Trochlear Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TROCHLEAR NERVE.Trochlear Nerve: The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.Trochlear Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome: An idiopathic syndrome characterized by the formation of granulation tissue in the anterior cavernous sinus or superior orbital fissure, producing a painful ophthalmoplegia. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p271)Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Diagnosis-Related Groups: A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Dry Eye Syndromes: Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Myofunctional Therapy: Training or retraining of the buccal, facial, labial, and lingual musculature in toothless conditions; DEGLUTITION DISORDERS; TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DISORDERS; MALOCCLUSION; and ARTICULATION DISORDERS.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Lingual Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Femoral Neuropathy: Disease involving the femoral nerve. The femoral nerve may be injured by ISCHEMIA (e.g., in association with DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES), nerve compression, trauma, COLLAGEN DISEASES, and other disease processes. Clinical features include MUSCLE WEAKNESS or PARALYSIS of hip flexion and knee extension, ATROPHY of the QUADRICEPS MUSCLE, reduced or absent patellar reflex, and impaired sensation over the anterior and medial thigh.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Fascia Lata: CONNECTIVE TISSUE of the anterior compartment of the THIGH that has its origins on the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine, and its insertion point on the iliotibial tract. It plays a role in medial rotation of the THIGH, steadying the trunk, and in KNEE extension.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Chlorprothixene: A thioxanthine with effects similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics.
... is a condition affecting Cranial Nerve 4 (IV), the Trochlear Nerve, which is one of the Cranial Cranial Nerves that causes ... it is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury. To compensate for the double-vision resulting from the weakness of the ... When present at birth, it is known as congenital fourth nerve palsy. Trochlear nerve Harada-Ito procedure. ... Fourth cranial nerve palsy also known as Trochlear nerve palsy, ... Because the fourth cranial nerve is the thinnest and has the ...
The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of ... Injury to the trochlear nerve cause weakness of downward eye movement with consequent vertical diplopia (double vision). The ... The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that ... The human trochlear nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. The trochlear nerve emerges from the ...
Injury of trochlear nerve (S04.3) Injury of trigeminal nerve (S04.4) Injury of abducent nerve (S04.5) Injury of facial nerve ( ... S04.6) Injury of acoustic nerve (S04.7) Injury of accessory nerve (S04.8) Injury of other cranial nerves (S04.9) Injury of ... Injury of nerves at wrist and hand level (S64.0) Injury of ulnar nerve at wrist and hand level (S64.1) Injury of median nerve ... Injury of digital nerve of thumb (S64.4) Injury of digital nerve of other finger (S64.7) Injury of multiple nerves at wrist and ...
... is a condition affecting cranial nerve 4 (IV),[1] the trochlear nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves. It causes weakness ... it is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury. ... Fourth Cranial Nerve Palsy. Other names. Trochlear nerve palsy ... Because the trochlear nerve is the thinnest and has the longest intracranial course of the cranial nerves, ... "Fourth Nerve Palsy". www.aao.org. Retrieved 25 June 2019.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output ...
A fracture of the humerus in this region can result in radial nerve injury. The ulnar nerve lies at the distal end of the ... and the trochlea of the humerus articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna. The axillary nerve is located at the proximal ... In many reptiles and some primitive mammals, the lower extremity includes a large foramen, or opening, which allows nerves and ... The radial nerve follows the humerus closely. At the midshaft of the humerus, the radial nerve travels from the posterior to ...
Eyes Oculomotor nerve palsy - Oculomotor nerve (III) Fourth nerve palsy - Trochlear nerve (IV) Sixth nerve palsy - Abducens ... The facial nerve is the seventh of 12 cranial nerves. This cranial nerve controls the muscles in the face. Facial nerve palsy ... Recovery rate also depends on the cause of the facial nerve palsy (e.g. infections, perinatal injury, congenital dysplastic). ... Facial nerve (VII) (More on facial nerve palsy below) Accessory nerve disorder - Accessory nerve (XI) Pavlou, E., Gkampeta, A ...
... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... and injury to nerves during neurosurgery (such as tumor removal) are other possible causes of cranial nerve damage. The Graeco- ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV) and abducens nerve (VI) coordinate eye movement. Damage to nerves III, IV, or ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ...
Iatrogenic injury is also known to occur, with the abducens nerve being the most commonly injured cranial nerve in halo ... Cranial Nerves: Anatomy and Clinical Comments. Decker, 1998. Books editor-in-chief, Susan Standring ; section editors, Neil R. ... trochlear and oculomotor) into a single functional unit. Lesions of the abducens nucleus and the MLF produce observable sixth ... It is also known as the abducent nerve, the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. ...
The olfactory nerve is the shortest of the twelve cranial nerves and, similar to the optic nerve, does not emanate from the ... These injuries often lead to a reduced ability to taste and smell. Lesions of the olfactory nerve do not lead to a reduced ... The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers ... CN IV - Trochlear. *CN V - Trigeminal. *CN VI - Abducens. *CN VII - Facial ...
These are innerved from three cranial nerves: the abducens nerve, the trochlear nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Horizontal ... Multidisciplinary Care of the Patient Following Brain Injury. CRC Press. p. 97. ISBN 978-1-4398-3656-9. C. Keith Barnes (May ... This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. It is a type of vergence eye ... The extraocular muscles may have two types of fiber each with its own nerve supply, hence a dual mechanism.[citation needed] ...
Trauma, of course, can cause serious injury to the nerve. Direct optic nerve injury can occur from a penetrating injury to the ... The optic nerve has been classified as the second of twelve paired cranial nerves but is technically part of the central ... The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, or simply as CN II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from ... Other optic nerve problems are less common. Optic nerve hypoplasia is the underdevelopment of the optic nerve resulting in ...
... trochlear nerve (CN IV) ophthalmic nerve, the V1 branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V) maxillary nerve, the V2 branch of CN V ( ... but may be difficult to appreciate in the setting of a complete third nerve injury. Because of its connections with the facial ... external to, but immediately adjacent to, the lateral wall of the sinus) Unlike the nerves listed above, the abducens nerve (CN ... Oculomotor nerve Ophthalmic nerve Trochlear nerve Maxillary nerve Trigeminal ganglion Structures passing through the medial ...
The fourth (trochlear) and sixth (abducens) cranial nerves are located in the same compartment and can cause diagonal or ... The visual loss depends on which part of the nerve is affected. If the part of the nerve between the eye and the chiasm is ... traumatic brain injury, pregnancy (during which the pituitary enlarges) and treatment with estrogens. Hormonal stimulation ... In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ...
... some of which contain the cell bodies of neurons belonging to the cranial nerves. Not all cranial nerve nuclei contain α-MNs; ... Injury to α-MNs is the most common type of lower motor neuron lesion. Damage may be caused by trauma, ischemia, and infection, ... An exception is the trochlear nucleus in the brainstem, which innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye on the opposite ... These α-MNs provide the motor component of the spinal nerves that innervate muscles of the body. As in the brainstem, higher ...
... instead caused by damage to the trochlear nerve (fourth cranial nerve), which supplies the superior oblique muscle of the eye. ... the accessory nerve) but the second, third and fourth cervical nerves are also involved.[10] Pathologies in these blood and ... or toxic or traumatic brain injury.[2] A rough categorization discerns between congenital torticollis and acquired torticollis ... "Trochlear Nerve Palsy: Background, History of the Procedure, Problem". 2016-08-12.. Cite journal requires ,journal=. (help). ...
Oculomotor nerve nucleus: This is the third cranial nerve nucleus. Trochlear nerve nucleus: This is the fourth cranial nerve. ... accessory nerve (XI) and hypoglossal nerve (XII) are located in the medulla. The fibers of these cranial nerves exit the ... braininjuryhelp.com/video-tutorial/brain-injury-help-video-tutorial/ http://www.martindalecenter.com/MedicalAnatomy_3_SAD.html ... and trochlear nerve (IV) are located in the midbrain. The nuclei of the trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ...
Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ... In addition, there is the optic canal, which contains the optic nerve, or cranial nerve II, and is formed entirely by the ... Injury to any one of these structures by infection, trauma or neoplasm can cause temporary or permanent visual dysfunction, and ... The orbital surface presents medially by trochlear fovea and laterally by lacrimal fossa. The floor (inferior wall) is formed ...
It acts to extend the carpus and joints of the digits 3, 4, and 5. It is innervated by the radial nerve. Extensor carpi ulnar: ... It is innervated by the cranial pectoral nerves. Deep pectoral: originates on the ventral sternum and inserts on the lesser ... In some breeds, the tail is traditionally docked to avoid injuries (especially for hunting dogs). It can happen that some ... Trochlear Notch, Anconeal Process, Coronoid Processes (Medial and Lateral), Body of Ulna, Head of Radius, Body of Radius, ...
When cranial nerves are affected, neuropathies of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve #3) are most common. The oculomotor nerve ... is also commonly affected but fourth nerve, the trochlear nerve, (innervates the superior oblique muscle, which moves the eye ... These conditions are thought to result from a diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves ( ... and nerves. Longer nerve fibers are affected to a greater degree than shorter ones because nerve conduction velocity is slowed ...
... nerve inflammation, neuroma , and physical injury. Synkinesis is an interaction of nerves with muscles (although glands can ... 6th nerve), Trochlear (4th nerve), and Oculomotor (3rd nerve). After nerve trauma around the eye, a combination of any two of ... Moreover, while the abducens and the trochlear nerve each innervate one specific muscle, the oculomotor nerve has many ... As the nerve attempts to recover, nerve miswiring results (see Mechanism of Action below). In patients with severe facial nerve ...
... the accessory nerve) but the second, third and fourth cervical nerves are also involved. Pathologies in these blood and nerve ... instead caused by damage to the trochlear nerve (fourth cranial nerve), which supplies the superior oblique muscle of the eye. ... or toxic or traumatic brain injury. A rough categorization discerns between congenital torticollis and acquired torticollis. ... When the trochlear nerve is damaged, the eye is extorted because the superior oblique is not functioning. The affected person ...
The optic canal contains the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) and the ophthalmic artery, and sits at the junction of the sphenoid ... Injury to any one of these structures by infection, trauma or neoplasm can cause temporary or permanent visual dysfunction, and ... It is a major pathway for intracranial communication, containing cranial nerves III, IV, VI which control eye movement via the ... The orbital surface presents medially by trochlear fovea and laterally by lacrimal fossa.[8] ...
... some of which contain the cell bodies of neurons belonging to the cranial nerves. Not all cranial nerve nuclei contain α-MNs; ... Injury to α-MNs is the most common type of lower motor neuron lesion. Damage may be caused by trauma, ischemia, and infection, ... An exception is the trochlear nucleus in the brainstem, which innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye on the opposite ... The corticonuclear tract is so named because it connects the cerebral cortex to cranial nerve nuclei. (The corticonuclear tract ...
Mesencephalic cranial nerve nuclei *Oculomotor nucleus (III). *Edinger-Westphal nucleus. *Trochlear nucleus (IV) ... List of nerves of the human body. External links[edit]. *High-Resolution Cytoarchitectural Primate Brain Atlases ... Pontine cranial nerve nuclei *chief or pontine nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V) ... 1° (Free nerve ending → A delta fiber) → 2° (Anterior white commissure → Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic tract → Spinal ...
Horizontal fractures were thought to be associated with injuries to the facial nerve, and longitudinal with injuries to the ... This area contains nerve fibers, called glomus bodies. Normally, these nerves respond to changes in body temperature or blood ... based on disruption of the otic capsule has been found as more reliable in predicting complications such as facial nerve injury ... The lower seven cranial nerves and the major vessels to and from the brain traverse the temporal bone. ...
