Central Nervous System Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Central Nervous System Viral Diseases
Central Nervous System Infections
Central Nervous System
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
AIDS Dementia Complex
Maus Elberfeld virus
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Disease Models, Animal
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases
Lamin Type A
Digestive System Diseases
Peripheral Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
Cause of Death
Enteric Nervous System
Central Nervous System Neoplasms
Heart Conduction System
Autonomic Nervous System
Immune System Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Sympathetic Nervous System
Nervous System Physiological Phenomena
Nervous System Neoplasms
Retarded growth and deficits in the enteric and parasympathetic nervous system in mice lacking GFR alpha2, a functional neurturin receptor. (1/3079)Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and a related protein, neurturin (NTN), require a GPI-linked coreceptor, either GFR alpha1 or GFR alpha2, for signaling via the transmembrane Ret tyrosine kinase. We show that mice lacking functional GFR alpha2 coreceptor (Gfra2-/-) are viable and fertile but have dry eyes and grow poorly after weaning, presumably due to malnutrition. While the sympathetic innervation appeared normal, the parasympathetic cholinergic innervation was almost absent in the lacrimal and salivary glands and severely reduced in the small bowel. Neurite outgrowth and trophic effects of NTN at low concentrations were lacking in Gfra2-/- trigeminal neurons in vitro, whereas responses to GDNF were similar between the genotypes. Thus, GFR alpha2 is a physiological NTN receptor, essential for the development of specific postganglionic parasympathetic neurons. (+info)
Anti-amphiphysin I antibodies in patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders associated with small cell lung carcinoma. (2/3079)Patients with stiff man syndrome and breast cancer develop anti-amphiphysin I antibodies that primarily recognise the C terminus of the protein. Anti-amphiphysin I antibodies have also been identified in a few patients with paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PND) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The frequency of anti-amphiphysin I antibodies in patients with SCLC and PND was analysed and the epitope specificity of these antibodies was characterised. Anti-amphiphysin I antibodies were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on human and rat cerebellum and immunoblots of rat brain homogenates. Serum samples included 134 patients with PND and anti-Hu antibodies (83% had SCLC), 44 with SCLC and PND without anti-Hu-antibodies, 63 with PND and either Yo, Ri, or Tr antibodies, 146 with SCLC without PND, and 104 with non-PND. Positive serum samples were confirmed with immunoblots of recombinant human amphiphysin I and immunoreacted with five overlapping peptide fragments covering the full length of the molecule. Serum samples positive for anti-amphiphysin I antibodies included those from seven (2.9%) patients with PND and two (1.4%) with SCLC without PND. Six of the seven anti-amphiphysin I antibody positive patients with PND had SCLC (three with Hu-antibodies), and one had anti-Hu-antibodies but no detectable tumour. The PND included encephalomyelitis/sensory neuropathy (five patients), cerebellar degeneration (one), and opsoclonus (one). All anti-amphiphysin I antibodies reacted with the C terminus of amphiphysin I, but seven also recognised other fragments of the molecule. In conclusion, anti-amphiphysin I antibodies are present at low frequency in patients with SCLC irrespective of the presence of an associated PND. All anti-amphiphysin I antibody positive serum samples have in common reactivity with the C terminus of the protein. (+info)
Phase II trial of paclitaxel and cisplatin in metastatic and recurrent carcinoma of the uterine cervix. (3/3079)PURPOSE: Both paclitaxel and cisplatin have moderate activity in patients with metastatic or recurrent cancer of the cervix, and the combination of these two agents has shown activity and possible synergism in a variety of solid tumors. We administered this combination to patients with metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer to evaluate its activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four consecutive patients were treated on an outpatient basis with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 administered intravenously over a 3-hour period followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 administered intravenously with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support. The chemotherapy was administered every 3 weeks for a maximum of six courses. RESULTS: Sixteen patients (47%; 95% confidence interval, 30% to 65%) achieved an objective response, including five complete responses and 11 partial responses. Responses occurred in 28% of patients with disease within the radiation field only and in 57% of patients with disease involving other sites. The median duration of response was 5.5 months, and the median times to progression and survival for all patients were 5 and 9 months, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included anemia in 18% of patients and granulocytopenia in 15% of patients. Fifty-three percent of patients developed some degree of neurotoxicity; 21% of cases were grade 2 or worse. CONCLUSION: The combination of paclitaxel with cisplatin seems relatively well tolerated and moderately active in patients with metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer. The significant incidence of neurotoxicity is of concern, and alternative methods of administration of the two agents could be evaluated. Then, further study of this combination, alone or with the addition of other active agents, is warranted. (+info)
