The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Bacterial infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges, including infections involving the perimeningeal spaces.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Tuberculosis of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges (TUBERCULOSIS, MENINGEAL), most often caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and rarely by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The infection may be limited to the nervous system or coexist in other organs (e.g., TUBERCULOSIS, PULMONARY). The organism tends to seed the meninges causing a diffuse meningitis and leads to the formation of TUBERCULOMA, which may occur within the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal spaces. Tuberculous involvement of the vertebral column (TUBERCULOSIS, SPINAL) may result in nerve root or spinal cord compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-20)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Congenital MEGACOLON resulting from the absence of ganglion cells (aganglionosis) in a distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE. The aganglionic segment is permanently contracted thus causing dilatation proximal to it. In most cases, the aganglionic segment is within the RECTUM and SIGMOID COLON.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
Infections of the nervous system caused by fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS, most commonly ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS. Aspergillus infections may occur in immunocompetent hosts, but are more prevalent in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. The organism may spread to the nervous system from focal infections in the lung, mastoid region, sinuses, inner ear, bones, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. Sinus infections may be locally invasive and enter the intracranial compartment, producing MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; cranial neuropathies; and abscesses in the frontal lobes of the brain. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch 27, pp62-3)
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A myelin protein that is the major component of the organic solvent extractable lipoprotein complexes of whole brain. It has been the subject of much study because of its unusual physical properties. It remains soluble in chloroform even after essentially all of its bound lipids have been removed. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 4th ed, p122)
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.

Mercury and Mink. II. Experimental methyl mercury intoxication. (1/3565)

Adult female mink were fed rations containing 1.1, 1.8, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.0 ppm mercury as methyl mercury chloride over a 93 day period. Histopathological evidence of injury was present in all groups. Mink fed rations containing 1.8 to 15.0 ppm mercury developed clinical intoxication within the experimental period. The rapidity of onset of clinical intoxication was directly related to the mercury content of the ration. Mercury concentration in tissue of mink which died were similar, despite differences in mercury content of the diets and time of death. The average mercury concentration in the brain of mink which died was 11.9 ppm. The lesions of methyl mercury poisoning are described and criteria for diagnosis are discussed.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (2/3565)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

From head to toes: the multiple facets of Sox proteins. (3/3565)

Sox proteins belong to the HMG box superfamily of DNA-binding proteins and are found throughout the animal kingdom. They are involved in the regulation of such diverse developmental processes as germ layer formation, organ development and cell type specifi-cation. Hence, deletion or mutation of Sox proteins often results in developmental defects and congenital disease in humans. Sox proteins perform their function in a complex interplay with other transcription factors in a manner highly dependent on cell type and promoter context. They exhibit a remarkable crosstalk and functional redundancy among each other.  (+info)

The psychometric properties of clinical rating scales used in multiple sclerosis. (4/3565)

OullII;l y Many clinical rating scales have been proposed to assess the impact of multiple sclerosis on patients, but only few have been evaluated formally for reliability, validity and responsiveness. We assessed the psychometric properties of five commonly used scales in multiple sclerosis, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the Scripps Neurological Rating Scale (SNRS), the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the Ambulation Index (AI) and the Cambridge Multiple Sclerosis Basic Score (CAMBS). The score frequency distributions of all five scales were either bimodal (EDSS and AI) or severely skewed (SNRS, FIM and CAMBS). The reliability of each scale depended on the definition of 'agreement'. Inter-and intra-rater reliabilities were high when 'agreement' was considered to exist despite a difference of up to 1.0 EDSS point (two 0.5 steps), 13 SNRS points, 9 FIM points, 1 AI point and 1 point on the various CAMBS domains. The FIM, AI, and the relapse and progression domains of the CAMBS were sensitive to clinical change, but the EDSS and the SNRS were unresponsive. The validity of these scales as impairment (SNRS and EDSS) and disability (EDSS, FIM, AI and the disability domain of the CAMBS) measures was established. All scales correlated closely with other measures of handicap and quality of life. None of these scales satisfied the psychometric requirements of outcome measures completely, but each had some desirable properties. The SNRS and the EDSS were reliable and valid measures of impairment and disability, but they were unresponsive. The FIM was a reliable, valid and responsive measure of disability, but it is cumbersome to administer and has a limited content validity. The AI was a reliable and valid ambulation-related disability scale, but it was weakly responsive. The CAMBS was a reliable (all four domains) and responsive (relapse and progression domains) outcome measure, but had a limited validity (handicap domain). These psychometric properties should be considered when designing further clinical trials in multiple sclerosis.  (+info)

beta-thymosin is required for axonal tract formation in developing zebrafish brain. (5/3565)

beta-Thymosins are polypeptides that bind monomeric actin and thereby function as actin buffers in many cells. We show that during zebrafish development, &bgr;-thymosin expression is tightly correlated with neuronal growth and differentiation. It is transiently expressed in a subset of axon-extending neurons, essentially primary neurons that extend long axons, glia and muscle. Non-neuronal expression in the brain is restricted to a subset of glia surrounding newly forming axonal tracts. Skeletal muscle cells in somites, jaw and fin express beta-thymosin during differentiation, coinciding with the time of innervation. Injection of beta-thymosin antisense RNA into zebrafish embryos results in brain defects and impairment of the development of beta-thymosin-associated axon tracts. Furthermore, irregularities in somite formation can be seen in a subset of embryos. Compared to wild-type, antisense-injected embryos show slightly weaker and more diffuse engrailed staining at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary and a strong reduction of Isl-1 labeling in Rohon Beard and trigeminal neurons. The decreased expression is not based on a loss of neurons indicating that beta-thymosin may be involved in the maintenance of the expression of molecules necessary for neuronal differentiation. Taken together, our results strongly indicate that beta-thymosin is an important regulator of development.  (+info)

The Caenorhabditis elegans lim-6 LIM homeobox gene regulates neurite outgrowth and function of particular GABAergic neurons. (6/3565)

We describe here the functional analysis of the C. elegans LIM homeobox gene lim-6, the ortholog of the mammalian Lmx-1a and b genes that regulate limb, CNS, kidney and eye development. lim-6 is expressed in a small number of sensory-, inter- and motorneurons, in epithelial cells of the uterus and in the excretory system. Loss of lim-6 function affects late events in the differentiation of two classes of GABAergic motorneurons which control rhythmic enteric muscle contraction. lim-6 is required to specify the correct axon morphology of these neurons and also regulates expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme of GABA synthesis in these neurons. Moreover, lim-6 gene activity and GABA signaling regulate neuroendocrine outputs of the nervous system. In the chemosensory system lim-6 regulates the asymmetric expression of a probable chemosensory receptor. lim-6 is also required in epithelial cells for uterine morphogenesis. We compare the function of lim-6 to those of other LIM homeobox genes in C. elegans and suggest that LIM homeobox genes share the common theme of controlling terminal neural differentiation steps that when disrupted lead to specific neuroanatomical and neural function defects.  (+info)

Engrailed negatively regulates the expression of cell adhesion molecules connectin and neuroglian in embryonic Drosophila nervous system. (7/3565)

Engrailed is expressed in subsets of interneurons that do not express Connectin or appreciable Neuroglian, whereas other neurons that are Engrailed negative strongly express these adhesion molecules. Connectin and Neuroglian expression are virtually eliminated in interneurons when engrailed expression is driven ubiquitously in neurons, and greatly increased when engrailed genes are lacking in mutant embryos. The data suggest that Engrailed is normally a negative regulator of Connectin and neuroglian. These are the first two "effector" genes identified in the nervous system of Drosophila as regulatory targets for Engrailed. We argue that differential Engrailed expression is crucial in determining the pattern of expression of cell adhesion molecules and thus constitutes an important determinant of neuronal shape and perhaps connectivity.  (+info)

Profilin and the Abl tyrosine kinase are required for motor axon outgrowth in the Drosophila embryo. (8/3565)

The ability of neuronal growth cones to be guided by extracellular cues requires intimate communication between signal transduction systems and the dynamic actin-based cytoskeleton at the leading edge. Profilin, a small, actin-binding protein, has been proposed to be a regulator of the cell motility machinery at leading edge membranes. However, its requirement in the developing nervous system has been unknown. Profilin associates with members of the Enabled family of proteins, suggesting that Profilin might link Abl function to the cytoskeleton. Here, genetic analysis in Drosophila is used to demonstrate that mutations in Profilin (chickadee) and Abl (abl) display an identical growth cone arrest phenotype for axons of intersegmental nerve b (ISNb). Moreover, the phenotype of a double mutant suggests that these components function together to control axonal outgrowth.  (+info)