皮神经(英语:Cutaneous nerve): 股后皮神经(英语:Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh) (臀下皮神经(英语:inferior cluneal nerves) ... 周围神经损伤分類(英语:Peripheral nerve injury classification) ... 滑車神經核(英语:Trochlear nucleus). *分支 *無明顯分支 ... superior laryngeal nerve(英语:superior
The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of ... Injury to the trochlear nerve cause weakness of downward eye movement with consequent vertical diplopia (double vision). The ... The trochlear nerve, also called the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV, is a motor nerve (a somatic efferent nerve) that ... The human trochlear nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. The trochlear nerve emerges from the ...
There are more than 100 kinds of peripheral nerve disorders. They can affect one nerve or many nerves. Some are the result of ... Short Description: Injury of trochlear nerve, unspecified side, init encntr Long Description: Injury of trochlear nerve, ... 951.1 - Injury trochlear nerve (approximate) Approximate Flag. The approximate flag is on, indicating that the relationship ... Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (S00-T98) * Injuries to the head (S00-S09) *Injury of ...
Trochlear nerve palsy is mentioned in ophthalmology texts dating to the mid nineteenth century. However, it received little ... Causes and prognosis in 4,278 cases of paralysis of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens cranial nerves. Am J Ophthalmol. ... Neurocritical Care for Severe Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury * Traumatic Brain Injury in a 39-Year-Old Man: Interactive CT ... encoded search term (Trochlear Nerve Palsy (Fourth Nerve Palsy)) and Trochlear Nerve Palsy (Fourth Nerve Palsy) What to Read ...
... trochlear nerve translation, English dictionary definition of trochlear nerve. n. Either of the fourth pair of cranial nerves ... Define trochlear nerve. trochlear nerve synonyms, trochlear nerve pronunciation, ... The main indication for the procedure is acquired trochlear nerve palsy following closed head injury, particularly due to ... Trochlear nerve - definition of trochlear nerve by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/trochlear+nerve ...
Visualization is more difficult than with rectus muscle surgery, and injury to adjacent nerves, blood vessels, and other ... Trochlear Nerve Palsy (Fourth Nerve Palsy) Q&A How is surgery performed for the treatment of trochlear nerve palsy (fourth ... Palsies of the trochlear nerve: diagnosis and localization--recent concepts. Mayo Clin Proc. 1993 May. 68(5):501-9. [Medline]. ... Acquired oculomotor, trochlear, and abducent cranial nerve palsies in pediatric patients. Am J Ophthalmol. 1992 Nov 15. 114(5): ...
What is the most common cause of acute injury to CNIV (trochlear nerve)? What else can damage it? ... Nerves carry 1000s of axons *In spinal nerves all of the nerves have mixed sensory and motor function ... The abducens nerve (CNVI) is susceptible to injury in raised intracranial pressure. Give examples of what can cause this and ... Cranial nerves arise from the brainstem (except CNI and CNII which arise from the brain *Spinal nerves arise from the spinal ...
Home > 2011 ICD-9-CM Diagnosis Codes > Injury And Poisoning 800-999 > Injury To Nerves And Spinal Cord 950-957 > Injury to ... trochlear 951.1. *. trunk, excluding shoulder and pelvic girdles 954.9. *. specified site NEC 954.8. ... Optic nerve injury. *ICD-9-CM 950.0 is a billable medical code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis on a reimbursement ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM S04.019A Injury of optic nerve, unspecified eye, initial encounter ...
... is a condition affecting Cranial Nerve 4 (IV), the Trochlear Nerve, which is one of the Cranial Cranial Nerves that causes ... it is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury. To compensate for the double-vision resulting from the weakness of the ... When present at birth, it is known as congenital fourth nerve palsy. Trochlear nerve Harada-Ito procedure. ... Fourth cranial nerve palsy also known as Trochlear nerve palsy, ... Because the fourth cranial nerve is the thinnest and has the ...
... is a condition affecting cranial nerve 4 (IV),[1] the trochlear nerve, which is one of the cranial nerves. It causes weakness ... it is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury. ... Fourth Cranial Nerve Palsy. Other names. Trochlear nerve palsy ... Because the trochlear nerve is the thinnest and has the longest intracranial course of the cranial nerves, ... "Fourth Nerve Palsy". www.aao.org. Retrieved 25 June 2019.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output ...
