The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
A region, of SOMITE development period, that contains a number of paired arches, each with a mesodermal core lined by ectoderm and endoderm on the two sides. In lower aquatic vertebrates, branchial arches develop into GILLS. In higher vertebrates, the arches forms outpouchings and develop into structures of the head and neck. Separating the arches are the branchial clefts or grooves.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subfamily have been implicated in regulating the differentiation of OLIGODENDROCYTES during neural crest formation and in CHONDROGENESIS.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A mild form of LIMITED SCLERODERMA, a multi-system disorder. Its features include symptoms of CALCINOSIS; RAYNAUD DISEASE; ESOPHAGEAL MOTILITY DISORDERS; sclerodactyly, and TELANGIECTASIS. When the defect in esophageal function is not prominent, it is known as CRST syndrome.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
Congenital MEGACOLON resulting from the absence of ganglion cells (aganglionosis) in a distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE. The aganglionic segment is permanently contracted thus causing dilatation proximal to it. In most cases, the aganglionic segment is within the RECTUM and SIGMOID COLON.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
An early growth response transcription factor that controls the formation of the MYELIN SHEATH around peripheral AXONS by SCHWANN CELLS. Mutations in EGR2 transcription factor have been associated with HEREDITARY MOTOR AND SENSORY NEUROPATHIES such as CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Chromatophores (large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates) which contain melanin. Short term color changes are brought about by an active redistribution of the melanophores pigment containing organelles (MELANOSOMES). Mammals do not have melanophores; however they have retained smaller pigment cells known as MELANOCYTES.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
Synthetic analogs of NUCLEIC ACIDS composed of morpholine ring derivatives (MORPHOLINES) linked by phosphorodimidates. One standard DNA nucleic acid base (ADENINE; GUANINE; CYTOSINE; OR THYMINE) is bound to each morpholine ring.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.
A salamander found in Mexican mountain lakes and accounting for about 30 percent of the urodeles used in research. The axolotl remains in larval form throughout its life, a phenomenon known as neoteny.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
The large pigment cells of fish, amphibia, reptiles and many invertebrates which actively disperse and aggregate their pigment granules. These cells include MELANOPHORES, erythrophores, xanthophores, leucophores and iridiophores. (In algae, chromatophores refer to CHLOROPLASTS. In phototrophic bacteria chromatophores refer to membranous organelles (BACTERIAL CHROMATOPHORES).)
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Neuropilins are 140-kDa vertebrate cell surface receptors that bind neuronal guidance molecules during neural development and axonal outgrowth, and modulate VEGF-mediated angiogenesis. NEUROPILIN-1 and NEUROPILIN-2 differ in their binding specificities, and are distributed complementarily in regions of the developing nervous system. Neuropilins are receptors for secreted CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS as well as for vascular endothelial growth factors, and may form hetero- or homodimers. They may also interact synergistically with plexins and with VEGF RECEPTORS to form receptor complexes with distinct affinities and specificities. Neuropilin binding specificity is determined by CUB and coagulation-factor-like domains in the extracellular portion of the molecule, while a MAM domain is essential for SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including the absence of the THYMUS and PARATHYROID GLANDS resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, HYPOCALCEMIA, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies.
The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A 21-amino acid peptide that circulates in the plasma, but its source is not known. Endothelin-3 has been found in high concentrations in the brain and may regulate important functions in neurons and astrocytes, such as proliferation and development. It also is found throughout the gastrointestinal tract and in the lung and kidney. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Dimeric cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL) and axonal guidance. Neuropilin-1 is a 140-kDa transmembrane protein that binds CLASS 3 SEMAPHORINS, and several other growth factors. Neuropilin-1 forms complexes with plexins or VEGF RECEPTORS, and binding affinity and specificity are determined by the composition of the neuropilin dimer and the identity of other receptors complexed with it. Neuropilin-1 is expressed in distinct patterns during neural development, complementary to those described for NEUROPILIN-2.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that is specific for EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB2 RECEPTOR and EPHB3 RECEPTOR. It is widely expressed in a variety of developing and adult tissues.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
The prototypical and most well-studied member of the semaphorin family. Semaphorin-3A is an axon-repulsive guidance cue for migrating neurons in the developing nervous system. It has so far been found only in vertebrates, and binds to NEUROPILIN-1/plexin complex receptors on growth cones. Like other class 3 semaphorins, it is a secreted protein.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
Receptor protein-tyrosine kinases involved in the signaling of GLIAL CELL-LINE DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR ligands. They contain an extracellular cadherin domain and form a receptor complexes with GDNF RECEPTORS. Mutations in ret protein are responsible for HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE and MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 2.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
A congenital anomaly caused by the failed development of TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS into separate AORTA and PULMONARY ARTERY. It is characterized by a single arterial trunk that forms the outlet for both HEART VENTRICLES and gives rise to the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary arteries. It is always accompanied by a ventricular septal defect.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
A genus of primitive fish in the family Petromyzontidae. The sole species is Petromyzon marinus, known as the sea lamprey. The adult form feeds parasitically on other fish species.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that binds with high affinity to EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB3 RECEPTOR; and EPHB4 RECEPTOR. Expression of ephrin-B2 occurs in a variety of adult tissues. During embryogenesis, high levels of ephrin-B2 is seen in the PROSENCEPHALON; RHOMBENCEPHALON; developing SOMITES; LIMB BUD; and bronchial arches.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (1/2353)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

A molecular pathway revealing a genetic basis for human cardiac and craniofacial defects. (2/2353)

Microdeletions of chromosome 22q11 are the most common genetic defects associated with cardiac and craniofacial anomalies in humans. A screen for mouse genes dependent on dHAND, a transcription factor implicated in neural crest development, identified Ufd1, which maps to human 22q11 and encodes a protein involved in degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. Mouse Ufd1 was specifically expressed in most tissues affected in patients with 22q11 deletion syndrome. The human UFD1L gene was deleted in all 182 patients studied with 22q11 deletion, and a smaller deletion of approximately 20 kilobases that removed exons 1 to 3 of UFD1L was found in one individual with features typical of 22q11 deletion syndrome. These data suggest that UFD1L haploinsufficiency contributes to the congenital heart and craniofacial defects seen in 22q11 deletion.  (+info)

A subpopulation of apoptosis-prone cardiac neural crest cells targets to the venous pole: multiple functions in heart development? (3/2353)

A well-described population of cardiac neural crest (NC) cells migrates toward the arterial pole of the embryonic heart and differentiates into various cell types, including smooth muscle cells of the pharyngeal arch arteries (but not the coronary arteries), cardiac ganglionic cells, and mesenchymal cells of the aortopulmonary septum. Using a replication-incompetent retrovirus containing the reporter gene LacZ, administered to the migratory neural crest of chicken embryos, we demonstrated another population of cardiac neural crest cells that employs the venous pole as entrance to the heart. On the basis of our present data we cannot exclude the possibility that precursors of these cells might not only originate from the dorsal part of the posterior rhombencephalon, but also from the ventral part. These NC cells migrate to locations surrounding the prospective conduction system as well as to the atrioventricular (AV) cushions. Concerning the prospective conduction system, the tagged neural crest cells can be found in regions where the atrioventricular node area, the retroaortic root bundle, the bundle of His, the left and right bundle branches, and the right atrioventricular ring bundle are positioned. The last area connects the posteriorly located AV node area with the retroaortic root bundle, which receives its neural crest cells through the arterial pole in concert with the cells giving rise to the aortopulmonary septum. The NC cells most probably do not form the conduction system proper, as they enter an apoptotic pathway as determined by concomitant TUNEL detection. It is possible that the NC cells in the heart become anoikic and, as a consequence, fail to differentiate further and merely die. However, because of the perfect timing of the arrival of crest cells, their apoptosis, and a change in electrophysiological behavior of the heart, we postulate that neural crest cells play a role in the last phase of differentiation of the cardiac conduction system. Alternatively, the separation of the central conduction system from the surrounding working myocardium is mediated by apoptotic neural crest cells. As for the presence of NC cells in both the outflow tract and the AV cushions, followed by apoptosis, a function is assigned in the muscularization of both areas, resulting in proper septation of the outflow tract and of the AV region. Failure of normal neural crest development may not only play a role in cardiac outflow tract anomalies but also in inflow tract abnormalities, such as atrioventricular septal defects.  (+info)

Development of cephalic neural crest cells in embryos of Lampetra japonica, with special reference to the evolution of the jaw. (4/2353)

Neural crest cells contribute extensively to vertebrate head morphogenesis and their origin is an important question to address in understanding the evolution of the craniate head. The distribution pattern of cephalic crest cells was examined in embryos of one of the living agnathan vertebrates, Lampetra japonica. The initial appearance of putative crest cells was observed on the dorsal aspect of the neural rod at stage 20.5 and ventral expansion of these cells was first seen at the level of rostral somites. As in gnathostomes, cephalic crest cells migrate beneath the surface ectoderm and form three major cell populations, each being separated at the levels of rhombomeres (r) 3 and r5. The neural crest seems initially to be produced at all neuraxial levels except for the rostral-most area, and cephalic crest cells are secondarily excluded from levels r3 and r5. Such a pattern of crest cell distribution prefigures the morphology of the cranial nerve anlage. The second or middle crest cell population passes medial to the otocyst, implying that the otocyst does not serve as a barrier to separate the crest cell populations. The three cephalic crest cell populations fill the pharyngeal arch ventrally, covering the pharyngeal mesoderm laterally with the rostral-most population covering the premandibular region and mandibular arch. The third cell population is equivalent to the circumpharyngeal crest cells in the chick, and its influx into the pharyngeal region precedes the formation of postotic pharyngeal arches. Focal injection of DiI revealed the existence of an anteroposterior organization in the neural crest at the neurular stage, destined for each pharyngeal region. The crest cells derived from the posterior midbrain that express the LjOtxA gene, the Otx2 cognate, were shown to migrate into the mandibular arch, a pattern which is identical to gnathostome embryos. It was concluded that the head region of the lamprey embryo shares a common set of morphological characters with gnathostome embryos and that the morphological deviation of the mandibular arch between the gnathostomes and the lamprey is not based on the early embryonic patterning.  (+info)

Regulation of Hoxa2 in cranial neural crest cells involves members of the AP-2 family. (5/2353)

Hoxa2 is expressed in cranial neural crest cells that migrate into the second branchial arch and is essential for proper patterning of neural-crest-derived structures in this region. We have used transgenic analysis to begin to address the regulatory mechanisms which underlie neural-crest-specific expression of Hoxa2. By performing a deletion analysis on an enhancer from the Hoxa2 gene that is capable of mediating expression in neural crest cells in a manner similar to the endogenous gene, we demonstrated that multiple cis-acting elements are required for neural-crest-specific activity. One of these elements consists of a sequence that binds to the three transcription factor AP-2 family members. Mutation or deletion of this site in the Hoxa2 enhancer abrogates reporter expression in cranial neural crest cells but not in the hindbrain. In both cell culture co-transfection assays and transgenic embryos AP-2 family members are able to trans-activate reporter expression, showing that this enhancer functions as an AP-2-responsive element in vivo. Reporter expression is not abolished in an AP-2(alpha) null mutant embryos, suggesting redundancy with other AP-2 family members for activation of the Hoxa2 enhancer. Other cis-elements identified in this study critical for neural-crest-specific expression include an element that influences levels of expression and a conserved sequence, which when multimerized directs expression in a broad subset of neural crest cells. These elements work together to co-ordinate and restrict neural crest expression to the second branchial arch and more posterior regions. Our findings have identified the cis-components that allow Hoxa2 to be regulated independently in rhombomeres and cranial neural crest cells.  (+info)

Early specification of sensory neuron fate revealed by expression and function of neurogenins in the chick embryo. (6/2353)

The generation of sensory and autonomic neurons from the neural crest requires the functions of two classes of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, the Neurogenins (NGNs) and MASH-1, respectively (Fode, C., Gradwohl, G., Morin, X., Dierich, A., LeMeur, M., Goridis, C. and Guillemot, F. (1998) Neuron 20, 483-494; Guillemot, F., Lo, L.-C., Johnson, J. E., Auerbach, A., Anderson, D. J. and Joyner, A. L. (1993) Cell 75, 463-476; Ma, Q., Chen, Z. F., Barrantes, I. B., de la Pompa, J. L. and Anderson, D. J. (1998 Neuron 20, 469-482). We have cloned two chick NGNs and found that they are expressed in a subset of neural crest cells early in their migration. Ectopic expression of the NGNs in vivo biases migrating neural crest cells to localize in the sensory ganglia, and induces the expression of sensory neuron-appropriate markers in non-sensory crest derivatives. Surprisingly, the NGNs can also induce the expression of multiple pan-neuronal and sensory-specific markers in the dermomyotome, a mesodermal derivative. Taken together, these data suggest that a subset of neural crest cells may already be specified for a sensory neuron fate early in migration, as a consequence of NGN expression.  (+info)

Early embryonic lethality in Bmp5;Bmp7 double mutant mice suggests functional redundancy within the 60A subgroup. (7/2353)

Members of the BMP family of signaling molecules display a high conservation of structure and function, and multiple BMPs are often coexpressed in a variety of tissues during development. Moreover, distinct BMP ligands are capable of activating common pathways. Here we describe the coexpression of two members of the 60A subfamily of BMPs, Bmp5 and Bmp7, at a number of different sites in the embryo from gastrulation onwards. Previous studies demonstrate that loss of either Bmp5 or Bmp7 has negligible effects on development, suggesting these molecules functionally compensate for each other at early stages of embryonic development. Here we show this is indeed the case. Thus we find that Bmp5;Bmp7 double mutants die at 10.5 dpc and display striking defects primarily affecting the tissues where these factors are coexpressed. The present analysis also uncovers novel roles for BMP signaling during the development of the allantois, heart, branchial arches, somites and forebrain. Bmp5 and Bmp7 do not appear to be involved in establishing pattern in these tissues, but are instead necessary for the proliferation and maintenance of specific cell populations. These findings are discussed with respect to potential mechanisms underlying cooperative signaling by multiple members of the TGF-beta superfamily.  (+info)

Prospective identification, isolation by flow cytometry, and in vivo self-renewal of multipotent mammalian neural crest stem cells. (8/2353)

Multipotent and self-renewing neural stem cells have been isolated in culture, but equivalent cells have not yet been prospectively identified in neural tissue. Using cell surface markers and flow cytometry, we have isolated neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) from mammalian fetal peripheral nerve. These cells are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from NCSCs previously isolated by culturing embryonic neural tube explants. Moreover, in vivo BrdU labeling indicates that these stem cells self-renew in vivo. NCSCs freshly isolated from nerve tissue can be directly transplanted in vivo, where they generate both neurons and glia. These data indicate that neural stem cells persist in peripheral nerve into late gestation by undergoing self-renewal. Such persistence may explain the origins of some PNS tumors in humans.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Establishment of a Kit-negative cell line of melanocyte precursors from mouse neural crest cells. AU - Kawa, Yoko. AU - Soma, Yoshinao. AU - Nakamura, Masayuki. AU - Ito, Masaru. AU - Kawakami, Tamihiro. AU - Baba, Takako. AU - Sibahara, Kuniko. AU - Ohsumi, Kayoko. AU - Ooka, Shiho. AU - Watabe, Hidenori. AU - Ono, Hirotake. AU - Hosaka, Eri. AU - Kimura, Satoko. AU - Kushimoto, Tsuneto. AU - Mizoguchi, Masako. PY - 2005/6. Y1 - 2005/6. N2 - We previously established a mouse neural crest cell line named NCCmelb4, which is positive for Kit and negative for tyrosinase. NCCmelb4 cells were useful to study the effects of extrinsic factors such as retinoic acids and vitamin D3 on melanocyte differentiation, but in order to study the development of melanocytes from multipotent neural crest cells, cell lines of melanocyte progenitors in earlier developmental stages are needed. In the present study, we established an immortal cell line named NCC-melb4M5 that was derived from NCCmelb4 ...