Nitric oxide, mitochondria and neurological disease. (4/3079)Damage to the mitochondrial electron transport chain has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of a range of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. There is also a growing body of evidence to implicate excessive or inappropriate generation of nitric oxide (NO) in these disorders. It is now well documented that NO and its toxic metabolite, peroxynitrite (ONOO-), can inhibit components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain leading, if damage is severe enough, to a cellular energy deficiency state. Within the brain, the susceptibility of different brain cell types to NO and ONOO- exposure may be dependent on factors such as the intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and an ability to increase glycolytic flux in the face of mitochondrial damage. Thus neurones, in contrast to astrocytes, appear particularly vulnerable to the action of these molecules. Following cytokine exposure, astrocytes can increase NO generation, due to de novo synthesis of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Whilst the NO/ONOO- so formed may not affect astrocyte survival, these molecules may diffuse out to cause mitochondrial damage, and possibly cell death, to other cells, such as neurones, in close proximity. Evidence is now available to support this scenario for neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis. In other conditions, such as ischaemia, increased availability of glutamate may lead to an activation of a calcium-dependent nitric oxide synthase associated with neurones. Such increased/inappropriate NO formation may contribute to energy depletion and neuronal cell death. The evidence available for NO/ONOO--mediated mitochondrial damage in various neurological disorders is considered and potential therapeutic strategies are proposed. (+info)
The effects of specific antibody fragments on the 'irreversible' neurotoxicity induced by Brown snake (Pseudonaja) venom. (5/3079)Brown snake (Pseudonaja) venom has been reported to produce 'irreversible' post synaptic neurotoxicity (Harris & Maltin, 1981; Barnett et al., 1980). A murine phrenic nerve/diaphragm preparation was used to study the neurotoxic effects of this venom and pre- and post-synaptic components were distinguished by varying the temperature and frequency of nerve stimulation. There were no myotoxic effects and the neurotoxicity proved irreversible by washing alone. The effects of a new Fab based ovine antivenom have been investigated and proved able to produce a complete, rapid (< 1 h) reversal of the neurotoxicity induced by Brown snake venom. A reversal was also possible when the antivenom addition was delayed for a further 60 min. We believe that this is the first time such a reversal has been shown. (+info)
Incidence of cranial ultrasound abnormalities in apparently well neonates on a postnatal ward: correlation with antenatal and perinatal factors and neurological status. (6/3079)AIM: To evaluate cranial ultrasonography and neurological examination in a cohort of infants regarded as normal; and to determine the prevalence of ultrasound abnormalities and any potential association with antenatal or perinatal factors or deviant neurological signs. METHODS: Cranial ultrasound findings and neurological status were evaluated in 177 newborns (gestational age 36.3 to 42 weeks), admitted to a postnatal ward directly after birth and regarded as normal by obstetric and paediatric staff. The age of the infants at the time of examination ranged between 6 and 48 hours. Ultrasound abnormalities were present in 35 of the 177 infants studied (20%). Ischaemic lesions, such as periventricular and thalamic densities were the most common finding (8%), followed by haemorrhagic lesions (6%). The possible sequelae of antenatal haemorrhages, such as focal ventricular dilatation or choroid cysts, were present in 6%. Abnormal ultrasound findings were not significantly associated with signs of perinatal distress, such as cardiotocographic abnormalities or passage of meconium. Abnormal ultrasound findings tended to be associated with antenatal problems, although this did not reach significance. Ultrasound abnormalities were strongly associated with deviant patterns on the neurological examination. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ultrasound abnormalities are more common than has been reported up to now. Lesions that could be ischaemic, such as flare densities, are seen even in the absence of any antenatal or perinatal risk factor. (+info)
Neurology and the skin. (7/3079)As knowledge of pathophysiology grows, so does the refinement of diagnoses. Sometimes increased knowledge permits consolidation and unification. Unfortunately, at our present level of understanding, it usually demands proliferation of diagnostic categories. As tedious as this diagnostic splintering may seem, such is the price currently exacted of both the investigator and the clinician who seek to optimise management. Increased diagnostic refinement often requires inquiry into matters outside the bounds of one's specialty. Most often we turn to the radiologist or to the laboratory to narrow the differential diagnosis generated from the history and neurological examination. As we have shown, a useful intermediate step is extension of the physical examination to organs such as the skin, which are not the traditional preserve of the neurologist. That any text could confer the sophistication required for expert dermatological diagnosis is an unrealistic expectation. However, we hope that this review will encourage careful examination of the skin, hair, and nails by the neurological practitioner, with consideration of referral to a dermatologist when greater expertise is required. (+info)
Assessing the machinery of mind: synapses in neuropsychiatric disorders. (8/3079)Neural connectivity in postmortem human brain can now be studied with the use of antibodies that react with synapse-enriched proteins. Using a range of antibody-based techniques, the authors observed abnormalities in connectivity in Alzheimer's disease, temporal lobe epilepsy, and schizophrenia. They also found disease-related differences in the individual protein markers affected and in the anatomical distribution of differences from controls. Molecular and cellular abnormalities in neural connectivity may underlie functional abnormalities observed in vivo using positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging. (+info)