Other times, the cause of the paresthesia may not be evident and may be the result of just disturbing the nerve (eg. Nearby ... If there is something putting pressure on the nerve, sometimes removal of the offending object can relieve the paresthesia. ... Tomeo on what causes circumoral paresthesia: Paresthesia can result from trauma to the nerves serving the affected area. ... nerv pathology: The skin is supplied by supra orbital and supra trochlear nerves. An injury to the nerves in forehead or some ...
It is caused by, usually, an overweight individuals soft tissue compressing down on the nerve when sitting down, causing ... it involves numbness and/or burning pain down the distribution of the nerve. ... Galyon on causes of extremity paresthesia: Impingement of the lateral cutaneous nerve is termed meralgia paresthetica; ... nerv pathology: The skin is supplied by supra orbital and supra trochlear nerves. An injury to the nerves in forehead or some ...
Cranial nerves. Olfactory nerve. Damage to the olfactory nerve can occur from a head injury, local nasal disease, or pressure ... Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves. Compression of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nerves may be caused by ... Nerve injuries. Nerve injuries function as neuronal neuropathies affecting the axon far from the cell body. Injuries are of ... Injury that actually severs the nerve is called neurotmesis; surgical reattachment of the severed nerve ends is necessary. ...
The author could also have examined the cranial nerves optic, trochlear and abducent nerves in rare cases where one or the ... Although it affects the brain itself rather than the eye organ, there is one area governing the optic nerve and another ... This serves as the analyser of vision in the cortex and injuries by stimulation result in cortical visual disturbances. ...
Cranial Nerve IV Trochlear Serves only motor function - eye movement Injury causes upward deflection of the effected eye during ... Cranial Nerves There are 12 CNs Most synapse with the CNS in the brainstem. Each of the CNs serves motor info, sensory info, or ... Injury to XII can cause the patients tongue to deviate toward the side of injury (ipsilateral) Can test by evaluating the ... Injury to CN III results:. -in drooping of the eyelid, known as ptosis. --caused by paralysis to the muscles that raise the ...
... , Cranial Nerve IV, Trochlear Nerve, CN 4, Trochlear Nucleus. ... Nerve, Trochlear, Nerves, Trochlear, Trochlear Nerve, Trochlear Nerves, Trochlear nerve (IV), Cranial Nerve IV, Cranial Nerve, ... Thick cable-like nerve requiring significant compression for paralysis. *CN 3 parasympathetic fibers are susceptible to injury ... Trochlear nerve tree, Trochlear nerve [IV], superior oblique nerve, IV nerve, 4n, fourth cranial nerve, trochlear nerve, Nervus ...
Cranial nerve examination questions - oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV) + abducens (VI). * Murmur type and valve lesions. ... Cranial nerves *Pay attention to vertical gaze palsy, as in the context of Parkinsonism this may represent a Parkinson plus ... Questions about acute kidney injury (AKI). * Scrotal mass case study with questions and answers. ...
... trochlear), VI(abducens), and VIII (vestibulocochlear (auditory)) are addressed in other DBQs.). Cranial Nerve Conditions. ... Cranial Nerves, Fibromyalgia, and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome). Evaluation of conditions affecting the following nerves in the ... spinal cord injury, stroke, TB, TBI, Tinnitus, traumatic and other injuries, tremors, Ulcerative colitis, United States ... muscle injuries. List By Symptom - VA Disability Compensation. Disability Benefits Questionnaire (DBQ) Veterans now have more ...
J Neurol Sci: ЦJacobson DM, Marshfield DI, Moster ML, et al () Isolated trochlear nerve palsy inpatients with multiple ... Casualties with spinal injury often develop significant gastric atony and dilation, and may require nasogastric aspiration or ... Infiltration of specific peripheral nerves by lymphoma is known asneurolymphomatosis. In: Mumenthaler M, Schliack H, Sthr M ( ... Transsection of the me-dian nerve and sural nerve inter-plantate in a month followup. nerve (CN I) and the optic nerve (CN II) ...