In order to study the mechanism of neural patterning in Xenopus, we used subtractive cloning to isolate genes activated early during this process. One gene isolated was opl, (odd-paired-like) that resembles the Drosophila pair-rule gene odd-paired and encodes a zinc finger protein that is a member of the Zic gene family. At the onset of gastrulation, opl is expressed throughout the presumptive neural plate, indicating that neural determination has begun at this stage while, by neurula, opl expression is restricted to the dorsal neural tube and neural crest. opl encodes a transcriptional activator, with a carboxy terminal regulatory domain, which when removed increases opl activity. opl both sensitizes animal cap ectoderm to the neural inducer noggin and alters the spectrum of genes induced by noggin, allowing activation of the midbrain marker engrailed. Consistent with the later dorsal neural expression of opl, the activated form of opl is able to induce neural crest and dorsal neural tube ...
The Mouse Nervous System 2011 | ISBN: 0123694973 | PDF | 814 pages | 97.6 MB The Mouse Nervous System provides a comprehensive account of the central
We have isolated a novel Xenopus homolog of the Drosophila achaete-scute genes, called XASH-3. XASH-3 expression is neural specific and is detected as early as stage 11 1/2, making it one of the earliest markers of neural induction so far described. Moreover, XASH-3 expression within the neural plate is regionally restricted. Transverse bands of XASH-3 mRNA mark discrete positions along the anteroposterior axis, while longitudinal bands mark a discrete position along the mediolateral axis. This latter site of XASH-3 expression appears to demarcate the prospective sulcus limitans, a boundary zone that later separates the functionally distinct dorsal (alar) and ventral (basal) regions of the spinal cord. In sandwich explants lacking any underlying mesoderm, XASH-3 is expressed in longitudinal stripes located lateral to the midline. This provides the first indication that planar or midline-derived inductive signals are sufficient to establish at least some aspects of positional identity along the ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Automatic cell counting in vivo in the larval nervous system of Drosophila. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A conserved role but different partners for the transcriptional corepressor CoREST in fly and mammalian nervous system formation. AU - Dallman, Julia E.. AU - Allopenna, Janet. AU - Bassett, Andrew. AU - Travers, Andrew. AU - Mandell, Gail. PY - 2004/8/11. Y1 - 2004/8/11. N2 - Identification of conserved proteins that act to establish the neuronal phenotype has relied predominantly on structural homologies of the underlying genes. In the case of the repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor (REST), a central player in blocking the neuronal phenotype in vertebrate non-neural tissue, the invertebrate homolog is absent, raising the possibility that distinct strategies are used to establish the CNS of invertebrates. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen designed specifically to identify functional analogs of REST, we show that Drosophila melanogaster uses a strategy that is functionally similar to, but appears to have evolved independently of, REST. The gene at the center of the ...
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules are involved in multiple aspects of cell-to-cell signaling during development and in the adult. In nervous system development, specific recognition processes, e.g., during axonal pathfinding and synaptogenesis involve modulation and signaling by ECM components. Much less is known about their presence and possible roles in the adult nervous system. We now report that thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4), a recently discovered member of the TSP gene family is expressed by neurons, promotes neurite outgrowth, and accumulates at the neuromuscular junction and at certain synapse-rich structures in the adult. To search for muscle genes that may be involved in neuromuscular signaling, we isolated cDNAs induced in adult skeletal muscle by denervation. One of these cDNAs coded for the rat homologue of TSP-4. In skeletal muscle, it was expressed by muscle interstitial cells. The transcript was further detected in heart and in the developing and adult nervous system, where it was ...
J:162220 Magdaleno S, Jensen P, Brumwell CL, Seal A, Lehman K, Asbury A, Cheung T, Cornelius T, Batten DM, Eden C, Norland SM, Rice DS, Dosooye N, Shakya S, Mehta P, Curran T, BGEM: an in situ hybridization database of gene expression in the embryonic and adult mouse nervous system. PLoS Biol. 2006 Apr;4(4):e86 ...
Study Flashcards On Nervous System development at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
The mammalian nervous system is a complex biological organ, which enables many animals including humans to function in a coordinated fashion. The original design of this system is preserved across many animals through evolution; thus, adaptive physiolo...
Long story short neural axis abnormalities may be a risk factor for Scoliosis but they dont tell doctors much about the type of curve or severity of the condition. Neural Axis Abnormalities in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Is Routine Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indicated Irrespective of Curve Severity? OBJECTIVE: MRI-verified neural axis abnormality (NAA) has been described in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and several risk factors have been associated with the
An OB-Gyn ultrasound WWW site with teaching files, reviews of the current literature, bulletin board and tables, all updated regularly. Edited by Peter W. Callen, MD.
Immunofluorescence (IF ) and genetic fluorescent labeling have become standard techniques to study the anatomy, function, and development of the Drosophilanervous system . This chapter provides an...
Regulation of axonal growth in the vertebrate nervous system by interactions between glycoproteins belonging to two subgroups of the immunoglobulin superfamily ...
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Following the first 3 weeks of human development embryonic systems begin to be established. Over the next 5 weeks these embryonic systems lay down a template for the majority of body structures. As much as possible the known human data is shown on the individual systems notes, though there is also reference to animal models of development. See also the notes on Fetal Development. Embryonic Development section of notes covers development before later system formation. This current page is a central link to all the related content, use the links listed below to view specific topics. http://tiny.cc/SystemsDevelopment ...
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Study Flashcards On Central Nervous System at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
hello all i am trying to set up a vnc to a server running x11vnc the remote computer can access ports 443 and 8080, further it can only access server via java i have run this on the server x11vnc -forever -usepw -httpdir /usr/share/vnc-java/ -httpport 8080 and i can connect locally without a problem
Those plucky upstarts in the Rolling Stones have announced a new round of touring and a reissue of their beloved 1971 LP Sticky Fingers. Here are a few facts you should know going into the mania for Mick & Co. on Tuesday morning. 1. There's no L.A. date yet. The last time the Stones dipped through...
This forum is dedicated to an open discussion of all things Rolling Stones. From new fans to hardcore veterans, everyone is welcome. Forum is moderated lightly. The golden rule is in effect. Let the discussions run rampant, as long as personal insults stay at the door! ...
This forum is dedicated to an open discussion of all things Rolling Stones. From new fans to hardcore veterans, everyone is welcome. Forum is moderated lightly. The golden rule is in effect. Let the discussions run rampant, as long as personal insults stay at the door! ...
Penske Media Corp. and Wenner Media today announced PMCs strategic investment in Wenner Media, majority owner of Rolling Stone.
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Essay on Structure of the nervous system. General organization of the nervous system. Use of the cerebral cortex. The central nervous system. Cellular Elements of the Nervous System. The cell body. Astrocytes.
Genetics may play a surprisingly small role in determining the precise wiring of the mammalian nervous system, according to painstaking mapping of every neuron projecting to a small muscle mice use to move their ears.
When the neck and the head are readjusted, most of the doctor works his magic you will get up feeling better. By you being present you can keep the bi...
The latest research suggests that CBD positively affects the nervous system and any nervous system conditions you may experience. Now you never have to ask yourself how CBD affects the nervous system.
Neural Development highlights recent advances exploring how the nervous system arises and acquires the abilities to sense the world and control adaptive motor ...
Stress and the nervous system are connected because the first triggers a series of reactions in the second. Once a person feels...
This course will focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms of the organogenesis of the central nervous system. A goal of the course will be to understand the form, function and pathology of the adult nervous system in terms of antecedent developmental processes ...
With a detailed anatomical chart of the nervous system, students and patients will be better able to examine and understand the central nervous system and its parts. Anatomy Warehouse offers a wide range of anatomical study aids, all at the best prices and many with free shipping.
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Concept about nervous system. Principles of the organization of nervous system. Simple and complex reflex arches. Formation of a cortex of a brain.
It seems our nervous system doesnt differentiate between a physical threat and an emotional one. Thus, crying children, a critical boss, unpaid bills, traffic jams, missed deadlines and a host of other mental/emotional crises can be perceived by our nervous system as a form of danger, and may even evoke our fight-or-flight response. This defense mechanism can actually damage our health if it is evoked constantly and unnecessarily and the energy released by it is not dispelled through fighting or fleeing ...
Mechanisms of drug action on the nervous system , Mechanisms of drug action on the nervous system , کتابخانه الکترونیک و دیجیتال - آذرسا
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The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture Review basic nervous system anatomy before you begin this lecture. The lecture touches on a few of the major characteristics, but you are expected to have already been
is there any interaction between nervous system and circulatory system? Answered by Dr. Jullius Ancheta: Yes: The part of the nervous system that controls the circulatory syst...
Download Development of the nervous system sanes pdf for free, Development of the nervous system 2nd ed d sanes t reh w harris pdf. Download free Ebooks.
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A protein that enables nerve cells to communicate with each other plays a key role in controlling the developing nervous system. Research into how that protein helps precise connections to form among nerve cells may provide ...
If the brain is a central computer that controls all the functions of the body, then the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth to different parts of the body. Find out how they work in this Body Basics article.
no blood, brain or nervous system is a body of work that comprises individual temporal sculptural installations/performances made between June 2008 and December 2010. The installations were recorded as videos and photographs and, when appropriate, those records form part of the work, too. The concept required each piece be a site-specific response and also that…
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The following products may be useful for nervous system health. If you require further information on how BioCeuticals® products may be useful for your specific condition please speak with a qualified healthcare practitioner.
Nervous System MCQ with detailed explanation for interview, entrance and competitive exams. Explanation are given for understanding.
Nervous system is een ontwerp bureau dat werkt en ontwerpt op het snijvlak van wetenschap, technologie en kunst. De realiteit bootsen ze na in een computerprogramma. Geïnspireerd door natuurlijke fenomenen, schrijven we computerprogrammas. Op basis van processen en patronen gevonden in de natuur en het gebruik van deze programmas ontwerpen ze om unieke en betaalbare…
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Eating a balanced diet, drinking plenty of water and exercising regularly are a few recommended ways to take care of the nervous system, according to WebMD. It also helps to avoid smoking and...
The term highly sensitive person was first coined in 1996 by Dr. Elaine Aron. Being a highly sensitive person is not a diagnosis, it is a trait that comes from having a sensitive nervous system. It is hereditary and has been validated in several studies. What is it like to be an HSP? As an…
Nervous system and senses. The octopus (along with cuttlefish) has the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all invertebrates, ... Octopuses have a complex nervous system and excellent sight, and are among the most intelligent and behaviourally diverse of ... Octopus arms can move and sense largely autonomously without intervention from the animal's central nervous system. In 2015 a ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ...
Nervous system[edit]. Prenatal exposure of BaP to rats is known to affect learning and memory in rodent models. Pregnant rats ... Immune system[edit]. BaP has an effect on the number of white blood cells, inhibiting some of them from differentiating into ... Reproductive system[edit]. In experiments with male rats, sub-chronic exposure to inhaled BaP has been shown to generally ...