Within the hindbrain region, neural crest cell migration is organized into three streams that follow the segmentation of the neuroepithelium into distinct rhombomeric compartments. Although the streaming of neural crest cells is known to involve signals derived from the neuroepithelium, the molecular properties underlying this process are poorly understood. Here, we have mapped the expression of the signaling component of two secreted class III Semaphorins, Semaphorin (Sema) 3A and Sema 3F, at time points that correspond to neural crest cell migration within the hindbrain region of the chick. Both Semaphorins are expressed within rhombomeres at levels adjacent to crest-free mesenchyme and expression of the receptor components essential for Semaphorin activity by neural crest cells suggests a function in restricting neural crest cell migration. By using bead implantation and electroporation in ovo, we define a role for both Semaphorins in the maintenance of neural crest cell streams in proximity to the
Greiner, Johannes, Hauser, Stefan, Widera, Darius, Qunneis, Firas, Müller, Janine, Zander, Christin, Martin, Ina, Mallah, Jana, Prante, Christian, Schwarze, Hartmut, Prohaska, Wolfgang, Beyer, André, Rott, Karsten, Hütten, Andreas, Gölzhäuser, Armin, Sudhoff, Holger, Kaltschmidt, Christian, and Kaltschmidt, Barbara. Efficient animal-serum free 3D cultivation method for adult human neural crest-derived stem cell therapeutics. European Cells & Materials 22 (2011): 403-419 ...
Our data implicate Disc1 in the transcriptional repression of foxd3 and sox10, two transcription factors that are crucial for multiple steps of CNC development. Evidence points to a role for Foxd3 as a transcriptional repressor crucial for the maintenance of neural crest progenitor pools, neural crest migration and the differentiation of some neural crest derivatives (Cheung et al., 2005; Lister et al., 2006; Montero-Balaguer et al., 2006; Stewart et al., 2006; Teng et al., 2008). Zebrafish foxd3 mutants have normal numbers of premigratory neural crest, but delayed neural crest migration and depletion of certain neural crest derivatives (Lister et al., 2006; Stewart et al., 2006). Interestingly, the only neural crest derivative with foxd3 expression during and after terminal differentiation is peripheral glia (Kelsh et al., 2000), indicating a possible role for this transcription factor in the differentiation of this derivative. Similar to the Disc1 morphants reported here, colgate (hdac1) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural crest cell differentiation and carcinogenesis. T2 - Capability of goldfish erythrophoroma cells for multiple differentiation and clonal polymorphism in their melanogenic variants. AU - Matsumoto, Jiro. AU - Wada, Kumiko. AU - Akiyama, Toyoko. PY - 1989/5. Y1 - 1989/5. N2 - Multiple differentiation shown by a single cell line (GEM 81) of goldfish erythrophoroma (tumors of integumental erythrophores) cells after administration of chemical induction in vitro includes 1) melanogenesis, 2) formation of reflecting platelets, 3) synthesis of pteridines heterogeneous to this species, 4) formation of dermal skeletons such as teeth and fin rays, 5) production of neuronal characters, and 6) genesis of lentoid bodies. Melanogenic cells, highest in inducibility, also show remarkable phenotypic diversification in their cell morphology, pigmentation, and physiologic response. In this paper, the following findings are presented; a) multiple differentiation shown by erythrophoroma cells ...
Pinch1, an adaptor protein composed of 5 LIM domains, has been suggested to play an important role in multiple cellular processes. We found that Pinch1 is highly expressed in neural crest cells and their derivatives. To examine the requirement for Pinch1 in neural crest development, we generated neural crest conditional Pinch1 knockout mice using the Wnt1-Cre/loxP system. Neural crest conditional Pinch1 mutant embryos die perinatally from severe cardiovascular defects with an unusual aneurysmal common arterial trunk. Pinch1 mutants also exhibit multiple deficiencies in cranial neural crest-derived structures. Fate mapping demonstrated that initial migration of neural crest cells to the pharyngeal arch region occurs normally in the mutant embryos. However, in the cardiac outflow tract of mutants, neural crest cells exhibited hyperplasia and failed to differentiate into smooth muscle. Markedly increased apoptosis is observed in outflow tract cushions of mutants between embryonic days 11.5 and 13.5, likely
The proposed pathways of chick cranial neural crest migration and their relationship to the rhombomeres of the hindbrain have been somewhat controversial, with differing results emerging from grafting and DiI-labelling analyses. To resolve this discrepancy, we have examined cranial neural crest migratory pathways using the combination of neurofilament immunocytochemistry, which recognizes early hindbrain neural crest cells, and labelling with the vital dye, DiI. Neurofilament-positive cells with the appearance of premigratory and early-migrating neural crest cells were noted at all axial levels of the hindbrain. At slightly later stages, neural crest cell migration in this region appeared segmented, with no neural crest cells obvious in the mesenchyme lateral to rhombomere 3 (r3) and between the neural tube and the otic vesicle lateral to r5. Focal injections of DiI at the levels of r3 and r5 demonstrated that both of these rhombomeres generated neural crest cells. The segmental distribution of ...
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a multipotent, migratory cell population that generates an astonishingly diverse array of cell types during vertebrate development. The trunk neural crest has long been considered of particular significance. First, it has been held that the trunk neural crest has a morphogenetic role, acting to coordinate the development of the peripheral nervous system, secretory cells of the endocrine system and pigment cells of the skin. Second, the trunk neural crest additionally has skeletal potential. However, it has been demonstrated that a key role of the trunk neural crest streams is to organize the innervation of the intestine. Although trunk NCCs have a limited capacity for self-renewal, sometimes they become neural-crest-derived tumor cells and reveal the fact that that NCCs and tumor cells share the same molecular machinery. In this review we describe the routes taken by trunk NCCs and consider the signals and cues that pattern these trajectories. We also discuss recent
Because of its unique ability to generate a wide variety of both neural and nonneural derivatives, the neural crest is an ideal model system to study the factors regulating cell lineage decisions in stem and progenitor cells. The use of various cell culture techniques and in vivo functional assays, including cell type-specific gene manipulation in mouse, helped to identify signaling factors involved in this process. Moreover, it became apparent that the biological functions of growth factors acting on neural crest cells depend on the context provided by the extracellular microenvironment. Thus, signaling molecules have to be viewed as parts of complex networks that change with time and location. Neural crest cells have to integrate these signals to ensure the generation of appropriate numbers of differentiating progeny. It will be important to determine how such signaling networks are established and how they elicit multiple signaling responses in neural crest cells to activate appropriate ...
The neural crest is a multipotent cell population that migrates from the dorsal edge of the neural tube to various parts of the embryo where it differentiates into a remarkable variety of different cell types. Initial induction of neural crest is mediated by a combination of BMP, Wnt, FGF, Retinoic acid and Notch/Delta signaling. The two-signal model for neural crest induction suggests that BMP signaling induces the competence to become neural crest. The second signal involves Wnt acting through the canonical pathway and leads to expression of neural crest markers such as slug. Wnt signals from the neural plate, non-neural ectoderm and paraxial mesoderm have all been suggested to play a role in neural crest induction. We show that Xenopus frizzled7 (Xfz7) is expressed in the dorsal ectoderm including early neural crest progenitors and is a key mediator of the Wnt inductive signal. We demonstrate that Xfz7 expression is induced in response to a BMP antagonist, noggin, and that Xfz7 can induce ...
Neural crest cells are a group of temporary, multipotent (can give rise to some other types of cells but not all) cells that are pinched off during the formation of the neural tube (precursor to the spinal cord and brain) and therefore are found at the dorsal (top) region of the neural tube during development. They are derived from the ectoderm germ layer, but are sometimes called the fourth germ layer because they are so important and give rise to so many other types of cells. They migrate throughout the body and create a large number of differentiated cells such as neurons, glial cells, pigment-containing cells in skin, skeletal tissue cells in the head, and many more. Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) are a type of neural crest cells that migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge (an arc-shape ridge above the pharyngeal arches) and then into the 3rd, 4th and 6th pharyngeal arches and the cardiac outflow tract (OFT). They extend from the otic placodes (the structure in developing embryos that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for a novel enzymatic mechanism of neural crest cell migration on extracellular glycoconjugate matrices. AU - Runyan, R. B.. AU - Maxwell, G. D.. AU - Shur, B. D.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Migrating embryonic cells have high levels of cell surface galactosyltransferase (GalTase) activity. It has been proposed that GalTase participates during migration by recognising and binding to terminal N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues on glycoconjugates within the extracellular matrix (Shur, B.D., 1982, Dev. Biol. 91:149-162). We tested this hypothesis using migrating neural crest cells as an in vitro model system. Cell surface GalTase activity was perturbed using three independent sets of reagents, and the effects on cell migration were analyzed by time-lapse micorphotography. The GalTase modifier protein, alpha-lactalbumin (α-LA), was used to inhibit surface GalTase binding to terminal GlcNAc residues in the underlying substrate. α-LA inhibited neural crest cell migration ...
Neural crest cells were transplanted from one position in the body to another position. They developed into neural crest derivates from their new position. Neural crest cells are apparently pluripotent, as they give rise to the cell types expected from the position to which they have been transplanted.. For example, any neural crest cell can give rise to parasympathetic ganglia if transplanted to a certain position. Thus, neural crest cells must respond to environmental cues during their migration and subsequent differentiation. These environmental cues are often identical to the cues used by axons. ...
Neural crest cells are both highly migratory and significant to vertebrate organogenesis. However, the signals that regulate neural crest cell migration remain unclear. In this study, we test the function of differential screening-selected gene aberrant in neuroblastoma (DAN), a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist we detected by analysis of the chick cranial mesoderm. Our analysis shows that, before neural crest cell exit from the hindbrain, DAN is expressed in the mesoderm, and then it becomes absent along cell migratory pathways. Cranial neural crest and metastatic melanoma cells avoid DAN protein stripes in vitro. Addition of DAN reduces the speed of migrating cells in vivo and in vitro, respectively. In vivo loss of function of DAN results in enhanced neural crest cell migration by increasing speed and directionality. Computer model simulations support the hypothesis that DAN restrains cell migration by regulating cell speed. Collectively, our results identify DAN as a novel factor ...