ICD-10-PCS 00XJ0ZH is a billable procedure code used to indicate the performance of transfer trochlear nerve to oculomotor ... nerve, open approach. Code valid for the year 2019 ... Central Nervous System and Cranial Nerves. Character 3. X. ... ICD-10 Lookup , Advanced Lookup , Diseases and Injuries Lookup ICD-10 Index , ICD-10-PCS Index , ICD-9 Index ICD-10 Guidelines ... Transfer Trochlear Nerve to Oculomotor Nerve, Open Approach. Long Description:. Transfer Trochlear Nerve to Oculomotor Nerve, ...
Phrenic Nerve Involvement. Phrenic nerve is not a cranial nerve; it originates in the neck from C3-C5 cervical nerves, ... K. Chu, D. W. Kang, Y. W. Song, and B. W. Yoon, "Trochlear nerve palsy in Sjögrens syndrome," Journal of the Neurological ... Cranial nerve injury is a harmful complication of SS, even if less commonly recorded compared to peripheral neuropathy. ... V. Kuhl, P. P. Urban, W. J. Mayet, and H. C. Hopf, "Isolated trochlear nerve palsy and repetitive Raynauds phenomenon of the ...
... paralysis of cranial nerves (oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, and abductor nerve), and nuclear and supranuclear lesions, ... ... Injuries predominantly involve the lower extremities and the spinal column. Head injuries occur ... Read more ,, ... We report a rare case of an isolated trochlear nerve palsy caused by chronic sinusitis and nasal polyposis. The patient was a ... Sudden-onset trochlear nerve palsy: clinical characteristics and treatment implications.. Jinali R Diora, David A Plager, ...
Figure 5: Right subtemporal view of the tentorium cerebelli and structures along its medial border such as the trochlear nerve. ... and superior cerebellar arteries and oculomotor and trochlear nerves [15]. This route may require temporal lobe resection, thus ... The main complication in this approach is an injury to the striate cortex affecting vision [27]. The most common location for ... Figure 5: Right subtemporal view of the tentorium cerebelli and structures along its medial border such as the trochlear nerve ...
... and the oculomotor nerve (III) to all other extraocular muscles. All but the trochlear nerve pass through the muscular conus. ... warned that it increases the risk of optic nerve injury. Indeed, this position places the optic nerve near the path of the ... where the nerves to be blocked are located. Additionally, such a large volume allows anterior spread of LA to the lids to ... LCN = long ciliary nerve; SCN = short ciliary nerve; CG = ciliary ganglion; GG = geniculate ganglion; V = fifth cranial nerve; ...
Peripheral Nerve Disorders Without Major Complications average hospital billing costs and medicare payments across United ... Injury of trochlear nerve, right side, initial encounter. *ICD10 Code: S0422XA - Injury of trochlear nerve, left side, initial ... ICD10 Code: S149XXA - Injury of unspecified nerves of neck, initial encounter. *ICD10 Code: S242XXA - Injury of nerve root of ... Injury of oculomotor nerve, left side, initial encounter. *ICD10 Code: S0420XA - Injury of trochlear nerve, unspecified side, ...
... nerves misc reproductive s. perio lig) - Anatomic sciences (nerves, misc, reproductive s. perio lig) 205-252 ... Auriculotemporal nerve. - Facial nerve (CN VII). - Trochlear nerve (CN IV) *Auriculotemporal nerve arises from the posterior ... leading to the injury of the right abducens nerve. Which of the following would be a sign of that injury?. - Right ptosis. - ... Trigeminal nerve. - Facial nerve. - Vagus nerve. - Hypoglossal nerve *Vagus nerve, is a mixed nerve that leaves the brain from ...
  • The clinical consequences of weakness in the superior oblique (caused, for example, by fourth nerve palsies) are discussed below. (wikipedia.org)
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