMUS and PARATHYROID GLANDS resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, HYPOCALCEMIA, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies.
The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Dimeric cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL) and axonal guidance. Neuropilin-1 is a 140-kDa transmembrane protein that binds CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS, and several other growth factors. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with plexins or VEGF RECEPTORS, and binding affinity and specificity are determined by the composition of the neuropilin dimer and the identity of other receptors complexed with it. Neuropilin-1 is expressed in distinct patterns during neural development, complementary to those described for NEUROPILIN-2.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that is specific for EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB2 RECEPTOR and EPHB3 RECEPTOR. It is widely expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
The prototypical and most well-studied member of the semaphorin family. Semaphorin-3A is an axon-repulsive guidance cue for migrating neurons in the developing nervous system. It has so far been found only in vertebrates, and binds to NEUROPILIN-1/plexin complex receptors on growth cones. Like other class 3 semaphorins, it is a secreted protein.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
A congenital anomaly caused by the failed development of TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS into separate AORTA and PULMONARY ARTERY. It is characterized by a single arterial trunk that forms the outlet for both HEART VENTRICLES and gives rise to the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary arteries. It is always accompanied by a ventricular septal defect.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A genus of primitive fish in the family Petromyzontidae. The sole species is Petromyzon marinus, known as the sea lamprey. The adult form feeds parasitically on other fish species.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that binds with high affinity to EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB3 RECEPTOR; and EPHB4 RECEPTOR. Expression of ephrin-B2 occurs in a variety of adult tissues. During embryogenesis, high levels of ephrin-B2 is seen in the PROSENCEPHALON; RHOMBENCEPHALON; developing SOMITES; LIMB BUD; and bronchial arches.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (1/2353)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

A molecular pathway revealing a genetic basis for human cardiac and craniofacial defects. (2/2353)

Microdeletions of chromosome 22q11 are the most common genetic defects associated with cardiac and craniofacial anomalies in humans. A screen for mouse genes dependent on dHAND, a transcription factor implicated in neural crest development, identified Ufd1, which maps to human 22q11 and encodes a protein involved in degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Mouse Ufd1 was specifically expressed in most tissues affected in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome. The human UFD1L gene was deleted in all 182 patients studied with 22q11 deletion, and a smaller deletion of approximately 20 kilobases that removed exons 1 to 3 of UFD1L was found in one individual with features typical of 22q11 deletion syndrome. These data suggest that UFD1L haploinsufficiency contributes to the congenital heart and craniofacial defects seen in 22q11 deletion.  (+info)

A subpopulation of apoptosis-prone cardiac neural crest cells targets to the venous pole: multiple functions in heart development? (3/2353)

A well-described population of cardiac neural crest (NC) cells migrates toward the arterial pole of the embryonic heart and differentiates into various cell types, including smooth muscle cells of the pharyngeal arch arteries (but not the coronary arteries), cardiac ganglionic cells, and mesenchymal cells of the aortopulmonary septum. Using a replication-incompetent retrovirus containing the reporter gene LacZ, administered to the migratory neural crest of chicken embryos, we demonstrated another population of cardiac neural crest cells that employs the venous pole as entrance to the heart. On the basis of our present data we cannot exclude the possibility that precursors of these cells might not only originate from the dorsal part of the posterior rhombencephalon, but also from the ventral part. These NC cells migrate to locations surrounding the prospective conduction system as well as to the atrioventricular (AV) cushions. Concerning the prospective conduction system, the tagged neural crest cells can be found in regions where the atrioventricular node area, the retroaortic root bundle, the bundle of His, the left and right bundle branches, and the right atrioventricular ring bundle are positioned. The last area connects the posteriorly located AV node area with the retroaortic root bundle, which receives its neural crest cells through the arterial pole in concert with the cells giving rise to the aortopulmonary septum. The NC cells most probably do not form the conduction system proper, as they enter an apoptotic pathway as determined by concomitant TUNEL detection. It is possible that the NC cells in the heart become anoikic and, as a consequence, fail to differentiate further and merely die. However, because of the perfect timing of the arrival of crest cells, their apoptosis, and a change in electrophysiological behavior of the heart, we postulate that neural crest cells play a role in the last phase of differentiation of the cardiac conduction system. Alternatively, the separation of the central conduction system from the surrounding working myocardium is mediated by apoptotic neural crest cells. As for the presence of NC cells in both the outflow tract and the AV cushions, followed by apoptosis, a function is assigned in the muscularization of both areas, resulting in proper septation of the outflow tract and of the AV region. Failure of normal neural crest development may not only play a role in cardiac outflow tract anomalies but also in inflow tract abnormalities, such as atrioventricular septal defects.  (+info)

Development of cephalic neural crest cells in embryos of Lampetra japonica, with special reference to the evolution of the jaw. (4/2353)

Neural crest cells contribute extensively to vertebrate head morphogenesis and their origin is an important question to address in understanding the evolution of the craniate head. The distribution pattern of cephalic crest cells was examined in embryos of one of the living agnathan vertebrates, Lampetra japonica. The initial appearance of putative crest cells was observed on the dorsal aspect of the neural rod at stage 20.5 and ventral expansion of these cells was first seen at the level of rostral somites. As in gnathostomes, cephalic crest cells migrate beneath the surface ectoderm and form three major cell populations, each being separated at the levels of rhombomeres (r) 3 and r5. The neural crest seems initially to be produced at all neuraxial levels except for the rostral-most area, and cephalic crest cells are secondarily excluded from levels r3 and r5. Such a pattern of crest cell distribution prefigures the morphology of the cranial nerve anlage. The second or middle crest cell population passes medial to the otocyst, implying that the otocyst does not serve as a barrier to separate the crest cell populations. The three cephalic crest cell populations fill the pharyngeal arch ventrally, covering the pharyngeal mesoderm laterally with the rostral-most population covering the premandibular region and mandibular arch. The third cell population is equivalent to the circumpharyngeal crest cells in the chick, and its influx into the pharyngeal region precedes the formation of postotic pharyngeal arches. Focal injection of DiI revealed the existence of an anteroposterior organization in the neural crest at the neurular stage, destined for each pharyngeal region. The crest cells derived from the posterior midbrain that express the LjOtxA gene, the Otx2 cognate, were shown to migrate into the mandibular arch, a pattern which is identical to gnathostome embryos. It was concluded that the head region of the lamprey embryo shares a common set of morphological characters with gnathostome embryos and that the morphological deviation of the mandibular arch between the gnathostomes and the lamprey is not based on the early embryonic patterning.  (+info)

Regulation of Hoxa2 in cranial neural crest cells involves members of the AP-2 family. (5/2353)

Hoxa2 is expressed in cranial neural crest cells that migrate into the second branchial arch and is essential for proper patterning of neural-crest-derived structures in this region. We have used transgenic analysis to begin to address the regulatory mechanisms which underlie neural-crest-specific expression of Hoxa2. By performing a deletion analysis on an enhancer from the Hoxa2 gene that is capable of mediating expression in neural crest cells in a manner similar to the endogenous gene, we demonstrated that multiple cis-acting elements are required for neural-crest-specific activity. One of these elements consists of a sequence that binds to the three transcription factor AP-2 family members. Mutation or deletion of this site in the Hoxa2 enhancer abrogates reporter expression in cranial neural crest cells but not in the hindbrain. In both cell culture co-transfection assays and transgenic embryos AP-2 family members are able to trans-activate reporter expression, showing that this enhancer functions as an AP-2-responsive element in vivo. Reporter expression is not abolished in an AP-2(alpha) null mutant embryos, suggesting redundancy with other AP-2 family members for activation of the Hoxa2 enhancer. Other cis-elements identified in this study critical for neural-crest-specific expression include an element that influences levels of expression and a conserved sequence, which when multimerized directs expression in a broad subset of neural crest cells. These elements work together to co-ordinate and restrict neural crest expression to the second branchial arch and more posterior regions. Our findings have identified the cis-components that allow Hoxa2 to be regulated independently in rhombomeres and cranial neural crest cells.  (+info)

Early specification of sensory neuron fate revealed by expression and function of neurogenins in the chick embryo. (6/2353)

The generation of sensory and autonomic neurons from the neural crest requires the functions of two classes of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, the Neurogenins (NGNs) and MASH-1, respectively (Fode, C., Gradwohl, G., Morin, X., Dierich, A., LeMeur, M., Goridis, C. and Guillemot, F. (1998) Neuron 20, 483-494; Guillemot, F., Lo, L.-C., Johnson, J. E., Auerbach, A., Anderson, D. J. and Joyner, A. L. (1993) Cell 75, 463-476; Ma, Q., Chen, Z. F., Barrantes, I. B., de la Pompa, J. L. and Anderson, D. J. (1998 Neuron 20, 469-482). We have cloned two chick NGNs and found that they are expressed in a subset of neural crest cells early in their migration. Ectopic expression of the NGNs in vivo biases migrating neural crest cells to localize in the sensory ganglia, and induces the expression of sensory neuron-appropriate markers in non-sensory crest derivatives. Surprisingly, the NGNs can also induce the expression of multiple pan-neuronal and sensory-specific markers in the dermomyotome, a mesodermal derivative. Taken together, these data suggest that a subset of neural crest cells may already be specified for a sensory neuron fate early in migration, as a consequence of NGN expression.  (+info)

Early embryonic lethality in Bmp5;Bmp7 double mutant mice suggests functional redundancy within the 60A subgroup. (7/2353)

Members of the BMP family of signaling molecules display a high conservation of structure and function, and multiple BMPs are often coexpressed in a variety of tissues during development. Moreover, distinct BMP ligands are capable of activating common pathways. Here we describe the coexpression of two members of the 60A subfamily of BMPs, Bmp5 and Bmp7, at a number of different sites in the embryo from gastrulation onwards. Previous studies demonstrate that loss of either Bmp5 or Bmp7 has negligible effects on development, suggesting these molecules functionally compensate for each other at early stages of embryonic development. Here we show this is indeed the case. Thus we find that Bmp5;Bmp7 double mutants die at 10.5 dpc and display striking defects primarily affecting the tissues where these factors are coexpressed. The present analysis also uncovers novel roles for BMP signaling during the development of the allantois, heart, branchial arches, somites and forebrain. Bmp5 and Bmp7 do not appear to be involved in establishing pattern in these tissues, but are instead necessary for the proliferation and maintenance of specific cell populations. These findings are discussed with respect to potential mechanisms underlying cooperative signaling by multiple members of the TGF-beta superfamily.  (+info)

Prospective identification, isolation by flow cytometry, and in vivo self-renewal of multipotent mammalian neural crest stem cells. (8/2353)

Multipotent and self-renewing neural stem cells have been isolated in culture, but equivalent cells have not yet been prospectively identified in neural tissue. Using cell surface markers and flow cytometry, we have isolated neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) from mammalian fetal peripheral nerve. These cells are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from NCSCs previously isolated by culturing embryonic neural tube explants. Moreover, in vivo BrdU labeling indicates that these stem cells self-renew in vivo. NCSCs freshly isolated from nerve tissue can be directly transplanted in vivo, where they generate both neurons and glia. These data indicate that neural stem cells persist in peripheral nerve into late gestation by undergoing self-renewal. Such persistence may explain the origins of some PNS tumors in humans.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Establishment of a Kit-negative cell line of melanocyte precursors from mouse neural crest cells. AU - Kawa, Yoko. AU - Soma, Yoshinao. AU - Nakamura, Masayuki. AU - Ito, Masaru. AU - Kawakami, Tamihiro. AU - Baba, Takako. AU - Sibahara, Kuniko. AU - Ohsumi, Kayoko. AU - Ooka, Shiho. AU - Watabe, Hidenori. AU - Ono, Hirotake. AU - Hosaka, Eri. AU - Kimura, Satoko. AU - Kushimoto, Tsuneto. AU - Mizoguchi, Masako. PY - 2005/6. Y1 - 2005/6. N2 - We previously established a mouse neural crest cell line named NCCmelb4, which is positive for Kit and negative for tyrosinase. NCCmelb4 cells were useful to study the effects of extrinsic factors such as retinoic acids and vitamin D3 on melanocyte differentiation, but in order to study the development of melanocytes from multipotent neural crest cells, cell lines of melanocyte progenitors in earlier developmental stages are needed. In the present study, we established an immortal cell line named NCC-melb4M5 that was derived from NCCmelb4 ...
Within the hindbrain region, neural crest cell migration is organized into three streams that follow the segmentation of the neuroepithelium into distinct rhombomeric compartments. Although the streaming of neural crest cells is known to involve signals derived from the neuroepithelium, the molecular properties underlying this process are poorly understood. Here, we have mapped the expression of the signaling component of two secreted class III Semaphorins, Semaphorin (Sema) 3A and Sema 3F, at time points that correspond to neural crest cell migration within the hindbrain region of the chick. Both Semaphorins are expressed within rhombomeres at levels adjacent to crest-free mesenchyme and expression of the receptor components essential for Semaphorin activity by neural crest cells suggests a function in restricting neural crest cell migration. By using bead implantation and electroporation in ovo, we define a role for both Semaphorins in the maintenance of neural crest cell streams in proximity to the
Greiner, Johannes, Hauser, Stefan, Widera, Darius, Qunneis, Firas, Müller, Janine, Zander, Christin, Martin, Ina, Mallah, Jana, Prante, Christian, Schwarze, Hartmut, Prohaska, Wolfgang, Beyer, André, Rott, Karsten, Hütten, Andreas, Gölzhäuser, Armin, Sudhoff, Holger, Kaltschmidt, Christian, and Kaltschmidt, Barbara. Efficient animal-serum free 3D cultivation method for adult human neural crest-derived stem cell therapeutics. European Cells & Materials 22 (2011): 403-419 ...
Our data implicate Disc1 in the transcriptional repression of foxd3 and sox10, two transcription factors that are crucial for multiple steps of CNC development. Evidence points to a role for Foxd3 as a transcriptional repressor crucial for the maintenance of neural crest progenitor pools, neural crest migration and the differentiation of some neural crest derivatives (Cheung et al., 2005; Lister et al., 2006; Montero-Balaguer et al., 2006; Stewart et al., 2006; Teng et al., 2008). Zebrafish foxd3 mutants have normal numbers of premigratory neural crest, but delayed neural crest migration and depletion of certain neural crest derivatives (Lister et al., 2006; Stewart et al., 2006). Interestingly, the only neural crest derivative with foxd3 expression during and after terminal differentiation is peripheral glia (Kelsh et al., 2000), indicating a possible role for this transcription factor in the differentiation of this derivative. Similar to the Disc1 morphants reported here, colgate (hdac1) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural crest cell differentiation and carcinogenesis. T2 - Capability of goldfish erythrophoroma cells for multiple differentiation and clonal polymorphism in their melanogenic variants. AU - Matsumoto, Jiro. AU - Wada, Kumiko. AU - Akiyama, Toyoko. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - Multiple differentiation shown by a single cell line (GEM 81) of goldfish erythrophoroma (tumors of integumental erythrophores) cells after administration of chemical induction in vitro includes 1) melanogenesis, 2) formation of reflecting platelets, 3) synthesis of pteridines heterogeneous to this species, 4) formation of dermal skeletons such as teeth and fin rays, 5) production of neuronal characters, and 6) genesis of lentoid bodies. Melanogenic cells, highest in inducibility, also show remarkable phenotypic diversification in their cell morphology, pigmentation, and physiologic response. In this paper, the following findings are presented; a) multiple differentiation shown by erythrophoroma cells ...
Pinch1, an adaptor protein composed of 5 LIM domains, has been suggested to play an important role in multiple cellular processes. We found that Pinch1 is highly expressed in neural crest cells and their derivatives. To examine the requirement for Pinch1 in neural crest development, we generated neural crest conditional Pinch1 knockout mice using the Wnt1-Cre/loxP system. Neural crest conditional Pinch1 mutant embryos die perinatally from severe cardiovascular defects with an unusual aneurysmal common arterial trunk. Pinch1 mutants also exhibit multiple deficiencies in cranial neural crest-derived structures. Fate mapping demonstrated that initial migration of neural crest cells to the pharyngeal arch region occurs normally in the mutant embryos. However, in the cardiac outflow tract of mutants, neural crest cells exhibited hyperplasia and failed to differentiate into smooth muscle. Markedly increased apoptosis is observed in outflow tract cushions of mutants between embryonic days 11.5 and 13.5, likely
The proposed pathways of chick cranial neural crest migration and their relationship to the rhombomeres of the hindbrain have been somewhat controversial, with differing results emerging from grafting and DiI-labelling analyses. To resolve this discrepancy, we have examined cranial neural crest migratory pathways using the combination of neurofilament immunocytochemistry, which recognizes early hindbrain neural crest cells, and labelling with the vital dye, DiI. Neurofilament-positive cells with the appearance of premigratory and early-migrating neural crest cells were noted at all axial levels of the hindbrain. At slightly later stages, neural crest cell migration in this region appeared segmented, with no neural crest cells obvious in the mesenchyme lateral to rhombomere 3 (r3) and between the neural tube and the otic vesicle lateral to r5. Focal injections of DiI at the levels of r3 and r5 demonstrated that both of these rhombomeres generated neural crest cells. The segmental distribution of ...