By analyzing the hearts of quail-chick chimeras, it was found that neural crest cells at the level of occipital somites 1 to 3 migrate to the region of the aorticopulmonary septum. Bilateral removal of this neural crest population prior to migration causes malformation of the aorticopulmonary septum resulting in common arterial outflow channels or transposition of the great vessels. ...
foxd3 encodes a winged helix/forkhead class transcription factor expressed in the premigratory neural crest cells of many vertebrates. We have investigated the function of this gene in zebrafish neural crest by a loss of function approach using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides and immunostaining for Foxd3 protein. Knockdown of Foxd3 expression produces deficits in several differentiated neural crest derivatives, including jaw cartilage, peripheral neurons, and glia, and iridophore pigment cells. Other derivatives, such as melanophore and xanthophore pigment cells are not affected. Reduction in the expression of several lineage-specific markers becomes evident soon after the onset of neural crest migration, suggesting that Foxd3 knockdown affects these lineages at early stages in their development. In contrast, analysis of the expression of early neural crest markers indicates little effect on neural crest induction or initial emigration. Finally, cell transplantation suggests that with ...
Trunk neural crest migration in the zebrafish is confined to the centre of the medial surface of each somite and the pattern of migration is determined before neural crest cells contacts the sclerotome cells. Unlike other animals such as mice and birds, the sclerotome only makes up an inconsequential part of the somites in zebrafish and did not disrupt neural crest migration and DRG development[84]. It has been demonstrated that the myotome of the zebrafish contributes more in the establishment of neural crest cell migration patterns together with neural crest cells[85]. In particular, the adaxial cells, the first cells to develop and migrate from the myotome, helps in the regulation of trunk neural crest migration patterns. These slow muscle precursors have been shown to be crucial for normal migration patterns as their removal resulted in the accumulation of trunk neural crest cells at the level of the notochord[86]. Another key aspect in the proper development of DRG neurons in zebrafish lies ...
Our data show that knockout of the arginyltransferase Ate1 in the cells of the neural crest lineage results in multiple morphogenic defects and perinatal lethality in mice. It has been previously shown that complete Ate1 knockout in mice leads to embryonic lethality and defects in cardiovascular development and angiogenesis [9] that are reminiscent of the defects seen in mouse models with knockout of genes implicated in cell adhesion and migration during embryogenesis [10]. Here we show for the first time that Ate1 deletion in the migratory subpopulations of the neural crest cells leads to delayed development and reduced size of the neural crest-derived organs and tissues, suggesting that Ate1-dependent migration of the neural crest cells is essential for normal embryogenesis.. We have previously shown that Ate1 knockout embryonic fibroblasts have leading edge defects that arise from abnormalities in the non-arginylated actin cytoskeleton [24]. Here we found that in addition to the abnormal ...
Neural crest cells are a group of multipotent stem cell that migrate to various locations and give rise to many diverse cell types in the vertebrate body. The ENS arises from vagal neural crest stem cells that originate from the post-otic dorsal neural tube. Vagal neural crest cells are multipotent and can give rise to the outflow tract of the heart, enteric ganglia, sympathetic ganglia, as well as pigment cells of the skin. To become enteric ganglia during development, vagal neural crest migrate ventrally from the neural tube and enter the primitive foregut tissue. They then migrate along the rostrocaudal extent of the gut in response to microenvironmental signaling cues to until they eventually reach the hindgut. These enteric neural crest cells (ENC) eventually give rise to a diverse array of neurons and glia that form the enteric ganglia ...
Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School Purpose: Vertebrate neural crest development depends on pluripotent, migratory neural crest (NC) cells. Isolation and culture of zebrafish NC cells has not been previously reported. In vitro culture of NC cells allows evaluation of in vivo findings in a more controlled environment. Here we report for the first time the isolation, in vitro culture and characterization of NC cells from zebrafish embryos. We apply the NC culture to determine if these cells possess stem cell or progenitor cell properties of multi-lineage differentiation, maintenance and renewal.. Methods: NC cells were isolated from transgenic sox10::egfp embryos using FACS and cultured in a complex proliferation medium, on substrates coated with extra cellular matrix proteins, with growth factors to induce differentiation into various lineages. NC multi-lineage differentiation was determined by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR, cell migration was assessed by wound healing ...
Neural Crest Cell Emigration and Migration Neural crest cells are among the most migratory cell type in vertebrate embryos. We are characterizing the machinery responsible for neural crest cell movement, the nature of the neural crest epithelial to mesenchymal transition to form a migratory cell type and the role of the migratory environment in influencing migratory pathway choices. A variety of cell labeling techniques, including DiI-labeling, microsurgical grafts and confocal time-lapse microscopy, are used to follow the pathways of neural crest migration in in a number of vertebrate species. ...
Purpose: : Long thin sympathetic axons transport tissue plasminogen activator(t-PA) to the eye. There it is released in response to adrenergic stimulations. The t-PA is synthesized and packaged in transport vesicles in superior cervical sympathetic ganglion neuron cell bodies(1) .Plasmin activated by t-PA has long been thought to accelerate the trabecular outflow of aqueous humor. Our purpose here is to map the neural crest origins of cells able to produce t-PA within the eye. Methods: : A promoter mouse line- whose human t-PA Cre transgene is specifically expressed by sympathetic nerves and all other crest derivatives(2)- was crossed with a Lac Z reporter expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein(EGFP) transgene. PCR sorted pups showed both t-PA promoter and EGFP expressions confined within crest-derived cells. Cryosections were viewed by confocal and UV microscopy ,and immunostained for t-PA antigen.Cultured human uveal melanocytes were stimlated with phenylephrine to confirm a t-PA ...
The neural crest is an embryonic stem cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to malignant invasion. The neural crest, as does cancer, undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migrates to colonize almost all the tissues of the embryo. Neural crest cells exhibit collective cell migration, moving in streams of high directionality. The migratory neural crest streams are kept in shape by the presence of negative signals in their vicinity. The directionality of the migrating neural crest is achieved by contact-dependent cell polarization, in a phenomenon called contact inhibition of locomotion. Two cells experiencing contact inhibition of locomotion move away from each other after collision. However, if the cell density is high only cells exposed to a free edge can migrate away from the cluster leading to the directional migration of the whole group. Recent work performed in chicks, zebrafish and frogs has shown that the non-canonical Wnt-PCP (planar cell polarity) ...
Analysis of early human neural crest development[5] The outstanding migration and differentiation capacities of neural crest cells (NCCs) have fascinated scientists since Wilhelm His described this cell population in 1868. Today, after intense research using vertebrate model organisms, we have gained considerable knowledge regarding the origin, migration and differentiation of NCCs. However, our understanding of NCC development in human embryos remains largely uncharacterized, despite the role the neural crest plays in several human pathologies. Here, we report for the first time the expression of a battery of molecular markers before, during, or following NCC migration in human embryos from Carnegie Stages (CS) 12 to 18. Our work demonstrates the expression of Sox9, Sox10 and Pax3 transcription factors in premigratory NCCs, while actively migrating NCCs display the additional transcription factors Pax7 and AP-2alpha. Importantly, while HNK-1 labels few migrating NCCs, p75(NTR) labels a large ...
The neural crest is an embryonic cell population that gives rise to much of the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton, and its evolutionary origin is generally regarded as a key step in the diversification of vertebrates. Neural crest fate maps have been generated for a number of osteichthyan model systems (e.g. mouse, chick, frog and zebrafish). However, nothing is known about the fates of neural crest cells in chondrichthyans. We have developed methods for long-term lineage tracing of cell populations in early skate embryos, and we are using these methods to generate fate maps of chondrichthyan cranial and trunk neural crest cells. This work will allow us to infer primitive fates of neural crest cells in the last common ancestor of jawed vertebrates (e.g. neural crest vs. mesodermal contributions to the craniofacial skeleton and pectoral girdle, and the skeletogenic potential of trunk neural crest cells), thereby resolving a number of outstanding controversies relating to the early evolution of the ...
Coordinating the balance between progenitor self-renewal and myogenic differentiation is required for a regulated expansion of the developing muscles. Previous observation that neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate throughout the somite regions, where trunk skeletal muscles first emerge, suggests a potential role for these cells in influencing early muscle formation. However, specific signaling interactions between NCCs and skeletal muscle cells remain unknown. Here we show that mice with specific NCC and peripheral nervous system defects display impaired survival of skeletal muscle and show skeletal muscle progenitor cell (MPC) depletion due to precocious commitment to differentiation. We show that reduced NCC-derived Neuregulin1 (Nrg1) in the somite region perturbs ErbB3 signaling in uncommitted MPCs. Using a combination of explant culture experiments and genetic ablation in the mouse, we demonstrate that Nrg1 signals provided by the NCC lineage play a critical role in sustainable myogenesis, by ...
Gene regulatory network model of cranial neural crest cell (CNCC) development, adaped from PMID: 19575671. Most interactions in the model are proposed to regulate transcription of core factors involved involved in neural crest and downstream progenitor specification. Transcriptional regulation arrows are proposed to promote transcription, unless a graphical T-bar is present at the end of the arrow (commented to be inhibitors of transcriptional regulation). Additional gene information was obtained from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53143 ...
During development, cell fates are often specified in noisy and dynamic three-dimensional environments, which cells must navigate through, e.g. by migration. Examples include the formation of segments of the hindbrain and the pharyngeal arches, precursors of the jaw and larynx; these are largely composed of cranial neural crest cells, arising from distinct segmental positions in the hindbrain and migrating in streams through the head. While prevailing theories suggest that premigratory neural crest cells are pluripotent, relying on their migratory environment for fate specification, some lineage tracing studies have hinted at earlier pre-specification. It remains elusive when, where, and how neural crest cells acquire fate identities and robustly migrate to correct locations despite gene expression fluctuations within each cell, and fluctuations due to environmental signals. We study these stochastic dynamics in developmental systems. Heterogeneity is critical to robust environmental responses ...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer and despite tremendous efforts and considerable progress in clinical treatment of melanoma patients within recent years, it remains a deadly disease. Current treatments affect melanoma cells indiscriminately, while accumulating evidence suggests that melanoma might be a disease of stem cells. This review aims to summarize the important accomplishments in the field and to emphasize the common molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating self-renewal of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) and melanoma cells. RECENT FINDINGS A growing number of publications highlight the existence of phenotypic and functional similarities between embryonic NCSCs and melanoma cells. These studies provide compelling evidence that the propagation of melanoma cells critically depends on genes instrumental in neural crest development. The example of Sox10 and Rac1 genes provides detailed illustration of how interfering with these important genes for ...
During vertebrate embryogenesis, the cranial neural crest (CNC) forms at the neural plate border and subsequently migrates and differentiates into many types of cells. The transcription factor Snai2, which is induced by canonical Wnt signaling to be expressed in the early CNC, is pivotal for CNC induction and migration in Xenopus. However, snai2 expression is silenced during CNC migration, and its roles at later developmental stages remain unclear. We generated a transgenic X. tropicalis line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) driven by the snai2 promoter/enhancer, and observed eGFP expression not only in the pre-migratory and migrating CNC, but also the differentiating CNC. This transgenic line can be used directly to detect deficiencies in CNC development at various stages, including subtle perturbation of CNC differentiation. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry confirm that Snai2 is re-expressed in the differentiating CNC. Using a separate transgenic Wnt reporter line
Differentiation of Neural-Crest-Derived Intermediate Pluripotent Progenitors into Committed Periodontal Populations Involves Unique Molecular Signature Changes, Cohort Shifts, and Epigenetic Modifications. Smit Jayant Dangaria, Yoshihiro Ito, Xianghong Luan, Thomas G.H. Diekwisch. Stem Cells Dev. 2011 January; 20(1): 39-52. Published online 2010 July 6. doi: 10.1089/scd.2010.0180. PMCID: PMC3128775 ...
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The human cornea contains stem cells that can be induced to express markers consistent with multipotency in cell culture; however, there have been no studies demonstrating that human corneal keratocytes are multipotent. The objective of this study is to examine the potential of human fetal keratocytes (HFKs) to differentiate into neural crest-derived tissues when challenged in an embryonic environment. HFKs were injected bilaterally into the cranial mesenchyme adjacent to the neural tube and the periocular mesenchyme in chick embryos at embryonic days 1.5 and 3, respectively. The injected keratocytes were detected by immunofluorescence using the human cell-specific marker, HuNu. HuNu-positive keratocytes injected along the neural crest pathway were localized adjacent to HNK-1-positive migratory host neural crest cells and in the cardiac cushion mesenchyme. The HuNu-positive cells transformed into neural crest derivatives such as smooth muscle in cranial blood vessels, stromal keratocytes, and ...
2Vertebrate Body Plan Group, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology. Cephalic neural crest cells play essential roles in craniofacial development. Otx2 is a gene that plays central roles in head development and is also expressed in the cephalic neural crest cells. We have previously reported Otx2 heterozygotes exhibit a variety of craniofacial defects in C57BL/6 background, but not in CBA background (Genes Dev. 9, 2646-, 1995). Here we report (1) cis-regulatory elements that are identified by making transgenic embryos with LacZ gene as a reporter (Deve, 124, 3929, 1997), (2) components of cranial nerves and skeltons that are regulated by Otx2 and their implication in vertebrate body plan, (3) mapping of a modifier gene that is responsible for the difference of the Otx2 phenotype between C57BL/6 and CBA backgrounds.. ...
