Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Spinal DiseasesSpinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Spinal NeoplasmsUlnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Nerve Sheath Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Lumbosacral Plexus: The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Spinal Dysraphism: Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Hematoma, Subdural, Spinal: Subdural hematoma of the SPINAL CANAL.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Hypogastric Plexus: A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Reflex, Monosynaptic: A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Obturator Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to the lower extremity. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and cutaneous sensory innervation of the inner thigh.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.H-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Ventral root of spinal nerve
In anatomy and neurology, the ventral root or anterior root is the efferent motor root of a spinal nerve. ... A portion of the spinal cord, showing its right lateral surface. The dura is opened and arranged to show the nerve roots. ... At its distal end, the ventral root joins with the dorsal root to form a mixed spinal nerve. ... The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots ...
Nerve. accessory nerve (motor). cervical spinal nerves C3 and C4 (motor and sensation). ... Nerve supply. Motor function is supplied by the accessory nerve. Sensation, including pain and the sense of joint ... Trapezius palsy, due to damage of the spinal accessory nerve, is characterized by difficulty with arm adduction and abduction, ... Wiater JM, Bigliani LU (1999). "Spinal accessory nerve injury". Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research. 368 (1): 5-16. doi: ...
1 = bulge in spinal cord ("brain"). 2 = notochord 3 = dorsal nerve cord ... and a dorsal nerve cord-but also a smaller ventral nerve cord. ... In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal ... 1. Notochord, 2. Nerve chord, 3. Buccal cirri, 4. Pharynx, 5. Gill slit, 6. Gonad, 7. Gut, 8. V-shaped muscles, 9. Anus, 10. ... a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. ...
2 In the vestibular nerve. *3 In the spinal ganglia. *4 In the cerebral cortex ... In the spinal gangliaEdit. Bipolar cells are also found in the spinal ganglia, when the cells are in an embryonic condition. ... In the vestibular nerveEdit. Bipolar neurons exist within the vestibular nerve as it is responsible for special sensory ... Common examples are the retina bipolar cell, the ganglia of the vestibulocochlear nerve, the extensive use of bipolar cells ...
Observation of Spinal Nerve Root Degeneration." Anesthesia & Analgesia 75.6 (1992): 895-899. ... Chloroprocaine was developed to meet the need for a short-acting spinal anaesthetic that is reliable and has a favourable ... articaine as spinal anaesthetics for day‐case knee arthroscopy." Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 55.3 (2011): 273-281. ... These data are based upon a retrospective review of 672 patients suitable for spinal anaesthesia in surgical procedures less ...
Adjacent to each vertebra emerge spinal nerves. The spinal nerves provide sympathetic nervous supply to the body, with nerves ... The spinal nerves leave the spinal cord through these holes. Individual vertebrae are named according to their region and ... Main article: Spinal cord. The vertebral column surrounds the spinal cord which travels within the spinal canal, formed from a ... The spinal cord is part of the central nervous system that supplies nerves and receives information from the peripheral nervous ...
Nerve plexus. *Spinal nerves. *Nerves of the lower limb and lower torso ... The femoral nerve is the largest and longest of the plexus' nerves. It gives motor innervation to iliopsoas, pectineus, ... The ilioinguinal nerve closely follows the iliohypogastric nerve on the quadratus lumborum, but then passes below it to run at ... Nerves of the lumbar plexus Nerve. Segment. Innervated muscles. Cutaneous branches ...
There are not 12 major nerves in the spinal cord). Unconscious person assist. This assist is intended for "a person ... Nerve assist. The Nerve Assist is based on Scientology's teaching that standing waves of energy can form in nerves and ... no evidence at all to suggest that standing waves are present in the spinal cord or that pain is stored in the nerves. Other ... information given by the Church of Scientology about the anatomical effects of nerve assists are patently false (e.g.: ...
General somatic afferent fibers
... afferent fibers arise from cells in the spinal ganglia and are found in all the spinal nerves, except occasionally the first ... Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve.. 1. Somatic efferent.. 2. Somatic afferent.. 3,4,5. Sympathetic efferent. ... Afferent nerve. References. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 849 of the 20th edition of ... touch and temperature from the surface of the body through the dorsal roots to the spinal cord and impulses of muscle sense, ...
... median nerve, medial cord, and ulnar nerve. The five roots are the five anterior rami of the spinal nerves, after they have ... the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the median nerve, and the ulnar nerve. Due to both emerging from the lateral cord the ... Bold indicates primary spinal root component of nerve. Italics indicate spinal roots that frequently, but not always, ... The musculocutaneous nerve has even been shown to send a branch to the median nerve further connecting them. There have been ...
... to expose the spinal cord and spinal nerves underneath. Ultrasound and an x-ray locate the tip of the spinal cord, where there ... This technique is repeated for rootlets between spinal nerves L2 and S2. Half of the L1 dorsal root fibers are cut without EMG ... After the sensory nerves are exposed, each sensory nerve root is divided into 3-5 rootlets. Each rootlet is tested with ... A rubber pad is then placed to separate the motor from the sensory nerves. The sensory nerve roots, each of which will be ...
Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection. Cerebrum. Optic and olfactory nerves.Inferior view. Deep ... Human brainstem anterior view Olfactory nerve Cerebrum.Inferior view.Deep dissection Spinal cord. Brachial plexus. Cerebrum. ... The olfactory tract is a bundle of afferent nerve fibers from the mitral and tufted cells of the olfactory bulb that connects ... Cranial Nerves. Yale School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. "Anatomy diagram: 13048.000-1". Roche ...
The spinal cord and spinal nerves contribute to homeostasis by providing quick reflexive responses to many stimuli. The spinal ... The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves. Principles of Anatomy (p. 492). Hobobken: John Wiley and Sons Inc.. The Central Nervous ... The central nervous system consists of parts that are encased by the bones of the skull and spinal column: the brain and spinal ... The peripheral nervous system is found outside those bones and consists of the nerves and most of the sensory organs. The CNS ...
While these tracts exist for both efferent and afferent nerves, efferent nerves will carry signals down the spinal cord toward ... The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves. In B. Roesch, L. Elfers, K. Trost, et al. (Ed.), Principles of Anatomy and Physiology (pp. ... The axons from the lower motor neurons are efferent nerve fibers that carry signals from the spinal cord to the effectors. ... Associated cranial nerves are the oculomotor, abducens, trochlear, and hypoglossal nerves. These motor neurons indirectly ...
Interference with the electrical conductivity of organs such as the heart and nerves. This can lead to seizures, lung injury ... Forceful propulsion of the body, producing such injuries as spinal and limb fractures. These injuries must be treated in ... Generally, the pathway of the current will follow the course of the least resistant tissues: firstly blood vessels, nerves, and ...