Central nervous system (CNS) diseases refer to disorders that affect the brain and spinal cord. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, injuries, and degenerative processes. Some common examples of CNS diseases include: 1. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are disorders that cause the progressive loss of brain cells and function, leading to cognitive decline and physical disability. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. 2. Infections: Infections caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites can affect the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms such as fever, headache, seizures, and paralysis. 3. Trauma: Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord, such as those caused by car accidents, falls, or sports injuries, can result in a range of neurological symptoms. 4. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders can affect the development and function of the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms such as intellectual disability, movement disorders, and seizures. 5. Autoimmune disorders: Autoimmune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, can cause inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of neurological symptoms. Overall, CNS diseases can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and can be challenging to diagnose and treat.
Nervous system diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nervous system, which is responsible for transmitting signals between different parts of the body. These diseases can affect any part of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles. Some examples of nervous system diseases include: 1. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are conditions that cause the progressive loss of nerve cells and their functions, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. 2. Neuromuscular diseases: These are conditions that affect the muscles and nerves that control movement, such as muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and multiple sclerosis. 3. Neurological disorders: These are conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, such as epilepsy, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. 4. Neuropsychiatric disorders: These are conditions that affect the brain and behavior, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. 5. Infections of the nervous system: These are conditions caused by infections, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and neurocysticercosis. Treatment for nervous system diseases depends on the specific condition and can include medications, surgery, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for improving outcomes and managing symptoms.
Central Nervous System Viral Diseases (CNSVDs) are infections caused by viruses that affect the brain and spinal cord. These viruses can enter the central nervous system (CNS) through various routes, such as the bloodstream, respiratory system, or mucous membranes. CNSVDs can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and paralysis. Some viruses can also cause more severe neurological complications, such as meningitis, encephalitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome. Examples of viruses that can cause CNSVDs include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, dengue virus, and Zika virus. Treatment for CNSVDs typically involves antiviral medications, supportive care, and management of symptoms. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for severe cases or complications.
Meningoencephalitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of both the meninges, which are the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord, and the brain itself. This inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral or bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, or certain medications. Symptoms of meningoencephalitis can include fever, headache, nausea and vomiting, sensitivity to light, confusion, seizures, and changes in mental status. In severe cases, meningoencephalitis can lead to coma or even death. Diagnosis of meningoencephalitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood tests, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and imaging studies like MRI or CT scans. Treatment for meningoencephalitis depends on the underlying cause and can include antiviral or antibiotic medications, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization and intensive care may be necessary.
Central Nervous System (CNS) infections refer to infections that affect the brain and spinal cord. These infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and can result in a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, and changes in mental status or behavior. CNS infections can be classified into two main categories: primary and secondary. Primary CNS infections occur when the pathogen directly enters the brain or spinal cord, while secondary CNS infections occur when the pathogen enters the bloodstream and spreads to the brain or spinal cord. Some common examples of primary CNS infections include meningitis (inflammation of the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and brain abscess (a localized collection of pus in the brain). Secondary CNS infections can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus), viruses (such as herpes simplex virus or varicella-zoster virus), and fungi (such as Cryptococcus neoformans). Treatment for CNS infections typically involves the use of antibiotics, antiviral drugs, or antifungal medications, depending on the specific pathogen causing the infection. In some cases, surgery may also be necessary to remove infected tissue or drain abscesses. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing complications and improving outcomes.
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare and progressive neurological disorder caused by the measles virus. It typically occurs several years after a person has had measles, and the symptoms can take several months to appear. The disease is characterized by a slow and progressive decline in mental and physical abilities, including memory loss, confusion, seizures, and muscle weakness. As the disease progresses, the symptoms become more severe and can lead to coma and death. There is no cure for SSPE, and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms and providing supportive care. The disease is preventable through vaccination against measles, which is highly effective in preventing SSPE and other complications of measles.
AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) is a neurological disorder that occurs in people with advanced HIV/AIDS. It is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive function, memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality. ADC is caused by the damage to the brain and nervous system that occurs as a result of HIV infection and the immune system's response to the virus. The symptoms of ADC can range from mild to severe and can affect a person's ability to perform daily activities. Treatment for ADC typically involves managing the underlying HIV infection and addressing the specific symptoms of the disorder.
Brain diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or chemistry of the brain. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, injuries, toxins, and degenerative processes. Some common examples of brain diseases include: 1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, cognitive decline, and behavioral changes. 2. Parkinson's disease: A movement disorder caused by the degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the brain. 3. Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system, causing inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers. 4. Huntington's disease: A genetic disorder that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, leading to movement, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms. 5. Epilepsy: A neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, genetic mutations, and brain tumors. 6. Stroke: A medical emergency caused by a disruption of blood flow to the brain, which can result in brain damage or death. 7. Brain tumors: Benign or malignant growths of abnormal cells in the brain that can cause a range of symptoms, depending on their location and size. These are just a few examples of the many different types of brain diseases that can affect people. Treatment options for brain diseases depend on the specific condition and its severity, and may include medications, surgery, physical therapy, and other interventions.
Demyelinating diseases are a group of neurological disorders characterized by the loss of the protective myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers in the central nervous system (CNS). The myelin sheath is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system, as it allows electrical signals to travel quickly and efficiently along the nerve fibers. Demyelinating diseases can be classified into two main categories: primary and secondary. Primary demyelinating diseases, also known as idiopathic demyelinating diseases, are caused by an autoimmune response in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the myelin sheath. Examples of primary demyelinating diseases include multiple sclerosis (MS), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Secondary demyelinating diseases, on the other hand, are caused by an underlying condition that damages the myelin sheath. Examples of secondary demyelinating diseases include chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and transverse myelitis. Symptoms of demyelinating diseases can vary widely depending on the specific disease and the location of the affected nerve fibers. Common symptoms include weakness, numbness, tingling, difficulty with coordination and balance, vision problems, and cognitive impairment. Treatment for demyelinating diseases typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and slow the progression of the disease, as well as physical therapy and other supportive measures to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Enterovirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by enteroviruses, which are a type of RNA virus that primarily affect the gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. These viruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through contact with contaminated surfaces, bodily fluids, or respiratory droplets. Enterovirus infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and rash. In some cases, enterovirus infections can lead to more serious complications, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and paralysis. There is no specific treatment for enterovirus infections, as the viruses cannot be killed by antibiotics. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and providing supportive care, such as fluids and pain relief. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. Prevention of enterovirus infections involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding contact with infected individuals or surfaces. Vaccines are not currently available for all types of enteroviruses, but some vaccines are in development.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases (ANSDs) refer to a group of disorders that affect the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which is responsible for regulating involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and breathing. The ANS is divided into two branches: the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). ANSDs can affect either or both branches of the ANS, leading to a range of symptoms and complications. Some common ANSDs include: 1. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA): a progressive disorder that affects the ANS, causing symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty swallowing. 2. Parkinson's Disease: a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the ANS, leading to symptoms such as tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination. 3. Autonomic Failure: a group of disorders that affect the ANS, causing symptoms such as low blood pressure, dizziness, and fainting. 4. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): a disorder that affects the ANS, causing symptoms such as rapid heart rate, dizziness, and fainting when standing up. 5. Orthostatic Hypotension: a disorder that affects the ANS, causing symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, and low blood pressure when standing up. Treatment for ANSDs depends on the specific disorder and its severity. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms, while in other cases, lifestyle changes or surgery may be necessary.
Lamin Type A is a type of protein that is found in the nuclear lamina, a mesh-like structure that surrounds the nucleus of a cell. The nuclear lamina plays a crucial role in maintaining the shape and integrity of the nucleus, as well as in regulating gene expression and DNA replication. Lamin Type A is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and then transported to the nucleus, where it is assembled into a filamentous network that forms the nuclear lamina. Lamin Type A is also involved in the formation of interphase chromatin fibers, which help to organize and compact the DNA within the nucleus. Mutations in the gene that encodes Lamin Type A can lead to a group of genetic disorders known as laminopathies, which are characterized by a range of symptoms including muscle weakness, bone deformities, and developmental delays. These disorders are caused by defects in the structure or function of the nuclear lamina, which can disrupt normal cellular processes and lead to tissue damage and dysfunction.