In vitro studies have shown that the phorbol ester, 12-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces neural crest cell differentiation into melanocytes, and stimulates proliferation and differentiation of normal melanocytes. As TPA is not a physiological agent, its action is clearly mimicking some in vivo pathway involved in these processes. An understanding of the effect of TPA on the expression of melanogenic genes will therefore provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating melanocyte differentiation. In this study, we utilized primary cultures of neural crest cells and an immortalized melanocyte cell line (DMEL-2) which proliferates in the absence of TPA, to explore the effects of TPA on key melanogenic effectors. In neural crest cells, TPA was found to be necessary for both microphthalmia associated transcription factor (Mitf) up-regulation and for melanin synthesis. Using northern blots, we show that in DMEL-2 cells, TPA significantly increases the messenger ribonucleic acid
Combined intrinsic and extrinsic influences pattern cranial neural crest migration and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis in axolotl Journal Article ...
Definition: One of the 5 distinct and partially overlapping functional domains of the premigratory neural crest. Together with the sacral neural crest cells, they develop into the ganglia of the enteric nervous system, also known as the parasympathetic ganglia. These cells, between the head and trunk, contribute post-cranially to the heart and gut, the chromatophores (pigment cells) of the epidermis, and the majority of the neurons and glial cells of the enteric nervous system. Both vagal and sacral neural crest cells contribute to the enteric nervous system in the hindgut ...
The endothelin system is a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles in regulating the cardiovascular system and renal and pulmonary processes, as well as the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. This system is comprised of three structurally similar 21-amino acid peptides that bind and activate two G-protein coupled receptors. In 1994, knockouts of the Edn3 and Ednrb genes revealed their crucial function during development of the enteric nervous system and melanocytes, two neural-crest derivatives. Since then, human and mouse genetics, combined with cellular and developmental studies, have helped to unravel the role of this signaling pathway during development and adulthood. In this review, we will summarize the known functions of the EDN3/EDNRB pathway during neural crest development, with a specific focus on recent scientific advances, and the enteric nervous system in normal and pathological conditions.
We used the chick embryo transplant model to study the reprogramming of human metastatic melanoma cells towards a benign cell type. We had previously reported that human patient-derived C8161 metastatic melanoma cells upregulated a marker of melanin synthesis, Mart-1, after exposure to unknown signals in the embryonic neural crest microenvironment (Kulesa et al., 2006). The goal of this study was to identify and examine the function of the microenvironmental signal(s) underlying the reprogramming process. To enable the dynamic readout of one of the changes in metastatic melanoma cell state, we generated a lentiviral Mart-1:GFP reporter and methodically determined the age, tissue type and ultimately the factor that induced re-expression of Mart-1. We learned that the neurotrophin NGF induced Mart-1 re-expression and changes in cell behavior and gene expression of human C8161 metastatic melanoma cells. We confirmed Mart-1:GFP re-expression in C8161 cells after NGF exposure using Mart-1 antibody ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pak1ip1 Loss-of-Function Leads to Cell Cycle Arrest, Loss of Neural Crest Cells, and Craniofacial Abnormalities. AU - Panoutsopoulos, Alexios A.. AU - De Crescenzo, Angelo Harlan. AU - Lee, Albert. AU - Lu, Amelia Mac Kenzie. AU - Ross, Adam P.. AU - Borodinsky, Laura N.. AU - Marcucio, Ralph. AU - Trainor, Paul A.. AU - Zarbalis, Konstantinos. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Kirsten Lois Ner and Michael Podesta, for technical assistance. We also thank Dr. Athena Soulika for advice and support with flow cytometry. Funding. This study was supported by Shriners Hospitals for Children and NIH grant R01DE022830 to KZ, PT, and RM. Research in the Trainor laboratory is supported by the Stowers Institute for Medical Research.. PY - 2020/9/1. Y1 - 2020/9/1. N2 - Neural crest cells (NCCs) comprise a transient progenitor cell population of neuroepithelial origin that contributes to a variety of cell types throughout vertebrate embryos including most mesenchymal cells of the cranial and ...
Wounds within the oral mucosa, similarly to fetal wounds, exhibit rapid healing with reduced scarring. We hypothesized that a progenitor population resident within the oral mucosal lamina propria (OMLP) contributes to this preferential healing. Progenitor cells (PC) were reliably isolated from the OMLP by differential adhesion to fibronectin. Isolated colonies originating from a single cell demonstrated a rapid initial phase of proliferation, completing in excess of 50 population doublings (PDs) before entering cellular senescence. These data were supported by the expression of active telomerase within both developing colonies and expanded clones as assessed by immunocytochemistry (ICC) and the quantitative telomeric repeat amplification protocol. FACS analysis confirmed expression of the stem cell markers CD44, CD90, CD105, and CD166, but negative expression of CD34 and CD45 ruling out a hematopoietic or fibrocyte origin for these progenitors. A neural crest origin was confirmed by increased ...
Here we present the cloning of a full-length zebrafish pdgfr-α cDNA as well as the expression of this gene during zebrafish embryogenesis. We show that zebrafish pdgfr-α mRNA is present at high levels in the fertilized egg as well as in all embryonic cells up to the end of gastrulation. Spatially restricted expression of the gene started after the onset of segmentation and is mainly localized in premigratory neural crest cells, the placodes, the anterior paraxial cells of somites and the adaxial cells of the tailbud. Transient expression of this gene was also detected in the early Kupffers vesicle, a teleost-specific structure. Expression of the zebrafish pdgfr-α is both conserved as well as diverged comparing to that of other vertebrate species. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved ...
Coreceptor for SEMA3A and SEMA3F. Necessary for signaling by class 3 semaphorins and subsequent remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Plays a role in axon guidance in the developing nervous system. Regulates the migration of sympathetic neurons, but not of neural crest precursors. Required for normal dendrite spine morphology in pyramidal neurons. May play a role in regulating semaphorin-mediated programmed cell death in the developing nervous system. Class 3 semaphorins bind to a complex composed of a neuropilin and a plexin. The plexin modulates the affinity of the complex for specific semaphorins, and its cytoplasmic domain is required for the activation of down-stream signaling events in the cytoplasm.
The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited despite the relevance for various fields of science and application. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching genome-wide significant association, among which 17 were previously unreported. A multi-ethnic study in additional 7,917 individuals confirmed 13 loci including 8 unreported ones. A global map of polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our ...
Therefore, for my independent project, I have chosen to study the effects of substances that influence the brain like nicotine (cigarette smoke), n-Hexane, melatonin, and mercury on neurogenesis in fruit fly larvae. Regarding the cigarette smoke, I would like to pursue an experiment in which I compare the effects of electronic cigarette smoke to traditional cigarette smoke and see how they each affect neurogenesis. Neurogenesis is the growth and development of nervous tissues. Through larval brain and disc dissection, I will be able to get access to the larval brain and see how the drugs impacted the brain. I will use phosphohistone H3 (pH3) staining to give myself a visual representation of the proliferation in the neural crest cells. The more positively stained cells that are in each sample, the more proliferation. Furthermore, I will apply separate environmental stressors, which are changes in circadian rhythms and temperature to my experiment. ...
Thymus organogenesis requires coordinated interactions of multiple cell types, including neural crest (NC) cells, to orchestrate the formation, separation, and subsequent migration of the developing thymus from the third pharyngeal pouch to the thoracic cavity. The molecular mechanisms driving these processes are unclear; however, NC-derived mesenchyme has been shown to play an important role. Here, we show that, in the absence of ephrin-B2 expression on thymic NC-derived mesenchyme, the thymus remains in the cervical area instead of migrating into the thoracic cavity. Analysis of individual NC-derived thymic mesenchymal cells shows that, in the absence of ephrin-B2, their motility is impaired as a result of defective EphB receptor signaling. This implies a NC-derived cell-specific role of EphB-ephrin-B2 interactions in the collective migration of the thymic rudiment during organogenesis.
Injury and neurodegenerative conditions of the spinal cord can lead to paralysis and loss of sensation. Cell therapeutic approaches can restore sensory innervation of the spinal cord following injury and protect spinal cord cells from degeneration. This thesis primarily focuses on the restoration of deaffarented sensory fibres following injury to the dorsal root and spinal cord. These injuries lead to the formation of a non-permissive glial scar that prevents sensory axons from reinnervating spinal cord targets. It takes advantage of a dorsal root injury model that closely mimics spinal root avulsion injuries occurring in humans. In the first part of the thesis, three different neural progenitor types from human or murine sources are tested for their regenerative properties following their transplantation to the site of dorsal root avulsion injury. In the second part, the ability of murine neural progenitors to protect spinal motor neurons from a neurodegenerative process is tested.. In the ...
Ligand for members of the frizzled family of seven transmembrane receptors (By similarity). Shares much functionality with wnt11b. Signals through a non-canonical Wnt pathway to activate Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) to regulate gastrulation movements. Acts in a non-cell-autonomous manner to control neural crest migration, probably acting as an extracellular signal from surrounding tissue, but is not required for neural crest induction. Acts redundantly with wnt11b during pronephros induction. Regulates cardiac morphogenesis through the activation of JNK, but is not required for cardiac differentiation. Essential for dorsal fin development; required for an epithelial to mesenchymal transformation event prior to migration of cells into the fin, and ultimately for maintenance of fin structure. Mediates dorsal fin development through a non-canonical pathway mediated by Ca(2+) (By similarity).
Another study in the special feature by Marianne Bronner-Fraser, the second Albert Billings Ruddock Professor of Biology, focuses on the gene regulatory network underlying neural crest formation in the lamprey, the most primitive living vertebrate. The neural crest is a group of embryonic cells that are pinched off during the formation of the neural tube--the precursor to the spinal cord--and then migrate throughout the developing body to form other nervous system structures. The study reveals order and linkages within the network at early stages, Bronner-Fraser says. Because the neural crest cell type represents a vertebrate innovation, our work in lampreys shows that this network is ancient and tightly conserved to the base of vertebrates, she says.. The fourth of the Caltech papers, by Paul W. Sternberg, the Thomas Hunt Morgan Professor of Biology at Caltech and an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), and his colleagues, looks at a postembryonic gene regulatory ...
Why the interest in such an obscure cell? There is not a lot of information in the literature.. I am a clinician with a special interest in melanoma and, as such, you are continually struck by the potential aggressive and lethal nature of invasive melanoma and its resistance to therapeutics. There are some striking differences in behaviour between melanoma and its non-melanoma skin cancer relatives. Obviously, the melanocyte as the cell of origin, rather than the keratinocyte, and inevitably the neural crest origin of the melanocyte.. The Satellite cell, its close relative the Schwann cell, the melanocyte and its malignant offspring the melanoma cell, all share this Neural crest cell origin.. During evolutionary development, aspects of the Neural crest began to appear in early chordate species and eventually reached full expression in vertebrates. Protochordates were thin transparent sessile filter-feeders sitting in burrows on the sea floor but with evolutionary development grew in size, became ...
Our laboratory focuses on deciphering gene regulatory networks that govern complex programmes during early vertebrate development. We use systems approaches in specific cell types isolated directly from developing embryos to analyse transcriptional, epigenomic and cis-regulatory landscapes to decode and probe developmental programmes at the population and single-cell level. One of the intriguing developmental populations studied in our lab is the vertebrate neural crest. Neural crest (NC) is a unique multipotent embryonic cell population that differentiates into a plethora of diverse cell types, giving rise to structures as different as neurons and glia of peripheral nervous system, bone, cartilage and connective tissue elements of craniofacial skeleton and bodys pigmentation. Defects in neural crest patterning are some of the most common causes of birth anomalies, accounting for up to one-third of all congenital disabilities. Due to the unique multipotency, developmental plasticity and vast ...
Akbareian SE, Nagy N, Steiger CE, Mably JD, Miller SA, Hotta R, Molnar D, Goldstein AM: Enteric neural crest-derived cells promote their migration by modifying their microenvironment through tenascin-C production., DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY 382: (2) pp. 446-456 ...
Vertebrate pigment cells are derived from neural crest, a tissue that also forms most of the peripheral nervous system and a variety of ectomesenchymal cell types. Formation of pigment cells from multipotential neural crest cells involves a number of common developmental processes. Pigment cells must be specified; their migration, proliferation, and survival must be controlled and they must differentiate to the final pigment cell type. We previously reported a large set of embryonic mutations that affect pigment cell development from neural crest (R. N. Kelsh et al., 1996, Development 123, 369-389). Based on distinctions in pigment cell appearance between mutants, we proposed hypotheses as to the process of pigment cell development affected by each mutation. Here we describe the cloning and expression of an early zebrafish melanoblast marker, dopachrome tautomerase. We used this marker to test predictions about melanoblast number and pattern in mutant embryos, including embryos homozygous for ...
Somites are transient, segmentally organized structures. In the vertebrate embryo, the somites contribute to multiple tissues, including the axial skeleton, skeletal and smooth muscles, dorsal dermis, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and adipose tissue. The somites also determine the migration paths of trunk neural crest cells and spinal nerve axons.. As the primitive streak regresses and the neural folds begin to gather at the center of the embryo, the paraxial mesoderm separates into blocks of cells called somites. These structures are formed by budding off as epithelial spheres from the cranial end of the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm that lies on either side of the neural tube.. The total number of somites formed is species-specific (38-39 in humans, 50 in chickens, 65 in mice) and is used as an indicator of embryonic developmental stages. Once formed, the epithelial somite is patterned rapidly into distinct compartments that subsequently give rise to distinct cell lineages. In response to ...