Polyneuropathy in dogs and cats
Spinal muscular atrophy occurs in cats and dogs, and is caused by the death of nerve cells in the spinal cord. This progressive ... It can cause Horner's syndrome, facial nerve paralysis, and femoral nerve, tibial nerve, radial nerve, trigeminal nerve, or ... Polyneuropathy indicates that multiple nerves are involved, unlike mononeuropathy. Polyneuropathy usually involves motor nerve ... It is caused in part by prolonged hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and results in dysfunction of one or both tibial nerves and ...
There are 44 sets of spinal nerves. The nasal passage contains nine or ten air sacs, which have a complicated structure, and ... On the other hand, sight is relatively poor, with a reduced lens and a limited number of fibres in the optic nerve and to the ... For example, the tubercles along the dorsal ridge are known to contain numerous nerve endings that may possess a sensory ... The auditory system also appears well-developed, with numerous large nerve fibres specialised for rapid communication between ...
Narrow-ridged finless porpoise
There are 44 sets of spinal nerves. Like all porpoises, they have spade-shaped teethed designed for catching small fish and ... The tubercles along the dorsal ridge are known to contain numerous nerve endings is used as a sensory function. The auditory ... Wu, B. (1989). "The spinal cord of finless porpoise, Neophocaena phocaenoides". Acta Theriological Sinica. 9 (1): 16-23. Gao, G ... they have a reduced lens and a limited number of fibres in the optic nerve and to the muscles moving the eyes compared to the ...
Robert O. Becker
Tarlov, I.M. (1950). Plasma clot suture of peripheral nerves and nerve roots; rationale and technique. Springfield, Illinois: C ... He was the first doctor to provide a methodical description of perineurial cysts of the spinal region, which are now known as ... During World War II, Tarlov researched the use of blood plasma clotting agent as an adhesive to repair nerve cells. Tarlov ... Tarlov, I.M. (1953). Sacral nerve-root cysts; another cause of the sciatic or cauda equina syndrome. Springfield, Ill.: C.C. ...
Brain stem - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nerves. Cranial nerves 3-12 emerge from the brainstem. There are motor neurons in the brainstem that allow movement in the face ... It connects the other parts of the brain (the cerebrum and cerebellum) to the spinal cord. Its neurons are the control centre ... These nerves are called the cranial nerves. The brainstem controls many bodily functions of which we are not normally aware, ... The hindbrain consists of the pons, and the medulla oblongata; which is an extension of the spinal cord. ...
... spinal cord, and peripheral nerves result in ipsilateral hemiparesis. ... Infective: encephalitis, meningitis, brain abscess, spinal epidural abscess. *Neoplastic: glioma, meningioma, brain tumors, ... As a lesion that results in hemiplegia occurs in the brain or spinal cord, hemiplegic muscles display features of the upper ... Other causes of hemiplegia include spinal cord injury, specifically Brown-Séquard syndrome, traumatic brain injury, or disease ...
The cranial cavity has a variety of spinal and cranial nerves residing in it. The cranial nerves are responsible for storing ... The spinal nerves allow for the sensory and motor signals to be received, which provide a normal feeling and function for the ... There are twelve cranial nerves that are responsible for controlling the cranial cavity. These nerves are responsible for ... It is a part of the dorsal cavity the cranial cavity and the spinal cord. The occipital bone is at the back of the skull. The ...
Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring
EMG is used for cranial nerve monitoring in skull base cases and for nerve root monitoring and testing in spinal surgery. ABR ( ... Since the 1970s, SSEP (somatosensory evoked potentials) have been used to monitor spinal cord function by stimulating a nerve ... For example, during any surgery on the thoracic or cervical spinal column, there is some risk to the spinal cord. ... nerves, spinal cord and parts of the brain) during surgery. The purpose of IONM is to reduce the risk to the patient of ...
Head and neck anatomy
The spinal nerves arise from the spinal column. The top section of the spine is the cervical section, which contains nerves ... and the phrenic nerve, C-3 to C-5, the segmental nerve branches, C-1 to C-5. These nerve groups transmit efferent nerve (motor ... cranial nerves and spinal nerves. The CNS is located within the dorsal cavity, and the PNS extends through the ventral cavity. ... The spinal cord is an extension of the brain. The spinal cord and the brain stem are joined at the base of the cranium at the ...
Reflex - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
with an amidation at the C-terminus. Substance P is released from the terminals of specific sensory nerves. It is found in ... In 1983, NKA (previously known as substance K or neuromedin L) was isolated from porcine spinal cord and was also found to ... When the innervation to substance P nerve terminals is lost, post-synaptic cells compensate for the loss of adequate ... This, ultimately, leads to a condition known as denervation supersensitivity as the post-synaptic nerves will become ...
... in rats after spinal nerve injury and inflammation". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 510 (3): 223-8. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.01.033. PMID ... The use of a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation device has been shown to alleviate hyperalgesia. ... Hyperalgesia is similar to other sorts of pain associated with nerve irritation or damage such as allodynia and neuropathic ... Amplification in the spinal cord may be another way of producing hyperalgesia. ...
Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, vision, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) ... A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain and spinal cord. Some related clinical ... Subspecialties include electroencephalography, electromyography, evoked potential, nerve conduction study and polysomnography. ...
Category:Mid-importance Anatomy articles
"Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two classes, afferent and efferent. Impressions are made on the ... Spinal manipulation, which chiropractors call "spinal adjustment" or "chiropractic adjustment", is the most common treatment ... Thus, nerves carry impulses outward and sensations inward. The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become ... spinal manipulation was ineffective at treating any condition. Spinal manipulation may be cost-effective for sub-acute or ...
Spinal cord and other tissuesEdit. The pons in the brainstem is a specific region that consists of myelinated axons much like ... Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic ... The spinal cord is made up of bundles of these axons. Glial cells such as Schwann cells in the periphery or, within the cord ... The medulla oblongata is at the start of the spinal cord and is composed mainly of neuron tissue enveloped in oligodendrocytes ...
... of a nerve due to inflammation or other irritation of the nerve root (radiculopathy) at its connection to the spinal column. ... Radiculitis indicates inflammation of the spinal nerve root, which may lead to pain in that nerve's distribution without ... and foot as often secondary to nerve root irritation from a spinal disc herniation or from osteophytes in the lumbar region of ... the diagnosis is radiculopathy if the lesion is at the nerve root and myelopathy if at the spinal cord itself. ...
Facial nerve branches. Facial nerve should be examined for any potential damage when buccal mucosa is involved. ... Spinal fracture. *Cervical fracture *Jefferson fracture. *Hangman's fracture. *Flexion teardrop fracture. *Clay-shoveler ... The facial nerve and parotid duct should be examined for any potential damage when the buccal mucosa is involved. ...