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a multipotent, migratory cell population that generates an astonishingly diverse array of cell types during vertebrate development. The trunk neural crest has long been considered of particular significance. First, it has been held that the trunk neural crest has a morphogenetic role, acting to coordinate the development of the peripheral nervous system, secretory cells of the endocrine system and pigment cells of the skin. Second, the trunk neural crest additionally has skeletal potential. However, it has been demonstrated that a key role of the trunk neural crest streams is to organize the innervation of the intestine. Although trunk NCCs have a limited capacity for self-renewal, sometimes they become neural-crest-derived tumor cells and reveal the fact that that NCCs and tumor cells share the same molecular machinery. In this review we describe the routes taken by trunk NCCs and consider the signals and cues that pattern these trajectories. We also discuss recent
Because of its unique ability to generate a wide variety of both neural and nonneural derivatives, the neural crest is an ideal model system to study the factors regulating cell lineage decisions in stem and progenitor cells. The use of various cell culture techniques and in vivo functional assays, including cell type-specific gene manipulation in mouse, helped to identify signaling factors involved in this process. Moreover, it became apparent that the biological functions of growth factors acting on neural crest cells depend on the context provided by the extracellular microenvironment. Thus, signaling molecules have to be viewed as parts of complex networks that change with time and location. Neural crest cells have to integrate these signals to ensure the generation of appropriate numbers of differentiating progeny. It will be important to determine how such signaling networks are established and how they elicit multiple signaling responses in neural crest cells to activate appropriate ...
The neural crest is a multipotent cell population that migrates from the dorsal edge of the neural tube to various parts of the embryo where it differentiates into a remarkable variety of different cell types. Initial induction of neural crest is mediated by a combination of BMP, Wnt, FGF, Retinoic acid and Notch/Delta signaling. The two-signal model for neural crest induction suggests that BMP signaling induces the competence to become neural crest. The second signal involves Wnt acting through the canonical pathway and leads to expression of neural crest markers such as slug. Wnt signals from the neural plate, non-neural ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm have all been suggested to play a role in neural crest induction. We show that Xenopus frizzled7 (Xfz7) is expressed in the dorsal ectoderm including early neural crest progenitors and is a key mediator of the Wnt inductive signal. We demonstrate that Xfz7 expression is induced in response to a BMP antagonist, noggin, and that Xfz7 can induce ...
Neural crest cells are a group of temporary, multipotent (can give rise to some other types of cells but not all) cells that are pinched off during the formation of the neural tube (precursor to the spinal cord and brain) and therefore are found at the dorsal (top) region of the neural tube during development. They are derived from the ectoderm germ layer, but are sometimes called the fourth germ layer because they are so important and give rise to so many other types of cells. They migrate throughout the body and create a large number of differentiated cells such as neurons, glial cells, pigment-containing cells in skin, skeletal tissue cells in the head, and many more. Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) are a type of neural crest cells that migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge (an arc-shape ridge above the pharyngeal arches) and then into the 3rd, 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches and the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). They extend from the otic placodes (the structure in developing embryos that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for a novel enzymatic mechanism of neural crest cell migration on extracellular glycoconjugate matrices. AU - Runyan, R. B.. AU - Maxwell, G. D.. AU - Shur, B. D.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Migrating embryonic cells have high levels of cell surface galactosyltransferase (GalTase) activity. It has been proposed that GalTase participates during migration by recognising and binding to terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues on glycoconjugates within the extracellular matrix (Shur, B.D., 1982, Dev. Biol. 91:149-162). We tested this hypothesis using migrating neural crest cells as an in vitro model system. Cell surface GalTase activity was perturbed using three independent sets of reagents, and the effects on cell migration were analyzed by time-lapse micorphotography. The GalTase modifier protein, alpha-lactalbumin (α-LA), was used to inhibit surface GalTase binding to terminal GlcNAc residues in the underlying substrate. α-LA inhibited neural crest cell migration ...
Neural crest cells were transplanted from one position in the body to another position. They developed into neural crest derivates from their new position. Neural crest cells are apparently pluripotent, as they give rise to the cell types expected from the position to which they have been transplanted.. For example, any neural crest cell can give rise to parasympathetic ganglia if transplanted to a certain position. Thus, neural crest cells must respond to environmental cues during their migration and subsequent differentiation. These environmental cues are often identical to the cues used by axons. ...
Neural crest cells are both highly migratory and significant to vertebrate organogenesis. However, the signals that regulate neural crest cell migration remain unclear. In this study, we test the function of differential screening-selected gene aberrant in neuroblastoma (DAN), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist we detected by analysis of the chick cranial mesoderm. Our analysis shows that, before neural crest cell exit from the hindbrain, DAN is expressed in the mesoderm, and then it becomes absent along cell migratory pathways. Cranial neural crest and metastatic melanoma cells avoid DAN protein stripes in vitro. Addition of DAN reduces the speed of migrating cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. In vivo loss of function of DAN results in enhanced neural crest cell migration by increasing speed and directionality. Computer model simulations support the hypothesis that DAN restrains cell migration by regulating cell speed. Collectively, our results identify DAN as a novel factor ...
By analyzing the hearts of quail-chick chimeras, it was found that neural crest cells at the level of occipital somites 1 to 3 migrate to the region of the aorticopulmonary septum. Bilateral removal of this neural crest population prior to migration causes malformation of the aorticopulmonary septum resulting in common arterial outflow channels or transposition of the great vessels. ...
foxd3 encodes a winged helix/forkhead class transcription factor expressed in the premigratory neural crest cells of many vertebrates. We have investigated the function of this gene in zebrafish neural crest by a loss of function approach using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides and immunostaining for Foxd3 protein. Knockdown of Foxd3 expression produces deficits in several differentiated neural crest derivatives, including jaw cartilage, peripheral neurons, and glia, and iridophore pigment cells. Other derivatives, such as melanophore and xanthophore pigment cells are not affected. Reduction in the expression of several lineage-specific markers becomes evident soon after the onset of neural crest migration, suggesting that Foxd3 knockdown affects these lineages at early stages in their development. In contrast, analysis of the expression of early neural crest markers indicates little effect on neural crest induction or initial emigration. Finally, cell transplantation suggests that with ...
Trunk neural crest migration in the zebrafish is confined to the centre of the medial surface of each somite and the pattern of migration is determined before neural crest cells contacts the sclerotome cells. Unlike other animals such as mice and birds, the sclerotome only makes up an inconsequential part of the somites in zebrafish and did not disrupt neural crest migration and DRG development[84]. It has been demonstrated that the myotome of the zebrafish contributes more in the establishment of neural crest cell migration patterns together with neural crest cells[85]. In particular, the adaxial cells, the first cells to develop and migrate from the myotome, helps in the regulation of trunk neural crest migration patterns. These slow muscle precursors have been shown to be crucial for normal migration patterns as their removal resulted in the accumulation of trunk neural crest cells at the level of the notochord[86]. Another key aspect in the proper development of DRG neurons in zebrafish lies ...
Our data show that knockout of the arginyltransferase Ate1 in the cells of the neural crest lineage results in multiple morphogenic defects and perinatal lethality in mice. It has been previously shown that complete Ate1 knockout in mice leads to embryonic lethality and defects in cardiovascular development and angiogenesis [9] that are reminiscent of the defects seen in mouse models with knockout of genes implicated in cell adhesion and migration during embryogenesis [10]. Here we show for the first time that Ate1 deletion in the migratory subpopulations of the neural crest cells leads to delayed development and reduced size of the neural crest-derived organs and tissues, suggesting that Ate1-dependent migration of the neural crest cells is essential for normal embryogenesis.. We have previously shown that Ate1 knockout embryonic fibroblasts have leading edge defects that arise from abnormalities in the non-arginylated actin cytoskeleton [24]. Here we found that in addition to the abnormal ...
Neural crest cells are a group of multipotent stem cell that migrate to various locations and give rise to many diverse cell types in the vertebrate body. The ENS arises from vagal neural crest stem cells that originate from the post-otic dorsal neural tube. Vagal neural crest cells are multipotent and can give rise to the outflow tract of the heart, enteric ganglia, sympathetic ganglia, as well as pigment cells of the skin. To become enteric ganglia during development, vagal neural crest migrate ventrally from the neural tube and enter the primitive foregut tissue. They then migrate along the rostrocaudal extent of the gut in response to microenvironmental signaling cues to until they eventually reach the hindgut. These enteric neural crest cells (ENC) eventually give rise to a diverse array of neurons and glia that form the enteric ganglia ...
Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Purpose: Vertebrate neural crest development depends on pluripotent, migratory neural crest (NC) cells. Isolation and culture of zebrafish NC cells has not been previously reported. In vitro culture of NC cells allows evaluation of in vivo findings in a more controlled environment. Here we report for the first time the isolation, in vitro culture and characterization of NC cells from zebrafish embryos. We apply the NC culture to determine if these cells possess stem cell or progenitor cell properties of multi-lineage differentiation, maintenance and renewal.. Methods: NC cells were isolated from transgenic sox10::egfp embryos using FACS and cultured in a complex proliferation medium, on substrates coated with extra cellular matrix proteins, with growth factors to induce differentiation into various lineages. NC multi-lineage differentiation was determined by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR, cell migration was assessed by wound healing ...
Neural Crest Cell Emigration and Migration Neural crest cells are among the most migratory cell type in vertebrate embryos. We are characterizing the machinery responsible for neural crest cell movement, the nature of the neural crest epithelial to mesenchymal transition to form a migratory cell type and the role of the migratory environment in influencing migratory pathway choices. A variety of cell labeling techniques, including DiI-labeling, microsurgical grafts and confocal time-lapse microscopy, are used to follow the pathways of neural crest migration in in a number of vertebrate species. ...
Purpose: : Long thin sympathetic axons transport tissue plasminogen activator(t-PA) to the eye. There it is released in response to adrenergic stimulations. The t-PA is synthesized and packaged in transport vesicles in superior cervical sympathetic ganglion neuron cell bodies(1) .Plasmin activated by t-PA has long been thought to accelerate the trabecular outflow of aqueous humor. Our purpose here is to map the neural crest origins of cells able to produce t-PA within the eye. Methods: : A promoter mouse line- whose human t-PA Cre transgene is specifically expressed by sympathetic nerves and all other crest derivatives(2)- was crossed with a Lac Z reporter expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein(EGFP) transgene. PCR sorted pups showed both t-PA promoter and EGFP expressions confined within crest-derived cells. Cryosections were viewed by confocal and UV microscopy ,and immunostained for t-PA antigen.Cultured human uveal melanocytes were stimlated with phenylephrine to confirm a t-PA ...
The neural crest is an embryonic stem cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to malignant invasion. The neural crest, as does cancer, undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migrates to colonize almost all the tissues of the embryo. Neural crest cells exhibit collective cell migration, moving in streams of high directionality. The migratory neural crest streams are kept in shape by the presence of negative signals in their vicinity. The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. Two cells experiencing contact inhibition of locomotion move away from each other after collision. However, if the cell density is high only cells exposed to a free edge can migrate away from the cluster leading to the directional migration of the whole group. Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) ...
Analysis of early human neural crest development[8] The outstanding migration and differentiation capacities of neural crest cells (NCCs) have fascinated scientists since Wilhelm His described this cell population in 1868. Today, after intense research using vertebrate model organisms, we have gained considerable knowledge regarding the origin, migration and differentiation of NCCs. However, our understanding of NCC development in human embryos remains largely uncharacterized, despite the role the neural crest plays in several human pathologies. Here, we report for the first time the expression of a battery of molecular markers before, during, or following NCC migration in human embryos from Carnegie Stages (CS) 12 to 18. Our work demonstrates the expression of Sox9, Sox10 and Pax3 transcription factors in premigratory NCCs, while actively migrating NCCs display the additional transcription factors Pax7 and AP-2alpha. Importantly, while HNK-1 labels few migrating NCCs, p75(NTR) labels a large ...
The neural crest is an embryonic cell population that gives rise to much of the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton, and its evolutionary origin is generally regarded as a key step in the diversification of vertebrates. Neural crest fate maps have been generated for a number of osteichthyan model systems (e.g. mouse, chick, frog and zebrafish). However, nothing is known about the fates of neural crest cells in chondrichthyans. We have developed methods for long-term lineage tracing of cell populations in early skate embryos, and we are using these methods to generate fate maps of chondrichthyan cranial and trunk neural crest cells. This work will allow us to infer primitive fates of neural crest cells in the last common ancestor of jawed vertebrates (e.g. neural crest vs. mesodermal contributions to the craniofacial skeleton and pectoral girdle, and the skeletogenic potential of trunk neural crest cells), thereby resolving a number of outstanding controversies relating to the early evolution of the ...
Coordinating the balance between progenitor self-renewal and myogenic differentiation is required for a regulated expansion of the developing muscles. Previous observation that neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate throughout the somite regions, where trunk skeletal muscles first emerge, suggests a potential role for these cells in influencing early muscle formation. However, specific signaling interactions between NCCs and skeletal muscle cells remain unknown. Here we show that mice with specific NCC and peripheral nervous system defects display impaired survival of skeletal muscle and show skeletal muscle progenitor cell (MPC) depletion due to precocious commitment to differentiation. We show that reduced NCC-derived Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) in the somite region perturbs ErbB3 signaling in uncommitted MPCs. Using a combination of explant culture experiments and genetic ablation in the mouse, we demonstrate that Nrg1 signals provided by the NCC lineage play a critical role in sustainable myogenesis, by ...
Gene regulatory network model of cranial neural crest cell (CNCC) development, adaped from PMID: 19575671. Most interactions in the model are proposed to regulate transcription of core factors involved involved in neural crest and downstream progenitor specification. Transcriptional regulation arrows are proposed to promote transcription, unless a graphical T-bar is present at the end of the arrow (commented to be inhibitors of transcriptional regulation). Additional gene information was obtained from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53143 ...
During development, cell fates are often specified in noisy and dynamic three-dimensional environments, which cells must navigate through, e.g. by migration. Examples include the formation of segments of the hindbrain and the pharyngeal arches, precursors of the jaw and larynx; these are largely composed of cranial neural crest cells, arising from distinct segmental positions in the hindbrain and migrating in streams through the head. While prevailing theories suggest that premigratory neural crest cells are pluripotent, relying on their migratory environment for fate specification, some lineage tracing studies have hinted at earlier pre-specification. It remains elusive when, where, and how neural crest cells acquire fate identities and robustly migrate to correct locations despite gene expression fluctuations within each cell, and fluctuations due to environmental signals. We study these stochastic dynamics in developmental systems. Heterogeneity is critical to robust environmental responses ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and despite tremendous efforts and considerable progress in clinical treatment of melanoma patients within recent years, it remains a deadly disease. Current treatments affect melanoma cells indiscriminately, while accumulating evidence suggests that melanoma might be a disease of stem cells. This review aims to summarize the important accomplishments in the field and to emphasize the common molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating self-renewal of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) and melanoma cells. RECENT FINDINGS A growing number of publications highlight the existence of phenotypic and functional similarities between embryonic NCSCs and melanoma cells. These studies provide compelling evidence that the propagation of melanoma cells critically depends on genes instrumental in neural crest development. The example of Sox10 and Rac1 genes provides detailed illustration of how interfering with these important genes for ...
During vertebrate embryogenesis, the cranial neural crest (CNC) forms at the neural plate border and subsequently migrates and differentiates into many types of cells. The transcription factor Snai2, which is induced by canonical Wnt signaling to be expressed in the early CNC, is pivotal for CNC induction and migration in Xenopus. However, snai2 expression is silenced during CNC migration, and its roles at later developmental stages remain unclear. We generated a transgenic X. tropicalis line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) driven by the snai2 promoter/enhancer, and observed eGFP expression not only in the pre-migratory and migrating CNC, but also the differentiating CNC. This transgenic line can be used directly to detect deficiencies in CNC development at various stages, including subtle perturbation of CNC differentiation. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry confirm that Snai2 is re-expressed in the differentiating CNC. Using a separate transgenic Wnt reporter line
Differentiation of Neural-Crest-Derived Intermediate Pluripotent Progenitors into Committed Periodontal Populations Involves Unique Molecular Signature Changes, Cohort Shifts, and Epigenetic Modifications. Smit Jayant Dangaria, Yoshihiro Ito, Xianghong Luan, Thomas G.H. Diekwisch. Stem Cells Dev. 2011 January; 20(1): 39-52. Published online 2010 July 6. doi: 10.1089/scd.2010.0180. PMCID: PMC3128775 ...
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The human cornea contains stem cells that can be induced to express markers consistent with multipotency in cell culture; however, there have been no studies demonstrating that human corneal keratocytes are multipotent. The objective of this study is to examine the potential of human fetal keratocytes (HFKs) to differentiate into neural crest-derived tissues when challenged in an embryonic environment. HFKs were injected bilaterally into the cranial mesenchyme adjacent to the neural tube and the periocular mesenchyme in chick embryos at embryonic days 1.5 and 3, respectively. The injected keratocytes were detected by immunofluorescence using the human cell-specific marker, HuNu. HuNu-positive keratocytes injected along the neural crest pathway were localized adjacent to HNK-1-positive migratory host neural crest cells and in the cardiac cushion mesenchyme. The HuNu-positive cells transformed into neural crest derivatives such as smooth muscle in cranial blood vessels, stromal keratocytes, and ...
2Vertebrate Body Plan Group, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology. Cephalic neural crest cells play essential roles in craniofacial development. Otx2 is a gene that plays central roles in head development and is also expressed in the cephalic neural crest cells. We have previously reported Otx2 heterozygotes exhibit a variety of craniofacial defects in C57BL/6 background, but not in CBA background (Genes Dev. 9, 2646-, 1995). Here we report (1) cis-regulatory elements that are identified by making transgenic embryos with LacZ gene as a reporter (Deve, 124, 3929, 1997), (2) components of cranial nerves and skeltons that are regulated by Otx2 and their implication in vertebrate body plan, (3) mapping of a modifier gene that is responsible for the difference of the Otx2 phenotype between C57BL/6 and CBA backgrounds.. ...