Orbital cartilage encircles the eye giving strength and support to the neural retina. It is derived from cranial neural crest cells (NCCs), cells that can generate a number of cell types including neurons, glia, and melanocytes. Uniquely in the head, NCCs also make skeletal derivatives that form the majority of the craniofacial skeleton. Differentiation of NCCs into cartilage requires inductive interactions between NCCs and the local environment. The nature of these interactions is largely unknown. We hypothesise that formation of the eye socket requires interactions between the eye and the NCCs during early development. This is supported by evidence in animals and humans where lack of eyes (anophthalmia) or formation of small eyes (microphthalmia) result in craniofacial abnormalities. Orbital cartilage is found in the majority of vertebrates but the ability to induce it has been lost to mammals. A comparison of chick and mouse should help us determine which tissues and molecules are necessary for this
1. Ebrahimi M, Taghi-Abadi E, Baharvand H. Limbal stem cells in review. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2009;4:40-58 2. Bahn CF, Falls HF, Varley GA, Meyer RF, Edelhauser HF, Bourne WM. Classification of corneal endothelial disorders based on neural crest origin. Ophthalmology. 1984;91:558-63 3. Bonanno JA. Identity and regulation of ion transport mechanisms in the corneal endothelium. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2003;22:69-94 4. Bourne WM, McLaren JW. Clinical responses of the corneal endothelium. Exp Eye Res. 2004;78:561-72 5. Lee JG, Kay EP. FGF-2-mediated signal transduction during endothelial mesenchymal transformation in corneal endothelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 2006;83:1309-16 6. Zhu YT, Chen HC, Chen SY, Tseng SC. Nuclear p120 catenin unlocks mitotic block of contact-inhibited human corneal endothelial monolayers without disrupting adherent junctions. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3636-48 7. Chen HC, Zhu YT, Chen SY, Tseng SC. Wnt signaling induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition with proliferation in ARPE-19 ...
ENCODES a protein that exhibits bHLH transcription factor binding (ortholog); DNA-binding transcription factor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific (ortholog); DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific (ortholog); INVOLVED IN angiogenesis (ortholog); blastocyst development (ortholog); cardiac left ventricle formation (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH Cardiomegaly (ortholog); Hereditary Neoplastic Syndromes (ortholog); hypoplastic left heart syndrome (ortholog); FOUND IN cytoplasm (ortholog); nuclear chromatin (ortholog); nucleolus (ortholog)
Biotagging, a genetically encoded toolkit in the zebrafish, reveals novel non-coding RNA players during neural crest and myocardium development ...
Read The fate of the neural crest in the head of the urodeles, The Journal of Comparative Neurology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Most textbooks say that Rathkes pouch invaginates from the oral ectoderm. Our observations and experiments give a different explanation for the chick embryo. We find that the roof, tip and floor of the pouch lie flat along the midline (A above), then the cephalic flexure through the mesencephalon as well as the downward bulging of the prosencephalon wrap the floor and roof around the tip of the pouch. We find that mesenchyme, mostly from mesencephalic neural crest, collects beneath the ectoderm lateral to the floor plate (and to some extent lateral to the roof plate) causing the walls of the pouch to form when the ectoderm lateral to the floor plate fuses with ectoderm lateral to roof plate ...
Diseases affecting heart function exact an enormous toll on human health, but many of the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying heart disease remain unknown. Yost and colleagues discovered novel roles for the same developmental signaling pathway in two seemingly unrelated sources of cardiac dysfunction: adult heart failure and embryonic heart malformation. In their first study, the team found that a unique population of heart muscle cells derived from the embryonic neural crest is necessary for healthy heart function. These cells produce a ligand for the Notch signaling receptor, Jag2b, and the absence of the cell population or the jag2b gene during development results in heart failure in adult fish.. In a second study, they found that in a zebrafish model for Kabuki Syndrome, a congenital heart developmental disorder, Notch signaling is overactive. In a result with exciting implications for human patients, they showed that pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling could restore normal ...
Chromaffin cells are neuroendocrine cells found predominantly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. They are also found in other ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system and are derived from the embryonic neural crest. Embryology They arise in ...
Video articles in JoVE about vitelline membrane include Application of Impermeable Barriers Combined with Candidate Factor Soaked Beads to Study Inductive Signals in the Chick, Dissection and Downstream Analysis of Zebra Finch Embryos at Early Stages of Development, A Submerged Filter Paper Sandwich for Long-term Ex Ovo Time-lapse Imaging of Early Chick Embryos, Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) to Monitor the State of Arm Cohesion in Prometaphase and Metaphase I Drosophila Oocytes, Stem cell-like Xenopus Embryonic Explants to Study Early Neural Developmental Features In Vitro and In Vivo, In-vivo Centrifugation of Drosophila Embryos, Microinjection Wound Assay and In vivo Localization of Epidermal Wound Response Reporters in Drosophila Embryos., Blastomere Explants to Test for Cell Fate Commitment During Embryonic Development, Analysis of Neural Crest Migration and Differentiation by Cross-species Transplantation, Dual Labeling of Neural Crest Cells and Blood Vessels
This study briefly reviews the main events and processes that lead to the formation of the nervous system in mammals. At the end of gastrulation, they begin a series of fundamental morphogenetic processes with the formation of the neural plate (start of neurulation) culminating in the attainment of a normal nervous system. Embryological ectodermal primordia involved in the formation of the nervous system are the neuroectoblast, the neural crest cells and placodes that will evolve based on inductive phenomena, mainly from the notochord, prechordal plate and ectoderm. During the embryonic period consolidates the final development plan of the nervous system: 1) it comes complete neural tube formation when closing the rostral and caudal neuropores, 2) the different placodes invaginate to help form the organs of senses and sensory ganglia of the head, 3) the neural crest cells migrate to give rise to sensory and autonomic constituents of the peripheral nervous system and 4) developing brain vesicles, ...
Abzhanov A, Cordero DR, Sen J, Tabin CJ, Helms JAet al., 2007, Cross-regulatory interactions between Fgf8 and Shh in the avian frontonasal prominence., Congenit Anom (Kyoto), Vol: 47, Pages: 136-148, ISSN: 0914-3505 The frontonasal prominence of the developing avian embryo contains an organizing center, defined by juxtaposition of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8) expression domains. This molecular interface presages any detectable growth of the frontonasal prominence, and experiments involving transplantation of this boundary epithelium have demonstrated it is a source of dorsal-ventral and rostral-caudal patterning information for the neural crest-derived mesenchyme of the upper beak. We explored the ontogeny of this organizing center by mapping the expression domains of both genes and their receptors and downstream targets. We tested the extent to which Shh and Fgf8 regulate each others expression in this frontonasal organizer by either blocking or ectopically ...
The origin of GnRH-1 neurons and OECs has been a matter of debate for several decades. Both cell types are associated with the olfactory/nasal placode (Schwanzel-Fukuda and Pfaff, 1989; Wray et al., 1989; Wewetzer et al., 2002; Barnett, 2004; Murdoch et al., 2010). During early development, the nasal placode and cranial neural crest cells share a common border, originating from ectoderm near the neural plate. Mixing of NC and olfactory placode cells has been suggested (Couly and Le Douarin, 1985; Whitlock, 2004; Schlosser, 2010). Thus, we used both NC and ectodermal-specific Cre-lox fate tracing strategies to determine the origin of nasal placode derivates. Here we show that early multipotent cranial NC cells mingle with ectodermally derived cells in the developing nasal placode where they generate (1) unique cell types such as the OECs and (2) neurons with similar features to those of ectodermal origin (Nagoshi et al., 2008, 2009) including a population of GnRH-1-expressing neurons.. The ...
The new version includes: Astrocytes lineage ; Updates to Kidney, Pancreas, Bone and Cartilage (from somite & neural crest) lineages ; 19 new high-throughput experiments for: hair, tooth, early embryo, cornea, lens and astrocytes ; New data from Bodymap & RNAseq ; 40 new protocols, including 7 new categories of direct reprogramming protocols added ; ~60 new patient-derived iPSCs ; Family cell descriptions for BM-MSCs, Adipose-derived MSCs and UC-MSCs (tissue) and 50 new cell therapies, including 7 cards of marketed cell-based products. Additionally, The UCB-MSCs (blood) cell family was split into tissue and cord blood with full elaborate descriptions. ...
... trunk neural crest, vagal and sacral neural crest, and cardiac neural crest. Cranial neural crest migrates dorsolaterally to ... cells originally located in the neural plate border become neural crest cells. For migration to begin, neural crest cells must ... that degrade the overlying basal lamina of the neural tube to allow neural crest cells to escape. Additionally, neural crest ... designated here as neural crest specifiers, are activated in emergent neural crest cells. At least in Xenopus, every neural ...
The cranial neural crest is one of the four regions of the neural crest. The cranial neural crest arises in the anterior and ... Schwann cells "The Neural Crest". Retrieved 2009-05-31. Grenier J, Teillet MA, Grifone R, Kelly RG, Duprez D (2009). Callaerts ... Jiang HB, Tian WD, Liu LK, Xu Y (June 2008). "In vitro odontoblast-like cell differentiation of cranial neural crest cells ... "Relationship between Neural Crest Cells and Cranial Mesoderm during Head Muscle Development". PLOS ONE. 4 (2): e4381. Bibcode: ...
A subpopulation of neural crest cells are the cardiac neural crest complex. This complex refers to the cells found amongst the ... Cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs) are a type of neural crest cells that migrate to the circumpharyngeal ridge (an arc-shape ... In 2005, Tomita transplanted neural crest stem cells from mammal hearts to the neural crest of chick embryos. These CNCCs were ... and for differentiation of neural crest cells to smooth muscle cells of the aortic arch arteries. In neural crest-specific Alk2 ...
The trunk neural crest or truncal neural crest is one of the regions of neural crest in the embryo. The trunk neural crest lies ... "The Neural Crest". Retrieved 2009-05-31. Lacosta AM; Muniesa P; Ruberte J; Sarasa M; Domínguez L (August 2005). "Novel ... Lallier TE (1991). "Cell lineage and cell migration in the neural crest". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 615: 158-71. doi:10.1111/j.1749 ... "Canonical Wnt activity regulates trunk neural crest delamination linking BMP/noggin signaling with G1/S transition". ...
Thorogood, P. (1989). "The Neural Crest. Including a Facsimile Reprint of the Neural Crest by Sven Horstadius. Brian K. Hall. ... He was responsible for an increased understanding of the neural crest. Hörstadius studied under John Runnström at Stockholm ...
The components of the sensory nervous system of the head are derived from the neural crest and from an embryonic cell ... The cranial nerves are formed from the contribution of two specialized embryonic cell populations, cranial neural crest and ... neural crest; PA, pharyngeal (branchial) arch; r, rhombomere; s, purely sensory nerve. * There is no known ganglion of the ... Contributions of neural crest cells and placodes to ganglia and cranial nerves Abbreviations: CN, cranial nerve; m, purely ...
Neural crest Shimada, N.; Sokunbi, G.; Moorman, SJ. (2005). "Changes in gravitational force affect gene expression in ... Apr 2009). "Transcriptional control of Rohon-Beard sensory neuron development at the neural plate border". Dev Dyn. 238 (4): ...
The neural tube and neural crest are derived from the ectoderm; the neural tube goes on to form the brain and spinal cord, ... has a more specialised role in the neural crest and is more strictly involved after the neural crest forms (PAX3 and SOX10 have ... Some evidence shows that PAX3 also regulates cells from before the neural crest forms, i.e. the neural tube, since mice with ... Neural crest cells are stem cells left over after the closing of the neural tube that go on to form diverse non-CNS cells in ...
Shellard A, Mayor R (July 2016). "Chemotaxis during neural crest migration". Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. 55: 111- ...
The truncus arteriosus and the adjacent bulbus cordis partition by means of cells from the neural crest. Once the cells from ... Jiang X, Rowitch DH, Soriano P, McMahon AP, Sucov HM (2000). "Fate of the mammalian cardiac neural crest...". Development. ... Maschhoff KL, Baldwin HS (2000). "Molecular determinants of neural crest migration". Am. J. Med. Genet. 97 (4): 280-8. doi: ... Kirby ML, Gale TF, Stewart DE (1983). "Neural crest cells contribute to normal aorticopulmonary septation". Science. 220 (4061 ...
This will be manifested most strongly in those cells which require most organisation; that is, the neural crest cells. One is ... share the embryological origin of neural crest cells. These cells undergo immense and challenging cellular migrations requiring ...
"Molecular determinants of neural crest migration". Am. J. Med. Genet. 97 (4): 280-8. doi:10.1002/1096-8628(200024)97:4. 3.0.CO; ...
In neural crest cells, the neurogenin family is essential for neurogenesis in the developing dorsal root ganglia and ... Gammill LS, Bronner-Fraser M (Oct 2003). "Neural crest specification: migrating into genomics". Nature Reviews. Neuroscience. 4 ... promotes glial lineage in neural crest and central nervous system formation through the inhibition of neuronal differentiation ... Ngn1 is a proneural gene because its expression is seen prior to neural lineage determination, indicating it plays a role in ...
Development begins with neural crest cells. Frontonasal processes fold, forming nasal placodes (nasal pits). The nasobuccal ...