ادرار کردن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
... from stretch receptors in the urinary bladder wall travel to the sacral segments of the spinal cord through the pelvic nerves.[ ... Spinal cord injury. During spinal shock, the bladder is flaccid and unresponsive. It becomes overfilled, and urine dribbles ... When the afferent and efferent nerves are both destroyed, as they may be by tumors of the cauda equina or filum terminale, the ... The bladder can be made to contract by voluntary facilitation of the spinal voiding reflex when it contains only a few ...
A joint dislocation can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves. Dislocations can occur in ... Vessel and nerve injuries during a shoulder dislocation is rare, but can cause many impairments and requires a longer recovery ... because it can cause injury to soft tissue and/or the nerves and vascular structures around the dislocation. ...
Breathing - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The intercostal nerves are not as well protected as the phrenic nerves. The intercostal nerves run along the thoracic spine ( ... They are at the very top of the spinal cord, near the neck.  ... However, since the nerves that control the diaphragm are much ... The diaphragm is controlled by a special set of nerves called the phrenic nerves. The medulla tells the diaphragm when to ... Because the diaphragm is so important for breathing, the phrenic nerves are very well protected in the body. ...
Efferent nerve fibers of gamma motoneurons also terminate in muscle spindles; they make synapses at either or both of the ends ... After stroke or spinal cord injury in humans, spastic hypertonia (spastic paralysis) often develops, whereby the stretch reflex ... They convey length information to the central nervous system via afferent nerve fibers. This information can be processed by ... Pearson, Keir G; Gordon, James E (2013). "35 - Spinal Reflexes". In Kandel, Eric R; Schwartz, James H; Jessell, Thomas M; ...
කොලෙස්ටරෝල් - විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය
High-altitude cerebral edema
Sensory cranial and spinal nerves. *Optic (II). *Vestibulocochlear (VIII). *Olfactory (I). *Facial (VII) ... The Merkel nerve endings (also known as Merkel discs) detect sustained pressure. The lamellar corpuscles (also known as ... The impulses travel along the sensory axon to the spinal cord where they form several kinds of synapses: *Some of the branches ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
nerve development. • nerve growth factor signaling pathway. • regulation of neuron differentiation. • neuron projection ... "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces NMDA receptor subunit one phosphorylation via ERK and PKC in the rat spinal cord". ... for low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor, also known as p75). It may also modulate the activity of various ... which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor. Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery. BDNF was ...
A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve. There are 8 cervical nerves (C1 being an ... Following is a list of spinal nerves and points that are characteristically belonging to the dermatome of each nerve: ... exception with no dermatome), 12 thoracic nerves, 5 lumbar nerves and 5 sacral nerves. Each of these nerves relays sensation ( ... A dermatome is an area of skin supplied by sensory neurons that arise from a spinal nerve ganglion. Symptoms that follow a ...
নিতম্বাস্থি - উইকিপিডিয়া
করোটীয় স্নায়ু (Cranial nerve). *সুষুম্নীয় স্নায়ু (Spinal nerve). *স্নায়ুগ্রন্থি (Nerve ganglion). *স্নায়ুধার কোষ (Glial ... মস্তিষ্ক-সুষুম্না স্নায়ুতন্ত্র (Cerebro-spinal nervous system) *কেন্দ্রীয় স্নায়ুতন্ত্র (Central nervous system) ... স্নায়ু (Nerve) *অন্তর্বাহী স্নায়ু (Afferent nerve). *বহির্বাহী স্নায়ু (Efferent nerve) / চেষ্টীয় স্নায়ু (Motor nerve) ...
Olfactory ensheathing cells
Fidyka], who is believed to be the first person in the world to recover from complete severing of the spinal nerves, can now ... Role in spinal cord injuriesEdit. Traumatic spinal cord damage causes a permanent loss of motor and sensory functions in the ... Transplantation of OECs into the spinal cord has become a possible therapy for spinal cord damage and other neural diseases in ... Olfactory axons invade the basal lamina of the glia limitans and the olfactory bulb to create the olfactory nerve and ...
Anatomical terms of location
The median plane, which divides the body into left and right. This passes through the head, spinal cord, navel, and, in ... Hypo- (from Ancient Greek ὑπό 'under') is used to indicate something that is beneath. For example, the hypoglossal nerve ... Structures may be described as being at the level of a specific spinal vertebra, depending on the section of the vertebral ... the infraorbital nerve runs within the orbit. ...
Outline of brain mapping
Nerve fibers are the result of cell processes and the outgrowths of nerve cells. (Several axons are bound together to form one ... Brain mapping is further defined as the study of the anatomy and function of the brain and spinal cord through the use of ... Several nerve fibrils then form one large nerve fiber. Myelin, an electrical insulator, forms around selected axons. ... Coverage includes the brain and spinal cord of the four species most frequently studied by neuroscientists: human, macaque ( ...
Any problems with the development of the olfactory nerve fibres will prevent the progression of the GnRH releasing neurons ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome/Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. *KAL1 Kallmann syndrome. *X-linked adrenal hypoplasia ... along with the fibres of the olfactory nerves, and into the rostral forebrain. From there they migrate to what will become the ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
... thinning of the hypoglossal nerves (which control the tongue), and thinning of the anterior roots of the spinal cord. ... Classic ALS accounts for about 70% of all cases of ALS and can be subdivided into spinal-onset and bulbar-onset ALS. Spinal ... spinal muscular atrophy, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy can also mimic certain aspects of the disease and should be ... "Muscle & Nerve. 44 (1): 20-24. doi:10.1002/mus.22114. PMC 4441750. PMID 21607987. Lay summary - Massachusetts General Hospital ...
The spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus and their distribution in the chinchilla
The spinal nerves that constitute the LSP were dissected and the distribution of pelvic limb nerves originating from the plexus ... cranial and caudal gluteal nerves, caudal cutaneous femoral nerve and ischiadic nerve). The ischiadic nerve divided into the ... The iliohypogastric nerve arose from L1 and L2, giving rise to the cranial and caudal nerves, and the ilioinguinal nerve arose ... MARTINEZ-PEREIRA, M A y RICKES, E M. The spinal nerves that constitute the lumbosacral plexus and their distribution in the ...
Cervical spinal nerve 6 - Wikipedia
The cervical spinal nerve 6 (C6) is a spinal nerve of the cervical segment. ... The C6 nerve root shares a common branch from C5, and has a role in innervating many muscles of the rotator cuff and distal arm ... Damage to the C6 motor neuron, by way of impingement, ischemia, trauma, or degeneration of nerve tissue, can cause denervation ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cervical_spinal_nerve_6&oldid=825173305" ...