... complex disorders linked by the degeneration of neurons in either the peripheral nervous system or the central nervous system. ... Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system[edit]. Alzheimer's Disease (AD)[edit]. Main article: Alzheimer's ... Peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) ... 3 Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system *3.1 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) *3.1.1 Epigenetic factors ...
Central nervous system's control[edit]. Though one may think that the stimulus triggering blinking is dry or irritated eyes, it ... For example, excessive blinking may help to indicate the onset of Tourette syndrome, strokes or disorders of the nervous system ...
Role in the Nervous System[edit]. Both GAD67 and GAD65 are present in all types of synapses within the human nervous system. ... are increasingly found in patients with other symptoms indicative of central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, such as ataxia, ... Preliminary evidence suggests that GAD65 is dominant in the visual and neuroendocrine systems, which undergo more phasic ...
Nervous and sensory systems. The nervous system is basically the same as in other vertebrates, with a central brain, a spinal ... Unlike bony fish, there is no direct control of the pigment cells by the nervous system, and this results in the colour change ... Skeletal system and locomotion. Amphibians have a skeletal system that is structurally homologous to other tetrapods, though ... Juvenile amphibian circulatory systems are single loop systems which resemble fish.. 1 - Internal gills where the blood is ...
nervous system. Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute ... Note: Not all brain tumors are of nervous tissue, and not all nervous tissue tumors are in the brain (see brain metastasis).. ... A primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), also known as microglioma and primary brain lymphoma,[1] is a primary ... Fine HA, Mayer RJ (December 1993). "Primary central nervous system lymphoma". Ann. Intern. Med. 119 (11): 1093-104. doi:10.7326 ...
Most of the segments contain the same sets of organs, although sharing a common gut, circulatory system and nervous system ... Nervous system and senses[edit]. The brain generally forms a ring round the pharynx (throat), consisting of a pair of ganglia ( ... The rest of the central nervous system, the ventral nerve cord, is generally "ladder-like", consisting of a pair of nerve cords ... The 2007 study also noted that the ladder-like nervous system, which is associated with segmentation, is less universal than ...
Central nervous system[edit]. See also: Central nervous system effects from radiation exposure during spaceflight ... Hypothetical early and late effects on the central nervous system are of great concern to NASA and an area of active current ... There is limited experimental evidence, especially for central nervous system effects, available to evaluate this alternative ... "Cosmic ray hit frequencies in critical sites in the central nervous system". Adv. Space Res. 22 (2): 197-207. Bibcode:1998AdSpR ...
Nervous system repairs[edit]. Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[86] ... a new paradigm for central nervous system regeneration?" (PDF). Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 70 (20): 3871-3882. doi: ... Bioreactor Systems for Tissue Engineering II. 123. pp. 219-63. doi:10.1007/10_2010_66. ISBN 978-3-642-16050-9. . PMID 20309674. ... However, the immune system is vulnerable to degradation upon the pathogenesis of disease, and because of the critical role that ...
Central nervous system activity[edit]. GPER and ERα, but not ERβ, have been found to mediate the antidepressant-like effects of ... nervous system development. • positive regulation of neurogenesis. • positive regulation of release of cytochrome c from ... immune system process. • negative regulation of cell cycle process. • positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion ... Han G, Li F, Yu X, White RE (May 2013). "GPER: a novel target for non-genomic estrogen action in the cardiovascular system". ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Rare reports have been made of malaise, dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, and vertigo. In severely ... Pelot, Daniel, (M.D.). "Digestive System : New Drug for Heartburn". The New Book of Knowledge : Medicine & Health, Grolier : ... "The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2017-09-09. Retrieved Dec 1, 2015.. .mw-parser ... the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[1] The 2015 ...
Nervous system[edit]. Nervous system effects include insomnia, restlessness, and rarely, seizure, convulsions, and psychosis.[ ... and central nervous system.[11] Concerns regarding low blood sugar and mental health problems were added in 2018.[13] ... and central nervous system events (19, including 5 cases of seizures) as the most common spontaneous reports between April 2005 ... such as blockade of the GABAa receptor complex within the central nervous system, leading to excitotoxic type effects[28] and ...
Central nervous system stimulants such as substituted amphetamines increase heart rate.. *Central nervous system depressants or ... Influences from the central nervous system[edit]. Cardiovascular centres[edit]. The heart rate is rhythmically generated by the ... Caffeine and nicotine are both stimulants of the nervous system and of the cardiac centres causing an increased heart rate. ... The normal SA node firing rate is affected by autonomic nervous system activity: sympathetic stimulation increases and ...
Central nervous system[edit]. Further information: Neurobiological effects of physical exercise § Neuroplasticity ... Immune system[edit]. Although there have been hundreds of studies on physical exercise and the immune system, there is little ... Regular aerobic exercise improves symptoms associated with a variety of central nervous system disorders and may be used as an ... The effects of physical exercise on the central nervous system are mediated in part by specific neurotrophic factor hormones ...
Nervous system and senses[edit]. Cnidarians are generally thought to have no brains or even central nervous systems. However, ... Nervous system No. Yes, simple. Simple to complex Muscles None. Mostly epitheliomuscular. Mostly myoepithelial. Mostly myocytes ... In scyphozoans, this takes the form of a diffuse nerve net, which has modulatory effects on the nervous system.[22] As well as ... Satterlie, Richard A. (15 April 2011). "Do jellyfish have central nervous systems?". Journal of Experimental Biology. 214 (8): ...
... oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), are wrapped ... Differences in the central and peripheral nervous systems[edit]. Although freeze fracture studies have revealed that the nodal ... The nodes of Ranvier in the central and peripheral nervous systems mostly consist of αNaV1.6 and β1 subunits.[4] The extra- ... The creation and conduction of action potentials represents a fundamental means of communication in the nervous system. Action ...
Control of gait by the nervous system[edit]. The CNS regulates gait in a highly ordered fashion. The signals fire in a rhythmic ... 3 Control of gait by the nervous system *3.1 Subsection: Regulation by the Cerebral Cortex[10] ... These centers are coordinated with the posture control systems in place in the cerebral hemisphere and the cerebellum.[9] With ... which increases energy expenditure in most systems, studies have shown that the human heel-first gait conserves more energy ...
Nervous system[edit]. On diseases of the nervous system Anstie wrote several memoirs, and finally in 1871 a book on Neuralgia ... Lectures on Diseases of the Nervous System (The Lancet, 1872-73).. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i Payne, J. F. (1885). ... Reynolds's System of Medicine, vol. iii. 1871: Pleurisy, Pleurodynia, Hydrothorax, Pneumothorax, and Hepatalgia. ... He also contributed an article on the same subject to Sir John Russell Reynolds's System of Medicine. The views which he ...
Sensory nervous system[edit]. Main article: Sensory nervous system. All stimuli received by the receptors are transduced to an ... Visual system (vision)[edit]. Main article: Visual system. The visual system, or sense of sight, is based on the transduction ... Gustatory system (taste)[edit]. Main article: Gustatory system. The gustatory system or the sense of taste is the sensory ... The corresponding sensory systems of the visual system (sense of vision), auditory system (sense of hearing), somatosensory ...
Nervous system[edit]. Estrogens can be produced in the brain from steroid precursors. As antioxidants, they have been found to ... Female reproductive system[edit]. In the female, estradiol acts as a growth hormone for tissue of the reproductive organs, ... Skeletal system[edit]. Estradiol has a profound effect on bone. Individuals without it (or other estrogens) will become tall ... Male reproductive system[edit]. The effect of estradiol (and estrogens in general) upon male reproduction is complex. Estradiol ...
Nervous system[edit]. See also: Muscle arms. Four peripheral nerves run the length of the body on the dorsal, ventral, and ... The nervous system is also the only place in the nematode body that contains cilia, which are all nonmotile and with a sensory ... Excretory system[edit]. Nitrogenous waste is excreted in the form of ammonia through the body wall, and is not associated with ... Digestive system[edit]. The oral cavity is lined with cuticle, which is often strengthened with ridges or other structures, and ...
... during administration that activates the parasympathetic nervous system while inhibiting the orthosympathetic nervous system.[9 ... Central nervous system[edit]. Depending on local tissue concentrations of local anesthetics, excitatory or depressant effects ... The conduction of electric impulses follows a similar mechanism in peripheral nerves, the central nervous system, and the heart ... Side effects on the central nervous system and the heart may be severe and potentially fatal. However, toxicity usually occurs ...
Central nervous system[edit]. MRSA can infect the central nervous system and form brain abscess, subdural empyema, and spinal ... People in nursing homes are at risk for all the reasons above, further complicated by their generally weaker immune systems.[12 ... People with weak immune systems (HIV/AIDS, lupus, or cancer sufferers; transplant recipients; severe asthmatics; etc.) ... This does still depend how strong the non-infected individual's immune system is and how long both individuals remain in ...
Beyond the nervous system[edit]. mRNA expression of the embryonic variant of the GABA-producing enzyme GAD67 in a coronal brain ... Besides the nervous system, GABA is also produced at relatively high levels in the insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas. ... Its principal role is reducing neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. GABA is sold as a dietary supplement in ... Medium spiny cells are a typical example of inhibitory central nervous system GABAergic cells. In contrast, GABA exhibits both ...
Primary central nervous system lymphoma. *Primary cutaneous follicular lymphoma. *Primary cutaneous immunocytoma ...
Patterning of the nervous system[edit]. In chordates, dorsal ectoderm forms all neural tissue and the nervous system. ... Further information: Development of the nervous system in humans. The vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) is derived from ... For information specific to the human nervous system, see Development of the nervous system in humans. For formation and ... Development of the Nervous System (Third ed.). Elsevier.. [page needed] *^ Szalkai, Balázs; Kerepesi, Csaba; Varga, Bálint; ...
Role in the central nervous system[edit]. Further information: Neurotransmitter § Brain neurotransmitter systems ... Dopamine receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are prominent in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS ... Cardio-pulmonary system[edit]. In humans, the pulmonary artery expresses D1, D2, D4, and D5 and receptor subtypes, which may ... Renal system[edit]. Dopamine receptors are present along the nephron in the kidney, with proximal tubule epithelial cells ...
The fight-or-flight response involves a general sympathetic nervous system discharge in reaction to a perceived stressor and ... By the end of the war, Salmon had set up a complete system of units and procedures that was then the "world's best practice".[ ... No such case should, however, be so labelled on evacuation as to fix the idea of nervous breakdown in the patient's mind.. In ... Sympathetic nervous activation remains in the exhaustion phase and reactions to stress are markedly sensitized as fight-or- ...
Nervous system. A leech's nervous system is formed of a few large nerve cells; their large size makes leeches convenient as ... this process is under the control of the nervous system but its function is unclear as the change in hue seems unrelated to the ... model organisms for the study of invertebrate nervous systems. The main nerve centre consists of the cerebral ganglion above ... reproductive systems. Although not as sensitive to these compounds as fish, leeches showed physiological changes after exposure ...
... physiology and cognitive abilities of the nervous system.[1][2][3][4] ... GENESIS, a general neural simulation system.. Conferences[edit]. *Computational and Systems Neuroscience (COSYNE) - a ... We know from molecular biology that distinct parts of the nervous system release distinct chemical cues, from growth factors to ... Abbott, L. F.; Dayan, Peter (2001). Theoretical neuroscience: computational and mathematical modeling of neural systems. ...
Blount JP, Louis RG, Tubbs RS, Grant JH (October 2007). "Pansynostosis: a review". Child's Nervous System. 23 (10): 1103-9. doi ... Renier D, Lajeunie E, Arnaud E, Marchac D (November 2000). "Management of craniosynostoses". Child's Nervous System. 16 (10-11 ... Collmann H, Sörensen N, Krauss J (October 2005). "Hydrocephalus in craniosynostosis: a review". Child's Nervous System. 21 (10 ... Child's Nervous System. 23 (3): 269-81. doi:10.1007/s00381-006-0251-z. PMID 17186250. S2CID 29722887.. ...