It regulates differentiation and migration of neural crest cells along with other genes (e.g. FOXD3, SOX9 and SOX10, BMPs) in ... Rhim H, Savagner P, Thibaudeau G, Thiery JP, Pavan WJ (Jan 1998). "Localization of a neural crest transcription factor, Slug, ... A knockout model using chick embryos has also showed inhibition of mesodermal and neural crest delamination; chick embryo Slug ... SNAI2 downregulates expression of E-cadherin in premigratory neural crest cells; thus, SNAI2 induces tightly bound epithelial ...
Later forming the epidermis and neural crest. In tunicates, invagination is the first mechanism that takes place during ...
Keith Hall, Brian (1999). The Neural Crest in Development and Evolution. Springer. pp. 154. ISBN 0-387-98702-9. Williamson, K F ... minor defects in structures arising from the neural crest, and pigmentation anomalies. In 1913, Jan van der Hoeve observed and ...
... s develop from neural-crest stem cells. The neural crest is responsible for a large part of early development in ... The neural-crest stem cells split from the neural tube as it closes, and nociceptors grow from the dorsal part of this neural- ... All neurons derived from the neural crest, including embryonic nociceptors, express the TrkA, which is a receptor to nerve ... Jessell, Thomas M.; Kandel, Eric R.; Schwartz, James H. (1991). Principles of neural science. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange. pp ...
The aorticopulmonary septum is developmentally formed from neural crest, specifically the cardiac neural crest, and actively ... Jiang X, Rowitch DH, Soriano P, McMahon AP, Sucov HM (2000). "Fate of the mammalian cardiac neural crest...". Development. 127 ... "Neural crest cells contribute to normal aorticopulmonary septation". Science. 220 (4061): 1059-61. doi:10.1126/science.6844926 ...
Lumsden A, Sprawson N, Graham A (December 1991). "Segmental origin and migration of neural crest cells in the hindbrain region ... Lumsden A (March 1989). "Multipotent cells in the avian neural crest". Trends Neurosci. 12 (3): 81-3. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(89) ... Andrew Lumsden talking about Neural Development journal on YouTube "Development - The Company of Biologists". "Neural ... and how the cranial neural crest contributes to their patterning. Studies on the development of the trigeminal nerve and ...
"Critical numbers of neural crest cells are required in the pathways from the neural tube to the foregut to ensure complete ... The ENS is nicknamed the "second brain". It is derived from neural crest cells. The enteric nervous system is capable of ... Remodeling of vagus and enteric neural circuitry after vagal injury". American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and ...
The neural crest, specifically a population known as the cardiac neural crest, directly contributes to the aorticopulmonary ... Jiang X, Rowitch DH, Soriano P, McMahon AP, Sucov HM (April 2000). "Fate of the mammalian cardiac neural crest". Development. ... Microablation of the cardiac neural crest in developing chick embryos and genetic anomalies affecting this population of cells ... Kirby ML, Gale TF, Stewart DE (June 1983). "Neural crest cells contribute to normal aorticopulmonary septation". Science. 220 ( ...
Le Douarin, Nicole Marthe; Dupin, Elisabeth (23 November 2013). Paul Trainor (ed.). Neural Crest Cells: Evolution, development ... All of these organs and structures are located in the neural tube, with the frontal eye at the front, followed by the lamellar ... The peak sensitivity of both cells is ~470 nm (blue). Both the Joseph cells and Hesse organs are in the neural tube, the Joseph ... 2017). "Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain ...
After the induction of the neural crest, the newly formed neural crest cells (NCC) delaminate from their tissue of origin and ... doi:10.1016/S0046-8177(74)80021-3. Watt, Kristin E. Noack; Trainor, Paul A. (2014), "Neurocristopathies", Neural Crest Cells, ... Bolande, Robert P. (1974). "The neurocristopathies: A unifying concept of disease arising in neural crest maldevelopment". ... Etchevers, Heather C.; Amiel, Jeanne; Lyonnet, Stanislas (2006). "Molecular Bases of Human Neurocristopathies". Neural Crest ...
Neural crest cells in mice, Leghorn chicks, amphibians (Xenopus laevis), and fish (zebrafish): collective migration of neural ... C: The cephalic neural crest of the clawed frog Xenopus migrating in well-defined streams from dorsal to ventral and anterior ... The neural crest. No. 36. Cambridge University Press, 1999. Thiery, JP; Acloque, H; Huang, RY; Nieto, MA (25 November 2009). " ... Johnston, MC (October 1966). "A radioautographic study of the migration and fate of cranial neural crest cells in the chick ...
... cell mass cells/embryonic stem cells and neural crest cells led LaBonne's group to proposed a new model in which neural crest ... are required for both establishing the neural crest stem cell state and for the migratory and invasive behavior of neural crest ... "Carole LaBonne: Neural Crest Cells and the Rise of the Vertebrates , Biomedical Beat Blog - National Institute of General ... "2015 Neural Crest and Cranial Placodes Conference GRC". www.grc.org. Retrieved 2019-01-02. "Past Teaching Award Recipients: ...
All three ossicles develop from the neural crest. Eventually cells from the tissue surrounding the ossicles will experience ... although many of these conditions may also be affected by damage to the brain or neural pathways leading from the ear. The ear ...
... apoptosis of neural crest cells, interference with neural crest cell migration, as well as the disruption of sonic hedgehog ( ... Yu, Shi (September 16, 2014). "5-mehtyltetrahydrofolate rescues alcohol-induced neural crest cell migration abnormalities". ... such as the neural crest, which can lead to the development of neurocristopathies. Genetically modified mice are commonly used ... "The role of teratogens in neural crest development". Birth Defects Research. 112 (8): 584-632. doi:10.1002/bdr2.1644. ISSN 2472 ...
In neural crest cells, which are transient cells that arise in the developing organism during gastrulation and function in the ... Taneyhill LA, Schiffmacher AT (June 2017). "Should I stay or should I go? Cadherin function and regulation in the neural crest ... For example, during neurulation, when a neural plate forms in an embryo, the tissues residing near the cranial neural folds ... CDH2 - N-cadherin (neural): N-cadherins are found in neurons CDH12 - cadherin 12, type 2 (N-cadherin 2) CDH3 - P-cadherin ( ...
These are not derived from the neural crest. Instead, an outpouching of the neural tube generates the optic cup, which, in turn ... Leaving the neural crest in waves, chromatophores take either a dorsolateral route through the dermis, entering the ectoderm ... During vertebrate embryonic development, chromatophores are one of a number of cell types generated in the neural crest, a ... as the name for pigment-bearing cells derived from the neural crest of cold-blooded vertebrates and cephalopods. The word ...
The neural spines of the sacral vertebrae are fused into a continuous elongated plate. Both the lower and upper end of the ... The parietals do not share a midline crest. The front branch of the squamosal bone is straight and elongated. On the upper rear ...
Liu JP, Jessell TM (December 1998). "A role for rhoB in the delamination of neural crest cells from the dorsal neural tube". ... neural crest GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000143878 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000054364 - ...
Dorsal root ganglion neurons differentiate from neural crest progenitors. As the dorsal and ventral column cells proliferate, ... There are four stages of the spinal cord that arises from the neural tube: The neural plate, neural fold, neural tube, and the ... Neural differentiation occurs within the spinal cord portion of the tube. As the neural tube begins to develop, the notochord ... It is also the location of groups of spinal interneurons that make up the neural circuits known as central pattern generators. ...
In addition to this, endothelin receptors are also known to play a role in neural crest cell migration, growth, and ...
Conditional inactivation of TGF-βr2 of osteochondroprogenitor cells in the cranial neural crest resulted in faster ...
Ikeya M, Lee SM, Johnson JE, McMahon AP, Takada S (October 1997). "Wnt signalling required for expansion of neural crest and ... tract is completely dependent on Wnt3a and Wnt3a selectively causes the growth of colon progenitors Wnt3a expands neural crest ...
... migration and differentiation of the neural crest. In this context, Gli2 is responding to the Indian Hedgehog signaling pathway ... "Gli2 is required for the induction and migration of Xenopus laevis neural crest". Mechanisms of Development. 154: 219-239. doi: ... maintenance and migration of Xenopus neural crest". Developmental Biology. 364 (2): 99-113. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.01.020. ... Gli2 null mice embryos develop neural tube defects which, can be rescued by overexpression of Gli1 (Jacob and Briscoe, 2003). ...
Iridogoniodysgenesis is the result of abnormal migration or terminal induction of neural crest cells. These cells lead to ...
... eventually landing on the back or neck crest of the animal, and sometimes the ground. They then proceed to search for a ... it remains unclear what the exact neural pathway is for infrared sensing in vampire bats. Thermography, a method which produces ...
No neural pathway runs between the zooids, but each responds to the light produced by other individuals, and even to light from ... As far as the eye reached, the crest of every wave was bright, and the sky above the horizon, from the reflected glare of these ...
The vertebrae are amphicoelous (concave on both ends), with swollen neural arches and short neural spines. Large zygapophyses ... A crest-like postaxial flange runs down the entire rear edge of the femur, narrowing in the middle and projecting horizontally ... A prominent longitudinal ridge, the cnemial crest, is present on the tibia. As with many pareiasaurs, precise phylogenetic ...
A crest is also present on the inner edge. The articulation with the ankle is convex and expanded towards the rest of the foot ... Isolated cervical neural spines were similar to those of Batrachotomus, being expanded towards their upper front tips into ... The rib facets were short, positioned high on the vertebrae at the base of the neural arches. Three ridges radiate outwards ... The fibula (outer shin bone) is sigmoidal, with a flattened medial surface, a large crest for the iliofibularis muscle on the ...
... has been found to affect the activity of 448 other genes and is very important in the development of the neural crest and ...
It is also possible that the fin spine could be a unique distribution of dermal skeleton and thus derived from neural crest. ... The crest may have played a role in mating rituals, aided in clamping to the belly of larger marine animals, or been used to ... Small spikes (enlarged versions of the dermal denticles commonly covering shark skin) covered this crest, and the ratfish's ...
... new insight into cranial neural crest specification". Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology ...
He wears a distinctive black helmet with a fin on the crest. He appears to be a swordsman, and has the ability to materialize ... He was previously employed by WISE and he hacked into their Neural Control Programme using his PSI-power - the ability to ...
However, other studies have shown overexpression of Numb in the mammalian neural crest MONC-1 stem cell line biases neuronal ... Neural precursors are generated in proliferative zones, before migrating to directed locations where they undergo maturation ... BDNF can function as a chemotactic factor for neural precursors during migration by activating TrkB receptors. Numb binds to ... These embryos display precocious neuron production in the forebrain and defects in neural tube closure, dying around embryonic ...
When it became apparent that it was a crest, it was also realized that a corresponding crest would have been on the left side, ... The centra and neural spines of the cervical vertebrae were long and low, and the spines were stepped in side view, forming " ... Being a thin plate of bone, one crest was originally thought to be part of the missing left side of the skull, which had been ... Since only a short part of the upper surface of this process is unbroken, the rest of the crest may have risen above the skull ...
"Impaired development of neural-crest cell-derived organs and intellectual disability caused by MED13L haploinsufficiency". Hum ...
This neural pathway that enhances aggression is subdued by the presence of serotonin. It is hypothesized[by whom?] that ... raising skin folds and crest, teeth displaying, horn displaying, making sound, etc. Chlamydosaurus kingii, an Australian agamid ... It is understood that vasopressin enhances aggression in agonistic displays due to increased activity in the neural pathways ...
The reduction in neural synchrony has been simulated by jittering the phases of the multiple frequency components in speech, ... or the crest factor. This model accounts for the loss of auditory sensitivity for AM rates higher than about 60-150 Hz for ... The neural representation of temporal fine structure, TFSn, has been studied using stimuli with well-controlled TFSp: pure ... The neural representation of stimulus envelope, ENVn, has typically been studied using well-controlled ENVp modulations, that ...
... and is highly expressed in a population of migrating neural crest cells. It is later expressed in the neural crest derived ... conserved and divergent patterns of expression in rhombomeres and neural crest". Mechanisms of Development. 40 (1-2): 73-84. ...
The deltopectoral crest (to where the deltoid muscle attached) on the upper-front part of the humerus was more prominent in ... The neural spines (large upward-projecting processes) were of variable height within each specimen; they were markedly longer ... The neural arches of the vertebrae had narrow pre- and postzygapophyses (articular processes projecting forward and backward ... The top surfaces of the neural spines were often pitted, indicating they had a cartilage covering. The ribs were distinct in ...
Chromaffin cells are derived from the embryonic neural crest, and are modified postganglionic sympathetic neurons. They are ... a neuroendocrine tumor of any neural crest tissue of the sympathetic nervous system Ganglioneuroma, a tumor in the nerve cells ...
For example, PAX3 is expressed in cancers associated with neural tube-derived lineages, (e.g., glioblastoma), neural crest- ... as this neural groove deepens to form the neural tube, Pax3 is expressed in the dorsal portion of the neural tube. As the ... which is associated with prominent neural tube closure defects and abnormalities of neural crest-derived structures, such as ... Wu M, Li J, Engleka KA, Zhou B, Lu MM, Plotkin JB, Epstein JA (June 2008). "Persistent expression of Pax3 in the neural crest ...