Thoracic spinal nerve 1 - Wikipedia
The thoracic spinal nerve 1 (T1) is a spinal nerve of the thoracic segment. ... American Medical Association Nervous System -- Groups of Nerves Archived December 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Thoracic_spinal_nerve_1&oldid=825195572" ... It originates from the spinal column from below the thoracic vertebra 1 (T1). ...
Anatomy and Exposures of Spinal Nerves | SpringerLink
... also known as peripheral nerves. Each chapter is devoted to a particular nerve and describes the or ... This book is a comprehensive illustrated surgical guide to operative exposures of the spinal nerves, ... Anatomy and Exposures of Spinal Nerves will effectively fill a gap caused by the absence of a peripheral nerve surgeon from ... This book is a comprehensive illustrated surgical guide to operative exposures of the spinal nerves, also known as peripheral ...
Anatomy and Physiology: Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves
... Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves. Anatomy and Physiology. *The ... The spinal nerves, with a detailed view of the cervical nerves, and a close up of the pathways leaving the lumbarvertebrae. ( ... 8 pairs of cervical nerves, 12 pairs ofthoracic nerves, 5 pairs of lumbar nerves, and 5 pairs of sacral nerves (see Figure 20.9 ... of the spinal nerve, or from the sympathetic nerve. As part of the posterior gray horn, it makes sense that sensory information ...
Placebo effect caught in the act in spinal nerves | New Scientist
... an fMRI scanner saw their pain-related nerves stay quiet ... Placebo effect caught in the act in spinal nerves. By Ewen ... The placebo effect is not only real; its ability to deaden pain has been pinpointed to cells in the spinal cord. That raises ... FMRI scanning has long been used to image the brain, but the part of the spinal cord that Eipperts team was interested in - ... The teams first breakthrough was to squeeze an fMRI signal out of the spinal cord. Then they quickly adapted the technique to ...
Spinal Accessory Nerve | SpringerLink
... we will discuss here the spinal component due to its importance in nerve injuries and repair. The spinal accessory nerve arises ... the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, ... Spinal Accessory Nerve. In: Anatomy and Exposures of Spinal ... the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, we will discuss here the spinal component due to its importance in nerve ... The spinal accessory nerve arises from the upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C5), ascends between the dentate ligament and the ...
Study: Injured Monkeys Grow New Spinal Cord Nerves | Live Science
The researchers found certain nerve fibers that were not damaged when the spinal cord was injured spontaneously grew, and ... The corticospinal tract is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the brains cortex with the spinal cord. These nerve fibers ... Study: Injured Monkeys Grow New Spinal Cord Nerves. By Rachael Rettner 2010-11-14T17:23:26Z. Health ... Carmel said rats have also shown robust growth of nerve fibers after spinal injuries, but its difficult to compare the two ...
Spinal Nerves and the Cauda Equina
Spinal nerve | Define Spinal nerve at Dictionary.com
... of paired nerves that originate in the nerve roots of the spinal cord and emerge from the vertebrae on both sides of the spinal ... spinal nerve in Medicine Expand. spinal nerve n. Any of 31 pairs of nerves emerging from the spinal cord, each attached to the ... spinal nerve in Science Expand. spinal nerve Any of the nerves that arise in pairs from the spinal cord and form an important ... The spinal nerves contain both sensory and motor nerve fibers. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body.. ...
Brain & Nerves - Spinal Cord Disorders: surgery recommended
In the end, the bony spurs that are causing impingement on your spinal cord and nerve roots arent going to go away on their ... In the end, the bony spurs that are causing impingement on your spinal cord and nerve roots arent going to go away on their ... There is a covering around the spinal cord called the thecal sac. The innermost layer of this contains the spinal cord with CSF ... The compression of your spinal cord is the most worrisome problem especially since there is some indication of spinal cord ...
Healthboards - Brain & Nerves - Spinal Cord Disorders: Dizziness??
I was diagnosed with C5-C6 hernitation and spinal stenosis. I guess I have had pretty much the run of the mill symptoms until ... Spinal Cord Disorders. 1. 09-14-2003 05:39 AM. Crystall and others. What is your dizziness like? hbep. TMJ Disorder - ... I was diagnosed with C5-C6 hernitation and spinal stenosis. I guess I have had pretty much the run of the mill symptoms until ...
Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerves
... The brain is the control centre for the rest of the body. All parts of the brain, spinal cord, ... Nerves to and from the rest of the body branch off of the spinal cord all the way down the back. These nerves branch off ... The spinal cord is the main link connecting the brain and the body. It is protected inside a series of spinal bones called ... There are also important nerves called cranial nerves that link directly from the brain to specific areas of the body. ...
Root Nerve Injection - Spinal Injections
I had a Root nerve injection on Tues 7th Oct 2 days later my pain is still the same apart from my right arm and lip keeps going ... Been to the docs the nerve block hasnt work but it has travelled up my spine and has numbed my arm and the right side of my ... I have had several of my joints injected over the years, including nerve root injections for my back. It always varied on how ... Yes, I am out about $3k for spinal epidurals and for what? NOTHING! ...
'spinal nerves' Protocols and Video...
... spinal nerves include Analysis of Immune Cells in Single Sciatic Nerves and Dorsal Root Ganglion from a Single Mouse Using ... Preparation of Acute Spinal Cord Slices for Whole-cell Patch-clamp Recording in Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons, Patch Clamp ... Organotypic Slice Culture of GFP-expressing Mouse Embryos for Real-time Imaging of Peripheral Nerve Outgrowth, Primary ... Flow Cytometry, Analysis of Spinal Cord Blood Supply Combining Vascular Corrosion Casting and Fluorescence Microsphere ...
Anterior root of spinal nerve definition | Drugs.com
Definition of anterior root of spinal nerve. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Definition: the motor root of a spinal nerve.. Synonym(s): radix anterior nervi spinalisTA, motor root of spinal nerve, radix ... ventral root of spinal nerve, radix ventralis nervi spinalis ...
Spinal tract of trigeminal nerve definition | Drugs.com
Definition of spinal tract of trigeminal nerve. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms ... spinal tract of trigeminal nerve. Definition: a compact fiber bundle, comma-shaped on transverse section, composed of primary ... and continuing as far as the second cervical segment of the spinal cord. Its fibers are distributed to the descending or spinal ... Synonym(s): tractus spinalis nervi trigeminiTA, descending tract of trigeminal nerve, tractus descendens nervi trigemini ...