... so it affects the central nervous system, although its effects are qualitatively distinct relative to those of ...
... and inappropriate regulation of metabolism by the central nervous system.[10] However, not all people with insulin resistance ... nervous system activity, or hormonal factors that may lead to diabetes.[34] ... "In Lee M (ed.). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data (5th ed.). Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System ... Diseases of the endocrine system (ICD-10 Chapter IV: Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases - Endocrine diseases, E00- ...
This drug article relating to the nervous system is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ...
That path is from the outside stimulus to the central nervous system (CNS), then the path from the CNS to the appropriate ...
... causing several negative influences on reproduction and on the functions of the nervous system.[80] ...
"Nikolai Mikhailovich Itsenko investigated neural infections, vegetative nervous system diseases and cerebral tumors. In 1926 he ...
central nervous system development. • chloride transport. • ion transmembrane transport. • signal transduction. • chemical ...
Nervous system. *Perinatal asphyxia. *Periventricular leukomalacia. Musculoskeletal. *Gray baby syndrome. *muscle tone * ...
Lacalli, Thurston C. (September 2009). "Serial EM analysis of a copepod larval nervous system: Naupliar eye, optic circuitry, ... The blood vascular system is minimal. Similarly, they have no gills, absorbing oxygen from the water through their limbs and ...
... non-cholinergic nervous system (branch of the vagal system).. InflammationEdit. SP initiates expression of almost all known ... The actions of aprepitant are said to be entirely central, thus requiring passage of the drug into the central nervous system.[ ... In line with its role as a first line defense system, SP is released when toxicants or poisons come into contact with a range ... function of substance P is thought to be related to the transmission of pain information into the central nervous system. ...
Moderate baseline fetal heart rate variability reflects the delivery of oxygen to the fetal central nervous system. Its ... A variety of systems for centralized viewing of CTG have been installed in a large number of maternity hospitals in ... Display of maternal vital signs, ST signals and an electronic partogram are available in the majority of these systems. A few ... The NICHD workgroup proposed terminology of a three-tiered system to replace the older, undefined terms. Category I (Normal): ...
This seems to occur via immune cells interacting with the peripheral nervous system and releasing pain-producing chemicals ( ... Marchand F, Perretti M, McMahon SB (July 2005). "Role of the immune system in chronic pain". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6 (7): 521-32 ... "Activation of the nociceptin opioid system in rats. Sensory neurons produce antinociceptive effects in inflammatory pain: ...
... of the photoreceptor cell is to convert the light energy of the photon into a form of energy communicable to the nervous system ... This system may have less noise relative to sensory transduction schema that increase rate of neural firing in response to ... The two classic photoreceptor cells are rods and cones, each contributing information used by the visual system to form a ... In the human visual system, in addition to the photosensitive rods & cones, there are about 2.4 million to 3 million ganglion ...
The transcription factor Sox9 can be found in multiple sites in the body (pancreas, central nervous system, intestines) and it ...
Neuroscience includes those disciplines of science that are related to the study of the nervous system. A main focus of ... Review of systems (ROS) or systems inquiry: a set of additional questions to ask, which may be missed on HPI: a general enquiry ... Neurology is concerned with diseases of the nervous system. In the UK, neurology is a subspecialty of general medicine. ... Immunology is the study of the immune system, which includes the innate and adaptive immune system in humans, for example. ...
A cultured neuronal network is a cell culture of neurons that is used as a model to study the central nervous system, ... "Axion MEA Systems". Potter, S (2008). "How Should We Think About Bursts?". 6th Int. Meeting on Substrate-Integrated ... One example of this can be seen in the Multielectrode Array Art (MEART) system developed by the Potter Research Group at the ... Erickson J, Tooker A, Tai YC, Pine J (2008). "Caged Neuron MEA: A System for Long-Term Investigation of Cultured Neural Network ...
central nervous system development. • metanephric comma-shaped body morphogenesis. • branching involved in ureteric bud ... urogenital system development. • sulfur compound metabolic process. • metanephric S-shaped body morphogenesis. • metanephros ... Also functions in very early stages of kidney organogenesis, the müllerian system, and the thymus.[7] Additionally, PAX8 is ... PAX8 (and PAX2) is one of the important regulators of urogenital system morphogenesis. They play a role in the specification of ...
While packing up to leave, they realize that Giru, the robot, has integrated the dragon radar into his system, and they spot ... They land, and take the boy to the hospital, where Goku is highly nervous and uncomfortable due to his severe trypanophobia. ... Pan, meanwhile, is trying to sneak into the main tower, but the emergency removal system keeps spitting her back out. But with ... the help of another robot, she deactivates the system. Before she can destroy Giru, he reactivates it, spitting her back out. ...
This tremendous complexity allows the parasite to constantly change its surface and thus evade the immune system through ... such as the immune system and the many techniques pathogens have developed to evade it. For example, the parasite Trypanosoma ...
... peripheral nervous system, and central nervous system.[61][84] Many of the signs and symptoms of Lyme disease are a consequence ... Halperin JJ (June 2008). "Nervous system Lyme disease". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 22 (2): 261-74, vi. doi: ... Tryptophan, a precursor to serotonin, appears to be reduced within the central nervous system in a number of infectious ... Days to weeks following the tick bite, the spirochetes spread via the bloodstream to joints, heart, nervous system, and distant ...
Nervous system. P. *Pavement light. *Prosopagnosia. R. *Ray Kroc. *Ronald Reagan. *River Wandle ...
In 1910, D. D. Palmer theorized that the nervous system controlled health: "Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the ... affects the nervous system and may lead to reduced function, disability or illness."[50][51] ... exerted via the human nervous system and is a primary underlying risk factor for many diseases.[36] Straights view the medical ... and that this relationship is mediated through the nervous system.[32] Some chiropractors claim spinal manipulation can have an ...
... auditory nerve and/or central nervous system). If an audiologist determines that a hearing loss or vestibular abnormality is ... treating and monitoring disorders of the auditory and vestibular system portions of the ear. Audiologists are trained to ... from pediatric populations to veterans and may perform assessment of tinnitus and the vestibular system. ...
Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory,. musculoskeletal. *Intravenous. *Intracardiac. * ...
... effect on the central circulation or nervous system, diagnostic impact, or incorporation of a medicinal product. Certified ... "Preparing a Complaints/eMDR System for Upcoming FDA Mandate". Sparta Systems. 18 May 2015.. ... "Embedded Systems Design. Retrieved 2016-04-21.. *^ FDA (2010-09-08). "Infusion Pump Software Safety Research at FDA". FDA. ... EN 868 Packaging materials and systems for medical devices to be sterilized, General requirements and test methods ...
... and poisons the central nervous system,[219] which is dangerous as the required dosage of lithium to treat bipolar disorder is ... In the Solar SystemEdit. Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common ... In both the old IUPAC and the CAS systems for group numbering, this group is known as group IA (pronounced as "group one A", as ... I. A New Periodic System Which Shows a Relation Between the Abundance of the Elements and the Structure of the Nuclei of Atoms" ...
... including the nervous system. In the central nervous system, the three outer membranes (the meninges) that envelop the brain ... Mixed connective tissue disease - a disease of the autoimmune system, also undifferentiated connective tissue disease. ... and nervous tissue. It develops from the mesoderm. Connective tissue is found in between other tissues everywhere in the body, ... 158 Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose ...
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is so named ... Difference from the peripheral nervous system[edit]. A map over the different structures of the nervous systems in the body, ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Central nervous system.. *Overview of the Central Nervous System, Neuroscience Online ( ... Huijzen, R. Nieuwenhuys, J. Voogd, C. van (2007). The human central nervous system (4th ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 3. ISBN 978- ...
How the Nervous System Works. The basic functioning of the nervous system depends a lot on tiny cells called neurons. The brain ... Basic body functions. A part of the peripheral nervous system called the autonomic nervous system is responsible for ... The autonomic nervous system has two parts: the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. ... Anatomy of the Nervous System. If you think of the brain as a central computer that controls all bodily functions, then the ...
Nervous SystemI Evolutionary and Behavioral Aspects of The Brain [1]Walter RissBIBLIOGRAPHY [2]II STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE ... The nervous system is subdivided into the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Basically, the ... The peripheral nervous system can be further divided into the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system . Because ... Components of the Nervous System. The nervous system of vertebrates is functionally divided between the central nervous system ...
autonomic nervous system (plural autonomic nervous systems) *(neuroanatomy) In humans and other vertebrates, the part of the ... nervous system that regulates the involuntary activity of the heart, intestines and glands. These activities include digestion ... Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=autonomic_nervous_system&oldid=49574747" ... vegetative nervous system (less common). *visceral nervous system (less common). Meronyms[edit]. *parasympathetic nervous ...
nervous system. Encephalitis/. meningitis. DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute ... Note: Not all brain tumors are of nervous tissue, and not all nervous tissue tumors are in the brain (see brain metastasis).. ... A primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), also known as microglioma and primary brain lymphoma,[1] is a primary ... Fine HA, Mayer RJ (December 1993). "Primary central nervous system lymphoma". Ann. Intern. Med. 119 (11): 1093-104. doi:10.7326 ...
... human nervous system: The central nervous system: The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, both ... Other articles where Central nervous system is discussed: ... In human nervous system: The central nervous system. The ... In nervous system: The vertebrate system. … has two main divisions: the central nervous system, consisting of the brain and ... central nervous system: humanThe brain and the spinal cord constitute the central nervous system.. Created and produced by QA ...
... nervous, nerves, nerve, nervous system - Answer: I dont know what youre seeing but you cant see the nerves in your body. ... ... Regarding Nervous system?. Regarding Nervous system?. Asked. 20 Sep 2015 by ramya2726. Updated. 20 Sep 2015. Topics. nervous, ... nervous system. Details:. Hi, I am 22 years old. From last 6 months, the nerves in the body started showing up. At start, I can ... Neurontin - can anyone who takes this tell me about it, Im nervous?. Posted 12 Jun 2013 • 2 answers ...
... vous System, a Synopsis and Atlas has made a second edition necessary, hardly more than two years after its first appearance: ... The particularly good reception enjoyed by our "The Human Central Ner- vous System, a Synopsis and Atlas" has made a second ... The pictures are so to speak a snapshot of the current knowledge of a particular functional system within the central nervous ... As a matter of fact the spatial representations of the fibre systems are no more than a visualization of the most salient ...
The Nervous System The nervous system is the most complex part of the body, as they govern our thoughts, feelings, and bodily ... Nervous System. 2672 Words , 11 Pages. Endocrine Vs Nervous System The endocrine system acts with nervous system to coordinate ... The nervous system is divided into two main systems, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. The ... The nervous system consist of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS). The peripheral nervous ...
The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information... ... The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the ... Divisions of the Nervous System. Central Nervous System. The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system, or ... Peripheral Nervous System. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes all of the parts of the nervous system outside of the ...
Peripheral nervous system. Definition. The peripheral nervous system is the part of the nervous system outside the brain and ... The autonomic nervous system and cardiac arrhythmias: current concepts and emerging therapies Neuromodulation therapy might be ... It consists of nerves that carry information between the central nervous system and the extremities of the body. ... Modelling diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems and effectively treating neurological disorders via neuronal ...