In vitro studies have shown that the phorbol ester, 12-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces neural crest cell differentiation into melanocytes, and stimulates proliferation and differentiation of normal melanocytes. As TPA is not a physiological agent, its action is clearly mimicking some in vivo pathway involved in these processes. An understanding of the effect of TPA on the expression of melanogenic genes will therefore provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating melanocyte differentiation. In this study, we utilized primary cultures of neural crest cells and an immortalized melanocyte cell line (DMEL-2) which proliferates in the absence of TPA, to explore the effects of TPA on key melanogenic effectors. In neural crest cells, TPA was found to be necessary for both microphthalmia associated transcription factor (Mitf) up-regulation and for melanin synthesis. Using northern blots, we show that in DMEL-2 cells, TPA significantly increases the messenger ribonucleic acid
Combined intrinsic and extrinsic influences pattern cranial neural crest migration and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis in axolotl Journal Article ...
Definition: One of the 5 distinct and partially overlapping functional domains of the premigratory neural crest. Together with the sacral neural crest cells, they develop into the ganglia of the enteric nervous system, also known as the parasympathetic ganglia. These cells, between the head and trunk, contribute post-cranially to the heart and gut, the chromatophores (pigment cells) of the epidermis, and the majority of the neurons and glial cells of the enteric nervous system. Both vagal and sacral neural crest cells contribute to the enteric nervous system in the hindgut ...
The endothelin system is a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles in regulating the cardiovascular system and renal and pulmonary processes, as well as the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. This system is comprised of three structurally similar 21-amino acid peptides that bind and activate two G-protein coupled receptors. In 1994, knockouts of the Edn3 and Ednrb genes revealed their crucial function during development of the enteric nervous system and melanocytes, two neural-crest derivatives. Since then, human and mouse genetics, combined with cellular and developmental studies, have helped to unravel the role of this signaling pathway during development and adulthood. In this review, we will summarize the known functions of the EDN3/EDNRB pathway during neural crest development, with a specific focus on recent scientific advances, and the enteric nervous system in normal and pathological conditions.
We used the chick embryo transplant model to study the reprogramming of human metastatic melanoma cells towards a benign cell type. We had previously reported that human patient-derived C8161 metastatic melanoma cells upregulated a marker of melanin synthesis, Mart-1, after exposure to unknown signals in the embryonic neural crest microenvironment (Kulesa et al., 2006). The goal of this study was to identify and examine the function of the microenvironmental signal(s) underlying the reprogramming process. To enable the dynamic readout of one of the changes in metastatic melanoma cell state, we generated a lentiviral Mart-1:GFP reporter and methodically determined the age, tissue type and ultimately the factor that induced re-expression of Mart-1. We learned that the neurotrophin NGF induced Mart-1 re-expression and changes in cell behavior and gene expression of human C8161 metastatic melanoma cells. We confirmed Mart-1:GFP re-expression in C8161 cells after NGF exposure using Mart-1 antibody ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pak1ip1 Loss-of-Function Leads to Cell Cycle Arrest, Loss of Neural Crest Cells, and Craniofacial Abnormalities. AU - Panoutsopoulos, Alexios A.. AU - De Crescenzo, Angelo Harlan. AU - Lee, Albert. AU - Lu, Amelia Mac Kenzie. AU - Ross, Adam P.. AU - Borodinsky, Laura N.. AU - Marcucio, Ralph. AU - Trainor, Paul A.. AU - Zarbalis, Konstantinos. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Kirsten Lois Ner and Michael Podesta, for technical assistance. We also thank Dr. Athena Soulika for advice and support with flow cytometry. Funding. This study was supported by Shriners Hospitals for Children and NIH grant R01DE022830 to KZ, PT, and RM. Research in the Trainor laboratory is supported by the Stowers Institute for Medical Research.. PY - 2020/9/1. Y1 - 2020/9/1. N2 - Neural crest cells (NCCs) comprise a transient progenitor cell population of neuroepithelial origin that contributes to a variety of cell types throughout vertebrate embryos including most mesenchymal cells of the cranial and ...
Wounds within the oral mucosa, similarly to fetal wounds, exhibit rapid healing with reduced scarring. We hypothesized that a progenitor population resident within the oral mucosal lamina propria (OMLP) contributes to this preferential healing. Progenitor cells (PC) were reliably isolated from the OMLP by differential adhesion to fibronectin. Isolated colonies originating from a single cell demonstrated a rapid initial phase of proliferation, completing in excess of 50 population doublings (PDs) before entering cellular senescence. These data were supported by the expression of active telomerase within both developing colonies and expanded clones as assessed by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and the quantitative telomeric repeat amplification protocol. FACS analysis confirmed expression of the stem cell markers CD44, CD90, CD105, and CD166, but negative expression of CD34 and CD45 ruling out a hematopoietic or fibrocyte origin for these progenitors. A neural crest origin was confirmed by increased ...
Here we present the cloning of a full-length zebrafish pdgfr-α cDNA as well as the expression of this gene during zebrafish embryogenesis. We show that zebrafish pdgfr-α mRNA is present at high levels in the fertilized egg as well as in all embryonic cells up to the end of gastrulation. Spatially restricted expression of the gene started after the onset of segmentation and is mainly localized in premigratory neural crest cells, the placodes, the anterior paraxial cells of somites and the adaxial cells of the tailbud. Transient expression of this gene was also detected in the early Kupffers vesicle, a teleost-specific structure. Expression of the zebrafish pdgfr-α is both conserved as well as diverged comparing to that of other vertebrate species. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Coreceptor for SEMA3A and SEMA3F. Necessary for signaling by class 3 semaphorins and subsequent remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Plays a role in axon guidance in the developing nervous system. Regulates the migration of sympathetic neurons, but not of neural crest precursors. Required for normal dendrite spine morphology in pyramidal neurons. May play a role in regulating semaphorin-mediated programmed cell death in the developing nervous system. Class 3 semaphorins bind to a complex composed of a neuropilin and a plexin. The plexin modulates the affinity of the complex for specific semaphorins, and its cytoplasmic domain is required for the activation of down-stream signaling events in the cytoplasm.
The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited despite the relevance for various fields of science and application. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching genome-wide significant association, among which 17 were previously unreported. A multi-ethnic study in additional 7,917 individuals confirmed 13 loci including 8 unreported ones. A global map of polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our ...
Therefore, for my independent project, I have chosen to study the effects of substances that influence the brain like nicotine (cigarette smoke), n-Hexane, melatonin, and mercury on neurogenesis in fruit fly larvae. Regarding the cigarette smoke, I would like to pursue an experiment in which I compare the effects of electronic cigarette smoke to traditional cigarette smoke and see how they each affect neurogenesis. Neurogenesis is the growth and development of nervous tissues. Through larval brain and disc dissection, I will be able to get access to the larval brain and see how the drugs impacted the brain. I will use phosphohistone H3 (pH3) staining to give myself a visual representation of the proliferation in the neural crest cells. The more positively stained cells that are in each sample, the more proliferation. Furthermore, I will apply separate environmental stressors, which are changes in circadian rhythms and temperature to my experiment. ...
Thymus organogenesis requires coordinated interactions of multiple cell types, including neural crest (NC) cells, to orchestrate the formation, separation, and subsequent migration of the developing thymus from the third pharyngeal pouch to the thoracic cavity. The molecular mechanisms driving these processes are unclear; however, NC-derived mesenchyme has been shown to play an important role. Here, we show that, in the absence of ephrin-B2 expression on thymic NC-derived mesenchyme, the thymus remains in the cervical area instead of migrating into the thoracic cavity. Analysis of individual NC-derived thymic mesenchymal cells shows that, in the absence of ephrin-B2, their motility is impaired as a result of defective EphB receptor signaling. This implies a NC-derived cell-specific role of EphB-ephrin-B2 interactions in the collective migration of the thymic rudiment during organogenesis.
Injury and neurodegenerative conditions of the spinal cord can lead to paralysis and loss of sensation. Cell therapeutic approaches can restore sensory innervation of the spinal cord following injury and protect spinal cord cells from degeneration. This thesis primarily focuses on the restoration of deaffarented sensory fibres following injury to the dorsal root and spinal cord. These injuries lead to the formation of a non-permissive glial scar that prevents sensory axons from reinnervating spinal cord targets. It takes advantage of a dorsal root injury model that closely mimics spinal root avulsion injuries occurring in humans. In the first part of the thesis, three different neural progenitor types from human or murine sources are tested for their regenerative properties following their transplantation to the site of dorsal root avulsion injury. In the second part, the ability of murine neural progenitors to protect spinal motor neurons from a neurodegenerative process is tested.. In the ...
Ligand for members of the frizzled family of seven transmembrane receptors (By similarity). Shares much functionality with wnt11b. Signals through a non-canonical Wnt pathway to activate Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) to regulate gastrulation movements. Acts in a non-cell-autonomous manner to control neural crest migration, probably acting as an extracellular signal from surrounding tissue, but is not required for neural crest induction. Acts redundantly with wnt11b during pronephros induction. Regulates cardiac morphogenesis through the activation of JNK, but is not required for cardiac differentiation. Essential for dorsal fin development; required for an epithelial to mesenchymal transformation event prior to migration of cells into the fin, and ultimately for maintenance of fin structure. Mediates dorsal fin development through a non-canonical pathway mediated by Ca(2+) (By similarity).
Another study in the special feature by Marianne Bronner-Fraser, the second Albert Billings Ruddock Professor of Biology, focuses on the gene regulatory network underlying neural crest formation in the lamprey, the most primitive living vertebrate. The neural crest is a group of embryonic cells that are pinched off during the formation of the neural tube--the precursor to the spinal cord--and then migrate throughout the developing body to form other nervous system structures. The study reveals order and linkages within the network at early stages, Bronner-Fraser says. Because the neural crest cell type represents a vertebrate innovation, our work in lampreys shows that this network is ancient and tightly conserved to the base of vertebrates, she says.. The fourth of the Caltech papers, by Paul W. Sternberg, the Thomas Hunt Morgan Professor of Biology at Caltech and an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), and his colleagues, looks at a postembryonic gene regulatory ...
Why the interest in such an obscure cell? There is not a lot of information in the literature.. I am a clinician with a special interest in melanoma and, as such, you are continually struck by the potential aggressive and lethal nature of invasive melanoma and its resistance to therapeutics. There are some striking differences in behaviour between melanoma and its non-melanoma skin cancer relatives. Obviously, the melanocyte as the cell of origin, rather than the keratinocyte, and inevitably the neural crest origin of the melanocyte.. The Satellite cell, its close relative the Schwann cell, the melanocyte and its malignant offspring the melanoma cell, all share this Neural crest cell origin.. During evolutionary development, aspects of the Neural crest began to appear in early chordate species and eventually reached full expression in vertebrates. Protochordates were thin transparent sessile filter-feeders sitting in burrows on the sea floor but with evolutionary development grew in size, became ...
Our laboratory focuses on deciphering gene regulatory networks that govern complex programmes during early vertebrate development. We use systems approaches in specific cell types isolated directly from developing embryos to analyse transcriptional, epigenomic and cis-regulatory landscapes to decode and probe developmental programmes at the population and single-cell level. One of the intriguing developmental populations studied in our lab is the vertebrate neural crest. Neural crest (NC) is a unique multipotent embryonic cell population that differentiates into a plethora of diverse cell types, giving rise to structures as different as neurons and glia of peripheral nervous system, bone, cartilage and connective tissue elements of craniofacial skeleton and bodys pigmentation. Defects in neural crest patterning are some of the most common causes of birth anomalies, accounting for up to one-third of all congenital disabilities. Due to the unique multipotency, developmental plasticity and vast ...
Akbareian SE, Nagy N, Steiger CE, Mably JD, Miller SA, Hotta R, Molnar D, Goldstein AM: Enteric neural crest-derived cells promote their migration by modifying their microenvironment through tenascin-C production., DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 382: (2) pp. 446-456 ...
Vertebrate pigment cells are derived from neural crest, a tissue that also forms most of the peripheral nervous system and a variety of ectomesenchymal cell types. Formation of pigment cells from multipotential neural crest cells involves a number of common developmental processes. Pigment cells must be specified; their migration, proliferation, and survival must be controlled and they must differentiate to the final pigment cell type. We previously reported a large set of embryonic mutations that affect pigment cell development from neural crest (R. N. Kelsh et al., 1996, Development 123, 369-389). Based on distinctions in pigment cell appearance between mutants, we proposed hypotheses as to the process of pigment cell development affected by each mutation. Here we describe the cloning and expression of an early zebrafish melanoblast marker, dopachrome tautomerase. We used this marker to test predictions about melanoblast number and pattern in mutant embryos, including embryos homozygous for ...
Somites are transient, segmentally organized structures. In the vertebrate embryo, the somites contribute to multiple tissues, including the axial skeleton, skeletal and smooth muscles, dorsal dermis, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and adipose tissue. The somites also determine the migration paths of trunk neural crest cells and spinal nerve axons.. As the primitive streak regresses and the neural folds begin to gather at the center of the embryo, the paraxial mesoderm separates into blocks of cells called somites. These structures are formed by budding off as epithelial spheres from the cranial end of the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm that lies on either side of the neural tube.. The total number of somites formed is species-specific (38-39 in humans, 50 in chickens, 65 in mice) and is used as an indicator of embryonic developmental stages. Once formed, the epithelial somite is patterned rapidly into distinct compartments that subsequently give rise to distinct cell lineages. In response to ...
Orbital cartilage encircles the eye giving strength and support to the neural retina. It is derived from cranial neural crest cells (NCCs), cells that can generate a number of cell types including neurons, glia, and melanocytes. Uniquely in the head, NCCs also make skeletal derivatives that form the majority of the craniofacial skeleton. Differentiation of NCCs into cartilage requires inductive interactions between NCCs and the local environment. The nature of these interactions is largely unknown. We hypothesise that formation of the eye socket requires interactions between the eye and the NCCs during early development. This is supported by evidence in animals and humans where lack of eyes (anophthalmia) or formation of small eyes (microphthalmia) result in craniofacial abnormalities. Orbital cartilage is found in the majority of vertebrates but the ability to induce it has been lost to mammals. A comparison of chick and mouse should help us determine which tissues and molecules are necessary for this
1. Ebrahimi M, Taghi-Abadi E, Baharvand H. Limbal stem cells in review. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2009;4:40-58 2. Bahn CF, Falls HF, Varley GA, Meyer RF, Edelhauser HF, Bourne WM. Classification of corneal endothelial disorders based on neural crest origin. Ophthalmology. 1984;91:558-63 3. Bonanno JA. Identity and regulation of ion transport mechanisms in the corneal endothelium. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2003;22:69-94 4. Bourne WM, McLaren JW. Clinical responses of the corneal endothelium. Exp Eye Res. 2004;78:561-72 5. Lee JG, Kay EP. FGF-2-mediated signal transduction during endothelial mesenchymal transformation in corneal endothelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2006;83:1309-16 6. Zhu YT, Chen HC, Chen SY, Tseng SC. Nuclear p120 catenin unlocks mitotic block of contact-inhibited human corneal endothelial monolayers without disrupting adherent junctions. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3636-48 7. Chen HC, Zhu YT, Chen SY, Tseng SC. Wnt signaling induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition with proliferation in ARPE-19 ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits bHLH transcription factor binding (ortholog); DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific (ortholog); DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific (ortholog); INVOLVED IN angiogenesis (ortholog); blastocyst development (ortholog); cardiac left ventricle formation (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH Cardiomegaly (ortholog); Hereditary Neoplastic Syndromes (ortholog); hypoplastic left heart syndrome (ortholog); FOUND IN cytoplasm (ortholog); nuclear chromatin (ortholog); nucleolus (ortholog)
Biotagging, a genetically encoded toolkit in the zebrafish, reveals novel non-coding RNA players during neural crest and myocardium development ...
Read The fate of the neural crest in the head of the urodeles, The Journal of Comparative Neurology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Most textbooks say that Rathkes pouch invaginates from the oral ectoderm. Our observations and experiments give a different explanation for the chick embryo. We find that the roof, tip and floor of the pouch lie flat along the midline (A above), then the cephalic flexure through the mesencephalon as well as the downward bulging of the prosencephalon wrap the floor and roof around the tip of the pouch. We find that mesenchyme, mostly from mesencephalic neural crest, collects beneath the ectoderm lateral to the floor plate (and to some extent lateral to the roof plate) causing the walls of the pouch to form when the ectoderm lateral to the floor plate fuses with ectoderm lateral to roof plate ...
Diseases affecting heart function exact an enormous toll on human health, but many of the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying heart disease remain unknown. Yost and colleagues discovered novel roles for the same developmental signaling pathway in two seemingly unrelated sources of cardiac dysfunction: adult heart failure and embryonic heart malformation. In their first study, the team found that a unique population of heart muscle cells derived from the embryonic neural crest is necessary for healthy heart function. These cells produce a ligand for the Notch signaling receptor, Jag2b, and the absence of the cell population or the jag2b gene during development results in heart failure in adult fish.. In a second study, they found that in a zebrafish model for Kabuki Syndrome, a congenital heart developmental disorder, Notch signaling is overactive. In a result with exciting implications for human patients, they showed that pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling could restore normal ...
Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest. Embryology They arise in ...