Spinal Nerve Cross-Section - Anatomy Pictures and Information
While the cervical and thoracic spinal nerves extend from the spinal cord nearly horizontally, the lower spinal nerves extend ... there is a one-to-one correlation between the vertebrae and the spinal nerves. Each spinal nerve exits the spinal cord at the ... but each segment retains its own pair of foramina for the spinal nerves. The final pair of spinal nerves, the coccygeal nerve, ... The C1 spinal nerve exits the spinal cord between the skull and the C1 vertebra, while the C2 nerve exits between the C1 and C2 ...
Nerves commonly affected by lumbar spinal stenosis | HealthLink BC
Anatomical Model, Flexible Skeleton with Spinal Nerves
Features flexible spine with spinal cord, nerve roots and removable three-piece skull and extremities. Buy online at Alimed.com ... Flexible Skeleton with Spinal Nerves is a desktop model. ... Anatomical Model, Flexible Skeleton with Spinal Nerves is a ... Flexible Skeleton with Spinal Nerves https://www.alimed.com/anatomical-model-flexible-skeleton-with-spinal-nerves-13452.html ... Features flexible spine with spinal cord, nerve roots and removable three-piece skull and extremities. ...
How is nerve root injury differentiated from spinal cord injury (SCI)?
... is critical and required to establish the presence or absence of spinal co... more ... How is nerve root injury differentiated from spinal cord injury (SCI)?) and How is nerve root injury differentiated from spinal ... Drugs & Diseases , Emergency Medicine , Spinal Cord Injuries Q&A How is nerve root injury differentiated from spinal cord ... Differentiating a nerve root injury from spinal cord injury can be difficult. The presence of neurologic deficits that indicate ...
Nerve impingement in neck - Spinal Cord Conditions/Disorders - MedHelp
Module - Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerve (4 of 14)
... there are 8 cervical spinal nerves. Spinal nerve C1 exits above vertebra C1, spinal nerve C2 exits through the intervertebral ... In general, the spinal nerves emerge below the pedicle of the vertebra for which they are named. For example, spinal nerve T3 ... That pattern holds until spinal nerve C8 which exits between vertebrae C7 and T1. The nerve exiting below vertebra T1 is spinal ... Along its course, the spinal cord gives rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 ...
Spinal nerve - Wikipedia
The spinal nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system. Each spinal nerve is formed from the combination of nerve fibers ... Spinal nerves. Spinal cord and vertebral canal. Deep dissection. "Spinal Nerves". National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 12 ... showing the exits of the spinal nerves. The spinal cord showing how the anterior and posterior roots join in the spinal nerves ... A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In ...
Patent US8644941 - Peripheral nerve field stimulation and spinal cord stimulation - Google Patents
... such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS), or a drug. PNFS and the other therapy may be delivered simultaneously, in an alternating ... Delivery of peripheral nerve field stimulation (PNFS) in combination with one or more other therapies is described. The other ... cranial nerves, trigeminal nerves, ulnar nerves, median nerves, radial nerves, tibial nerves, and the common peroneal nerves. ... The most common upper extremity nerves treated with PNS are the ulnar nerve, median nerve, radial nerve, tibial nerve, ...
Physiology of spinal cord, nerve root and peripheral nerve compression. - PubMed - NCBI
Intranasal nerve growth factor repairs injured spinal cord neurons | EurekAlert! Science News
... the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons. ... Nerve growth factor can be delivered to the brain by intranasal administration without risk for treatment of brain diseases. Dr ... Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. Neural ... Article: "Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury ...
Walk Soft: Nerve Rewiring Restores Most Movement Post-Spinal Injury - Scientific American
... rerouting signals through local nerve cells can make movement possible again ... When nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord are severed, ... When nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord are severed, ... Often spinal cord injuries result in the severing of the long nerve fibers connecting the brain to the spinal cord, disrupting ... Then they damaged the nerves on the other side of the lower spinal cord as well. Between the two injuries was a zone of spinal ...
Nerve Damage - Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nerve Re-routing SCI Numbers and Letters Scar Formation and Spinal Cord Spinal Cord Injury & Sports Spinal Cord Role ... Spinal Cord Injury Spina Bifida Diagnosis & Prognosis Spinal Cord Injury Stats Early Treatment Penetrating Injury Spinal Cord ... Spinal Cord Injury Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho ... C-6 Spinal Cord Injury C-7 and T-1 T-1 to T-8 T-9 to T-12 Spinal Cord Injury FAQs Complete vs. Incomplete Cure for Paralysis ...
Exercise may protect nerve cells in Spinal Muscular Atrophy patients | EurekAlert! Science News
Long-term exercise appears to be beneficial for Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) like mice, suggesting a potential of active ... Exercise may protect nerve cells in Spinal Muscular Atrophy patients. The Physiological Society ... Long-term exercise appears to be beneficial for Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) like mice, suggesting a potential of active ... Full paper title: Long-term exercise-specific neuroprotection in Spinal Muscular Atrophy-like mice. DOI: 10.1113/JP271361 http ...
Nerve Transfer After Spinal Cord Injuries - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Surgical - Nerve transfers for patients with stable cervical spinal cord injuries. Procedure: Nerve Transfer A nerve transfer ... Nerve Transfer After Spinal Cord Injuries. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ... Hypothesis: Peripheral nerve transfers in patients with spinal cord injuries will improve hand function and provide improvement ... Specific Aim: Measure the efficacy of nerve transfer surgery in the treatment of patients with complete cervical spinal cord ...