INFORMATION, ENTROPY, AND NERVOUS SYSTEM FERNANDO RAMON FERRANDO* Inthis paper certainwell known features ofthe nervous ... The nerve cell either sends an impulse to other regions ofthe nervous system or fails to do so. Even in the more complex case ... This seems to have a parallel in the all-or-nothing responses that one finds throughout the nervous system . For example, in ... 296 Fernando Ramon Ferrando · Information, Entropy, and Nervous System Perspectives in Biology and Medicine · Spring 1962 each ...
The simplest nervous systems lack a brain, and instead consist of diffuse networks of nerves. The nervous systems of ... even though its nervous system is organized in a different way. So, in Urbilateria, central nervous system development and axis ... even though its nervous system is organized in a different way. So, in Urbilateria, central nervous system development and axis ... a worm whose nervous system consists of a diffuse network of cells (unlike vertebrates and Platynereis, in which the nervous ...
The nervous system of F. cf. apelti is composed of a large neuropile and a loose brain at the level of the statocysts with ... The nervous system of N. cf. westbladi consists of a nerve ring lying outside the body wall musculature at the level of the ... The nervous system of Flagellophora cf. apelti, Sterreria spp. and Nemertoderma cf. westbladi has been investigated by ... Flagellophora Sterreria Nemertoderma Nemertodermatida Nervous system Immunohistochemistry Musculature Statocyst Broom organ ...
Autonomic nervous system, in vertebrates, the part of the nervous system that controls and regulates the internal organs ... human nervous system: The autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system ... vegetative nervous system, visceral nervous system. Autonomic nervous system, in vertebrates, the part of the nervous system ... human nervous system: Functions of the autonomic system. The autonomic nervous system is regulated by cell groups in the brain ...
facty.com/anatomy/nervous-system/what-is-the-nervous-system. The nervous system consists of the central nervous system and the ... The nervous system is very complex. Read these 11 fun facts and learn why its so important. The nervous system is the bodys ... What Is Central Nervous System? Definition, Function & Parts www.emedicinehealth.com/anatomy_of_the_central_nervous_system/ ... www.verywellhealth.com/nervous-system-1298170. Understanding how the nervous system works provides the foundation for ...
Inhibition in the Central Nervous System. In muscular action some muscles must be stimulated to contract and others must be ...
... the system of nerves and nerve centers in an animal or human, including the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia. See more. ... nervous system in Medicine Expand. nervous system n. The system of cells, tissues, and organs that regulates the bodys ... nervous system definition. The system in the body that controls internal functions of the body and receives, interprets, and ... The nervous system of vertebrates is a complex information-processing system that consists mainly of the brain, spinal cord, ...
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Distinguish between the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and the autonomic nervous system ( ... functional divisions of the nervous system include the somatic nervous system (SNS) and the antonomic nervous system (ANS). a. ... B. Nervous System Organization. http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/nervous/organization/ 1. The nervous system is broadly ... nervous system - the neuroglia. There are at least 10 neuroglial cells for every one neuron in the nervous system. They come in ...
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Transcript of Nervous System Analogy. Nervous System. The Nervous System sends and receives messeges from the body.the messeges ... Central Nervous System. The central nervous system is the control center of the body. It is made of the brain and spinal cord. ... Peripheral Nervous. System. The peripheral nervous system is made up of all of the neurons in the body except of the spinal ... Nervous System Analogy. BRAIN. The brain is the control center of all of the body systems. It sends messeges to he body and ...
  • It is the only part of the peripheral nervous system that contains extensive neural circuits that are capable of local, autonomous function. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Microscopically, there are differences between the neurons and tissue of the CNS and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). (wikipedia.org)
  • From and to the spinal cord are projections of the peripheral nervous system in the form of spinal nerves (sometimes segmental nerves [7] ). (wikipedia.org)
  • These make up the peripheral nervous system. (kidshealth.org)
  • has two main divisions: the central nervous system, consisting of the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system, which in humans includes 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves, and the autonomic, or involuntary, nervous system. (britannica.com)
  • The nervous system consists of three major structures: the brain, the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (Brodal 1-18). (bartleby.com)
  • There are two major subdivision of the nervous system, the Central nervous system (CNS) which consist of the brain and the spinal cord and the Peripheral nervous system(PNS) consisting of the neutral tissues outside the brain and the spinal cord. (bartleby.com)
  • Nervous System and Diseases Within the human anatomy, an intricate and complex network of specialised nerve fibres and neurons works in collaboration with the central nervous system and peripheral system, designed to carry out the various actions humans perform every day. (bartleby.com)
  • The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) monitor. (innerbody.com)
  • Modelling diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems and effectively treating neurological disorders via neuronal manipulation requires far better biomaterials and technology than are currently available. (nature.com)
  • The autonomic system is the part of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary body functions including digestion and heartbeat. (reference.com)
  • The nervous system consists of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. (reference.com)
  • Compare autonomic nervous system , central nervous system , peripheral nervous system . (dictionary.com)
  • The nervous system of vertebrates is a complex information-processing system that consists mainly of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and autonomic nerves. (dictionary.com)
  • The nervous system has two major components: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) . (healthline.com)
  • The peripheral system consists of a network of nerves that connects the rest of the body to the CNS. (healthline.com)
  • Peripheral system nerves branch from either the brain stem or the spinal cord. (healthline.com)
  • 5. Explain the formation of the myelin sheath in the peripheral and central nervous systems. (cuny.edu)
  • 21. Distinguish between the central nervous system (CNS), the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). (cuny.edu)
  • Provide sensory awareness through electrochemical input to the central nervous system (CNS) from peripheral receptors. (cuny.edu)
  • 1. The nervous system is broadly organized into the central nervous system (CNS) - brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves. (cuny.edu)
  • In vertebrates, the nervous system is divided into the central nervous system (CNS), comprising the brain and spinal cord , and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), consisting of all the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system, such as to serve the limbs and organs. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The large majority of what are commonly called nerves (which are actually axonal processes of nerve cells) are considered to be part of the peripheral nervous system. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • millions of information transfer processes take place in remarkable coordination every second in the human central and peripheral nervous system. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The peripheral nervous system is made up of all of the neurons in the body except of the spinal cord and brain. (prezi.com)
  • Included are detailed images of the Brain Anatomy, Central Nervous System, Connections of the Sympathetic Nervous System, Difference between Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems. (appbrain.com)
  • The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system . (childrensmn.org)
  • The nervous system is organized into two parts: the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system , which connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body. (medscape.com)
  • The Peripheral Nervous System is classified as all the nerves that are not part of the spinal cord and the brain. (brightkite.com)
  • The peripheral nervous system consists of the cranial nervous, spinal nerves and ganglia. (brightkite.com)
  • 1668 words - 7 pages The nervous system is divided into three components: the central nervous system, which encompasses the brain, brain stem, and the spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system, which includes the sensory receptors and effector muscles and organs in the body, and the autonomic nervous system which is part of both the peripheral and central nervous system and controls visceral and largely unconscious functions (Barker & Barasi, 2005). (brightkite.com)
  • Using a number of genetic engineering tricks, the researchers were able to specifically knock-out the Erk gene during the development of the peripheral nervous system in mice. (redorbit.com)
  • But we did see a dramatic effect in these myelinating cells called Schwann cells, which wrap the fibers in the peripheral nervous system with myelin to allow the rapid conduction of signals," said Snider. (redorbit.com)
  • Because the cognitive defects experienced by patients with neurodevelopmental delay are more closely linked to the development of the central nervous system than to the peripheral nervous system, the researchers plan to expand their studies to see what the effects might be of losing Erk in the brain. (redorbit.com)
  • The peripheral nervous system is broken down into the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. (reference.com)
  • In the somatic nervous system, sensory information is sent to the central nervous system by the peripheral nerve fibers. (reference.com)
  • The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system outside of the CNS. (cancer.ca)
  • Infection with HIV can affect both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS) in their entirety as well as muscles. (medscape.com)
  • The peripheral nervous system "Ë talks' to muscles through nerve impulses in response to external stimuli. (redorbit.com)
  • however, the role of plasmalogens in the peripheral nervous system is poorly defined. (jci.org)
  • Thus the ANS is best seen as one of the outflows whereby the CNS controls bodily organs, so that "peripheral autonomic pathways" is a better term, but "autonomic nervous system" is well-established. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In most animal species it consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). (pearltrees.com)
  • 5. Detailed Nervous System consisting of the Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System, & Autonomic Nervous System. (turbosquid.com)
  • The Peripheral Nervous system has sensory neurons, ganglia, and nerves connecting to the Central Nervous system. (smore.com)
  • Signals from the peripheral nervous system are transported to the brain for interpretation. (wisegeek.com)
  • In the peripheral nervous system, the most common problem is the failure of nerve conduction, which can be due to different causes including diabetic neuropathy and demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large numbers of neurons are contained in the enteric nervous system, about 200-600 million in human. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The ganglia contain neurons and glial cells, but not connective tissue elements, and in many respects they are similar in structure to the CNS, except that there is no significant blood-enteric nervous system barrier. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Nerve fibre bundles within the enteric nervous system consist of the axons of enteric neurons, axons of extrinsic neurons that project to the gut wall, and glial cells. (scholarpedia.org)
  • 1999). Enteric neurons also interact with the extensive intrinsic immune system of the gastrointestinal tract. (scholarpedia.org)
  • A sensory system consists of sensory neurons (including the sensory receptor cells), neural pathways , and parts of the brain involved in sensory perception . (wikipedia.org)
  • Distance chemoreceptors are integral to receiving stimuli as gases in the olfactory system through both olfactory receptor neurons and neurons in the vomeronasal organ . (wikipedia.org)
  • The nervous system is a network of neurons (nerve cells) that that sends information to the brain to be analyzed. (bartleby.com)
  • The majority of the nervous system is tissue made up of two classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia. (innerbody.com)
  • Also known as sensory neurons, afferent neurons transmit sensory signals to the central nervous system from receptors in the body. (innerbody.com)
  • Also known as motor neurons, efferent neurons transmit signals from the central nervous system to effectors in the body such as muscles and glands. (innerbody.com)
  • Interneurons form complex networks within the central nervous system to integrate the information received from afferent neurons and to direct the function of the body through efferent neurons. (innerbody.com)