Video articles in JoVE about vitelline membrane include Application of Impermeable Barriers Combined with Candidate Factor Soaked Beads to Study Inductive Signals in the Chick, Dissection and Downstream Analysis of Zebra Finch Embryos at Early Stages of Development, A Submerged Filter Paper Sandwich for Long-term Ex Ovo Time-lapse Imaging of Early Chick Embryos, Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) to Monitor the State of Arm Cohesion in Prometaphase and Metaphase I Drosophila Oocytes, Stem cell-like Xenopus Embryonic Explants to Study Early Neural Developmental Features In Vitro and In Vivo, In-vivo Centrifugation of Drosophila Embryos, Microinjection Wound Assay and In vivo Localization of Epidermal Wound Response Reporters in Drosophila Embryos., Blastomere Explants to Test for Cell Fate Commitment During Embryonic Development, Analysis of Neural Crest Migration and Differentiation by Cross-species Transplantation, Dual Labeling of Neural Crest Cells and Blood Vessels
This study briefly reviews the main events and processes that lead to the formation of the nervous system in mammals. At the end of gastrulation, they begin a series of fundamental morphogenetic processes with the formation of the neural plate (start of neurulation) culminating in the attainment of a normal nervous system. Embryological ectodermal primordia involved in the formation of the nervous system are the neuroectoblast, the neural crest cells and placodes that will evolve based on inductive phenomena, mainly from the notochord, prechordal plate and ectoderm. During the embryonic period consolidates the final development plan of the nervous system: 1) it comes complete neural tube formation when closing the rostral and caudal neuropores, 2) the different placodes invaginate to help form the organs of senses and sensory ganglia of the head, 3) the neural crest cells migrate to give rise to sensory and autonomic constituents of the peripheral nervous system and 4) developing brain vesicles, ...
Abzhanov A, Cordero DR, Sen J, Tabin CJ, Helms JAet al., 2007, Cross-regulatory interactions between Fgf8 and Shh in the avian frontonasal prominence., Congenit Anom (Kyoto), Vol: 47, Pages: 136-148, ISSN: 0914-3505 The frontonasal prominence of the developing avian embryo contains an organizing center, defined by juxtaposition of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) expression domains. This molecular interface presages any detectable growth of the frontonasal prominence, and experiments involving transplantation of this boundary epithelium have demonstrated it is a source of dorsal-ventral and rostral-caudal patterning information for the neural crest-derived mesenchyme of the upper beak. We explored the ontogeny of this organizing center by mapping the expression domains of both genes and their receptors and downstream targets. We tested the extent to which Shh and Fgf8 regulate each others expression in this frontonasal organizer by either blocking or ectopically ...
The origin of GnRH-1 neurons and OECs has been a matter of debate for several decades. Both cell types are associated with the olfactory/nasal placode (Schwanzel-Fukuda and Pfaff, 1989; Wray et al., 1989; Wewetzer et al., 2002; Barnett, 2004; Murdoch et al., 2010). During early development, the nasal placode and cranial neural crest cells share a common border, originating from ectoderm near the neural plate. Mixing of NC and olfactory placode cells has been suggested (Couly and Le Douarin, 1985; Whitlock, 2004; Schlosser, 2010). Thus, we used both NC and ectodermal-specific Cre-lox fate tracing strategies to determine the origin of nasal placode derivates. Here we show that early multipotent cranial NC cells mingle with ectodermally derived cells in the developing nasal placode where they generate (1) unique cell types such as the OECs and (2) neurons with similar features to those of ectodermal origin (Nagoshi et al., 2008, 2009) including a population of GnRH-1-expressing neurons.. The ...
The new version includes: Astrocytes lineage ; Updates to Kidney, Pancreas, Bone and Cartilage (from somite & neural crest) lineages ; 19 new high-throughput experiments for: hair, tooth, early embryo, cornea, lens and astrocytes ; New data from Bodymap & RNAseq ; 40 new protocols, including 7 new categories of direct reprogramming protocols added ; ~60 new patient-derived iPSCs ; Family cell descriptions for BM-MSCs, Adipose-derived MSCs and UC-MSCs (tissue) and 50 new cell therapies, including 7 cards of marketed cell-based products. Additionally, The UCB-MSCs (blood) cell family was split into tissue and cord blood with full elaborate descriptions. ...
Neural crest stem cells[edit]. Hair follicles contain two types of stem cells, one of which appears to represent a remnant of ... Neural stem cells[edit]. Main article: Neural stem cell. The existence of stem cells in the adult brain has been postulated ... Sieber-Blum M, Hu Y (December 2008). "Epidermal neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSC) and pluripotency". Stem Cell Rev. 4 (4): 256 ... Marshall GP, Laywell ED, Zheng T, Steindler DA, Scott EW (March 2006). "In vitro-derived "neural stem cells" function as neural ...
Chromaffin cells are derived from the embryonic neural crest, and are modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons.[1] They are ... Neuroblastoma, a neuroendocrine tumor of any neural crest tissue of the sympathetic nervous system[5] ...
Thorogood, P. (1989). "The Neural Crest. Including a Facsimile Reprint of the Neural Crest by Sven Horstadius. Brian K. Hall. ... He was responsible for an increased understanding of the neural crest. Hörstadius studied under John Runnström at Stockholm ...
The components of the sensory nervous system of the head are derived from the neural crest and from an embryonic cell ... The cranial nerves are formed from the contribution of two specialized embryonic cell populations, cranial neural crest and ... neural crest; PA, pharyngeal (branchial) arch; r, rhombomere; s, purely sensory nerve. * There is no known ganglion of the ... Contributions of neural crest cells and placodes to ganglia and cranial nerves Abbreviations: CN, Cranial Nerve; m, purely ...
Neural crest cells in mice, Leghorn chicks, amphibians (Xenopus laevis), and fish (zebrafish): collective migration of neural ... The neural crest. No. 36. Cambridge University Press, 1999. Thiery, JP; Acloque, H; Huang, RY; Nieto, MA (25 November 2009). " ... Johnston, MC (October 1966). "A radioautographic study of the migration and fate of cranial neural crest cells in the chick ... Smith, M.; Hickman, A.; Amanze, D.; Lumsden, A.; Thorogood, P. (23 May 1994). "Trunk neural crest origin of caudal fin ...
Neural crest Shimada, N.; Sokunbi, G.; Moorman, SJ. (2005). "Changes in gravitational force affect gene expression in ... Apr 2009). "Transcriptional control of Rohon-Beard sensory neuron development at the neural plate border". Dev Dyn. 238 (4): ...
The neural tube and neural crest are derived from the ectoderm; the neural tube goes on to form the brain and spinal cord, ... The neural crest is a group of temporary migratory cells that are left over after the neural tube has closed (neurulation), ... There is evidence that PAX3 also regulates cells from before the neural crest forms, i.e. the neural tube, since mice with loss ... transcription factor that has a more specialised role in the neural crest and is more strictly involved after the neural crest ...
Neurobehavioral disorders; Tumors of neural crest origin. Clinically overlapping cases exist because CCHS phenotype can also ... or tumors of neural crest origin. Central hypoventilation syndrome is a heterogeneous group of seemingly overlapping diseases. ... and neural tumor syndrome in childhood". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 93 (10): 3971-80. doi:10.1210/jc.2008-0238. PMID 18628522 ...
The truncus arteriosus and the adjacent bulbus cordis partition by means of cells from the neural crest. Once the cells from ... Jiang X, Rowitch DH, Soriano P, McMahon AP, Sucov HM (2000). "Fate of the mammalian cardiac neural crest...". Development. ... Maschhoff KL, Baldwin HS (2000). "Molecular determinants of neural crest migration". Am. J. Med. Genet. 97 (4): 280-8. doi: ... Kirby ML, Gale TF, Stewart DE (1983). "Neural crest cells contribute to normal aorticopulmonary septation". Science. 220 (4061 ...
This will be manifested most strongly in those cells which require most organisation; that is, the neural crest cells. One is ... share the embryological origin of neural crest cells. These cells undergo immense and challenging cellular migrations requiring ...
"Molecular determinants of neural crest migration". Am. J. Med. Genet. 97 (4): 280-8. doi:10.1002/1096-8628(200024)97:4. 3.0.CO; ...
In neural crest cells, the neurogenin family is essential for neurogenesis in the developing dorsal root ganglia and ... Gammill LS, Bronner-Fraser M (Oct 2003). "Neural crest specification: migrating into genomics". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 4 ... promotes glial lineage in neural crest and central nervous system formation through the inhibition of neuronal differentiation ... Ngn1 is a proneural gene because its expression is seen prior to neural lineage determination, indicating it plays a role in ...
It regulates differentiation and migration of neural crest cells along with other genes (e.g. FOXD3, SOX9 and SOX10, BMPs) in ... Rhim H, Savagner P, Thibaudeau G, Thiery JP, Pavan WJ (Jan 1998). "Localization of a neural crest transcription factor, Slug, ... A knockout model using chick embryos has also showed inhibition of mesodermal and neural crest delamination; chick embryo Slug ... SNAI2 downregulates expression of E-cadherin in premigratory neural crest cells; thus, SNAI2 induces tightly bound epithelial ...
Later forming the epidermis and neural crest. In tunicates, invagination is the first mechanism that takes place during ...
Keith Hall, Brian (1999). The Neural Crest in Development and Evolution. Springer. pp. 154. ISBN 0-387-98702-9. Williamson, K F ... minor defects in structures arising from the neural crest, and pigmentation anomalies. In 1913, Jan van der Hoeve observed and ...
... s develop from neural-crest stem cells. The neural crest is responsible for a large part of early development in ... The neural-crest stem cells split from the neural tube as it closes, and nociceptors grow from the dorsal part of this neural- ... All neurons derived from the neural crest, including embryonic nociceptors, express the TrkA, which is a receptor to nerve- ... Jessell, Thomas M.; Kandel, Eric R.; Schwartz, James H. (1991). Principles of neural science. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange. pp ...
The aorticopulmonary septum is developmentally formed from neural crest, specifically the cardiac neural crest, and actively ... Jiang X, Rowitch DH, Soriano P, McMahon AP, Sucov HM (2000). "Fate of the mammalian cardiac neural crest...". Development. 127 ... "Neural crest cells contribute to normal aorticopulmonary septation". Science. 220 (4061): 1059-61. doi:10.1126/science.6844926 ...
Lumsden A, Sprawson N, Graham A (December 1991). "Segmental origin and migration of neural crest cells in the hindbrain region ... Lumsden A (March 1989). "Multipotent cells in the avian neural crest". Trends Neurosci. 12 (3): 81-3. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(89) ... Andrew Lumsden talking about Neural Development journal on YouTube "Development - The Company of Biologists". "Neural ... and how the cranial neural crest contributes to their patterning. Studies on the development of the trigeminal nerve and ...
"Critical numbers of neural crest cells are required in the pathways from the neural tube to the foregut to ensure complete ... It is derived from neural crest cells. The enteric nervous system is capable of operating independently of the brain and spinal ... Remodeling of vagus and enteric neural circuitry after vagal injury". American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and ...
The neural crest, specifically a population known as the cardiac neural crest, directly contributes to the aorticopulmonary ... Jiang X, Rowitch DH, Soriano P, McMahon AP, Sucov HM (April 2000). "Fate of the mammalian cardiac neural crest". Development. ... Microablation of the cardiac neural crest in developing chick embryos and genetic anomalies affecting this population of cells ... Kirby ML, Gale TF, Stewart DE (June 1983). "Neural crest cells contribute to normal aorticopulmonary septation". Science. 220 ( ...
Le Douarin, Nicole Marthe; Dupin, Elisabeth (23 November 2013). Paul Trainor (ed.). Neural Crest Cells: Evolution, development ... All of these organs and structures are located in the neural tube, with the frontal eye at the front, followed by the lamellar ... The peak sensitivity of both cells is ~470 nm (blue). Both the Joseph cells and Hesse organs are in the neural tube, the Joseph ... 2017). "Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain ...
After the induction of the neural crest, the newly formed neural crest cells (NCC) delaminate from their tissue of origin and ... doi:10.1016/S0046-8177(74)80021-3. Watt, Kristin E. Noack; Trainor, Paul A. (2014), "Neurocristopathies", Neural Crest Cells, ... Bolande, Robert P. (1974). "The neurocristopathies: A unifying concept of disease arising in neural crest maldevelopment". ... Etchevers, Heather C.; Amiel, Jeanne; Lyonnet, Stanislas (2006). "Molecular Bases of Human Neurocristopathies". Neural Crest ...
... cell mass cells/embryonic stem cells and neural crest cells led LaBonne's group to proposed a new model in which neural crest ... are required for both establishing the neural crest stem cell state and for the migratory and invasive behavior of neural crest ... "Carole LaBonne: Neural Crest Cells and the Rise of the Vertebrates , Biomedical Beat Blog - National Institute of General ... "2015 Neural Crest and Cranial Placodes Conference GRC". www.grc.org. Retrieved 2019-01-02. "Past Teaching Award Recipients: ...
All three ossicles develop from the neural crest. Eventually cells from the tissue surrounding the ossicles will experience ... although many of these conditions may also be affected by damage to the brain or neural pathways leading from the ear. The ear ...
... apoptosis of neural crest cells, interference with neural crest cell migration, as well as the disruption of sonic hedgehog ( ... Yu, Shi (September 16, 2014). "5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate rescues alcohol-induced neural crest cell migration abnormalities". ... such as the Neural Crest, which can lead to the development of Neurocristopathies. Genetically modified mice are commonly used ... "The role of teratogens in neural crest development". Birth Defects Research. 112 (8): 584-632. doi:10.1002/bdr2.1644. ISSN 2472 ...
In neural crest cells, which are transient cells that arise in the developing organism during gastrulation and function in the ... Taneyhill LA, Schiffmacher AT (June 2017). "Should I stay or should I go? Cadherin function and regulation in the neural crest ... For example, during neurulation, when a neural plate forms in an embryo, the tissues residing near the cranial neural folds ... CDH2 - N-cadherin (neural): N-cadherins are found in neurons CDH12 - cadherin 12, type 2 (N-cadherin 2) CDH3 - P-cadherin ( ...
These are not derived from the neural crest. Instead, an outpouching of the neural tube generates the optic cup, which, in turn ... Leaving the neural crest in waves, chromatophores take either a dorsolateral route through the dermis, entering the ectoderm ... During vertebrate embryonic development, chromatophores are one of a number of cell types generated in the neural crest, a ... as the name for pigment-bearing cells derived from the neural crest of cold-blooded vertebrates and cephalopods. The word ...
The frontal bone is presumed to be derived from neural crest cells. The frontal bone is ossified in membrane from two primary ... Kirby, M. L.; Waldo, K. L. (1990). "Role of neural crest in congenital heart disease". Circulation. 82 (2): 332-340. doi: ...
This is where the neural plate folds in on itself, forming the neural crest. Neural crest cells will eventually become portions ... The name neural crest develops from the neural folds during embryonic development. ... The neural crest was first discovered by Wilhelm His in 1868 when he was studying the embryo of a chick. He first named it ... The neural crest cells that are found outside of a given neuromere will express the same proteins as the cells that are found ...
For example: (1) both sets of bones are made from neural crest cells (rather than mesodermal tissue like most other bones); (2 ... sfn error: no target: CITEREFBenton2005 (help) Kimmel, C. B.; Miller, C. T.; Keynes, R. J. (2001). "Neural crest patterning and ... the vertebrate pharynx is unique in that it gives rise to endoskeletal support through the contribution of neural crest cells. ...
Conditional inactivation of TGF-βr2 of osteochondroprogenitor cells in the cranial neural crest resulted in faster ...
... is also not expressed in neural crest cells in the developing fetus. Hence, high levels of free radicals ... Overexpression of SOD1 has been linked to the neural disorders seen in Down syndrome.[38] In patients with thalassemia, SOD ... can cause damage to them and induce dysraphic anomalies (neural tube defects).[citation needed] ...
This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory system.[111] ... with males bearing a larger sagittal crest (a ridge of bone on the top of the skull to which jaw muscles attach) and canine ...
... and extend outward and backward into the surrounding mesoderm and neural crest-derived mesenchyme in front of the ventral aorta ...
neural crest mesenchyme and third and fourth pharyngeal pouch endoderm ପାରାଥାଇରଏଡ ଗ୍ରନ୍ଥି କ‌ହିଲେ ମାନବ ଓ ଚତୁଷ୍ପଦ ପ୍ରାଣୀଙ୍କ ଦେହରେ ...
... the vertebrate pharynx is unique in that it gives rise to endoskeletal support through the contribution of neural crest cells.[ ... The primary neural supply is from both the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves. The vagus nerve provides a branch termed "Arnolds ...
This contribution of the neural crest to the great artery smooth muscle is unusual as most smooth muscle is derived from ... cells that form the aorticopulmonary septum that separates the aorta and pulmonary artery is derived from cardiac neural crest ...
Donald F. Glut in 1982 reported it as either an iguanodont or hadrosaur, with no crest or boot on the ischium (the lack of ... Photographs also show it had similarly-split neural spines on its back vertebrae. Several name variants of "Nurosaurus" are ... "Y-shaped petrified bone that appears to be the neural spine from a huge fish like the Portheus of Niobrara Chalk" that Baugh's ...
Neural crest. Endoderm. *Splanchnopleuric mesenchyme. Mesoderm. *Axial mesoderm. *Paraxial *Somite. *Somitomere. *Intermediate ...
All three ossicles develop from the neural crest.[16] Eventually cells from the tissue surrounding the ossicles will experience ... although many of these conditions may also be affected by damage to the brain or neural pathways leading from the ear. ...
... a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits". Differentiation. 87 (1 ... In a series of studies by Rovainen and his student James Buchanan, the cells that formed the neural circuits within the spinal ... "A novel neural substrate for the transformation of olfactory inputs into motor output". PLOS Biology. 8 (12): e1000567. doi ...
... are derived from a strip of tissue in the embryo called the neural crest. Stem cells in the neural crest give rise to the cells ...
... neural crest cell disruption, endocrine disruption, oxidative stress, vascular disruption and specific receptor- or enzyme- ... For example, a lack of folic acid, a vitamin B, in the diet of a mother can cause cellular neural tube deformities that result ... Valproate has antifolate effects, leading to neural tube closure-related defects such as spina bifida. Lower IQ and autism have ... Congenital anomalies of the nervous system include neural tube defects such as spina bifida, encephalocele and anencephaly. ...
neural crest mesenchyme and third and fourth pharyngeal pouch endoderm Dorlands/Elsevier g_06/{{{DorlandsSuf}}} ...