VentralLumbar nervesSacralAnatomyBrain and spinalVertebral columnRegenerationCranial nervesBrachial PlexusNeuronsInjurySpineEmerging from the spinal cordThoracic spinInjured spinal cordPair of coccygeal nervesPatients with spinal cord injLesionIntercostal NervesCells in the spinalVertebraAccessory NerveDisordersTissueCauda equinaBranchGrowth of nerveNervous SystemCordsResearchersSciaticSevere
- There are three pathways for sensory information, from the ventral ramus and dorsal ramus (ramus = branch, plural = rami ) of the spinal nerve, or from the sympathetic nerve. (infoplease.com)
- Sensory nerve cell bodies go in the dorsal root ganglia , and motor nerve cell bodies go in the sympathetic ganglia , which sit anterior to the ventral root, but branch off of the spinal nerve itself. (infoplease.com)
- Any of 31 pairs of nerves emerging from the spinal cord, each attached to the cord by two roots, anterior or ventral and posterior or dorsal, the latter provided with a spinal ganglion. (dictionary.com)
- The cervical plexus consists of the ventral primary divisions of the first four cervical spinal nerves and gives rise to (1) the muscular branches, including the phrenic nerve and nervus descendens cervicalis, as well as (2) the sensory branches, including the lesser occipital, transverse cutaneous, supraclavicular, and great auricular nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The cervical plexus is formed from the ventral rami of the upper four cervical spinal nerves , supplying motor branches to the diaphragm and neck muscles, and sensation for much of the skin and integument of the neck. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Furthermore, the dorsal root ganglia are fused with the spinal cord, and the dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal nerves are lacking in many segments. (nih.gov)
- Each spinal nerve is formed from the combination of nerve fibers from its dorsal and ventral roots. (wikipedia.org)
- The ventral ramus contains nerves that serve the remaining anterior parts of the trunk and the upper and lower limbs (hypaxial muscles) carrying visceral motor, somatic motor, and sensory information to and from the ventrolateral body surface, structures in the body wall, and the limbs. (wikipedia.org)
- ventral roots (anterior roots) allow motor neurons to exit the spinal cord. (getbodysmart.com)
- a short (approximately 2 cm long) strand of nerve fibers formed segmentally as a result of the fusion of the dorsal (sensory) and ventral (motor) roots of the spinal cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
- K+ and morphine released only small amounts of adenosine from ventral spinal cord synaptosomes whereas NE released significant amounts. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Exposure of dorsal, but not ventral, spinal cord synaptosomes to capsaicin produced a dose- and Ca++-dependent release of adenosine, which was reduced by capsaicin pretreatment (neonatal and adult) and inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Just as there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves that attach to the brainstem, attached to thespinal cord there are four sets of peripheral nerves: 8 pairs of cervical nerves, 12 pairs ofthoracic nerves, 5 pairs of lumbar nerves, and 5 pairs of sacral nerves (see Figure 20.9).These are easy to remember if you think about the divisions of the spine. (infoplease.com)
- There are eight pairs of cervical nerves, twelve pairs of thoracic nerves, five pairs of lumbar nerves, five pairs of sacral nerves, and one pair of coccygeal nerves. (wikipedia.org)
- The lumbar nerves are the five spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
- Each pair corresponds to a segment of the spinal cord, with eight pairs of cervical nerves, 12 pairs of thoracic nerves, five pairs of lumbar nerves, five pairs of sacral nerves, and one pair of coccygeal nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Since the arms arecontrolled by cervical nerves, and the legs are controlled by the lumbar and sacral nerves,the thoracic nerves have little to do, hence the narrowness of the thoracic spinal cord. (infoplease.com)
- The sacral region features 5 spinal nerves that exit the vertebral canal at the 5 vertebral foramina of the sacrum. (innerbody.com)
- The spinal nerves must then descend through the lumbar and sacral portions of the vertebral canal to reach their destinations in the lower back, pelvis, and legs. (innerbody.com)
- Sacral-sparing is evidence of the physiologic continuity of spinal cord long tract fibers (with the sacral fibers located more at the periphery of the cord). (medscape.com)
- Along its course, the spinal cord gives rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. (umich.edu)
- The thoracic, lumbar, and sacral nerves are then numbered by the vertebra above. (wikipedia.org)
- 1 In humans, there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the spinal cord and are grouped based on the corresponding regions of the vertebral column , i.e. cervical spinal nerves , thoracic spinal nerves , lumbar spinal nerves , sacral spinal nerves , and coccygeal spinal nerves . (biology-online.org)
- The base of the model features illustrations of the various cross-sections of the spinal cord through the white and gray matter at the neck, torso, lumbar, and sacral regions. (wardsci.com)
- The device consists of extradural electrodes that are attached to the sacral anterior nerve roots, a subcutaneously implanted receiver-stimulator, and an external battery-powered controller and transmitter. (unicare.com)
- Unlike sacral nerve neuromodulation (Interstim ® device), this system is self-activated and designed to elicit functional contraction of the innervated muscles. (unicare.com)
- Supra-sacral spinal cord injury may result in neurogenic bladder, characterized in part by frequent urinary tract infections from inadequate bladder emptying. (unicare.com)
- Sacral anterior root stimulation is intended to provide bladder evacuation by delivering electrical stimulation to intact spinal nerve roots in order to elicit functional contraction of the innervated muscles. (unicare.com)
- Anatomy and Exposures of Spinal Nerves will effectively fill a gap caused by the absence of a peripheral nerve surgeon from many neurosurgery training programs. (springer.com)
- The fact that the study demonstrates a change not only in the spinal cord anatomy, but also in the monkey's behavior is exciting, he said. (livescience.com)
- Regeneration occurs because PNS cell bodies are sensitive to damage to their nerve processes, and they react by sending out a signal that triggers the nerve fibers to regrow, explains Allan Basbaum, PhD, senior study author and chair of the UCSF Department of Anatomy. (rxpgnews.com)
- It helps organize regenerating axons to replicate the anatomy of the pre-injured spinal cord. (ucsd.edu)
Brain and spinal7
- Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation puts most families in crushing debt. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- Key to the research is an important difference in the properties of the nerve fibers of the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord, and those of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which is the network of nerve fibers that extends throughout the body. (rxpgnews.com)
- They are some of the most important nerves, but are difficult to work with, because nerves in the brain and spinal cord are inherently reluctant to grow. (icord.org)
- Understanding how the brain and spinal cord are connected during embryonic development should give us clues about how to repair these connections in adulthood. (uchicago.edu)
- Noninfectious meningitis is inflammation of the layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord (meninges) and of the fluid-filled space between the meninges (subarachnoid space) when it is caused by disorders that are not infections or by drugs or vaccines. (merckmanuals.com)
- The brain and spinal cord are covered by three layers of tissue called meninges. (merckmanuals.com)
- This space contains the cerebrospinal fluid, which flows through the meninges, fills the spaces within the brain, and helps cushion the brain and spinal cord. (merckmanuals.com)
- The spinal cord and its peripheral nerves are protected by the vertebral column, a stack of bones which surround and provide support. (medlineplus.gov)
- The 31 pairs of spinal nerves are named for the region of the vertebral column from which they exit the spinal cord. (innerbody.com)
- In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column. (wikipedia.org)