  • Because neurons are extremely specialized cells that are essential to body function and almost never reproduce, neuroglia are vital to maintaining a functional nervous system. (innerbody.com)
  • During vertebrate development, different types of neurons are generated in a specific pattern across the dorso-ventral (D-V, or back-to-stomach) axis, as well as along the anterior-posterior (A-P, or longitudinal) axis, of the neural tube (the early developing nervous system). (scienceblogs.com)
  • The system of neurons and tissues that regulates the actions and responses of vertebrates and many invertebrates. (dictionary.com)
  • Information conveyed through the nervous system moves along networks of cells called neurons. (healthline.com)
  • Irritability refers to the ability of neurons (cells of the nervous system) to detect and to respond to a stimulus. (cuny.edu)
  • All parts of the nervous system are made of nervous tissue, which contains the two main categories of cells: neurons and supporting glia cells. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Neurons contain within them a system of 'tracks' called microtubules, and molecular 'engines' that transport molecules along those tracks. (news-medical.net)
  • The central nervous system is composed of large numbers of excitable nerve cells and their processes, called neurons, which are supported by specialized tissue called neuroglia. (medscape.com)
  • Introduction The human nervous system is composed of billions of neurons that respond to stimuli, conduct impulses, and communicate with other cells. (bartleby.com)
  • Factors that control the differentiation of fetal stem cells to neurons and glia have been defined in vitro, and multipotential cells with similar signaling logic can be cultured from the adult central nervous system. (sciencemag.org)
  • The adult nervous system also contains multipotential precursors for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes ( 13 , 16 , 18-20 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The term autonomic nervous system (ANS) refers to collections of motor neurons (ganglia) situated in the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, and to the axonal connections of these neurons (Figure 1 ). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Modern experiments have shown that neurons in autonomic ganglia do not have inbuilt discharge patterns sufficiently integrated to regulate physiological functions, with the possible exception of neurons within the enteric nervous system of the small and large intestines. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Along with neurons, the nervous system contains other specialized cells called glial cells (or simply glia), which provide structural and metabolic support. (pearltrees.com)
  • 6. Explain how ANS motor neuron pathways compare with somatic nervous system pathways to skeletal muscle in terms of number of motor neurons involved. (cuny.edu)
  • The dauer is a dispersal stage with dauer-specific behaviors for finding and stowing onto carrier animals, but how dauers acquire these behaviors, despite having a physically limited nervous system of 302 neurons, is poorly understood. (pnas.org)
  • The central nervous system, made up of the brain and spinal cord , rapidly sends and receives electrical signals via neurons that act like messaging pathways. (wisegeek.com)
  • Formulated by our team of experts in natural medicine to support nervous system harmony and healthy brain functioning, Epi-Still-S™ promotes healthy neurons, neural connections and electrical activity in the brain. (nativeremedies.com)
  • The nervous system relies on billions of tiny nerve cells called neurons to function. (nativeremedies.com)
  • The enteric nervous system receives inputs from the parasympathetic and sympathetic parts of the nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract also receives a plentiful supply of afferent nerve fibres, through the vagus nerves and spinal afferent pathways. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Typical sensory system: the visual system , illustrated by the classic Gray's FIG. 722- This scheme shows the flow of information from the eyes to the central connections of the optic nerves and optic tracts, to the visual cortex . (wikipedia.org)
  • progressive disease of the central nervous system characterized by destruction of the myelin sheath surrounding the nerve fibres of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. (britannica.com)
  • The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. (innerbody.com)
  • This section of the nervous system features the most inferior portion of the spinal cord along with many major nerves, plexuses, and ganglia that serve the vital organs of the abdominopelvic cavity. (innerbody.com)
  • It consists of nerves that carry information between the central nervous system and the extremities of the body. (nature.com)
  • The simplest nervous systems lack a brain, and instead consist of diffuse networks of nerves. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system comprises two antagonistic sets of nerves, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems . (britannica.com)
  • The sympathetic nervous system connects the internal organs to the brain by spinal nerves. (britannica.com)
  • The nerve fibres of the parasympathetic nervous system are the cranial nerves , primarily the vagus nerve , and the lumbar spinal nerves. (britannica.com)
  • Schematic representation of the autonomic nervous system, showing distribution of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves to the head, trunk, and limbs. (britannica.com)
  • The nervous systems of invertebrates vary from a simple network of nerves to a complex nerve network under the control of a primitive brain. (dictionary.com)
  • The nervous system is made up of the brain , the spinal cord , the nerves , and the sense organs , such as the eye and ear . (dictionary.com)
  • This coordinating system derives its name from nerves , which are cylindrical bundles of fibers that emanate from the brain and central cord, and branch repeatedly to innervate every part of the body (Kandel et al. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. (healthline.com)
  • Miller and Levine) The nervous system, as hinted in the name, is composed of many different nerves which are cylindrical bundles of fibers. (brightkite.com)
  • Other structures in C. kunmingensis 's nervous system - dozens of nerves that emerged at regular intervals from the nerve cord near the underside of the body - resembled those found in certain types of modern worms, but were absent in modern arthropods, offering clues to the scientists about how nervous systems adapted as different forms of life in these related lineages evolved. (livescience.com)
  • This organization - nerve cord, ganglia and dozens of nerves extending along each side - is similar to the neural systems of modern arthropods, Ortega-Hernández said. (livescience.com)
  • The second is that it is nervous -- not in the sense of being beset with anxiety or on edge about what the future holds, but in that it uses nerves to connect things to the brain (as discussed just above, the parts of your brain which run things without pestering the conscious parts. (everything2.com)
  • And lastly, the third is that it is a system -- not a one off cluster or bundle of nerves, but a group of them running all throughout your body, wherever autonomous nervous control is advisable, and coordinating the autonomous responses of multiple organs to a single stimuli. (everything2.com)
  • Nerves of the sympathetic nervous system prepare the body for situations that require strength and heightened awareness or situations that arouse fear, anger, excitement or embarrassment. (cancer.ca)
  • Affecting these nerves lowers blood flow to organs, lowers activity in the digestive system, stimulates the liver to release glucose to give the body more energy, relaxes smooth muscle in the bladder wall and lowers urine production. (cancer.ca)
  • All other animal species, with the exception of a few types of worm, have a nervous system containing a brain, a central cord (or two cords running in parallel), and nerves radiating from the brain and central cord. (pearltrees.com)
  • The Central Nervous system has the brain, spinal cords, and nerves. (smore.com)
  • Although the high plasma leptin levels of human obesity are often accompanied by sympathetic nervous activation, this sympathetic stimulation does not involve all outflows, sparing the sympathetic nerves directed to the heart, whereas the stimulation of epinephrine secretion expected with high leptin levels is not seen in obesity. (ahajournals.org)
  • HRV measures the relationship healthiness of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems and is comprised of over 30 scientific markers, such as stress, pulse, blood pressure and arterial blood flow. (massagemag.com)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous Systems in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system is further divided into the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. (cancer.ca)
  • The term autonomic was first applied to the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems around the turn of the century. (chiro.org)
  • The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the intrinsic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The enteric nervous system is composed of thousands of small ganglia that lie within the walls of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas, gallbladder and biliary tree, the nerve fibres that connect these ganglia, and nerve fibres that supply the muscle of the gut wall, the mucosal epithelium, arterioles and other effector tissues. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The enteric nervous system originates from neural crest cells that colonise the gut during intra-uterine life. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Thus, there is a rich interaction, in both directions, between the enteric nervous system, sympathetic prevertebral ganglia and the CNS. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system and enteric nervous system are the three main parts of the autonomic nervous system. (reference.com)
  • A Study Of The Developing Enteric Nervous System During. (bartleby.com)
  • The Enteric nervous system is an intrinsic nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract , a division of the autonomic nervous system whose components lie within the walls of the digestive organs , and which is capable of functioning autonoumously[Wood et al. (bartleby.com)
  • Complex autonomic ganglia in the walls of the stomach and small intestine are separately classified as the enteric nervous system . (scholarpedia.org)
  • the autonomic nervous system, comprising the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system, which regulate involuntary functions, and the enteric nervous system, which functions to control the gastrointestinal system. (pearltrees.com)
  • TyrCre + ;Rb1 fl/fl mice exhibited no melanocyte defects but died unexpectedly early with intestinal obstruction, striking defects in the enteric nervous system (ENS), and abnormal intestinal motility. (jci.org)
  • The PNS is divided into three separate subsystems, the somatic, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enteric nervous system functions to control the gastrointestinal system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both autonomic and enteric nervous systems function involuntarily. (wikipedia.org)
  • conspicuous in relation to the central nervous system, although it is equally important for the heart and lungs and some other organs. (britannica.com)
  • function of the Autonomic Nervous System Introduction: The organs of our body are controlled by many systems in order to function correctly and efficiently in order to survive within the environment we live in. (bartleby.com)
  • These include the heart, stomach and intestines and other vital organs and body systems. (bartleby.com)
  • Autonomic nervous system , in vertebrates , the part of the nervous system that controls and regulates the internal organs without any conscious recognition or effort by the organism. (britannica.com)
  • The system of cells, tissues, and organs that regulates the body's responses to internal and external stimuli. (dictionary.com)
  • The nervous system is the network of specialized cells , tissues , and organs in a multicellular animal that coordinates the body's interaction with the environment, including sensing internal and external stimuli, monitoring the organs, coordinating the activity of muscles , initiating actions, and regulating behavior. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Two part image showing the differences between how the sympathetic nervous system (left) innervates organs versus how the parasympathetic nervous system (right) innervates. (smartdraw.com)
  • The autonomic nervous system controls muscles in the vital organs and glands. (reference.com)
  • To review recent findings from basic physiologic research about the effects of somatic stimulation of spinal structures on autonomic nervous system activity and the function of dependent organs. (chiro.org)
  • The human nervous system is responsible for signaling bodily functions, sensory experiences, and information processing. (bartleby.com)
  • The nervous system functions to process input from sensory receptors, transfer and interpret impulses and to control the functions of body's muscles and or The nervous system funct. (reference.com)
  • Langley noted the absence of sensory (afferent) nerve cell bodies in autonomic ganglia and defined the ANS as a purely motor system. (scholarpedia.org)
  • In biology, the nervous system is a highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nervous system is a highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its actions and sensory information. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Explain the aspects of body function regulated by the autonomic nervous system. (cuny.edu)
  • Founded in 2007 by Jessica Rosenkrantz and Jesse Louis-Rosenberg, Nervous System has pioneered the application of new technologies in design, including generative systems, 3D printing, and webGL. (n-e-r-v-o-u-s.com)