... neural crest cell disruption, endocrine disruption, oxidative stress, vascular disruption, and specific receptor- or enzyme- ... For example, a lack of folic acid, a B vitamin, in the diet of a mother can cause cellular neural tube deformities that result ... Valproate has antifolate effects, leading to neural tube closure-related defects such as spina bifida. Lower IQ and autism have ... Congenital disorders such as a neural tube deformity can be prevented by 72% if the mother consumes 4 mg of folic acid before ...
... the migration path through which neural crest cells migrate is rich in HA.[26] HA is closely associated with the cell migration ... and neural tissues. It is unique among glycosaminoglycans in that it is nonsulfated, forms in the plasma membrane instead of ...
Nicrosaurus has a ridge along the snout that would have supported a keratinous crest in life, while Mystriosuchus westphali has ... Neural and endocranial anatomy of Triassic phytosaurian reptiles and convergence with fossil and modern crocodylians Article in ...
The neural arches of the vertebrae had tall, sloping laminae. The notarium (a structure consisting of fused vertebrae in the ... The hind part of the skull was relatively tall, and the skull table bore a low crest or ridge at the front. The mandibular ... The humerus (upper arm bone) was stout and had a sharply curved deltopectoral crest. The forelimbs of istiodactylids were large ... shoulder-region of some pterosaurs and birds) consisted of six fused trunk vertebrae, with their neural spines fused into a ...
The mammary ridge or mammary crest, is a primordium[1] specific for the development of the mammary gland. ... A mammary ridge, or crest, usually stops growing at eight weeks and its length is regressed starting at the caudal end and ... When shortening of the mammary crest is complete, the structure remains prominent in the areas where the mammary glands ... A basement membrane separating the expanding ectodermal crest structure and the underlying mesoderm usually remains. The ...
Katie Eloise Foster, The Role of Neural Crest Cells in the Development, Organisation and Migration of the Thymus, Research ...
... the neural side of lupus is being studied in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality rates.[30] One aspect of this disease is ... Antiphospholipid syndrome is also related to the onset of neural lupus symptoms in the brain. In this form of the disease the ...
The parathyroid glands originate from the interaction of the endoderm of the third and fourth pouch and neural crest mesenchyme ...
... is also found in tissues that are not derived from the neural crest, including the wall of the digestive tract, kidneys, ... ZEB2 transcripts are found in tissues differentiated from the neural crest such as the cranial nerve ganglia, dorsal root ... Many of the symptoms can be explained by the irregular development of the structures from the neural crest. Hirschsprung's ...
Neural crest cells (NCCs) form from neuroectoderm, instead of the primary mesenchyme, from morphogenic signals of the neural ... Bronner-Fraser, M (1994). "Neural crest cell formation and migration in the developing embryo". FASEB Journal. 8 (10): 699-706 ... Trainor, P. A. (2005). "Specification of neural crest cell formation and migration in mouse embryos". Seminars in Cell & ... Neural mesenchyme[edit]. Embryological mesenchyme is particularly transitory and soon differentiates after migration. Neural ...
At this stage of development, the principal cell type of the CNS is considered a neural stem cell. These neural stem cells are ... Bone marrow, which requires extraction by harvesting, that is, drilling into bone (typically the femur or iliac crest). ... neurulation causes the neurectoderm to form the neural tube. At the neural tube stage, the anterior portion undergoes ... Neural stem cells are committed to the neuronal lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes), and thus their potency is ...
A Unified Explanation Based on Neural Crest Cell Behavior and Genetics". Genetics 197 (3): 795-808. PMC 4096361. PMID 25024034 ...
... trunk neural crest, vagal and sacral neural crest, and cardiac neural crest. Cranial neural crest migrates dorsolaterally to ... cells originally located in the neural plate border become neural crest cells. For migration to begin, neural crest cells must ... that degrade the overlying basal lamina of the neural tube to allow neural crest cells to escape. Additionally, neural crest ... designated here as neural crest specifiers, are activated in emergent neural crest cells. At least in Xenopus, every neural ...
The cranial neural crest is one of the four regions of the neural crest. The cranial neural crest arises in the anterior and ... Schwann cells "The Neural Crest". Retrieved 2009-05-31. Grenier J, Teillet MA, Grifone R, Kelly RG, Duprez D (2009). Callaerts ... Jiang HB, Tian WD, Liu LK, Xu Y (June 2008). "In vitro odontoblast-like cell differentiation of cranial neural crest cells ... "Relationship between Neural Crest Cells and Cranial Mesoderm during Head Muscle Development". PLOS ONE. 4 (2): e4381. doi: ...
... Jim Du jdu at u.washington.edu Sat Aug 19 18:25:45 EST 1995 *Previous message: Larval feeding habits ... Does anyone have a good marker (cDNA or antibody) for staining of trunk neural crest in the zebrafish embryos (11 hrs to 24 hrs ...
Neural crest definition, a group of ectodermal cells that develop into a variety of tissues, including spinal and autonomic ... neural crest. in Medicine. neural crest. n.. *A band of neuroectodermal cells that lie dorsolateral to the developing spinal ... Origin of neural crest. First recorded in 1880-85. Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary ...
NCC markers are expressed within trunk neural crest and non-neural crest derivatives at CS18. Outside of neural crest- ... Neural crest markers are expressed in the maxillary process at CS 18. AP-2α (A, B), Sox9 (A, B), Sox10 (E, F), Pax7 (E, F), and ... Analysis of early human neural crest development.. Betters E1, Liu Y, Kjaeldgaard A, Sundström E, García-Castro MI. ... Pax3, p75NTR, Sox10, Sox9 and AP-2α are expressed in neural crest derivatives of CS12 rostral trunk sections. Images in (E-K) ...
... from those that have been used extensively since the very first investigations into neural crest cells to those that are ... in order to explore the development of neural crest cells in human, mice, rat, chick, quail, medaka, and shark. ... Authoritative and practical, Neural Crest Cells: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal reference guide for aspiring and ... Neural Crest Cells. Methods and Protocols. Editors: Schwarz, Quenten, Wiszniak, Sophie (Eds.) ...
Neural crest cells are a type of migratory cells that are responsible for the formation of many different anatomical structures ... and vagal neural crest cells.. During embryonic development, the neural crest is formed shortly before the neural tube - the ... the neural crest cells migrate through the cranium and settle into the pharyngeal arches. Now called cranial neural crest cells ... Some of the neural crest cells will continue to travel to other parts of the body. Ganglia within the digestive system are ...
Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation, written by an international panel of recognized leaders in the field, discusses all ... Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation. Editors. * Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet Series Title. Advances in Experimental ... Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation, written by an international panel of recognized leaders in the field, discusses all ... to the pathologies associated with abnormal neural crest development and function. Each chapter provides an invaluable resource ...
Infantile hemangiomas exhibit neural crest and pericyte markers.. Spock CL1, Tom LK, Canadas K, Sue GR, Sawh-Martinez R, Maier ... We observed that neural crest markers such as NG2 and nestin were expressed in the hemangioma samples, in addition tomultiple ... We analyzed a number of cell markers using these methods, including cell markers for the neural crest, pericytes, endothelial ... Infantile hemangiomas exhibit neural crest and pericyte markers. [Ann Plast Surg. 2015] ...
Summary: This Review summarizes progress in the application of functional genomic tools in lamprey embryos to provide insight into the evolution of developmental mechanisms in vertebrates. ...
Embryology a band of cells that lies along the length of the neural tube and developing spinal cord: it is the primordium of ... neural crest. neural crest. Embryology a band of cells that lies along the length of the neural tube and developing spinal cord ... neural crest. noun. The part of the ectoderm in a vertebrate embryo that lies on either side of the neural tube and develops ... "neural crest." YourDictionary, n.d. Web. 09 December 2018. ,https://www.yourdictionary.com/neural-crest,. ...
2013) Incremental evolution of the neural crest, neural crest cells and neural crest-derived skeletal tissues. J Anat 222:19-31 ... premigratory neural crest cells) in the dorsal trunk neural tube. We observed that, as in the shark, trunk neural crest cells ... Trunk neural crest cell migration in the little skate. (A) Wholemount mRNA in situ hybridization for the neural crest specifier ... A trunk neural crest origin of skate dermal denticles. (A) Premigratory trunk neural crest cells were labeled by microinjection ...
The neural crest is a population of cells that emigrates from the dorsal neural tube during early embryogenesis and migrates ... when the neural crest cells are beginning to migrate. At the neural plate stage, neural crest cells are not yet specified, but ... neural crest cells (NC) are induced to form from the edges of the neural plate (or neural folds). N, notochord; NC, neural ... stages of neural crest migration. Initially, neural crest cells (NC) migrate ventrally between the neural tube and somite (S). ...
2008). The Neural Crest and Neural Crest Cells in Vertebrate Development and Evolution. New York, NY: Springer. ... The neural crest (NC) is a multipotent stem cell population that is induced at the neural plate border during neurulation and ... Neural crest formation. The NC is induced within the neural plate border region by a precise combination of bone morphogenetic ... 2012). Neural crest induction at the neural plate border in vertebrates. Dev. Biol. 366, 22-33. ...
Neural crest cells contribute to normal aorticopulmonary septation Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... By analyzing the hearts of quail-chick chimeras, it was found that neural crest cells at the level of occipital somites 1 to 3 ... Bilateral removal of this neural crest population prior to migration causes malformation of the aorticopulmonary septum ...
Developmental Biology, Special Issue on Neural Crest (2012).. Hall BK and Hall BK (2009) The Neural Crest and Neural Crest ... Figure 3. Neural emigration and dispersion. (a) Overview of the main driving forces of neural crest dissemination. Neural crest ... Figure 1. Overview of neural crest development. (a) Dorsal view of a vertebrate embryo at early neurula stage, neural crest (NC ... Neural crest cells are migratory multipotent stem cells.. *Neural crest cells distribute according to cell-cell and cell- ...
neural crest;. FSNC,. facial skeletogenic NC;. NCC,. NC cell(s);. NF,. neural fold;. NT,. neural tube;. P3,. prosomere 3;. rn, ... The cephalic neural crest exerts a critical effect on forebrain and midbrain development. Sophie E. Creuzet, Salvador Martinez ... This event has coincided with the emergence of a transient and pluripotent structure, the neural crest (NC), which is absent in ... The facial neural crest controls fore- and midbrain patterning by regulating Foxg1 expression through Smad1 activity ...
A small percentage of cardiomyocytes (CM) are of neural crest origin but the function of such cells in the adult zebrafish is ... Here, we show that neural crest derived cardiomyocytes (NC-Cms) in the zebrafish ventricle express Notch ligand jag2b, are ... Neural crest cells migrate to the embryonic heart and transform into a small number of cardiomyocytes, but their functions in ... Neural crest (NC) cells are a prototypical stem cell population, migrating from the developing neural tube and capable of ...
Neural Crest Differentiation Kit efficiently generates a monolayer of neural crest cells from human pluripotent stem cells. ... cells to neural crest cells. These neural crest cells, which are characterized by neural crest markers such as SOX10 and CD271 ... Neural Crest Differentiation Kit. The STEMdiff™ Neural Crest Differentiation Kit efficiently generates a monolayer of Neural ... Neural crest cells are produced using STEMdiff™ Neural Crest Differentiation Kit after 6 days in culture. For information on ...
Many of these genes are mutated in human diseases that affect crest-derived lineages. At the same time, decades of work on the ... The past few years have seen an explosion of information about genes that control the development of the neural crest, a ... Cellular and molecular biology of neural crest cell lineage determination Trends Genet. 1997 Jul;13(7):276-80. doi: 10.1016/ ... At the same time, decades of work on the neural crest at the cellular level are generating new insights into the segregation of ...
Neural crest cells are multipotent progenitors, capable of producing diverse cell types upon differentiation. Recent studies ... have identified significant heterogeneity in both the fates produced and genes expressed by different premigratory crest cells ... Environmental signals and cell fate specification in premigratory neural crest Bioessays. 2000 Aug;22(8):708-16. doi: 10.1002/ ... Neural crest cells are multipotent progenitors, capable of producing diverse cell types upon differentiation. Recent studies ...
Pax7 can substitute for Pax3 function in dorsal neural tube, neural crest cell, and somite development, but not in the ... SIP1 seems to have crucial roles in normal embryonic neural and neural crest development [11]. ... SSEA-1 is a specific marker for the spinal sensory neuron lineage in the quail embryo and in neural crest cell cultures. Sieber ... Expression of the trk proto-oncogene is restricted to the sensory cranial and spinal ganglia of neural crest origin in mouse ...
The neural crest and somites, progenitors of the peripheral nervous system and of skeletal tissues, respectively, beautifully ... The neural crest and somites, progenitors of the peripheral nervous system and of skeletal tissues, respectively, beautifully ... Kalcheim, C. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions during Neural Crest and Somite Development. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 1. ... Kalcheim C. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions during Neural Crest and Somite Development. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2016; ...
Defective ALK5 signaling in the neural crest leads to increased postmigratory neural crest cell apoptosis and severe outflow ... Neural crest-derived SEMA3C activates endothelial NRP1 for cardiac outflow tract septation. Alice Plein,1 Amélie Calmont,2 ... Fate of the mammalian cardiac neural crest. Development. 2000;127(8):1607-1616.. View this article via: PubMed Google Scholar ... GATA-6 regulates semaphorin 3C and is required in cardiac neural crest for cardiovascular morphogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2006; ...
Using Xenopus, we identified defects in neural crest cells (NCCs) upon emc1 depletion. We then used unbiased proteomics and ... Disrupted ER membrane protein complex-mediated topogenesis drives congenital neural crest defects. ... Disrupted ER membrane protein complex-mediated topogenesis drives congenital neural crest defects. ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
The segregation of the rhombencephalic neural crest into three streams, destined for particular pharyngeal arches, is a ... At least in part, the segregation of the crest into these streams involves the focal depletion of neural crest from rhombomeres ... Neural Crest / cytology*, drug effects, metabolism*. Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics, ... We find that the hindbrain neural crest generally is primed to respond to Bmp-4 and that in vitro, besides rhombomere 3 and 5, ...
... neural crest explanation free. What is neural crest? Meaning of neural crest medical term. What does neural crest mean? ... Looking for online definition of neural crest in the Medical Dictionary? ... Neural crest , definition of neural crest by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/neural+crest ... neural crest. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. neu·ral crest. neuroectodermal ...
What is neural crest? Meaning of neural crest as a legal term. What does neural crest mean in law? ... Definition of neural crest in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Neural crest legal definition of neural crest https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/neural+crest ... crest. (redirected from neural crest). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. See: ...
"Neural Crest" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Neural Crest" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Neural Crest" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... RNA helicase DDX21 mediates nucleotide stress responses in neural crest and melanoma cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2020 04; 22(4):372- ... Formation of Human Neuroblastoma in Mouse-Human Neural Crest Chimeras. Cell Stem Cell. 2020 04 02; 26(4):579-592.e6. ...