- Outside the vertebral column, the nerve divides into branches. (wikipedia.org)
- These nerves emerge from the spinal cord through an opening called intervertebral foramen (an opening between adjacent vertebrae of the vertebral column). (biology-online.org)
- However, he adds researchers "have established that the enzyme sialidase, which destroys one of the molecules that inhibits nerve regeneration, is sufficient to robustly improve nerve fiber outgrowth from the spinal cord. (sci-info-pages.com)
- Infusing a naturally occurring anti-scarring agent called decorin into the damaged spinal cords of rats suppresses key molecules that block nerve regeneration after spinal cord injury, said Baylor College of Medicine (BCM) researchers in a study published today in the European Journal of Neuroscience. (sci-info-pages.com)
- Misaligned scar tissue that forms at spinal cord injuries physically blocks nerve regeneration and contains molecules called chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that inhibit nerve fiber growth. (sci-info-pages.com)
- We have found a promising new approach to control inflammation and scar formation, which will be an important part of future strategies to encourage axon regeneration and recovery after spinal cord injury," Davies said. (sci-info-pages.com)
- Researchers at the UT Southwestern Medical Center have successfully boosted the regeneration of mature nerve cells in the spinal cords of adult mammals - an achievement that could one day translate into improved therapies for patients with spinal cord injuries. (medindia.net)
- We have uncovered critical molecular and cellular checkpoints in a pathway involved in the regeneration process that may be manipulated to boost nerve cell regeneration after a spinal injury," said senior author Dr. Chun-Li Zhang, Associate Professor of Molecular Biology at UT Southwestern. (medindia.net)
- Our ability to successfully produce a large population of long-lived and diverse subtypes of new neurons in the adult spinal cord provides a cellular basis for regeneration-based therapy for spinal cord injuries. (medindia.net)
- Both factors are critical for nerve regeneration. (rxpgnews.com)
- PNS nerve regeneration makes it possible for severed limbs to be surgically reattached to the body and continue to grow and regain function. (rxpgnews.com)
- The traditional scientific approach in efforts to enhance CNS regeneration is to manipulate the biochemical environment of the cells at the site of the spinal cord injury, according to Basbaum. (rxpgnews.com)
- The researchers found that the two "priming lesions" not only promoted significant spinal cord regeneration within the area of the spinal cord injury, but more important, the regenerating axons grew back into normal areas of the spinal cord, where the hope is that functional connections can be reestablished. (rxpgnews.com)
- Basbaum adds that timing is critical for successful nerve regeneration. (rxpgnews.com)
- It is known that scar t issue , which forms following spinal cord injury, creates an impenetrable barrier to nerve regeneration, leading to the irreversible paralysis associated with spinal injuries. (labspaces.net)
- In recent years and papers, we've progressively moved closer to the goal of abundant, long-distance regeneration of injured axons in spinal cord injury, which is fundamental to any true restoration of physical function," said co-senior author Mark Tuszynski, MD, PhD , professor of neuroscience and director of the Translational Neuroscience Institute at UC San Diego School of Medicine. (ucsd.edu)
- When mTOR was activated, corticospinal nerves showed growth of uninjured nerves, and regeneration of nerves that had been injured by cervical SCI. (icord.org)
- This study is the most dramatic demonstration yet published of regeneration in the injured spinal cord. (icord.org)
- It shows that regrowth of damaged nerves can occur through the site of an injury, and that SCI researchers are making progress in achieving true regeneration. (icord.org)
- A life-threatening disability after complete spinal cord injury is urinary dysfunction, which is attributable to lack of regeneration of supraspinal pathways that control the bladder. (jneurosci.org)
- In the present study, we modified a classic peripheral nerve grafting technique with the use of chondroitinase to facilitate the regeneration of axons across and beyond an extensive thoracic spinal cord transection lesion in adult rats. (jneurosci.org)
- In contrast, injuries to the spinal cord lead to an inhibitory environment caused by the glial cells and thereby, limit potential axonal regeneration. (diva-portal.org)
- This thesis investigates the effects of human adipose derived stem cells (ASC) on regeneration after peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury in adult rats. (diva-portal.org)
- Brisbane's Griffith University and the Princess Alexandra Hospital have announced that a clinical trial into spinal cord regeneration surgery in paraplegics has begun in Queensland. (newsweekly.com.au)
- In the article "Positively Charged Oligo[Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Fumarate] Scaffold Implantation Results in a Permissive Lesion Environment after Spinal Cord Injury in Rat," the authors report reduced scarring, cyst formation, and deposition of debris and protein complexes that can inhibit nerve regeneration. (healthcanal.com)
- The nerves that branch off the spinal cord in the neck exit the vertebral foramina to form an intermixing pattern called the brachial plexus. (verywellhealth.com)
- Tumors involving the brachial plexus or lumbosacral plexus may present first as progressive unilateral lameness, and later with spinal cord dysfunction when the vertebral canal is invaded (see under nerve sheath tumors). (vin.com)
- Diagram of the proposed surgical route to proximal brachial plexus spinal nerves, a: The line of incision is indicated by dashes . (thejns.org)
- The anterior roots contain the axons of somatic and autonomic motor neurons that begin in the spinal cord and extend to the effectors. (innerbody.com)
- Many fascicles and the blood vessels that support their neurons are bundled together to form the entire spinal nerve. (innerbody.com)
- Neurons within the spinal nerves function by transmitting electrochemical signals known as action potentials along their axons and dendrites. (innerbody.com)
- Spinal nerves facilitate the transmission of action potentials by providing blood flow to neurons and by providing protection and insulation in the layers of connective tissue wrapping the neurons. (innerbody.com)
- Dr. Luigi Aloe, Cellular Biology and Neurobiology Institute, National Research Council, Italy and his team performed a study to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons. (eurekalert.org)
- These findings indicate that intranasal nerve growth factor can bypass blood-brain barrier and affect spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. (eurekalert.org)
- Aloe L, Bianchi P, De Bellis A, Soligo M, Rocco ML. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. (eurekalert.org)
- If the relay neurons in the spinal cord located near the area where the injury occurred were chemically blocked, however, the restoration of movement disappeared. (scientificamerican.com)
- Sofroniew believes that prodding these intrinsic spinal cord neurons with drugs to form new connections combined with physical rehabilitation programs may maximize patient recovery. (scientificamerican.com)
- We actually showed just recently that if we give a certain drug to the brain, we can promote this rewiring into these 'interneurons',' he explains, referring to a 2006 study in rats involving brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that encouraged new connections between neurons in the brain and the relay neurons in the spinal cord. (scientificamerican.com)
- These outcomes arise because adult spinal cords have very limited ability to regenerate damaged neurons to aid in healing, said Dr. Zhang, a W.W. Caruth, Jr. Scholar in Biomedical Research and member of the Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine. (medindia.net)
- Further experiments that looked for biomarkers commonly found in nerve cell communication indicated that the new neurons may form networks, he added. (medindia.net)
- In these mutant mice, axonal projections from the mesencephalic neurons to the trigeminal (V) ganglion become aberrant and the proximal parts of the glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) nerves are fused. (nih.gov)