  • In their Somerville workshop, Nervous System cofounders Jessica Rosenkrantz and Jesse Louis-Rosenberg are flipping through the pages of a sizable wholesale catalog in search of a picture from their first jewelry collection. (bostonmagazine.com)
  • Embryologically, the somatic structures appear late in development as compared to the vegetative nervous system, which serves as the chief integrating and correlating system of the visceral structures. (chiro.org)
  • The voluntary and vegetative nervous systems are intimately connected and brought into reflex connection so that visceral stimulation has skeletal and somatic expression and skeletal muscle messages are expressed in visceral tissues: The body is a whole. (chiro.org)
  • The gastrointestinal tract also harbors an extensive endocrine signaling system, and many gastrointestinal functions are under dual neuronal and endocrine control (Furness et al. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Endocrine Vs Nervous System The endocrine system acts with nervous system to coordinate the body's activities. (bartleby.com)
  • The endocrine system uses chemical messengers called hormones that are transported by the circulatory system (blood). (bartleby.com)
  • Severe weight loss triggers abnormalities in the endocrine system. (bartleby.com)
  • It receives chemical information from hormones in the circulating blood and can also regulate secretions of the endocrine system by the action of neurohormones. (dictionary.com)
  • How massage therapy influences the autonomic nervous (ANS) and endocrine systems is what is going to elevate this profession out of the doldrums of poor perception in the marketplace. (massagemag.com)
  • When the body experiences stress, it triggers a complex series of interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system , which regulates hormones . (wisegeek.com)
  • The nervous system senses and interprets events, and if stress is perceived, the endocrine system is alerted while the sympathetic nervous system is activated. (wisegeek.com)
  • Using the nervous system's electrical signaling, the hypothalamus triggers the release of hormones by the endocrine glands. (wisegeek.com)
  • The endocrine system is responsible for producing and regulating hormones in the bloodstream to control bodily functions. (wisegeek.com)
  • In addition to controlling movement, the brain senses emotional, physical or mental stress and signals the endocrine system to release the appropriate hormones in response to the perceived emergency. (wisegeek.com)
  • Stress causes the endocrine system to release hormones that have quick and wide-ranging effects throughout the body. (wisegeek.com)
  • The nervous system detects environmental changes that impact the body, then works in tandem with the endocrine system to respond to such events. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, the olfactory epithelium is the only central nervous tissue in direct contact with the environment, which opens up for therapeutic treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different forms of glial cells have different functions, some acting almost as scaffolding for neuroblasts to climb during neurogenesis such as bergmann glia , while others such as microglia are a specialized form of macrophage , involved in the immune system of the brain as well as the clearance of various metabolites from the brain tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Acquaintance and histology of nervous tissue has been taken for with the basic cytology granted. (springer.com)
  • 7. Define each of the following terms as related to nervous tissue: irritability, conductivity. (cuny.edu)
  • Cephalization is a trend seen in the history of life whereby nervous tissue in more advanced organisms is concentrated toward the anterior of the body. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The nervous system is composed of all nerve tissue in the body. (bartleby.com)
  • Definition of the processes that shape the cellular makeup of the central nervous system (CNS) has relied heavily on three distinct procedures: fate mapping, tissue culture, and transplantation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Tissue culture and transplant techniques, developed in vertebrate systems ( 2 ), have generated important data on the potential of neural cells ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • We're excited that these international 'dream teams' of leading scientists and physicians have accepted our challenge to develop the tools needed for conducting clinical trials aimed at protecting against and repairing nervous tissue damage in MS," said John R. Richert, MD, Vice President of Research & Clinical Programs at the National MS Society. (eurekalert.org)
  • Recent progress in controlling immune system attacks, coupled with rapid advances in the neurosciences, have made nervous tissue repair and protection emergent areas of MS research, prompting the National MS Society's unprecedented investment. (eurekalert.org)
  • Neurologist Dr. Peter A. Calabresi (Johns Hopkins University) and collaborators are searching for better ways to detect and quantify tissue injury in MS and testing agents that may protect the nervous system from further damage. (eurekalert.org)
  • Nervous tissue first arose in wormlike organisms about 550 to 600 million years ago. (pearltrees.com)
  • California poppy and corydalis are time-honored Chinese herbs used traditionally to promote healthy nervous tissue. (chiroeco.com)
  • 10,13 Thus, there seems to be a 2-way interaction between leptin and the sympathetic nervous system, perhaps constituting a regulatory feedback loop, with leptin acting within the hypothalamus to cause activation of central sympathetic outflow and stimulation of adrenal medullary release of epinephrine 14 and conversely, with the sympathetic nervous system inhibiting leptin release from white adipose tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • The central nervous system, composed of the brain, spinal cord and an extensive neuron network, serves as the control center for all bodily functions. (reference.com)
  • At the cellular level, the nervous system is defined by the presence of a special type of excitable cell called a neuron (or "nerve cell") that transmits impulses. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • If you think of the brain as a central computer that controls all bodily functions, then the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • The Nervous System The nervous system is the most complex part of the body, as they govern our thoughts, feelings, and bodily functions. (bartleby.com)
  • The Central Nervous System integrates and coordinates all bodily functions, process all incoming messages and send commands to different body parts. (bartleby.com)
  • Zimmerman) The nervous system itself is capable of collecting information, processing it, and then responding to the collected information where it then sends it to the appropriate part of the body to perform bodily functions. (brightkite.com)
  • Depending on the need, infrared neuromodulation can stimulate or inhibit electrical signals that alter important bodily functions (e.g., blood pressure) by targeting specific areas of the nervous system or even single nerve cells with laser precision. (eurekalert.org)
  • neuroanatomy ) In humans and other vertebrates , the part of the nervous system that regulates the involuntary activity of the heart , intestines and glands. (wiktionary.org)
  • But, according to new research, published in 2007 in the journal Cell , it wasn't just bilateral symmetry that the descendants of Urbilateria inherited: at the earliest stages of their evolution, vertebrates - including humans - may have inherited the organization of their nervous systems from it as well. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The nervous systems of vertebrates and annelid worms, however, are organized in another way, with nerve fibres arranged in centralized cords, and large groups of nerve cells (called ganglia, singular ganglion). (scienceblogs.com)
  • It was found that the developing nervous system of the ragworm, just like that of the zebrafish and other vertebrates, is subdivided into discrete domains, each of which is characterized by the same molecular fingerprint as its counterpart in the zebrafish. (scienceblogs.com)
  • This major coordinating system is found in most invertebrates and all vertebrates , but is most complex in vertebrate animals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This information is then directed to other parts of the nervous system for further processing. (kidshealth.org)
  • Next, draw the different parts of the nervous system. (amnh.org)
  • The central nervous system ( CNS ) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord . (wikipedia.org)
  • The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord, both derived from the embryonic neural tube. (britannica.com)
  • The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions made. (innerbody.com)
  • The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system (CNS), where information is processed and responses originate. (innerbody.com)
  • The central nervous system or CNS include the brain and spinal cord. (reference.com)
  • The central system is the primary control center for the body and is composed of the brain and spinal cord. (healthline.com)
  • The nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, serves as the communication link between our internal world and the external world around us. (naturessunshine.com)
  • C entral nervous system (CNS): the primary control center for the body and is composed of the brain and spinal cord. (healthline.com)
  • In the central nervous system, the brain and spinal cord are the main centers where correlation and integration of nervous information occur. (medscape.com)
  • The nervous system is the part of an animal 's body that coordinates the voluntary and involuntary actions of the animal and transmits signals between different parts of its body. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary functions that the body does on its own such as breathing and digestion. (cancer.ca)
  • The nervous system is the part of an animal's body that coordinates its voluntary and involuntary actions and transmits signals between different parts of its body. (pearltrees.com)
  • Ventral chain: refers to the series of ganglia of the nervous system . (dictionary.com)
  • Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Direct chemoreceptors that detect stimuli as liquids include the taste buds in the gustatory system as well as receptors in the aortic bodies which detect changes in oxygen concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The system in the body that controls internal functions of the body and receives, interprets, and responds to stimuli . (dictionary.com)
  • 19. Explain how the nervous system codes for the quality and intensity of stimuli. (cuny.edu)
  • Because as technology improves, so will its accuracy and scope, so that a simple wrist device will be able to measure autonomic nervous system function of the body and how it responds to its stimuli. (massagemag.com)
  • It is made up of nerve tissues to receive and transmit stimuli to nervous centers and initiate response. (bartleby.com)
  • Certain immune cells can cause damage to the aging central nervous system, according to a novel study by scientists of the University Hospital and the University of Würzburg. (idw-online.de)
  • Mal- or overactivation of distinct cells belonging to the innate immune system - the microglia - appears to promote damage of nerve fibers and synapses in the aging central nervous system (CNS). (idw-online.de)
  • In a recent project, scientists of the University Hospital Würzburg have now discovered an important role of the adaptive immune system. (idw-online.de)
  • The study thus provides basic-scientific and translationally relevant insights into degenerative aging-related processes and another example for the complex interaction between the nervous and the immune system. (idw-online.de)
  • At first glance, the nervous and immune systems appear very different. (springer.com)
  • This collection of reviews, contributed by internationally recognized immunologists and molecular and cellular neurobiologists, puts side by side cellular communication devices and signaling mechanisms in the immune and nervous systems and discusses mechanisms of interaction between the two systems, the significance of which has only recently been fully appreciated. (springer.com)
  • The manifestations of AIDS and its neurologic complications differ in children, whose immune and nervous systems are infected at an immature stage, whether in utero, during delivery, or postpartum. (medscape.com)
  • CNS complications tend to progress more rapidly in children, probably because of the inability of their immune systems to mount an appropriate T-cell, B-cell, or cytokine response to the infection. (medscape.com)
  • For patient education information, see the Dementia Center , Immune System Center , and Sexually Transmitted Diseases Center , as well as Dementia Due to HIV Infection and HIV/AIDS . (medscape.com)
  • The functioning of the immune system is depressed and the healing and repair of tissues slows, while activation of the sympathetic nervous system increases the stress the body feels. (wisegeek.com)
  • An individual struggling with continual stress may have a compromised immune system that can lead to physical ailments. (wisegeek.com)
  • This system is furthermore classified as the visceral motor system separating it from the somatic motor system. (bartleby.com)
  • Recent neuroscience research supports a neurophysiologic rationale for the concept that aberrant stimulation of spinal or paraspinal structures may lead to segmentally organized reflex responses of the autonomic nervous system, which in turn may alter visceral function. (chiro.org)
  • A review of the section titled "The Visceral System" within Chapter 3 will be beneficial to the reader of this chapter. (chiro.org)
  • The nervous system is the body's inner communication system. (reference.com)
  • A. In General - The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the body's internal environment. (cuny.edu)