KIT plays an important role in the migration of early pigment cells (melanocytes) from the neural crest to their ultimate ...
... or conversely arising from neural crest cells. The neural crest is a critical group of cells that form in the cranial region ... "Neural crest and the origin of ectomesenchyme: neural fold heterogeneity suggests an alternative hypothesis". Dev. Dyn. 229 (1 ...
Smith, M. M. (1991). Putative skeletal neural crest cells in Early Late Ordovician vertebrates from Colorado. Science, 251, 301 ...
This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory system. All lemuriforms have a VNO, as do tarsiers and some ... Some adapiforms were sexually dimorphic, with males bearing a larger sagittal crest (a ridge of bone on the top of the skull to ...
... s are normally present in cells derived from the neural crest (Schwann cells, and melanocytes), chondrocytes, ...
structure with developmental contribution from neural crest (UBERON:0010314). Annotations: Rat: (0) Mouse: (0) Human: (0) ... structure with developmental contribution from neural crest + An anatomical structure that has some part that develops from the ...
Lang, Michael (2003): Towards Genetic Dissection of Neural Crest Specification and Cartilage Differentiation in Zebrafish ( ... Towards Genetic Dissection of Neural Crest Specification and Cartilage Differentiation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) ... Towards Genetic Dissection of Neural Crest Specification and Cartilage Differentiation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) ...
This delay in neural crest specification had dramatic consequences on the development of multiple lineages of the neural crest ... and the medial neural crest (arrowheads). At stage 17 (I,J), Sox8 persists in the neural crest region and is also expressed ... As the neural tube closes (K,L), Sox8 is detected in the migrating neural crest cells in the cranial region (arrows), and the ... Sox8 expression persists in migrating cranial crest cells as they populate the pharyngeal arches and in trunk neural crest ...
These technologies allowed the identification of minor neural crest-derived cell populations in tissues of non-neural crest ... These technologies allowed the identification of minor neural crest-derived cell populations in tissues of non-neural crest ... The neural crest is a transient structure in vertebrate embryos that produces migratory cells with an astonishing developmental ... The neural crest is a transient structure in vertebrate embryos that produces migratory cells with an astonishing developmental ...
... to exit the dorsal neural tube, the initial neural crest cells follow ventral pathways between the neural tube and somite and ... transplanted into the chick embryonic neural crest microenvironment follow stereotypical neural crest cell migratory pathways, ... Signals within the trunk neural crest microenvironment that regulate the migration and differentiation of multipotent neural ... embryonic neural crest microenvironment to reprogram and sustain the transition of human metastatic melanoma to a neural crest ...
pharyngeal arch 2 cranial neural crest. Note:. This page represents a term created by the combination ("post-composition") of ... Anteriorly positioned cranial neural crest cells, which align with rhombomeres 4/5, contribute to the hyoid arch structures ...
Evidence for a novel enzymatic mechanism of neural crest cell migration on extracellular glycoconjugate matrices. R B Runyan, R ... alpha-LA inhibited neural crest cell migration on basal lamina-like matrices in a dose-dependent manner, while under identical ... R B Runyan, G D Maxwell, B D Shur; Evidence for a novel enzymatic mechanism of neural crest cell migration on extracellular ... 91:149-162). We tested this hypothesis using migrating neural crest cells as an in vitro model system. Cell surface GalTase ...
Learn Neural Crest Derivatives - Nervous System Development - Anatomy & Embryology for Medicine faster and easier with ... Neural crest cells originate from the neural plate during early neural development and exist transiently in the embryo before ... During embryological development, the final structures formed from neural crest cells are termed neural crest derivatives. ... Neural crest derivatives can be recalled using the mnemonic CA MOTEL ASS. C is for craniofacial structures of the skull and A ...
131I-MIBG scintigraphy in neural crest tumours.. Authors: Samuel, A M. Murugesan, S. Kurkure, P A. Advani, S H. Sonawane, G A. ... 131I-MIBG scintigraphy in neural crest tumours. Indian Journal of Cancer. 1994 Jun; 31(2): 103-10. ... developed a procedure for preparation of 131I-MIBG and studied its utility in diagnosis of primary and metastatic neural crest ... 131I-MIBG scintigraphy is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool to localise primary and metastatic disease of neural crest ...
The neural border: Induction, specification and maturation of the territory that generates neural crest cells Developmental ... A molecular atlas of the developing ectoderm defines neural, neural crest, placode, and nonneural progenitor identity in ... AKT signaling displays multifaceted functions in neural crest development Developmental Biology. Méghane Sittewelle, Anne H. ... PFKFB4 control of Akt signaling is essential for premigratory and migratory neural crest formation Development ...
Roles of Collagen and Periostin Expression by Cranial Neural Crest Cells during Soft Palate Development. In: Journal of ... In this study, the authors investigated the contribution of cranial neural crest (CNC) cells to development of both hard and ... Dive into the research topics of Roles of Collagen and Periostin Expression by Cranial Neural Crest Cells during Soft Palate ... Roles of Collagen and Periostin Expression by Cranial Neural Crest Cells during Soft Palate Development. / Oka, Kyoko; Honda, ...
Outside of the neural retina, ocular Angpt1-GFP expression was confined to tissues of neural crest origin, which include the TM ... 4: Neural-crest derived SVEP1 is essential for Schlemms canal formation.. A SVEP1 expression was observed in the trabecular ... 1: Ocular Angpt1-expressing tissues are derived from the neural crest.. A Angpt1-GFP staining showing expression in PDGFRB- ... To generate neural crest-specific Angpt1 knockout (Angpt1ΔNC) mice, previously described Angpt1-floxed mice (Angpt1tm1.1Seq)31 ...
Dive into the research topics of Wnt-frizzled signaling in neural crest formation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Dive into the research topics of Taste buds are not derived from neural crest in mouse, chicken, and zebrafish. Together they ... Taste buds are not derived from neural crest in mouse, chicken, and zebrafish. ...
... the diverse roles of neural crest cells, migration of the neural crest cells into the branchial arches (particularly the hyoid ... The Neural Crest and Hyoid Arch Invasion. A basic understanding of cranial NC cell migration in the head and neck is important ... 11] the 3 phases of cranial neural crest migration are as follows:. *. Acquisition of directed migration to the dorsolateral ... Considerably fewer neural crest cells derived from r3 and r5 migrate laterally; these cells typically migrate caudally or ...
Some neural stem cells persist in the adult vertebrate brain and continue to produce neurons. 2. The neural crest cells ... 1. Neural stem cells are the self-renewing and multipotent cells that generate the neurons of the nervous system of all animals ... Neural stem cells generate the neurons of the nervous system and neural crest cells from the embryonic ectoderm and diverse ... Is the term Neural cells the same as Neural crest cells?. Biology Reproduction & Development Embryogenesis ...
Here we present a genome-wide in vivo reconstruction of the GRN underlying development of the multipotent neural crest (NC) ... upstream combinatorial regulatory codes has afforded new insights into opposing gene circuits that define canonical and neural ... Reconstruction of the Global Neural Crest Gene Regulatory Network In Vivo. Williams RM., Candido-Ferreira I., Repapi E., ... Here we present a genome-wide in vivo reconstruction of the GRN underlying development of the multipotent neural crest (NC) ...
Neural crest cells migrate from the developing spinal cord to specific regions in the embryo and give rise to many tissues and ... indicates that the snail 2 protein is required during embryonic growth for the development of cells called neural crest cells. ...
Kulesa, P. Neural crest cell dynamics revealed by time-lapse video microscopy of whole chick explant cultures. Dev. Biol. 204, ... Bronner-Fraser, M. & Fraser, S. Cell lineage analysis reveals multipotency of some avian neural crest cells. Nature 335, 161- ... Krull, C. E., Collazo, A., Fraser, S. E. & Bronner-Fraser, M. Segmental migration of trunk neural crest: time lapse analysis ...
Neural crest and the patterning of vertebrate craniofacial muscles. *J. Ziermann, R. Diogo, D. Noden ...
Here we used a conditional knockout approach to analyze the effects of neural crest deletion of Dlx3 on craniofacial bones ... In vivo impact of Dlx3 conditional inactivation in neural crest-derived craniofacial bones.. Duverger, Olivier; Isaac, Juliane ... supporting cell autonomous defects in neural crest cells. However, adult mutant animals exhibited decreased bone mineral ... Ossos Faciais/anormalidades Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética Crista Neural/anormalidades Crânio/anormalidades Fatores de ...
ADAR1 mediated regulation of neural crest derived melanocytes and Schwann cell development.. Gacem N, Kavo A, Zerad L, Richard ... Nat Commun: ADAR1 mediated regulation of neural crest derived melanocytes and Schwann cell development.. Published by ...
Molecular Events Controlling Cessation of Trunk Neural Crest Migration and Onset of Differentiation.docx ... Neural crest cells (NCC) migrate extensively in vertebrate embryos to populate diverse derivatives including ganglia of the ... Table_3_Molecular Events Controlling Cessation of Trunk Neural Crest Migration and Onset of Differentiation. .docx (. 13.86 kB ... A secondary screen of in situ hybridization revealed that many genes are specifically enhanced in neural crest-derived ganglia ...
During neural crest migration, Wnt11 is expressed next to the migrating neural crest. np, neural plate; nc, neural crest; s, ... During neural crest migration, Wnt11 is expressed next to the migrating neural crest. np, neural plate; nc, neural crest; s, ... The possibility that neural crest was induced in the graft is ruled out, as competence for neural crest induction is lost at ... Analysis of early neural crest markers shows no effect of Dsh-DEP+ on neural crest induction (Fig. 1), indicating that non- ...
There is no evidence of neural crest origin. [29] There are no known etiologic factors. ... Homer-Wright-like neural rosettes may occasionally be seen. [19] PAS-diastase stain is usually negative for glycogen, although ... Previous studies have emphasized the presence of Homer-Wright rosettes and immunohistochemical neural markers as evidence of ... Immunohistochemically, DSRCT expresses the polyphenotypic expression of cytokeratin, vimentin, desmin, and neural markers. ...
The Neural Crest (NC) This article discusses how the study of neural crest (NC) development in chicken embryos is aided… ...