  • a) Diagram of a stream of migrating neural crest cells. (els.net)
  • Upon collision RhoA (ras homologue family member A) is activated, whereas Rac1 is inhibited at the contact between two migrating neural crest cells, leading to the collapse of protrusions and the migration of cells away from one another. (biochemj.org)
  • Thus, early- and late-migrating neural crest cells exhibit unique morphogenetic behaviors and give rise to different subsets of neural crest derivatives. (eurekamag.com)
  • Here we present evidence that these differences reflect the appearance of specified melanocyte precursors, or melanoblasts, from late- but not early-migrating neural crest cells. (eurekamag.com)
  • There are no melanoblasts in the ventral path, as revealed by the absence of SL-positive cells in the ventral path, and neural crest cells isolated from the ventral path do not give rise to melanocytes when explanted in culture, suggesting that early, ventrally migrating neural crest cells are limited in their ability to differentiate as melanocytes. (eurekamag.com)
  • After moving from the stationary ectoderm cell layer to the mobile mesoderm layer, the neural crest cells migrate through the cranium and settle into the pharyngeal arches. (wisegeek.com)
  • Sections through the trunk of (a) a neural plate‐stage embryo, (b) a neurulation‐stage embryo and (c) at the completion of neurulation, when the neural crest cells are beginning to migrate. (els.net)
  • Initially, neural crest cells (NC) migrate ventrally between the neural tube and somite (S). Once they reach the somite, they enter at the interface of the myotome (M) and sclerotome (SC), and migrate laterally across the somite. (els.net)
  • By analyzing the hearts of quail-chick chimeras, it was found that neural crest cells at the level of occipital somites 1 to 3 migrate to the region of the aorticopulmonary septum. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neural crest cells use various strategies to cooperate and migrate collectively which make them a good model for the study of collectiveness. (els.net)
  • Some neural crest cell populations migrate collectively. (els.net)
  • Neural crest cells migrate to the embryonic heart and transform into a small number of cardiomyocytes, but their functions in the developing and adult heart are unknown. (nature.com)
  • We have performed a secondary screen using in situ hybridization that allows us to extract temporal information and reconstruct the progression of neural crest gene expression as these cells become different from their neighbors and migrate. (biologists.org)
  • Our results reveal a sequential `migration activation' process that reflects stages in the transition to a migratory neural crest cell and suggests that migratory potential is established in a pool of cells from which a subset are activated to migrate. (biologists.org)
  • Although initially contained within the central nervous system, neural crest cells depart from their site of origin, migrate extensively throughout the embryo, and form many diverse derivatives including most of the peripheral nervous system, facial skeleton, and melanocytes of the skin (reviewed by LeDouarin and Kalcheim, 1999 ). (biologists.org)
  • Furthermore, there are no known genes that specifically mark only those cells in the neural folds that will migrate. (biologists.org)
  • Now, Caltech scientists have discovered that embryonic cells from the hindbrain, called neural crest cells, migrate to the developing heart and form heart muscle in zebrafish and other species. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Stem cells called neural crest cells emerge from the forming CNS and migrate outward to make many kinds of body parts, such as bone, nerves, and portions of the heart. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Neural crest cells migrate long distances in the body and generate a wide variety of cell types, including those in the peripheral nervous system and craniofacial skeleton. (stemcell.com)
  • Cranial neural crest (CNC) cells migrate and elaborate into craniofacial structures, dysregulation of which leads to craniofacial malformations. (aaps1921.org)
  • In the head region, neural crest cells migrate into the pharyngeal arches (as shown in movie below) forming ectomesenchyme contributing tissues which in the body region are typically derived from mesoderm (cartilage, bone, and connective tissue). (edu.au)
  • Musculocontractural Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and neurocristopathies: dermatan sulfate is required for Xenopus neural crest cells to migrate and adhere to fibronectin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate from different regions along the anterior-posterior axis of the neural tube (NT) to form different structures. (ebscohost.com)
  • The enteric nervous system (ENS) is derived from enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) that migrate into the gut. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Shortly after their dorsal specification, neural crest cells undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, migrate, and finally, upon arrival at their destination, they give rise to a variety of cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To test the hypothesis that cardiac neural crest-derived cells, which migrate into the caudal, ventral pharynx at stage 14, block a signal from the ventral pharynx, we cultured stage 12 chick heart tube or myocardial strips in the presence or absence of ventral pharynx. (ovid.com)
  • Coordinated cell migration during development is crucial for morphogenesis and largely relies on cells of the neural crest lineage that migrate over long distances to give rise to organs and tissues throughout the body. (prolekare.cz)
  • Neural crest cells are of mesenchymal morphology and migrate from the trunk into different areas of the developing embryo. (prolekare.cz)
  • Neural crest cells are a population of embryonic cells that are originally stationary within the dorsal neural tube but later migrate to form a variety of adult derivatives, such as the craniofacial skeleton, skin pigment cells and portions of the heart. (umd.edu)
  • We found that cells originating from the preotic region of the neural crest, as well as "cardiac neural crest cells" derived from the more caudal post-otic region, migrate into the heart and differentiate into various cell types including coronary artery smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal cells in the semiluminal valves and myocardial walls. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Previous work has emphasized the crucial role of retinoic acid (RA) in the ontogenesis of the vast majority of mesenchymal structures derived from the neural crest cells (NCC), which migrate through, or populate, the frontonasal process and branchial arches. (inserm.fr)
  • Neural crest cells (NCCs) delaminate from the dorsal neural folds, undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and migrate to target tissues. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Neural crest cells migrate along two pathways in the trunk: the ventral path, between the neural tube and somite, and the dorsolateral path, between the somite and overlying ectoderm. (eurekamag.com)
  • At later stages every neural crest cell in the dorsolateral path is SL-positive, demonstrating that only melanoblasts migrate dorsolaterally. (eurekamag.com)
  • The outstanding migration and differentiation capacities of neural crest cells (NCCs) have fascinated scientists since Wilhelm His described this cell population in 1868. (nih.gov)
  • The position of the neural crest cell within the body after its migration has ended helps determine the eventual differentiation of the cell into specific anatomical structures. (wisegeek.com)
  • Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation, written by an international panel of recognized leaders in the field, discusses all aspects of modern neural crest biology from its evolutionary significance, to its specification, migration, plasticity and contribution to multiple lineages of the vertebrate body, to the pathologies associated with abnormal neural crest development and function. (springer.com)
  • The STEMdiff™ Neural Crest Differentiation Kit efficiently generates a monolayer of Neural Crest cells. (stemcell.com)
  • STEMdiff™ Neural Crest Differentiation Kit creates a serum-free medium for differentiation of human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to neural crest cells. (stemcell.com)
  • Neural crest cells are produced using STEMdiff™ Neural Crest Differentiation Kit after 6 days in culture. (stemcell.com)
  • Neural crest cells are multipotent progenitors, capable of producing diverse cell types upon differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Recently, neural crest cells (NCCs) have been reported as an effective pathway to induce mesenchymal progenitors, as the resulting cells appear to have high potential for differentiation into osteocytes and chondrocytes [30-33]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This method is a simple and straightforward technique for tracing neural crest cells during migration and differentiation that are otherwise difficult to distinguish within an unmanipulated chick embryo. (jove.com)
  • It is concluded that NT-3 specifically promotes the differentiation of enteric crest-derived cells as neurons or glia and may thus play a role in the development and/or maintenance of the ENS. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neural Crest Cell Differentiation and Carcinogenesis: Capability of Goldfish Erythrophoroma Cells for Multiple Differentiation and Clonal Polymorphism in Their Melanogenic Variants. (ebscohost.com)
  • Requirement for Integrin-linked kinase in neural crest migration and differentiation and outflow tract morphogenesis. (ebscohost.com)
  • Dissimilar regulation of cell differentiation in mesencephalic (cranial) and sacral (trunk) neural crest cells in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) differentiation from neural crest cells (NCCs) is critical for cardiovascular development, but the mechanisms remain largely unknown. (ahajournals.org)
  • Transition from multipotency to differentiation is determined by the topological relationship between the migratory cells and the dorsal neural tube, which acts as a Wnt-producing stem cell niche. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here, we used the cranial neural crest as a model to examine how stem cell identity is regulated during differentiation. (elifesciences.org)
  • We therefore propose that Xl -Ink4d is important for proper neural crest differentiation in the frog. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the final analysis the inter-relationship between MAO-A activity and the presence of tyramine-releasable pool of catecholamines in adrenergic neurons and PC12 cells may have a genetic basis and could be important in illuminating the differentiation of neural crest into adrenergic neurones and adrenal medulla on the one hand and chromaffin cells to PC12 cells on the other. (springer.com)
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), particularly BMP2 and BMP4, have been implicated as regulators of neural crest cell induction, maintenance, migration, differentiation and survival. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The differentiation of the mesoderm and neural crest in the head. (deepdyve.com)
  • Most of the cranial and all of the spinal sensory ganglion cells arise by differentiation of neural crest cells. (zfin.org)
  • This work surveyed the potential of using exogenous pulsed electrical field stimuli to guide the differentiation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived-neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) towards their neuronal lineage. (jhu.edu)
  • Neural crest cells are a temporary group of cells unique to vertebrates that arise from the embryonic ectoderm germ layer, and in turn give rise to a diverse cell lineage-including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia. (wikipedia.org)
  • After gastrulation, neural crest cells are specified at the border of the neural plate and the non-neural ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural crest was first described in the chick embryo by Wilhelm His Sr. in 1868 as "the cord in between" (Zwischenstrang) because of its origin between the neural plate and non-neural ectoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, extracellular signaling molecules, secreted from the adjacent epidermis and underlying mesoderm such as Wnts, BMPs and Fgfs separate the non-neural ectoderm (epidermis) from the neural plate during neural induction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers have demonstrated that the expression of dominate-negative Fgf receptor in ectoderm explants blocks neural crest induction when recombined with paraxial mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are formed during the development of an embryo from the ectoderm of the neural tube along the neural plate . (wisegeek.com)
  • This signals the cells to undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transitionary phase, separating from the ectoderm of the neural plate before migrating throughout the vertebrate's body. (wisegeek.com)
  • The part of the ectoderm in a vertebrate embryo that lies on either side of the neural tube and develops into the cranial, spinal, and autonomic ganglia. (yourdictionary.com)
  • At the neural plate stage, neural crest cells are not yet specified, but under the influence of BMP4/7 (indicated in blue) produced by the ectoderm, neural crest cells (NC) are induced to form from the edges of the neural plate (or neural folds). (els.net)
  • c-e) Transversal sections showing the relative positions of the ectoderm, NC, NP and mesoderm at early neural stage (c), late neurula stage (d) and after neural crest emigration (e). (f-h) Dorsal views depicting the antero‐posterior wave of neural crest emigration. (els.net)
  • Neural crest cells are a uniquely vertebrate cell type that arises in the `neural folds' at the border between neural and non-neural ectoderm in early embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Neural crest precursors do not exist as a segregated population in the ectoderm. (biologists.org)
  • A group of ectoderm cells that delaminate from the area between the neuroectoderm/non-neural ectoderm domains. (xenbase.org)
  • In mammals, these cells originate at the neural ectoderm border and undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition before delaminating from the cranial neural folds or dorsal neural tube. (frontiersin.org)
  • The neural crest are bilaterally paired strips of cells arising in the ectoderm at the margins of the neural tube. (edu.au)
  • In vivo, VENTX gain-of-function enabled NB specifiers to reprogram embryonic non-neural ectoderm towards early NC identity. (sciencemag.org)
  • The neural crest is a transient population of embryonic cells that originate at the boundary between neural plate and dorsal ectoderm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The neural crest arises between neural and non-neural ectoderm and represents a somatic cell type with unique properties of multipotency. (biologists.com)
  • At gastrula and neurula stages, Neural Crest cells are found within the presumptive ectoderm at the neural plate border, and they will ultimately contribute to ectodermal derivatives, including much of the peripheral nervous system. (elifesciences.org)
  • The neural crest is a multipotent, migratory cell population arising from the border of the neural and surface ectoderm. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although derived from the neural plate border (NPB) ectoderm, cranial NC (CNC) cells contribute not only to the peripheral nervous system but also to the ectomesenchymal precursors of the head skeleton. (prolekare.cz)
  • The neural crest is a strip of specialized ectoderm, the neural plate border, which flanks each side of the embryonic neural plate. (zfin.org)
  • During neurulation, the borders of the neural plate, also known as the neural folds, converge at the dorsal midline to form the neural tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sox10 (A), Sox9 (B, D) and Pax3 (C) signal occur in the dorsal neural tube of caudal trunk sections, prior to the appearance of the hindlimb. (nih.gov)
  • The neural crest is a population of cells that emigrates from the dorsal neural tube during early embryogenesis and migrates extensively to give rise to a myriad of cell types. (els.net)
  • Cell fate specification - the selection of an individual cell fate from all the possibilities available to a multipotent progenitor - is likely to involve a series of steps, in which cells become progressively restricted to individual fates, a process that is likely to begin while still in the dorsal neural tube, but which then is usually completed during, or even after migration. (els.net)
  • The cells localise near the dorsal aorta to form the sympathetic ganglia (SY), align along the ventral root motor fibres (VR) and differentiate into glial cells, or coalesce near the dorsal neural tube and constitute the sensory or dorsal root ganglia (DRG). (els.net)
  • a) Dorsal view of a vertebrate embryo at early neurula stage, neural crest (NC) cells are lateral to the neural plate (NP). (els.net)
  • Neural crest cells (blue) emerge from the dorsal neuroepithelium (blue) as a continuous wave of single cells at high cell density. (els.net)
  • b) Transversal section through the dorsal neural tube at the time of neural crest delamination. (els.net)
  • Rhombomere 4 expresses elevated levels of the antagonist Noggin at its dorsal midline just as crest production from this segment commences and, as development proceeds, in the crest that migrates away from there. (biomedsearch.com)
  • neuroectodermal cells that originate in the dorsal aspect of the neural folds or neural tube. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The basic helix-loop-helix olig3 establishes the neural plate boundary of the trunk and is necessary for development of the dorsal spinal cord. (wikipathways.org)
  • Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a transient population of cells present in vertebrate development that emigrate from the dorsal neural tube (NT) after undergoing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition 1,2 . (jove.com)
  • In the body region, neural crest cells also contribute the peripheral nervous system (both neurons and glia) consisting of sensory ganglia (dorsal root ganglia), sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and neural plexuses within specific tissues/organs. (edu.au)
  • a ) Neural crest progenitor cells (green) are specified on dorsal folds of the neural tube (grey) during early development. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the first part of the thesis, three different neural progenitor types from human or murine sources are tested for their regenerative properties following their transplantation to the site of dorsal root avulsion injury. (diva-portal.org)
  • Using SL serum as a marker, we first detect melanoblasts immediately dorsal and lateral to the neural tube beginning at stage 18, which is prior to the onset of dorsolateral migration. (eurekamag.com)
  • Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) give rise to dentine-secreting odontoblasts of teeth. (pnas.org)
  • Using Xenopus, we identified defects in neural crest cells (NCCs) upon emc1 depletion. (jci.org)
  • The various populations of neural crest cells (NCCs) within the vertebrate embryo play critical roles in development and contribute to a wide array of derivatives. (frontiersin.org)
  • During chordate evolution, two genome-wide duplications facilitated acquisition of vertebrate traits, including emergence of neural crest cells (NCCs), in which neofunctionalization of the duplicated genes are thought to have facilitated development of craniofacial structures and the peripheral nervous system. (caltech.edu)
  • ABSTRACT Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a multipotent, migratory cell population that generates an astonishingly diverse array of cell types during vertebrate development. (ehu.es)
  • Although trunk NCCs have a limited capacity for self-renewal, sometimes they become neural-crest-derived tumor cells and reveal the fact that that NCCs and tumor cells share the same molecular machinery. (ehu.es)
  • To better delineate neural crest defects in CHARGE syndrome, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two patients with typical syndrome manifestations, and characterized neural crest cells differentiated in vitro from these iPSCs (iPSC-NCCs). (researchmap.jp)
  • The emergence of neural crest was important in vertebrate evolution because many of its structural derivatives are defining features of the vertebrate clade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, defining the mechanisms of neural crest development may reveal key insights into vertebrate evolution and neurocristopathies. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryology) A strip of ectodermal material in the early vertebrate embryo inserted between the prospective neural plate and the epidermis . (yourdictionary.com)
  • These findings expand the repertoire of vertebrate trunk neural crest cell fates during normal development, highlight the likely primitive skeletogenic potential of this cell population, and point to a neural crest origin of dentine throughout the ancestral vertebrate dermal skeleton. (pnas.org)
  • The past few years have seen an explosion of information about genes that control the development of the neural crest, a structure unique to vertebrate embryogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The segregation of the rhombencephalic neural crest into three streams, destined for particular pharyngeal arches, is a prominent feature of the developing vertebrate head and is likely necessary for normal morphogenesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neural crest cells manifest early in the development of a vertebrate embryo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The vertebrate neural crest is a migratory stem cell population that arises within the central nervous system. (biologists.org)
  • In this webinar, Dr. James Hackland describes the intricacies of neural crest induction in vitro, as well as recent advances in axial patterning of hPSC-derived neural crest to generate the wide variety of neural crest derivatives that exist in the vertebrate body. (stemcell.com)
  • Neural crest cells are both highly migratory and significant to vertebrate organogenesis. (rupress.org)
  • The term "neural crest was first used in Marshall A. The morphology of the vertebrate olfactory organ . (edu.au)
  • We propose that acquisition of AmphiSoxE expression in the neural plate border led to NCC emergence while duplication and divergence produced advantageous mutations in vertebrate homologues, promoting elaboration of NC traits. (caltech.edu)
  • The neural crest (NC) is a multipotent cell population of ectodermal origin induced during gastrulation at the neural (plate) border (NB) of vertebrate embryos. (sciencemag.org)
  • Development of the vertebrate head depends on the multipotency and migratory behavior of neural crest derivatives. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This cell population is considered a vertebrate innovation and, accordingly, chordate ancestors lacked neural crest counterparts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of neural crest genes, 9% are vertebrate innovations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our comparative analyses show that, among different tissues, the neural crest exhibits a particularly high rate of gene emergence during vertebrate evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The neural crest is a progenitor population with the capacity to contribute to all vertebrate germ layers. (biologists.com)
  • The neural crest is a transient vertebrate tissue with a wide variety of cell fates, including peripheral nervous system neurons and glia, melanocytes, smooth muscle cells and most craniofacial cartilages and bones ( Le Douarin and Kalcheim, 1999 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The neural crest (NC) is a vertebrate-specific cell population that exhibits remarkable multipotency. (prolekare.cz)