Digestive system diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the organs and structures involved in the digestion and absorption of food. These diseases can affect any part of the digestive system, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and bile ducts. Some common digestive system diseases include: 1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 2. Peptic ulcers 3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis 4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 5. Diverticulitis 6. Appendicitis 7. Pancreatitis 8. Cholecystitis 9. Hepatitis 10. Cirrhosis 11. Colorectal cancer 12. Celiac disease 13. Malabsorption syndromes, such as lactose intolerance and celiac disease. These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and weight loss. Treatment for digestive system diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, dietary changes, lifestyle modifications, and in some cases, surgery.
Peripheral nervous system diseases refer to disorders that affect the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves that carry signals from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. These diseases can affect the nerves themselves or the tissues surrounding them, and can result in a range of symptoms, including pain, numbness, weakness, and tingling. Some examples of peripheral nervous system diseases include: 1. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A group of inherited disorders that affect the nerves in the hands and feet, causing weakness, numbness, and loss of sensation. 2. Guillain-Barre syndrome: A rare autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the peripheral nerves, causing weakness and paralysis. 3. Peripheral neuropathy: A general term for any disorder that affects the peripheral nerves, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, alcoholism, and exposure to certain toxins. 4. Multiple sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord, but can also affect the peripheral nerves, causing symptoms such as numbness and weakness. 5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): A progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the nerves controlling muscle movement, leading to weakness and paralysis. Treatment for peripheral nervous system diseases depends on the specific disorder and its underlying cause. In some cases, medications or physical therapy may be used to manage symptoms, while in other cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary.
Central Nervous System (CNS) neoplasms are tumors that develop in the brain or spinal cord. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). CNS neoplasms can affect any part of the brain or spinal cord, including the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The symptoms of CNS neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or hearing, difficulty with balance or coordination, and changes in personality or behavior. Diagnosis of CNS neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as MRI or CT scans, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of a tumor. Treatment options for CNS neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. CNS neoplasms can be challenging to treat because they are often located in critical areas of the brain or spinal cord, and because they can be difficult to completely remove without causing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. However, with appropriate treatment and management, many people with CNS neoplasms are able to live long and fulfilling lives.
Immune system diseases refer to a group of disorders that affect the body's immune system, which is responsible for defending the body against infections and diseases. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, autoimmune disorders, and exposure to certain chemicals or toxins. Some common examples of immune system diseases include: 1. Autoimmune diseases: These are disorders in which the immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues in the body. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis. 2. Infections: Certain infections can weaken the immune system, making the body more susceptible to other infections. Examples include HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. 3. Immunodeficiency disorders: These are conditions in which the immune system is unable to function properly, leaving the body vulnerable to infections and diseases. Examples include severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). 4. Allergies: While allergies are not strictly immune system diseases, they involve an overactive immune response to harmless substances, such as pollen or certain foods. Treatment for immune system diseases depends on the specific disorder and its severity. In some cases, medications may be used to suppress the immune system or to treat symptoms. In other cases, lifestyle changes or alternative therapies may be recommended.
Endocrine system diseases refer to disorders that affect the endocrine glands and the hormones they produce. The endocrine system is responsible for regulating various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, and reproduction. Endocrine system diseases can be classified into two main categories: endocrine disorders and endocrine tumors. Endocrine disorders are conditions in which the endocrine glands produce too much or too little of a hormone, leading to imbalances in the body's chemical processes. Examples of endocrine disorders include diabetes, thyroid disorders, and Cushing's syndrome. Endocrine tumors, on the other hand, are abnormal growths of cells in the endocrine glands. These tumors can produce too much or too little of a hormone, leading to similar symptoms as endocrine disorders. Examples of endocrine tumors include pituitary adenomas, thyroid nodules, and adrenal gland tumors. Endocrine system diseases can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated. Treatment options for endocrine system diseases depend on the specific condition and may include medication, surgery, or other therapies.
Nervous system neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can affect any part of the nervous system. The nervous system is responsible for transmitting signals throughout the body, controlling movement, sensation, and thought. When a neoplasm develops in the nervous system, it can disrupt these functions and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms of nervous system neoplasms include headaches, seizures, changes in sensation or movement, difficulty speaking or swallowing, and changes in behavior or personality. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of a tumor. Treatment for nervous system neoplasms depends on the type, location, and size of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. In some cases, a watchful waiting approach may be appropriate if the tumor is small and not causing symptoms.