  • We demonstrate that these defects are due to the inability of neural crest cells to migrate into the periphery, rather than to a deficiency in neural crest progenitors specification and survival. (xenbase.org)
  • Neural crest cells migrate from the developing spinal cord to specific regions in the embryo and give rise to many tissues and cell types, including some nerve tissue and pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Neural crest cells (NCC) migrate extensively in vertebrate embryos to populate diverse derivatives including ganglia of the peripheral nervous system. (figshare.com)
  • During embryonic development melanocytes are formed from melanoblasts, which originate in the neural crest and migrate through the developing embryo in order to reach their final position on the body [ 2 ]. (plos.org)
  • These cells arise in the neural crest and begin to migrate as melanoblasts through the developing dermis. (ed.ac.uk)
  • consequently, melanomas, although they usually occur on the skin (see the image below), can arise in other locations where neural crest cells migrate, such as the gastrointestinal tract and brain. (medscape.com)
  • The mechanism has not been precisely identified, but may include failure of the cervical neural crest cells to differentiate and migrate into the derivatives of the pharyngeal pouches and arches, deficient blastogenesis as a result of defective interaction between mesoderm and neural crest cells, and failure of mesoderm formation. (mhmedical.com)
  • Melanoma pathogenesis from normal neural crest-derived melanocytes is often fatal due to aggressive cell invasion throughout the body. (biologists.com)
  • Nat Commun: ADAR1 mediated regulation of neural crest derived melanocytes and Schwann cell development. (genosplice.com)
  • Melanoma develops from atypically transformed melanocytes whose fetal precursor cells originate from the neural crest. (medscape.com)
  • As the neural tube closes (K,L), Sox8 is detected in the migrating neural crest cells in the cranial region (arrows), and the premigratory cells in the trunk neural crest (arrowheads). (xenbase.org)
  • We tested this hypothesis using migrating neural crest cells as an in vitro model system. (rupress.org)
  • Anteriorly positioned cranial neural crest cells, which align with rhombomeres 4/5, contribute to the hyoid arch structures including the ceratohyal and hyosymplectic cartilages. (zfin.org)
  • Later in development, Sox8 expression persists in migrating cranial crest cells as they populate the pharyngeal arches and in trunk neural crest cells, in a pattern that recapitulates both Sox9 and Sox10 expression domains. (xenbase.org)
  • Posteriorly, although Sox8 and Sox10 are both expressed in trunk neural crest cells, Sox9 is downregulated in this cell population. (xenbase.org)
  • Krull, C. E., Collazo, A., Fraser, S. E. & Bronner-Fraser, M. Segmental migration of trunk neural crest: time lapse analysis reveals a role for PNA-binding molecules. (nature.com)
  • Comparison of Sox8 (E) Sox9 (F) and Sox10 (G) expression in sibling stage 14/15 embryos illustrates that all three genes are expressed in the presumptive neural crest. (xenbase.org)
  • The neural crest is a transient structure in vertebrate embryos that produces migratory cells with an astonishing developmental potential. (uzh.ch)
  • Early in the process of development, vertebrate embryos develop a fold on the neural plate where the neural and epidermal ectoderms meet, called the neural crest. (asu.edu)
  • Sleight and Gillis labelled the cells from the neural crest and mesoderm of little skate embryos with a fluorescent dye and then tracked the cells over several weeks. (elifesciences.org)
  • Julia Barlow Platt studied neural crests in animal embryos and became involved in politics in the US during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (asu.edu)
  • Functional studies showed that ectopic expression of bovine TWIST2 in neural crest in transgenic zebrafish led to a decrease in melanocyte numbers. (plos.org)
  • In vivo impact of Dlx3 conditional inactivation in neural crest-derived craniofacial bones. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we used a conditional knockout approach to analyze the effects of neural crest deletion of Dlx3 on craniofacial bones development. (bvsalud.org)
  • The ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 promotes neural crest cell (NCC) survival and stem-cell like properties to regulate craniofacial and peripheral nervous system development. (bjcancer.org)
  • Migration of neural crest cells is an elaborate process that requires the delamination of cells from an epithelium and cell movement into an extracellular matrix. (silverchair.com)
  • In this work, it is shown for the first time that the non-canonical Wnt signalling [planar cell polarity (PCP) or Wnt-Ca 2+ ] pathway controls migration of neural crest cells. (silverchair.com)
  • Platt observed that in the mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus), the coordinated migration of neural crest cells in the embryo produced parts of the nervous system, bones, and connective tissues in the head. (asu.edu)
  • A secondary screen of in situ hybridization revealed that many genes are specifically enhanced in neural crest-derived ganglia, including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a ligand for CXCR4 receptor. (figshare.com)
  • Sox8 , Sox9 and Sox10 , exhibit overlapping expression domains in neural crest progenitors, and studies in mouse suggest that Sox8 functions redundantly with Sox9 and Sox10 during neural crest development. (xenbase.org)
  • in contrast to its mouse and chick orthologs, Sox8 expression precedes that of Sox9 and Sox10 in neural crest progenitors. (xenbase.org)
  • Although morpholino-mediated knockdown of Sox8 protein did not prevent the formation of neural crest progenitors, the timing of their induction was severely affected. (xenbase.org)
  • Sox8 expression in neural crest progenitors and their derivatives. (xenbase.org)
  • His lab is mainly interested in neural crest-derived stem cell populations, which are promising candidates for the development of autologous stem cell-based therapies. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • Neural stem cells are the self-renewing and multipotent cells that generate the neurons of the nervous system of all animals during embryonic development. (socratic.org)
  • Here we present a genome-wide in vivo reconstruction of the GRN underlying development of the multipotent neural crest (NC) embryonic cell population. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Gegenbaur proposed that paired fins evolved as gill arch serial homologues, but this hypothesis is now widely discounted, owing largely to the presumed distinct embryonic origins of these structures from mesoderm and neural crest, respectively. (elifesciences.org)
  • We find that while the jaw and hyoid arch skeleton derive from neural crest, and the pectoral fin skeleton from mesoderm, the gill arches are of dual origin, receiving contributions from both germ layers. (elifesciences.org)
  • Gill skeletons develop from a part of the embryo called the neural crest, while fin skeletons come from a region called the mesoderm. (elifesciences.org)
  • This suggests that fins and gills develop from a common pool of cells that consists of both neural crest and mesoderm cells, which have the potential to develop into either body part. (elifesciences.org)
  • To this end, this article briefly discusses numerous important processes in head and neck embryology, namely the implications of patterning in hindbrain development, the diverse roles of neural crest cells, migration of the neural crest cells into the branchial arches (particularly the hyoid arch), and the genetic control of these processes. (medscape.com)
  • Enteric ganglion cells are derived from the neural crest during embryonic development. (medscape.com)
  • Neural stem cells generate the neurons of the nervous system and neural crest cells from the embryonic ectoderm and diverse cell lineage. (socratic.org)
  • Bronner-Fraser, M. & Fraser, S. Cell lineage analysis reveals multipotency of some avian neural crest cells. (nature.com)
  • The Gabsang Lee Lab focuses on the neural crest lineage and skeletal muscle tissue, in terms of their fate-determination processes as well as relevant genetic disorders. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Neural crest cells originate from the neural plate during early neural development and exist transiently in the embryo before migrating to various locations where they then develop into adult structures. (picmonic.com)
  • Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs), as the developmental precursors of the peripheral nervous system, are uniquely advantageous, but the role of NCSCs in neuromuscular regeneration is not clear. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Functional analysis of Sox8 during neural crest development in Xenopus. (xenbase.org)
  • Among the families of transcription factors expressed at the neural plate border , Sox proteins have been shown to regulate multiple aspects of neural crest development. (xenbase.org)
  • This delay in neural crest specification had dramatic consequences on the development of multiple lineages of the neural crest . (xenbase.org)
  • These results indicate that the control of Sox8 expression at the neural plate border is a key process in initiating neural crest formation in Xenopus, and highlight species-specific differences in the relative importance of SoxE proteins during neural crest development. (xenbase.org)
  • During embryological development, the final structures formed from neural crest cells are termed neural crest derivatives. (picmonic.com)
  • In this study, the authors investigated the contribution of cranial neural crest (CNC) cells to development of both hard and soft palates. (elsevier.com)
  • The development of the hindbrain (rhombencephalon) and the subsequent delamination of the neural crest cells are interrelated processes that need to be understood to appreciate the development of the branchiomotor cranial nerves in general and the facial nerve in particular. (medscape.com)
  • [ 2 ] Primary neurulation is a process that leads to the development of the neural tube from the neural plate. (medscape.com)
  • Research indicates that the snail 2 protein is required during embryonic growth for the development of cells called neural crest cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We hypothesized that the CNV causes aberrant expression of TWIST2 during neural crest development, which might negatively affect melanoblasts. (plos.org)
  • It is thought that these belted phenotypes are due to downregulated melanoblast formation or early melanoblast losses in neural crest development. (plos.org)
  • The Pr1.8-βgal expression pattern supports a role for DSCAM in CNS development, providing an endogenous promoter to investigate the contribution of DSCAM to Down syndrome neural defects. (elsevier.com)
  • If Johnston's view is correct, the neural crest in the mesencephalic region must have been drawn into the neural tube during development and given rise to this sensory nucleus of origin (not a terminal nucleus) within the central nervous system. (co.ma)
  • Mib1 prevents Notch Cis-inhibition to defer differentiation and preserve neuroepithelial integrity during neural delamination. (ens.fr)
  • Some neural stem cells persist in the adult vertebrate brain and continue to produce neurons. (socratic.org)
  • Previously, we studied a human genetic disorder (familial dysautonomia, or FD) with hiPSCs and found that FD-specific neural crest cells have low levels of genes needed to make autonomous neurons--the ones needed for the "fight-or-flight" response. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Biochemistry of Human Cancer focuses on advances in the application of biochemistry to the study of human cancers, such as neoplastic immunoglobulinopathies, cancer of the bladder, tumors of the neural crest, leukemias and lymphomas, and neoplasms of the bone. (elsevier.com)
  • The remaining chapters look at the role of enzymes and immunoglobulins in cancer, the tryptophan metabolism in cancer of the bladder and the carcinoid syndrome, the link between amino acid metabolism and tumors of the neural crest, and the neoplasms of the digestive tract and the accessory organs (pancreas and liver). (elsevier.com)
  • There is also an associated with neural crest tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Ameloblastoma is a benign dental tumor mostly found in the mandible, with several variations El ameloblastoma es un tumor odontogénico benigno que se encuentra mayormente en la mandíbula 80%) usually found in the mandible, making up about 1% of tumors in the oral region.2 ameloblastoma . (udea.edu.co)
  • At stage 11.5 (B-D) Sox8 expression around the blastopore persists and additional expression is detected lateral to the neural plate (arrows). (xenbase.org)
  • H) Section of a stage 15 embryo illustrates the expression of Sox8 in both the lateral (arrows) and the medial neural crest (arrowheads). (xenbase.org)
  • Comparison of the onset expression of Sox8 with other neural plate border-specific genes. (xenbase.org)
  • A) Summary of the onset of expression of Sox8 and seven other neural plate border-specific genes in Xenopus. (xenbase.org)
  • Expression analysis of non-canonical Wnt ligands and their putative receptors show that Wnt11 is expressed in tissue adjacent to neural crest cells expressing the Wnt receptor Frizzled7 ( Fz7 ). (silverchair.com)
  • Liu T, Li G, Noble KV, Li Y, Barth JL, Schulte BA, Lang H. Age-dependent alterations of Kir4.1 expression in neural crest-derived cells of the mouse and human cochlea. (musc.edu)
  • Ets1 is required for proper migration and differentiation of the cardiac neural crest. (uab.edu)
  • Consistent with these molecular alterations, cells isolated from the frontal bone of mutant mice exhibited increased differentiation and mineralization capacities ex vivo, supporting cell autonomous defects in neural crest cells . (bvsalud.org)
  • During the first 4 weeks of embryogenesis, the notochord induces axial ectoderm to form the neural plate, which then folds along its long axis to form the neural tube. (medscape.com)
  • At stage 17 (I,J), Sox8 persists in the neural crest region and is also expressed anterior to the neural plate in the prospective cement gland (arrow). (xenbase.org)
  • The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE . (bvsalud.org)
  • Neural crest derivatives can be recalled using the mnemonic CA MOTEL ASS. (picmonic.com)
  • Homozygous S697A mutant mice lacked the ENS in the distal colon, resulting from a migration defect of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs). (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Further, we also isolated and optimized culture conditions for chick embryo derived trunk crestospheres, comprised of both neural crest stem and progenitor cells. (lu.se)
  • These technologies allowed the identification of minor neural crest-derived cell populations in tissues of non-neural crest origin. (uzh.ch)
  • Thus, neural crest-derived cells apparently contribute to tissue formation and regeneration by cell autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. (uzh.ch)
  • Evidence for a novel enzymatic mechanism of neural crest cell migration on extracellular glycoconjugate matrices. (rupress.org)
  • alpha-LA inhibited neural crest cell migration on basal lamina-like matrices in a dose-dependent manner, while under identical conditions, alpha-LA had no effect on cell migration on fibronectin. (rupress.org)
  • Second, the addition of competitive GalTase substrates significantly inhibited neural crest cell migration on basal lamina-like matrices, but as above, had no effect on migration on fibronectin. (rupress.org)
  • The neural crest cells generate temporary group of cells unique to vertebrates and from the embryonic ectoderm cell layer. (socratic.org)
  • Kulesa, P. Neural crest cell dynamics revealed by time-lapse video microscopy of whole chick explant cultures. (nature.com)
  • Grafts of neural crest tissue expressing non-canonical Dsh mutants, as well as neural crest cultured in vitro, indicate that the PCP pathway works in a cell-autonomous manner to control neural crest migration. (silverchair.com)
  • The neural crest produces neural crest cells (NCCs), which become multiple different cell types and contribute to tissues and organs as an embryo develops. (asu.edu)
  • The first gill contained only neural crest cells, but the rest were a mixture of both cell types. (elifesciences.org)
  • neural crest cells and melanoblasts. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Reconstruction of the Global Neural Crest Gene Regulatory Network In Vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have developed a procedure for preparation of 131I-MIBG and studied its utility in diagnosis of primary and metastatic neural crest tumours. (who.int)
  • Our experience in the present study shows that 131I-MIBG scintigraphy is a sensitive and specific diagnostic tool to localise primary and metastatic disease of neural crest tumours. (who.int)
  • The rostral division of the neural tube into its 3 main sections falls under the control of homeobox (Hox) family of genes. (medscape.com)
  • When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE . (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared with its conventional counterpart, the proposed architecture inherently rejects electrode offset, increases input impedance 5-10 fold, compresses neural data dynamic range (DR) by 4.5-bit, simultaneously records local field potentials (LFPs) and extracellular spikes, and is more suitable for long-term recording experiments. (umn.edu)
  • Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. (bvsalud.org)
  • By using specific Dsh mutants, we show that the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is needed for neural crest induction, while the non-canonical Wnt pathway is required for neural crest migration. (silverchair.com)
  • abstract = "This paper presents a frequency-shaping (FS) neural recording architecture and its implementation in a 0.13 μ m CMOS process. (umn.edu)
  • Suite à leur isolation de cœurs infarcis de rats, les cellules souches neuronales cardiaques prolifèrent sous forme de neurosphères et, dans des conditions appropriées in vitro, se différencient en neurones exprimant le neurofilament-M. Suite à un infarctus du myocarde, les niveaux de l'ARNm de nestine sont significativement augmentés au niveau de la région infarcie et non-infarcie. (umontreal.ca)
  • Furthermore, identification and dissection of divergent upstream combinatorial regulatory codes has afforded new insights into opposing gene circuits that define canonical and neural NC fates early during NC ontogeny. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In an effort to discover novel drugs, we performed high-throughput screening with a compound library using FD patient-derived neural crest cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Finally, recent reports indicate that neural crest-derived cells become activated in response to injury to secrete factors supporting tissue repair. (uzh.ch)
  • Sox8 , Sox9 and Sox10 are co-expressed in the migrating cranial neural crest. (xenbase.org)
  • Summary: Researchers revealed that culturing human induced pluripotent stem cells with different isoforms of the extracellular component laminin led to the creation of cells specific to different parts of the eye, including retinal, corneal, and neural crest cells. (alliancecelltechnologies.eu)