  • Pax3, p75 NTR , Sox10, Sox9 and AP-2α are expressed in neural crest derivatives of CS12 rostral trunk sections. (nih.gov)
  • Fate map of the neural crest derivatives in a stage‐14 chicken embryo. (els.net)
  • These neural crest cells, which are characterized by neural crest markers such as SOX10 and CD271, can be differentiated to several downstream derivatives including chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and peripheral neurons. (stemcell.com)
  • On www.antibodies-online.com are 7 Heart and Neural Crest Derivatives Expressed 2 (HAND2) ELISA Kits from 4 different suppliers available. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Additionally we are shipping Heart and Neural Crest Derivatives Expressed 2 Antibodies (94) and Heart and Neural Crest Derivatives Expressed 2 Proteins (9) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A total of 118 Heart and Neural Crest Derivatives Expressed 2 products are currently listed. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Cranial neural crest cells (cNCCs) are migratory, multipotent cells that originate from the forebrain to the hindbrain and eventually give rise to the cartilage and bone of the frontonasal skeleton, among other derivatives. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because of its unique ability to generate a wide variety of both neural and nonneural derivatives, the neural crest is an ideal model system to study the factors regulating cell lineage decisions in stem and progenitor cells. (uzh.ch)
  • A remarkable proportion of the new neural crest genes encode soluble ligands that control neural crest precursor specification into each cell lineage, including pigmented, neural, glial, and skeletal derivatives. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The myocardial defect may involve reduced BMP signaling in a novel, minor population of neural crest derivatives in the epicardium, a known source of ventricular myocardial proliferation signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results demonstrate that BMP2/4 signaling in mammalian neural crest derivatives is essential for outflow tract development and may regulate a crucial proliferation signal for the ventricular myocardium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The vagal neural crest adjacent to the first seven somites gives rise to both ganglionic and ectomesenchymal derivatives. (eur.nl)
  • Ectomesenchymal derivatives are formed by a segment of the vagal neural crest, from the level of the otic vesicle down to the caudal boundary of the third somite, called the cardiac neural crest. (eur.nl)
  • A promoter mouse line- whose human t-PA Cre transgene is specifically expressed by sympathetic nerves and all other crest derivatives (2) - was crossed with a Lac Z reporter expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein(EGFP) transgene. (arvojournals.org)
  • During the first half of the 20th century the majority of research on neural crest was done using amphibian embryos which was reviewed by Hörstadius (1950) in a well known monograph. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell labeling techniques advanced the field of neural crest because they allowed researchers to visualize the migration of the tissue throughout the developing embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Does anyone have a good marker (cDNA or antibody) for staining of trunk neural crest in the zebrafish embryos (11 hrs to 24 hrs)? (bio.net)
  • However, our understanding of NCC development in human embryos remains largely uncharacterized, despite the role the neural crest plays in several human pathologies. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we use expression of FoxD3 to pinpoint the specification and emigration of trunk neural crest cells in embryos of a cartilaginous fish, the little skate ( Leucoraja erinacea ). (pnas.org)
  • The team tracked the journeys of individual neural crest cells in chicken embryos by labeling them with a fluorescent tag delivered by a harmless virus. (medicalxpress.com)
  • An approach for analyzing migration and eventual fate of avian neural crest cells in quail-chick chimeric embryos is described. (jove.com)
  • Because cranial neural crest cells (CNC) play a pivotal role in cranial morphogenesis, we examined the spatio-temporal expression of cMid1 in chick embryos and investigated if alterations in Mid1 protein function, specifically the ability of Mid1 to negatively regulate levels of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), affected CNC survival or migration. (open.ac.uk)
  • Ventral pharynx from intact embryos at a stage when neural crest-derived cells had reached the pharynx had no effect on myocardial calcium transients. (ovid.com)
  • Ventral pharynx from neural crest-ablated embryos continued to suppress myocardial calcium transients at this later stage. (ovid.com)
  • In explant cultures, neutralizing Ab for FGF-8 rescued development of the myocardial calcium transient in neural crest-ablated chick embryos. (ovid.com)
  • Genetic lineage tracing of endothelial, second heart field and neural crest cells revealed altered deposition of neural crest cells and second heart field cells within the parietal outflow tract cushion of Nos3 −/− embryos. (biologists.org)
  • To this end, we document the existence of Cad6B cytoplasmic puncta in cultured cells, cultured neural crest cells and transverse sections of chick embryos. (umd.edu)
  • In this study, we investigated the origin and fate of neural crest cells migrating into the heart through experiments using mouse and avian embryos. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, mutant embryos display a shortened cardiac outflow tract with defective septation, a process known to require neural crest cells and to be essential for perinatal viability. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • METHODS: Cardiac neural crest of HH 8-12 chicken embryos was directly exposed by a single injection in the neural tube with 30 mM D-glucose (or 30 mM L-glucose as a control). (eur.nl)
  • RESULTS: Exposure of neural crest cells to elevated D-glucose-induced congenital heart malformations in 82% of the embryos. (eur.nl)
  • Most interactions in the model are proposed to regulate transcription of core factors involved involved in neural crest and downstream progenitor specification. (wikipathways.org)
  • The prevailing view has been that these two classes of neurons are derived from a common neural crest-derived progenitor that chooses between neuronal fates only after migrating to sites of peripheral ganglion formation. (caltech.edu)
  • Most craniofacial disorders are associated with defects in a migratory stem and progenitor cell population, which is designated the neural crest (NC). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Subsequently, in the cranial part of the embryo, the NB and early NC circuitry collaborate to activate in parallel the ectomesenchyme module, driven by the sox9 and twist1 genes ( 12 - 14 ), and a sensory neural progenitor regulatory module, driven by the runx1 , pou4f1 (Brn3a), and tlx3 genes (table S3) ( 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • To address this, we examined the regulation of the transcriptional network that maintains progenitor identity in avian neural crest cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Avulsed mice received bNCSC or human neural progenitor (hNP) cell transplants and their contributions to glial scar formation and sensory axon regeneration were analyzed with immunohistochemistry and transganglionic tracing. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the second research article, I present that murine boundary cap neural crest stem cells, a special type of neural progenitor that governs the entry of sensory axons into the spinal cord during development, are unable to form a permissive tissue bridge. (diva-portal.org)
  • Together with the sacral neural crest cells, they develop into the ganglia of the enteric nervous system, also known as the parasympathetic ganglia. (xenbase.org)
  • Both vagal and sacral neural crest cells contribute to the enteric nervous system in the hindgut. (xenbase.org)
  • The precursor cells that form the enteric nervous system (ENS) are multipotent when they arrive in the gut from the neural crest. (jneurosci.org)
  • Purpose: Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a developmental disorder of the enteric nervous system, which occurs due to the failure of neural crest cell migration. (ebscohost.com)
  • Expression of PROKR1 and PROKR2 in Human Enteric Neural Precursor Cells and Identification of Sequence Variants Suggest a Role in HSCR. (ebscohost.com)
  • Background: The enteric nervous system (ENS) is entirely derived from neural crest and its normal development is regulated by specific molecular pathways. (ebscohost.com)
  • Local heat-shock mediated multi-color labeling visualizing behaviors of enteric neural crest cells associated with division and neurogenesis in zebrafish gut. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We found that all vagal neural crest segments were able to give rise to enteric ganglia in the hindgut. (eur.nl)
  • This suggests that vagal neural crest cells that have been in prolonged contact with the neural tube in vivo, because of either late emigration or delayed migration, have an increased probability to form enteric ganglia. (eur.nl)
  • In this manner, the neural crest lineage forms from intermediate levels of BMP signaling required for the development of the neural plate (low BMP) and epidermis (high BMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Using cell lineage tracing, we further demonstrate that trunk neural crest cells do, in fact, give rise to odontoblasts of trunk dermal denticles. (pnas.org)
  • At the same time, decades of work on the neural crest at the cellular level are generating new insights into the segregation of different lineages and the role played by environmental signals in the lineage-commitment process. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic Cre-lox lineage tracing of the neural crest (NC) versus ectodermal contribution to the developing nasal placode was performed using two complementary mouse models, the NC-specific Wnt1Cre mouse line and an ectodermal-specific Crect mouse line. (jneurosci.org)
  • The tracheal cartilage rings showed normal patterning in the conditional knockout, indicating that the source of Fgf10 for this tissue is mesodermal, which was confirmed using Wnt1cre-dtTom to lineage trace the boundary of the neural crest in this region. (ebscohost.com)
  • We propose that the evolution of the neural crest is linked not only to the recruitment of ancestral regulatory genes but also to the emergence of signaling peptides that control the increasingly complex lineage diversification of this plastic cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The largest cell populations that are capable of long-range migration at different developmental stages originate from the neural crest lineage. (prolekare.cz)
  • Lineage diversification of the neural crest: in vitro investigations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cell culture has been used to study the environmental control of cell lineage decisions in the neural crest and to define the developmental potentials of specific populations of neural crest and neural crest-derived cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • While this pluripotency is progressively lost as cells become lineage restricted, Neural Crest cells retain broad developmental potential. (elifesciences.org)
  • This revised model raises fundamental questions about how the cells that will become the neural crest escape lineage restriction in order to maintain broad developmental potential, and how this relates to signals that have previously been implicated in the genesis of these stem cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Underlying the development of neural crest is a gene regulatory network, described as a set of interacting signals, transcription factors, and downstream effector genes that confer cell characteristics such as multipotency and migratory capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In coherence with this observation, the promoter region of slug (a neural crest specific gene) contains a binding site for transcription factors involved in the activation of Wnt-dependent target genes, suggestive of a direct role of Wnt signaling in neural crest specification. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address whether these cells are bona fide cardiomyocytes, we developed a dual transgenic that genetically marks individual cells only if they express both neural crest-specific genes and cardiomyocyte-specific genes. (nature.com)
  • Many of these genes are mutated in human diseases that affect crest-derived lineages. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies have identified significant heterogeneity in both the fates produced and genes expressed by different premigratory crest cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we combine embryological techniques with array technology to describe 83 genes that provide the first gene expression profile of a newly induced neural crest cell. (biologists.org)
  • Finally, by characterizing the in situ hybridization patterns of the genes we identified, we were able to extract temporal information about the expression of each clone over the course of neural crest development. (biologists.org)
  • The neural crest cell defects are probably the result of changes in dozens of genes, each producing a small effect on the cells' behavior, the team proposes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using comparative transcriptome analysis between premigration and postmigration CNC cells, we aimed to segregate the genes regulating early crest migration from those regulating late pharyngeal morphogenesis. (aaps1921.org)
  • We also provide evidence that these differences in responsiveness are modulated, at least in part, by differential expression of Hox genes within the neural crest. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They also showed that five early transcription factor genes are expressed in unique patterns in fate-marked neural crest and mesoderm during early ocular development. (lu.se)
  • These studies provide compelling evidence that the propagation of melanoma cells critically depends on genes instrumental in neural crest development. (uzh.ch)
  • The example of Sox10 and Rac1 genes provides detailed illustration of how interfering with these important genes for neural crest development can prevent melanoma formation. (uzh.ch)
  • This set of genes, which includes neural crest markers and pluripotency factors, endows the neural crest stem cells with their unique features, such as multipotency and self-renewal. (elifesciences.org)
  • e ) Constitutive expression of Lin28a results in maintenance of multipotency genes in late neural crest cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • RT-PCR for Pax7, FoxD3, Sox5, Myc and Ets1 comparing the expression of these genes in control vs. Lin28a overexpressing migratory neural crest cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • The identification of neural crest specification genes expressed in the neural plate of basal chordates, in addition to the discovery of pigmented migratory cells in ascidians, has challenged this hypothesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To determine the origin of neural crest genes, we analyzed Phenotype Ontology annotations to select genes that control the development of this tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fgf from the paraxial mesoderm has been suggested as a source of neural crest inductive signal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neural crest induction depends on BMP signalling in the prospective epidermis and Wnt signalling from the underlying mesoderm. (els.net)
  • In the head, the neural crest functions as mesoderm and forms connective, skeletal, and muscular tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • A divergent Tbx6-related gene and Tbx6 are both required for neural crest and intermediate mesoderm development in Xenopus. (wikipathways.org)
  • Our analysis shows that, before neural crest cell exit from the hindbrain, DAN is expressed in the mesoderm, and then it becomes absent along cell migratory pathways. (rupress.org)
  • Gingivae Contain Neural-crest- and Mesoderm-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. (ebscohost.com)
  • Mesenchymal cells arise from the neural crest (NC) or mesoderm. (ebscohost.com)
  • Structures derived from periocular mesenchyme arise by complex interactions between neural crest and mesoderm. (lu.se)
  • The determination of long-term fates for neural crest and mesoderm in mammals has been inhibited by the lack of suitable marking systems. (lu.se)
  • In the present study, the first long-term fate maps are presented for neural crest and mesoderm in a mammalian eye. (lu.se)
  • Complementary binary genetic approaches were used to mark indelibly the neural crest and mesoderm in the developing eye. (lu.se)
  • The results established that fates of neural crest and mesoderm in mice were similar to but not identical with those in birds. (lu.se)
  • The results also underscore the importance of confirming neural crest and mesoderm fates in a model mammalian system. (lu.se)
  • Our work demonstrates that hemangiomas express pericyte, neural crest, and stem cell markers suggesting a possible pathogenetic mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • The neural crest (NC) is a multipotent stem cell population that is induced at the neural plate border during neurulation and gives rise to numerous cell types. (biologists.org)
  • Wong CE et al (2006) Neural crest-derived cells with stem cell features can be traced back to multiple lineages in the adult skin. (springer.com)
  • Neural crest cells are considered multipotent, and as they have the limited capacity for self renewal, they are regarded as stem cell-like. (xenbase.org)
  • In the first original research article, I show that human embryonic stem cell derived neural progenitors are able to restore sensorimotor functions, mediated by the formation of a tissue bridge that allows ingrowth of sensory axons into the spinal cord. (diva-portal.org)
  • The neural crest is an embryonic stem cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to malignant invasion. (biochemj.org)
  • Single-cell analysis of gene expression patterns revealed the existence of a subset of neural crest cells expressing some stem cell markers (e.g. c-Kit), indicating the maintenance of the stemness with multipotency in a neural crest population within the heart. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Here we show that MycN is expressed together with phosphorylation-stabilizing factor CIP2A in regions of the neural plate destined to form the CNS, but MycN is excluded from the neighboring neural crest stem cell domain. (lu.se)
  • In contrast to MycN, its paralogue cMyc is normally expressed in the neural crest stem cell domain and typically is associated with better overall survival in clinical neuroblastoma, perhaps reflecting a more "normal" neural crest-like state. (lu.se)
  • Trunk neural crest cells form a portion of the sensory nerves and ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, trunk neural crest cells are generally regarded as nonskeletogenic, and so the embryonic origin of trunk denticle odontoblasts remains unresolved. (pnas.org)
  • i) Detail of the migration of the ventro‐medial trunk neural crest cells in between epithelial somites, through the sclerotome and aggregating to form ganglia of the peripheral nervous system. (els.net)
  • An approach to analyze the migration of explanted cells (trunk neural crest cells) is described. (jove.com)
  • This method is inexpensive, gentle, and capable of distinguishing chemotaxis from both chemokinesis and other influences on migratory polarity such as those derived from cell-cell interactions within the primary trunk neural crest cell culture. (jove.com)
  • Walheim, C. C., Zanin, J. P., de Bellard, M. E. Analysis of Trunk Neural Crest Cell Migration using a Modified Zigmond Chamber Assay. (jove.com)
  • Sensory and sympathetic neurons are generated from the trunk neural crest. (caltech.edu)
  • We show that in addition to differences in whether they respond to particular signals, cranial neural crest cells differ dramatically from the trunk neural crest cells in how they respond to specific extracellular signals, such that under identical conditions the same signal induces dissimilar cell fate decisions in the two populations in vitro. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The trunk neural crest has long been considered of particular significance. (ehu.es)
  • First, it has been held that the trunk neural crest has a morphogenetic role, acting to coordinate the development of the peripheral nervous system, secretory cells of the endocrine system and pigment cells of the skin. (ehu.es)
  • Second, the trunk neural crest additionally has skeletal potential. (ehu.es)
  • However, it has been demonstrated that a key role of the trunk neural crest streams is to organize the innervation of the intestine. (ehu.es)
  • Evidence for dynamic rearrangements but lack of fate or position restrictions in premigratory avian trunk neural crest. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When the neural crest of somites 6 and 7 was included in the segment, we also found melanocytes in the hindgut, suggesting that this segment is more related to trunk neural crest. (eur.nl)
  • Gene regulatory network model of cranial neural crest cell (CNCC) development, adaped from PMID: 19575671. (wikipathways.org)
  • These defects of the craniofacial (CF) skeleton arise from aberrant cranial neural crest cell (NCC) migration. (uniprot.org)
  • Here, we show that neural crest derived cardiomyocytes (NC-Cms) in the zebrafish ventricle express Notch ligand jag2b , are adjacent to Notch responding cells, and persist throughout life. (nature.com)
  • NC has been implicated in zebrafish, chick, mouse, and human cardiac development 4 , but it is unknown whether neural crest-derived cardiomyocytes (NC-Cms) play a significant role in heart development and adult disease. (nature.com)
  • Mapping neural crest-derived cardiomyocytes (NC-Cms) during zebrafish heart development. (nature.com)
  • Reiterated Wnt signaling during zebrafish neural crest development. (wikipathways.org)
  • As in chicken and mice, the researchers confirmed that some neural crest cells in zebrafish become heart muscle cells. (medicalxpress.com)
  • When the researchers cut away a piece of the zebrafish heart, many of the remaining heart muscle cells reverted back to their former embryonic-like neural crest state to proliferate and help repair the damaged muscle. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A paper describing the research is titled "Cardiac neural crest contributes to cardiomyocytes in amniotes and heart regeneration in zebrafish. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Cardiac neural crest contributes to cardiomyocytes in amniotes and heart regeneration in zebrafish, eLife (2019). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Here, we use dense surface modeling (DSM) to reveal that BBS patients and mouse mutants have mid-facial defects involving homologous neural crest-derived structures shared by zebrafish morphants. (uniprot.org)
  • Current emphases include hormonal control over post-embryonic neural crest stem cells, plasticity in cell state, evolution of novel cell types, and mechanisms of pattern formation and cell-cell communication within zebrafish and across Danio species. (biologists.com)
  • New neural crest EMT reporter Stewart and colleagues describe a novel neural crest EMT reporter for rapid in vivo drug screening in zebrafish. (biologists.com)
  • Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway plays a major role in neural crest migration. (biochemj.org)
  • Sections through the trunk of a chicken embryo showing the early (a), mid (b) and late (c) stages of neural crest migration. (els.net)
  • The neural crest (NC) is a highly migratory multipotent cell population that forms at the interface between the neuroepithelium and the prospective epidermis of a developing embryo. (biologists.org)