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Diagnosis and management of neurological sarcoidosis
- Possible treatment for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases ( Parkinson's disease , Huntington's disease , etc. (iptq.com)
- He has joined Juan Gonzalez, MD , at HPG-Neurology and diagnoses and treats issues related to the brain, spinal cord, nerves and muscles, including the treatment of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, seizure disorders, and strokes. (hamiltonhealth.com)
- Other disorders that are associated with a damaged nerve system include Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This could lead to improvements in ischemic stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Although research in the early stages, accumulated evidence suggests that some culinary-medicinal mushrooms, including lion's mane, may play an important role in the prevention of many neurological dysfunctions - including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases - by reducing chemicals known to cause brain damage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Dementia is not a specific disease but is rather a general term for the impaired ability to remember, think, or make decisions that interferes with doing everyday activities. (roche.com)
- Advances in biomarker testing, a growing number of dementia-inclusive communities, and open clinical trials for conditions like Alzheimer's disease are transforming future outlooks. (roche.com)
- The nervous system wracked with tertiary syphilis, causing dementia and paralysis. (iptq.com)
- Accumlating evidence have suggested that diabetes mellitus links dementia, notably of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (nature.com)
- Pathogenetic mechanisms and medical behaviours which can improve health in patients with dementia, Parkinson disease and motoneuron diseases" scientific coordinator: C. Caltagirone. (unibo.it)
- The autonomic nervous system--a role in sudden infant death syndrome. (bmj.com)
- In this review, we explore the mechanisms of thrombin action, localization, and functions in the central nervous system and describe the involvement of thrombin in stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage, neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, and primary central nervous system tumors. (tau.ac.il)
- We aim to comprehensively characterize the role of thrombin in neurological disease and injury. (tau.ac.il)
- Evaluation for neurological disease included routine physical examination. (nih.gov)
- Neurological disease was identified in 71 of 554 patients with sarcoidosis. (nih.gov)
- Cysticercosis of the central nervous system is the most important neurological disease of parasitic origin in humans. (who.int)
- Autoimmune disease antibody attacking my brain and nervous system. (mayoclinic.org)
- Although the exact cause is unknown, it's considered an autoimmune disease. (medicinenet.com)
- Because the exact antigen or target of the immune-mediated attack is not known, many experts prefer to label multiple sclerosis as 'immune-mediated instead of an autoimmune disease. (medicinenet.com)
- Baylisascariasis is not a nationally notifiable disease in the United States, and little is known about how commonly it occurs or the range of clinical disease in humans. (cdc.gov)
- Infection with Streptococcus pyogenes , a beta-hemolytic bacterium that belongs to Lancefield serogroup A, also known as the group A streptococci (GAS), causes a wide variety of diseases in humans. (medscape.com)
- Parechoviruses are a group of viruses known to cause a spectrum of disease in humans. (cdc.gov)
- There are four species, of which only PeV-A is known to cause disease in humans. (cdc.gov)
- Similarly, direct injection of viruses into the cerebrospinal fluid (e.g., via lumbar puncture in humans) also permits targeting of the peripheral (PNS) and central nervous systems (CNS). (frontiersin.org)
- Understandably, researchers are scrambling to shed light on the devastating impact that the disease has on humans, leaving the great apes hidden in the dark. (listverse.com)
- These eggs then develop into cysticerci which migrate mostly into muscle (causing cysticercosis) and into the central nervous system where the cysticerci can cause seizures and many other neurological symptoms (cysticercosis of the central nervous system). (who.int)
- Conversely, a study in Honduras reported in 1999 showed that when a diagnosis of cysticercosis of the central nervous system had been made, seizures were the presenting symptom in 52% of cases. (who.int)
- The diagnosis of cysticercosis of the central nervous system involves the interpretation of non-specific clinical manifestations, such as seizures, often with characteristic findings on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and the use of specific serological tests. (who.int)
- As the disease crawls through the nervous system, seizures and paralysis occur. (listverse.com)
- Alzheimer's disease remains one of society's greatest public health challenges, costing an estimated USD 818 billion (1.1% of the global GDP)1 and placing immeasurable burden on patients and their loved ones. (roche.com)
- Characteristics of patients misdiagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and their medication use: an analysis of the NACC-UDS database. (roche.com)
- In testimony before a meeting of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee, Public Citizen urged the committee to recommend that the FDA not approve aducanumab for treatment of Alzheimer's disease because there is not substantial evidence of effectiveness. (citizen.org)