  • The nervous system is a major part of the complex electrochemical process that acts as the body's control and communications center. (nativeremedies.com)
  • Using the optic nerve model, medical scientists from Düsseldorf / Ulm, Germany, headed by Prof. Dr. Dietmar Fischer, have demonstrated that paclitaxel, an approved cancer drug known as Taxol for two decades, facilitates the regeneration of nerve fibers, called axons, in the brain and central nervous system. (innovations-report.com)
  • The expression patterns of genes encoding the annelid versions of three proteins known to be involved in dorso-ventral patterning of the vertebrate nervous system ( Nk2.2 , Pax6 and Msx ) were determined in worm larvae, by in situ hybridization and antibody staining. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The PNS can also be divided into smaller pieces: the somatic and autonomic systems. (healthline.com)
  • Forty years since the initial discovery of neurogenesis in the postnatal rat hippocampus, investigators have now firmly established that active neurogenesis from neural progenitors continues throughout life in discrete regions of the central nervous systems (CNS) of all mammals, including humans. (nih.gov)
  • Figure 1: Summary of sympathetic (A) and parasympathetic (B) autonomic neural outflows from the central nervous system . (scholarpedia.org)
  • High blood glucose levels can cause damage to all parts of the cardiovascular system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 780) are associated with improved exercise tolerance, cardiovascular health, improved autonomic nervous system control,and better emotional regulation. (massagemag.com)
  • In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. (hindawi.com)
  • This product consists of the Cardiovascular ( with animated pumping Heart ), Digestive, Respiratory, Urinary, Nervous ( with inner & outer Brain ), Skeletal Systems ( with Spinal Ligaments ) & Salivary Glands. (turbosquid.com)
  • 9. The Cardiovascular system is color coded blue & red to distinguish between vein & artery. (turbosquid.com)
  • The ENS has extensive, two-way, connections with the central nervous system (CNS), and works in concert with the CNS to control the digestive system in the context of local and whole body physiological demands. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Introduction: The central nervous system (CNS) is the system within the body that is under scrutiny during this case. (bartleby.com)
  • The nervous system is also known as the master control unit of the human body, as it operates other major functions such as the circulatory and respiratory systems (Jakab, 2006). (bartleby.com)
  • All of the systems in our body are regulated by a part of the nervous system called the autonomic nervous system (ANS). (bartleby.com)
  • The nervous system of the abdomen, lower back, and pelvis contains many important nerve conduits that service this region of the body as well as the lower limbs. (innerbody.com)
  • This conflicts with the view that the vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems evolved separately, on the dorsal and ventral sides of the body, respectively. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The nervous system is perhaps the most important part of the body. (reference.com)
  • The two systems collaborate to collect information from within the body, and also from the environment outside it. (healthline.com)
  • The systems process the collected information and then dispatch instructions to the rest of the body, facilitating an appropriate response. (healthline.com)
  • Or, take the Health Assessment Quiz to discover which of your body systems need the most strengthening. (naturessunshine.com)
  • Which part of your body controls the nervous sytsem? (sporcle.com)
  • The only multicellular animals that have no nervous system at all are sponges , placozoans , and mesozoans, which have very simple body plans. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • At the most basic level, the function of the nervous system is to send signals from one cell to others, or from one part of the body to others. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • At a more integrative level, the primary function of the nervous system is to control the body, by extracting information from the environment and transmitting, processing, and acting on this information. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The two systems work together to collect information from inside and outside the body. (healthline.com)
  • The Nervous System sends and receives messeges from the body.the messeges allow you to respond to what is happening inside and outside the body. (prezi.com)
  • The brain is the control center of all of the body systems. (prezi.com)
  • The central nervous system is the control center of the body. (prezi.com)
  • The rest of the nervous system is like a network that relays messages back and forth from the brain to different parts of the body. (childrensmn.org)
  • Nervous system, full body, anterior view. (medscape.com)
  • 785 words - 3 pages The Nervous System of the Human Body The nervous system of the human body is responsible for sending, receiving and processing nerve impulses. (brightkite.com)
  • 815 words - 3 pages The nervous is considered to be the master controlling the systems of the body. (brightkite.com)
  • The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is designed to facilitate short-term survival by creating a cascade of neurophysiological responses throughout the body. (massagemag.com)
  • Stress Index measures cardiac muscle oxygen demand related to heart work, and reflects the adaptability of the body to internal and external stressors that directly influence autonomic nervous system functioning. (massagemag.com)
  • The somatic nervous system controls body movements that are under our control such as walking. (cancer.ca)
  • The parasympathetic nervous system has a calming effect on the body. (cancer.ca)
  • This organ system forms a communication and coordination network between all parts of the body. (bartleby.com)
  • Autonomic pathways, together with somatic motor pathways to skeletal muscle and neuroendocrine pathways, are the means whereby the central nervous system (CNS) sends commands to the rest of the body. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The central nervous system functions to send signals from one cell to others, or from one part of the body to others and to receive feedback. (pearltrees.com)
  • The Nervous System is a complex net of wiring that sends signals to different parts of the body. (smore.com)
  • October 22, 2013 - The effects of nervous system discomfort experienced on a daily basis - whether from stress, overwork, or exercise - sometimes makes it more difficult for the body to get through what the day brings. (chiroeco.com)
  • The Human Nervous System Anatomy Chart is a comprehensive yet beautiful representation of the nervous system in the human body. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • Chronic stress prevents the parasympathetic nervous system from returning the body to a balanced, relaxed state. (wisegeek.com)
  • Unprecedented, it provides a visual tool students can follow while the teacher lectures on the nervous system of the human body using the provided outline. (enasco.com)
  • The nervous system, its components, and functions are discussed, along with how the system functions in the body as an integrated whole, and other interesting facts. (enasco.com)
  • when your nervous system is regulated you will feel some stress, but once your body feels safe and you are able to act in a way to ensure your safety (i.e., press your own brakes), your system will calm back to baseline. (goodtherapy.org)
  • The size of the nervous system ranges from a few hundred cells in the simplest worms, to around 100 billion cells in humans. (pearltrees.com)
  • The nervous system's responses to stress normally function to protect humans from harm, but chronic stress overwhelms the system. (wisegeek.com)
  • The effect of leptin infusions on sympathetic nervous activity in humans has not been studied to this point. (ahajournals.org)
  • We are cautious about predicting the potential of Taxol or similar drugs for use in humans", Prof. Fischer emphasizes, "although Taxol or similar drugs might be promising candidates for the treatment of injuries to the central nervous system, be it from stroke or trauma. (innovations-report.com)
  • What Are the Four Functions of the Nervous System? (reference.com)
  • Intheparticularcaseofa binary system, where onlytwo kinds of signals are used, the information measured in bits coincides with the length N ofthe message. (jhu.edu)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Autonomic Nervous System. (fpnotebook.com)
  • This app allows you to search for and save your selected Nervous System topic for quicker access helping you to study the various material in a more intuitive manner. (appbrain.com)
  • Your nervous system moves all of your muscles. (edhelper.com)
  • However, in case of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, they can also do unwanted damage in the nervous system", says Janos Groh. (idw-online.de)
  • Neurology is the medical specialty dealing with disorders and diseases of the nervous system. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. (hindawi.com)
  • Mechanistically, air pollution may affect the nervous system through a variety of cellular, molecular, and inflammatory pathways that either directly damage brain structures or lead to a predisposition to neurological diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Understanding how the nervous system develops will give researchers a better understanding of neurological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorders. (redorbit.com)
  • We now know that the megacheirans had central nervous systems very similar to today's horseshoe crabs and scorpions," said the senior author of the study, Nicholas Strausfeld, a Regents' Professor in the University of Arizona's department of neuroscience. (deccanherald.com)
  • The repair teams are taking multifaceted approaches to protecting brain tissues and finding ways to rebuild the central nervous system. (eurekalert.org)
  • [3] Receptive fields have been identified for the visual system , auditory system and somatosensory system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagram showing arrangement of the nervous matter in Starfish. (usf.edu)
  • In recent years, trauma researchers and therapists have developed a deeper understanding of the nervous system's role in regulating extreme stress , and have learned some techniques for regulating this system. (goodtherapy.org)
  • The elucidation of the cellular and molecular bases underlying the inte- grated function of the central nervous system, both in disease and in health, must ultimately come from the combined efforts of scientists from many disciplines, including biology, chemistry, histology, pathology, physiology, pharmacology, and psychology. (springer.com)
  • Understanding how the nervous system works provides the foundation for understanding physiology. (reference.com)
  • The study "Sympathetic regulation of vascular function in health and disease," published in Frontiers in Physiology , suggests this persistent sympathetic nervous system stress is a key precipitator of ill health and disease, and may be accurately measured today in real time using sophisticated electro-cardiograms (ECG). (massagemag.com)
  • Figure drawn by the authors, incorporating material from Gray's Anatomy 31st Edition 1954, and from Cannon and Rosenblueth Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System , 1937. (scholarpedia.org)
  • and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of physiology and neuroscience that is concerned with the study of the functioning of the nervous system. (pearltrees.com)
  • Neuroscience is the field of science that focuses on the study of the nervous system. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The study of the nervous system is known as Neurochemistry. (bartleby.com)
  • The nervous system consists of two sections. (brightkite.com)
  • The central nervous system consists of the spinal cord and the brain, which contains 100 billion nerve cells. (reference.com)
  • There also are more than 1,000 disorders of the human brain and nervous system, with neurological disorders affecting up to one billion people worldwide. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • As part of the autonomic nervous system, these physiological processes are not under direct conscious control. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sherrington (1906) was concerned primarily with the problems of the organization of the nervous system in the regulation of reflex actions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The module will also build on students' learning of the locomotor system from Year 1 through consideration of the regulation of movement, and the impact of disease on the bones and joints. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The only way to end this misperception is to prove massage's medical legitimacy-and this can be done through evidence-based science on how massage can positively influence autonomic nervous system regulation. (massagemag.com)
  • When the sympathetic system is remains stuck in high drive or persistent tone, this is clinically called up-regulation, or stress. (massagemag.com)
  • Regulation of lymphocyte trafficking in central nervous system autoimmunity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The hypothalamus governs motivation and emotion and appears to play a role in coordinating the responses of the nervous system in times of stress. (medscape.com)
  • The brain is the place where complex coordination and integration of nervous responses takes place. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Nervous responses are important throughout the animal world. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Several Phase II and III clinical trials have demonstrated that immunotherapy can induce objective responses in otherwise refractory malignancies in tumors outside the central nervous system. (bioportfolio.com)