  • Fate mapping experiments conducted in the avian embryo and based on the construction of quail chick chimeras have led to the notion that the facial and hypobranchial skeletons are derived from neural crest (NC) cells (NCC) migrating from the mid-diencephalon down to rhombomere (r)8 ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Learn how efficient neural crest induction from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) requires exposure to a carefully balanced combination of signals that has been deduced and refined from what we know of neural crest development in the embryo. (stemcell.com)
  • Identify the initial location of neural crest cells and pathways of neural crest migration throughout the embryo. (edu.au)
  • Chicken embryo sequence shows the migration of DiI-labeled neural crest cells towards the branchial arches as the embryo. (edu.au)
  • During Cambrian, unipotent progenitors located at the neural (plate) border (NB) of an Olfactoria chordate embryo acquired the competence to form ectomesenchyme, pigment cells and neurons, initiating the rise of the multipotent neural crest cells (NC) specific to vertebrates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neural crest cells delaminate from the neural tube to engage in extensive migration throughout the embryo ( Figure 1a-b ). (elifesciences.org)
  • The neural crest, as does cancer, undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migrates to colonize almost all the tissues of the embryo. (biochemj.org)
  • We find that the hindbrain neural crest generally is primed to respond to Bmp-4 and that in vitro, besides rhombomere 3 and 5, rhombomeres 2 and 6 are also sensitive to Bmp-4-sponsored death. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neural crest induction in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • Cranial neural crest and metastatic melanoma cells avoid DAN protein stripes in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • These in vitro differences in neural crest response are consistent with in vivo manipulations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This review addresses the contribution of in vitro investigations to our understanding of neural crest development. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Since cadherins are known to be downregulated through internalization mechanisms (e.g., endocytosis, macropinocytosis) in other in vitro systems, the hypothesis of this dissertation is that Cad6B is internalized, and that this process plays a critical function to enable neural crest EMT. (umd.edu)
  • Similarly, neural crest cells that emigrate from the neural tube in vitro during the first 6 h fail to give rise to any melanocytes or SL-positive melanoblasts, whereas neural crest cells that emigrate at progressively later times show a dramatic increase in melanogenesis under identical culture conditions. (eurekamag.com)
  • The Paf1 complex and P-TEFb have reciprocal and antagonist roles in maintaining multipotent neural crest progenitors. (harvard.edu)
  • The neural crest and somites, progenitors of the peripheral nervous system and of skeletal tissues, respectively, beautifully illustrate the significance of EMT to the above processes. (mdpi.com)
  • As these cells move away from the neural tube, they undergo drastic changes in their transcriptional identity, and transition from multipotent progenitors to committed cell types. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the second part, the ability of murine neural progenitors to protect spinal motor neurons from a neurodegenerative process is tested. (diva-portal.org)
  • This event has coincided with the emergence of a transient and pluripotent structure, the neural crest (NC), which is absent in protochordates. (pnas.org)
  • Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are pluripotent cells that can persist in adult tissues. (springer.com)
  • Sieber-Blum M, Grim M, Hu YF, Szeder V (2004) Pluripotent neural crest stem cells in the adult hair follicle. (springer.com)
  • Neural tube defects occur before the eighth week of gestation when many women may not be aware of the pregnancy. (wisegeek.com)
  • Most women are advised to begin a daily supplement of folic acid and prenatal vitamins several months before trying to become pregnant to help prevent neural tube defects from occurring. (wisegeek.com)
  • In July, three scientists proposed that certain physical features shared by domestic animals, described as domestication syndrome, might all result from mild defects in the function of cells known as neural crest cells (SN: 8/23/14, p. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Wnt1creFgf10fl/fl mouse phenocopies many of the null mutant defects, including cleft palate, loss of salivary glands, and ocular glands, highlighting the neural crest origin of the Fgf10 expressing mesenchyme surrounding these organs. (ebscohost.com)
  • Background Neural crest defects lead to congenital heart disease involving outflow tract malformation. (ebscohost.com)
  • This resulted in defects in head tissues and reduced expression of Twist , a gene important for neural crest cell migration. (diva-portal.org)
  • CHARGE syndrome is caused by heterozygous mutations in the chromatin remodeler, CHD7, and is characterized by a set of malformations that, on clinical grounds, were historically postulated to arise from defects in neural crest formation during embryogenesis. (researchmap.jp)
  • These results support the historical inference that CHARGE syndrome patients exhibit defects in neural crest migration, and provide the first successful application of patient-derived iPSCs in modeling craniofacial disorders. (researchmap.jp)
  • Abnormalities in neural crest development cause neurocristopathies, which include conditions such as frontonasal dysplasia, Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, and DiGeorge syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of early human neural crest development. (nih.gov)
  • However, the broad expression of p75(NTR) - and other markers - beyond the neural crest stresses the need for the identification of additional markers to improve our capacity to investigate human NCC development, and to enable the generation of better diagnostic and therapeutic tools. (nih.gov)
  • This detailed book provides a wide range of techniques, from those that have been used extensively since the very first investigations into neural crest cells to those that are currently cutting-edge, in order to explore the development of neural crest cells in human, mice, rat, chick, quail, medaka, and shark. (springer.com)
  • During embryonic development, the neural crest is formed shortly before the neural tube - the beginning of the central nervous system - pinches off and closes shut. (wisegeek.com)
  • Overview of neural crest development. (els.net)
  • The challenge now is to integrate the cellular and molecular genetic perspectives on neural crest development. (nih.gov)
  • the ectodermally derived cells along the outer surface of each side of the neural tube in the early stages of embryonic development. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We showed that CTAVN and solid cell nests of the thyroid gland are identical structures and indicated that CTAVN is an ultimobranchial heterotopia secondary to an alteration in cardiac neural crest cell development. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For this evolutionary innovation, the development of the neural crest was crucial. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It involves the neural crest cells that affect the development of all 3 germ layers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, the potential role of the Fgfr1 gene in neural crest cell-mediated craniofacial development remains unclear. (springer.com)
  • Identification of novel Hoxa1 downstream targets regulating hindbrain, neural crest and inner ear development. (wikipathways.org)
  • During development neural crest cells give rise to a wide variety of specialized cell types in response to cytokines from surrounding tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • General neural development is also covered in Neural Notes. (edu.au)
  • Transcriptional Control of Neural Crest Development. (edu.au)
  • Avian species have been extensively used as models for studying neural crest development and, specifically, the mechanisms underpinning EMT. (rupress.org)
  • Changes in Lin28a levels impact neural crest development in vivo. (elifesciences.org)
  • a-b ) Neural crest migration during avian development. (elifesciences.org)
  • b ) Transverse section of the neural tube showing the position of neural crest cells through development, as they progressively move away from the neural tube to differentiate. (elifesciences.org)
  • During development, boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) assist sensory axon growth into the spinal cord. (diva-portal.org)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that arginylation plays a general role in the migration of the neural crest cells in development by regulating the molecular machinery that underlies cell migration through tissues and organs during morphogenesis. (prolekare.cz)
  • We consider the roles of environmental signals in the context of the development of several different neural crest-derived lineages. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Development and evolution of the neural crest: an overview. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Insights into neural crest development and evolution from genomic analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Journal Article] Postotic and preotic cranial neural crest cells differently contribute to thyroid development. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Development of the ocular anterior segment depends largely on periocular mesenchyme cells, which are derived predominantly from neural crest cells (NCC). (arvojournals.org)
  • The majority of the cardiovascular malformations occur in the outflow tract and pharyngeal arch arteries, where neural crest cells are essential for normal development. (eur.nl)
  • We studied the effects of specific exposure of neural crest cells to elevated glucose on heart development. (eur.nl)
  • Subsequently, neural crest cells from the roof plate of the neural tube undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, delaminating from the neuroepithelium and migrating through the periphery where they differentiate into varied cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the neural crest cell population is defined by a combination of its embryonic origin, change from epithelial to mesenchymal morphology, acquisition of a migratory state, multipotency, and molecular markers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE. (harvard.edu)
  • Head (CNS level) - differentiate slightly earlier, mesencephalic region of neural folds. (edu.au)
  • The understanding of the role of BMP, Wnt, and Fgf pathways on neural crest specifier expression remains incomplete. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new work shows the critical and initiating role of WNT signals in neural crest cell formation, with later contributions by FGF and BMP pathways. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To this end, we use chick neural crest cells as an in vivo model to elucidate the molecules and pathways that regulate EMT and migration. (umd.edu)
  • These signals induce neural crest in two phases, specification of the neural plate border, and specification/maintenance of definitive neural crest. (els.net)
  • Neural crest migration is controlled by the environmental distribution of repellent and attractive/permissive signals, with cell‐type specific receptor expression in the neural crest cells determining their response. (els.net)
  • In addition, positive signals may drive some neural crest subpopulations into specific niche. (els.net)
  • Here we summarize evidence that extracellular signals in the local environment may act to specify premigratory crest and thus generate diversity in the population. (nih.gov)
  • Three main classes of signals-Wnts, BMP2/BMP4 and TGFbeta1,2,3-have been shown to directly influence the production of particular neural crest cell fates, and all are expressed near the premigratory crest. (nih.gov)
  • However, the signals that regulate neural crest cell migration remain unclear. (rupress.org)
  • Depending on the cranial-caudal level of their origin, different populations of neural crest cells exhibit differential competence to respond to these signals as exemplified by the unique ability of cranial neural crest to form skeletal cell types. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neural crest cells have to integrate these signals to ensure the generation of appropriate numbers of differentiating progeny. (uzh.ch)
  • Wnt signals act together with NBD TFs to upregulate further TFs c-Myc, Id, Snail that characterise neural crest cells. (brainscape.com)
  • The migratory neural crest streams are kept in shape by the presence of negative signals in their vicinity. (biochemj.org)
  • Here, we provide novel insights into signals essential for both pluripotency and neural crest formation in Xenopus . (elifesciences.org)
  • All of the neurons and glia of the ENS are derived from the neural crest (NC). (nature.com)
  • Premigratory neural crest cells undergo EMT to become motile and later differentiate into numerous cell types including the craniofacial skeleton, glia and neurons, and pigment cells. (rupress.org)
  • In trunk NB/NC, foxd3 initially promotes several NC fates, including melanoblasts and neurons, while at later stages, a conserved circuitry comprising foxd3 and sox9/twist1 controls the commitment to a sensory neural identity ( 9 , 13 - 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Neural crest cells in the ventral path differentiate predominantly as neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, whereas those in the dorsolateral path give rise to the melanocytes of the skin. (eurekamag.com)
  • Here, we characterize advillin expression amongst sensory neurons and in several other neural and non-neural tissues. (eneuro.org)
  • Comment on "Reprogramming of avian neural crest axial identity and cell fate", Science 352, 1570-1573, (2016). (biologists.com)
  • and in situ hybridization allowed us to achieve a gene expression profile of a premigratory neural crest cell, a cell type that cannot be identified or isolated. (biologists.org)
  • Assembling neural crest regulatory circuits into a gene regulatory network. (wikipathways.org)
  • c ) A schematic of the early gene regulatory network composed of transcription factors involved in neural crest cells formation. (elifesciences.org)
  • d ) Expression levels of Lin28a and transcription factors of the early gene regulatory circuit, in sorted neural crest cells obtained from different stages. (elifesciences.org)
  • Chromosome 13q deletion with Waardenburg syndrome: further evidence for a gene involved in neural crest function on 13q. (bmj.com)
  • Establishing neural crest identity: a gene regulatory recipe. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Formation of Human Neuroblastoma in Mouse-Human Neural Crest Chimeras. (harvard.edu)
  • Potential application of human neural crest-derived nasal stem cells in models of Alzheimer? (omicsonline.org)
  • Human Neural Crest-Derived Nasal Stem Cells (hNCNSCs) are an excellent alternative source of adult stem cells for clinical use because they can be obtained easily by minimally invasive collection procedures and expanded rapidly ex vivo for transplantation. (omicsonline.org)
  • peptide (A?1-42) toxicity in culture of human Neural Stem Cells (hNSCs). (omicsonline.org)
  • Most facial bones, including frontal bones, are derived from neural crest cells through intramembranous ossification. (springer.com)
  • the muscle cells derived from neural crest cells are labeled in magenta. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We warned that these ocular anomalies frequently accompanied other anomalies in the tissues derived from neural crest cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Importantly, retaining a high Map Kinase/low Akt signaling profile is essential for establishing Neural Crest stem cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • Chick premigratory cranial neural crest cells reduce Cadherin-6B (Cad6B) levels through several mechanisms, including proteolysis, to permit their EMT and migration. (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, we uncover for the first time that Cad6B is removed from premigratory cranial neural crest cells through cell surface internalization events that include clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. (umd.edu)
  • Now called cranial neural crest cells, they will contribute to the formation of the connective tissues, cartilage, and skeletal structures of the head and facial features. (wisegeek.com)
  • To know the major tissues to which neural crest cells contribute. (edu.au)
  • Interactions between the neural plate and epidermis can generate neural crest cells, since juxtaposition of these tissues at early stages results in the formation of neural crest cells at the interface. (edu.au)
  • Secreted from neighboring tissues, signaling molecules of the Wnt, Fgf, and Bmp families cooperate to activate a distinct combination of transcription factors at the neural plate border. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The neural crest also contributes crucial cell populations to several thoracic tissues, including the developing outflow tract of the heart ( Kirby and Waldo, 1995 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Wnt signaling has been demonstrated in neural crest induction in several species through gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current role of BMP in neural crest formation is associated with the induction of the neural plate. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least in part, the segregation of the crest into these streams involves the focal depletion of neural crest from rhombomeres 3 and 5 through large-scale apoptosis, mediated by the induction of Bmp-4 expression in the crest primordia of these two rhombomeres. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, the molecular events that take place following neural crest induction and prior to migration are poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • An integral part of the heart, called the aorticopulmonary septum, is formed by cardiac neural crest cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cardiac neural crest ablation results in depressed myocardial calcium transients and elevated proliferation in myocardium at a stage when cardiac neural crest cells are not in contact with the myocardium. (ovid.com)
  • Journal Article] Distinct effects of Hoxa2 overexpression in cranial neural crest populations reveal that the mammalian hyomandibular-ceratohyal boundary maps within the styloid process. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In vivo loss of function of DAN results in enhanced neural crest cell migration by increasing speed and directionality. (rupress.org)
  • The C-1300 murine neuroblastoma has been biologically and biochemically characterized to determine its suitability as an in vivo neural crest tumor model for pharmacological studies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ahlgren, S.C. and Bronner-Fraser, M. (1999) Inhibition of Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in vivo Results in Craniofacial Neural Crest Cell Death. (scirp.org)
  • We surmise that the innervation of the hindgut in vivo depends specifically on the neural crest adjacent to somites 3-5, whereas innervation of the midgut can be accomplished by all segments within the vagal neural crest. (eur.nl)
  • While some or all neural crest cells are initially multipotent, specification of individual derivative fates likely results from progressive fate restriction. (els.net)
  • He named the tissue ganglionic crest since its final destination was each lateral side of the neural tube where it differentiated into spinal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • the dotted line marks the contra-lateral side of the unfused neural tube. (nih.gov)
  • This is followed by migration away from the neural tube. (els.net)
  • See also neural tube formation . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These paradoxes can be most easily resolved by assuming that the restriction of neural crest cells to either sensory or autonomic lineages occurs at a very early stage, either before and/or shortly after they exit the neural tube. (caltech.edu)
  • The NC is an embryonic cell type unique to vertebrates that arises at the junction between the neural tube and epidermis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Body (spinal cord level) - lateral edges of fused neural tube. (edu.au)
  • This conclusion suggested that the delay in dorsolateral migration (relative to ventral migration) may reflect a delay in the emigration of melanogenic neural crest cells from the neural tube. (eurekamag.com)
  • Thus, the timing of dorsolateral migration at the thoracic level is ultimately controlled by the late emigration of melanogenic neural crest cells from the neural tube. (eurekamag.com)
  • These regions of neural crest can be divided into five main functional domains, which include the cranial, trunk, vagal and sacral neural crest, and cardiac neural crest. (xenbase.org)
  • Neural emigration and dispersion. (els.net)
  • Experiments in which the Hox -negative neural fold (NF) was removed before NCC emigration ( Fig. 1 A - C ) resulted in the complete absence of facial skeleton, whereas only a third of the anterior, Hox -negative territory left in situ (or grafted from quail to chick) was sufficient to generate a complete face. (pnas.org)
  • These data suggest that priming for some forms of aggressive neuroblastoma may occur before neural crest emigration from the CNS and well before sympathoadrenal specification. (lu.se)
  • Authoritative and practical, Neural Crest Cells: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal reference guide for aspiring and experienced developmental biologists alike. (springer.com)
  • Ganglioneuromas are a rare neoplasm of neural crest cell origin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Paragangliomas are rare chromaffin cell tumours that derive from neural crest origin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, despite their site of origin, neural crest cells also contribute many mesodermal cell types to the body plan, including cartilage, bone, and smooth muscle, and also make contributions to otherwise endodermal organs such as the thyroid ( Le Douarin and Kalcheim, 1999 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • INTRODUCTION During the course of an investigation of the origin of the cerebral ganglia of the urodeles it became necessary to determine accurately the ventral limits to which the neural crest migrates. (deepdyve.com)
  • Nerves and some pigment cells are also created by the cranial neural crest cells. (wisegeek.com)
  • Further, neural crest cells' interaction with other embryonic populations also relies on cell cooperation, thus providing a model for the study of cell cooperation during organogenesis. (els.net)
  • Cooperation takes place at several orders of magnitude: among neural crest cells and between neural crest cells and adjacent cell populations. (els.net)
  • Topics include geographic distribution of cavefish, biology of cavefish including cellular mechanisms of eye degeneration, reproduction timing, male mating behavior, migratory neural crest cells, gut contents in relation to prey densities, conservation of subterranean fishes, and genetic diversity of cavefish populations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Resting on this archetypal chordate body plan, unique populations of cells, the neural crest and the ectodermal placodes, evolved in craniates (referred to here as 'vertebrates' for simplicity). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A small deviation in the distribution of neural crest and second heart field populations affects normal valve formation and results in the predominant right-non-type BAV in Nos3 −/− mice. (biologists.org)
  • Neural crest fate specification involves a combination of intracellular and extracellular factors. (els.net)
  • Fate specification in the neural crest. (els.net)
  • Restricting Bmp-4 mediated apoptosis in hindbrain neural crest. (biomedsearch.com)