- The optogenetic activation of hippocampal astrocytes can be viewed as a novel therapeutic avenue for addressing Alzheimer's disease. (medindia.net)
- In Alzheimer's disease condition, the control and adjustment of ABCA7 levels in response to inflammation and the decrease in the availability of cholesterol. (medindia.net)
- Senses of smell and taste returned, vertigo and tinnitus eliminated, and hearing and sight improved, by treatment of circulatory and other systems. (iptq.com)
- The immune system of a person with MS attacks the protective layer which surrounds the nerves. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Research is ongoing into developing new medications, immune system modifications, and other ways to identify potential causes of MS. (medicinenet.com)
- Multiple sclerosis is a disease that involves an immune-mediated process that results in an abnormal response in the body's immune system that damages central nervous system (CNS) tissues in which the immune system attacks myelin, the substance that surrounds and insulates nerve fibers causing demyelination that leads to nerve damage. (medicinenet.com)
- The diagnosis of central nervous system disease is largely based on clinical symptoms and cognitive testing. (roche.com)
- Autoimmune diseases can be very nebulous with symptoms that come and go. (mayoclinic.org)
- other tests may be done to rule out other diseases that may cause similar symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
- And IPT probably carries out all these functions in the peripheral nervous system as well. (iptq.com)
- During May 2013-December 2015, seven cases of baylisascariasis not already described in the literature were identified among patients in the United States through testing at CDC, including six cases of central nervous system disease and one of ocular disease. (cdc.gov)
- An accelerated model of human immunodeficiency virus central nervous system disease was developed in which more than 90% of infected macaques develop typical simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) encephalitis with neuronal dysfunction by postinoculation (pi) day 84. (eurekamag.com)
- 53. Central nervous system disease is diagnosed. (medscape.com)
- There are more than 600 neurologic diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
- Infection can result in fatal human disease or severe neurologic outcomes if it is not treated rapidly. (cdc.gov)
- Although raccoons are typically asymptomatic when infected with the parasite, the larval form of Baylisascaris procyonis can result in fatal human disease or severe neurologic outcomes if not treated rapidly. (cdc.gov)
- 45. Cardiovascular disease is diagnosed. (medscape.com)
- scholarship on "Effects of snoring and obstructive sleep apneas on attention and supervision and on the cardiovascular system" delivered by the Consortium for the management of the clinic for nervous and mental diseases, University of Bologna. (unibo.it)
- Diagnosis and treatment of the disease is complex and requires specifically skilled staff. (who.int)
- Facial nerve paralysis is a common, but usually self-limited form of disease. (nih.gov)
- In advanced stages, sleeping sickness attacks the central nervous system causing confusion, irritability, sensory disturbances, difficulty walking and talking, and disturbances of the sleep cycle, which gives the disease its name. (who.int)
- This amount exceeds the individual cost of cancer, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. (cdc.gov)
- An understanding of the diverse nature of infectious disease complications attributable to this organism is an important cornerstone of pediatric medicine. (medscape.com)
- Children and teenagers can have MS (pediatric MS). It is estimated that about 8,000 to 10,000 children and teens up to 18 years old have been diagnosed with pediatric MS. Moreover, an additional 10,000 to 15,000 children and teens have had at least one symptom of the disease. (medicinenet.com)
- From informing lifestyle changes that could help to slow the decline in cognitive functions to optimizing treatment, biomarker testing is opening new opportunities for people with CNS disease. (roche.com)
- Measuring changes in biomarkers can help us to understand how quickly a person's disease is advancing - and, potentially, predict how it may develop in the future. (roche.com)
- Almost half of the outcomes (44.6%) were primarily related to diseases of the musculoskeletal system (MSDs). (cdc.gov)
- Virus-mediated gene therapy has the potential to deliver exogenous genetic material into specific cell types to promote survival and counteract disease. (frontiersin.org)
- With thousands of clinical trials to date, gene therapy is a flourishing strategy with great promise for the treatment of diseases impacting the nervous system. (frontiersin.org)
- One of the promising features of IPT is its reported effectiveness in treatment of numerous nervous system diseases. (iptq.com)
- There is also no consensus on whether all cases of cycticercosis of the central nervous system benefit from cestocidal treatment with its associated sophisticated diagnostic assessment, or whether simple symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic drugs alone can provide them sustained comfort and quality of life. (who.int)
- The brain, spinal cord, and nerves make up the nervous system. (medlineplus.gov)
- The central nervous system (CNS) is a complex, sophisticated network of neurons that includes our brain and spinal cord. (roche.com)
- After numerous blood tests they found an antibody attacking my nervous system and brain they said. (mayoclinic.org)
- The brain is the anterior part of the central nervous system, which is based on a nerve cell. (abchealthonline.com)
- Following this, the areas of their brain that correlate with certain brain diseases were damaged. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Syphilitic infection of the nervous system results in the most chronic, insidious meningeal inflammatory process known. (medscape.com)
- When people eat undercooked pork containing viable cysticerci, they develop an intestinal tapeworm infection, but not cysticercosis of the central nervous system. (who.int)
- In non-endemic industrialized countries imported cases have been found in, for example, carriers of intestinal-stage T. solium infection, who, through food-handling and other modes of contact, can be sources of locally-acquired cases, and persons with latent cysticercosis of the central nervous system. (who.int)
- This is particularly enticing for neuronal conditions, as the nervous system is renowned for its intransigence to therapeutic targeting. (frontiersin.org)
- PROPAGAGEING: The continuum between healthy ageing and idiopathic Parkinson Disease with a propagation perspective of inflammation and damage: the search for new diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic targets" Horizon 2020. (unibo.it)
- In 2023, AFM-Telethon is supporting 39 trials underway or in preparation in 30 rare diseases . (afm-telethon.fr)
- Diagnostic criteria based on objective clinical, imaging, immunological and epidemiological data have been proposed for different levels of the health care system, but are not generally used in areas endemic for the disease. (who.int)
- The TGen team led the clinical development of one of the current standard-of-care regimens for this disease -- nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine. (medindia.net)
- However, greater attention regarding the involvement of thrombin in normal and pathological processes in the central nervous system is warranted. (tau.ac.il)
- PeV-A3 is most often associated with severe disease. (cdc.gov)
- Congenital Heart Disease and Risk of Central Nervous System Infections: A Nationwide Cohort Study. (bvsalud.org)
- Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with risk factors of central nervous system (CNS) infections including infective endocarditis , cardiac shunt physiology , and immune deficiencies. (bvsalud.org)
- Atopic dermatitis (AD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can lead to alterations in the microbiome, and disruptions in the skin and gut barrier. (medindia.net)
- and other diseases, including those involving inflammation and the central nervous system. (medindia.net)
- Current treatments for MS can reduce the severity of the disease, and slow its progression. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Neurosyphilis, quite directly, is defined as a CSF WBC count of 20 cells/µL or greater or a reactive CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test result. (medscape.com)
- Tuberculosis (TB) of the central nervous system (CNS) is classically described as meningitis. (cdc.gov)
- To address the challenge of diagnosing these highly complex diseases, new diagnostic strategies were required. (roche.com)
- In contrast, estimates of the burden of occupational injury and illness are more difficult to accomplish because they rely on far more primary and secondary sources of data on more than 18 diseases and a substantial number of injury types. (cdc.gov)
- Persons not treated for persistent CSF abnormalities are at risk of developing clinically apparent disease and are hereafter referred to as having contracted neurosyphilis. (medscape.com)
- Few other diseases have inflicted such a burden of suffering on humankind as the one that became known as the great imitator. (medscape.com)
- However, the national investment in addressing occupational illness and injuries is far less than for many other diseases with lower economic burden even though occupational illnesses and injuries are eminently preventable. (cdc.gov)
- The complexities of CNS disease require continued research. (roche.com)
- Despite expansion of the geographic distribution of Baylisascaris procyonis in the last 14 years ( 2 ) and probable increasing human exposure, baylisascariasis is likely an underreported disease: only 22 documented cases were reported in the United States during 1973-2010 ( 3 , 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, with human beings as the only host. (medscape.com)
- Such a route of transmission is strongly supported by the concentration of cases of cysticercosis of the central nervous system in communities with human carriers of Taenia , which clustering also supports the argument that carriers of Taenia are potent sources of contagion. (who.int)
- Human cysticercosis is a disease associated with poverty in areas where people eat pork and traditional pig husbandry is practised. (who.int)
- Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is a widespread tropical disease that can be fatal if not treated. (who.int)
- This reinforced the social stigmata attached to the disease by associating it with shameful and immoral behavior. (medscape.com)
- Central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) was identified in 20 cases of unexplained encephalitis referred to the California Encephalitis Project. (cdc.gov)
- In Ecuador, about 10% of all cases of epilepsy, and 25% of those attributable to a particular identifiable event, were due to cysticercosis of the central nervous system. (who.int)
- Tsetse flies are found just in sub-Saharan Africa though only certain species transmit the disease. (who.int)