- After nerve injury, P2X4R expression increased strikingly in the ipsilateral spinal cord, and P2X4Rs were induced in hyperactive microglia but not in neurons or astrocytes. (nih.gov)
- The study focused on commissural neurons, which are found in the spinal cord. (uchicago.edu)
- The commissural neurons relay those signals up the spinal cord to the nerve cells that process the information in the brain. (uchicago.edu)
- In a meticulous series of experiments with rats, Zou and colleagues show that a gradient of chemoattractant(s) along the spinal cord, probably formed by one or multiple Wnt proteins, lures growing commissural neurons toward the brain. (uchicago.edu)
- If Wnt proteins could be used to entice damaged commissural neurons to regenerate and restore the connections between nerve cells of the spinal cord and the brain, it could revolutionize treatment of paralyzing spinal cord injuries. (uchicago.edu)
- Reaching the spinal nerves along with the motor neurons are efferent autonomic branches, which are the processes of nerve cells found in the lateral horns. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This type of repair likely occurs only in cases of mild spinal cord injury - severe cases result in more permanent paralysis. (livescience.com)
- I think it's incredibly important work," said Jason Carmel, of the Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, who has researched spinal cord injury recovery in rats and was not involved in the new study. (livescience.com)
- How is nerve root injury differentiated from spinal cord injury (SCI)? (medscape.com)
- Determine the level of injury and try to differentiate nerve root injury from spinal cord injury, but recognize that both may be present. (medscape.com)
- Differentiating a nerve root injury from spinal cord injury can be difficult. (medscape.com)
- The presence of neurologic deficits that indicate multilevel involvement suggests spinal cord injury rather than a nerve root injury. (medscape.com)
- In the absence of spinal shock, motor weakness with intact reflexes indicates spinal cord injury, whereas motor weakness with absent reflexes indicates a nerve root lesion. (medscape.com)
- American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) method for classifying spinal cord injury (SCI) by neurologic level. (medscape.com)
- American Spinal Injury Association. (medscape.com)
- Ditunno JF Jr, Young W, Donovan WH, Creasey G. The international standards booklet for neurological and functional classification of spinal cord injury. (medscape.com)
- Definition of complete spinal cord injury. (medscape.com)
- Spinal cord injury medicine. (medscape.com)
- Blood pressure management after acute spinal cord injury. (medscape.com)
- Westgren N, Levi R. Quality of life and traumatic spinal cord injury. (medscape.com)
- SCIWORA (spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality) in infants and children. (medscape.com)
- Pang D. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in children, 2 decades later. (medscape.com)
- National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center (NSCIS). (medscape.com)
- Spinal cord injury facts and figures at a glance. (medscape.com)
- Krause JS, Sternberg M, Lottes S, Maides J. Mortality after spinal cord injury: an 11-year prospective study. (medscape.com)
- Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury. (medscape.com)
- These results provide experimental evidence for intranasal nerve growth factor for repair of spinal cord injury. (eurekalert.org)
- One of the complications of brain injury is nerve damage. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- Nerve damage most often occurs following an injury to the base of the skull. (brainandspinalcord.org)
- In a recent study, researchers from Johns Hopkins in Baltimore and the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor have uncovered a treatment involving the use of the enzyme sialidase to help regain growth of the spinal cord nerves after an injury. (sci-info-pages.com)
- Researchers mirrored a human injury in rats that would occur if the arm were forcefully tugged from the body, causing nerves to be jerked from the spinal cord, the arm to lose muscle and feeling, and the body to become unable to support the arm, such as in childbirth or a motorcycle accident. (sci-info-pages.com)
- This enables them to ascertain once and for all whether or not these nerve cells recommenced their growth following injury to the spine - an essential prerequisite for future research. (medgadget.com)
- Glial cells support nerve cells in the spinal cord and form scar tissue in response to injury. (medindia.net)
- A team of scientists at UCSF has made a critical discovery that may help in the development of techniques to promote functional recovery after a spinal cord injury. (rxpgnews.com)
- By stimulating nerve cells in laboratory rats at the time of the injury and then again one week later, the scientists were able to increase the growth capacity of nerve cells and to sustain that capacity. (rxpgnews.com)
- The study, reported in the November 15 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, builds on earlier findings in which the researchers were able to induce cell growth by manipulating the nervous system before a spinal cord injury, but not after. (rxpgnews.com)
- Previously, the researchers had shown in animal studies that an injury made to the peripheral branch prior to a spinal cord injury provided the essential communication signal that enabled the CNS branch to grow. (rxpgnews.com)
- Clearly this would have no utility in clinical situations, where treatments cannot be made in anticipation of spinal cord injury," says Basbaum. (rxpgnews.com)
- In the new study, researchers evaluated the effect of two peripheral nerve lesions (injuries) in animals with spinal cord injury. (rxpgnews.com)
- Ultimately, the goal is to promote growth and sustain it long enough for recovery of movement to occur in spinal cord injury patients," he concludes. (rxpgnews.com)
- Research findings have the potential to contribute to new strategies for manipulating the scarring process induced in spinal cord injury and improving the effectiveness of cell transplantation therapies in patients with this type of injury. (labspaces.net)
- Professor Jerry Turnbull, from the University of Liverpool's Institute of Integrative Biology, said: "Spinal injury is a devastating condition and can result in paralysis for life. (labspaces.net)
- Professor Sue Barnett, from the University of Glasgow's Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, said: "We had already shown that Schwann cells, identified as having the potential to promote nerve regrowth, induced scarring in spinal cord injury. (labspaces.net)
- Researchers at Rush University Medical Center are exploring a new therapy using stem cells to treat spinal cord injuries within the first 14 to 30 days of injury. (rush.edu)
- There are currently no therapies that successfully reverse the damage seen in the more than 12,000 individuals who suffer a spinal cord injury each year in the United States alone," says Dr. Richard G. Fessler , professor of neurological surgery at Rush University Medical Center and principal investigator for the Phase 1 clinical trial involving AST-OPC1 (oligodendrocyte progenitor cells). (rush.edu)
- An estimated 1.3 million Americans are living with a spinal cord injury. (rush.edu)
- The clinical trial is designed to assess safety and activity of escalating doses of the special cells (AST-OPC1) for individuals with a complete cervical spinal cord injury. (rush.edu)
- The trial involves testing three escalating doses of AST-OPC1 in patients with subacute, C5-C7, neurologically-complete cervical spinal cord injury. (rush.edu)
- In the future, this treatment may be used for peripheral nerve injury or other conditions which affect the spinal cord, such as MS or ALS," says Fessler. (rush.edu)
- The study seeks male and female patients ages 18 to 65 who recently experienced a complete cervical spinal cord injury at the neck that resulted in tetraplegia, the partial or total paralysis of arms, legs and torso. (rush.edu)
- Clinical trials are now imminent in the most experienced centers for plexus injuries (London and Stockholm) using this first drug that can be given orally for direct treatment of a spinal cord injury. (frontiersin.org)
- Research on micro-electric nerve stimulators, implanted through spine surgery, may lead to a new treatment to help patients with spinal cord injury recover functions lost in paralysis. (spineuniverse.com)
- Each day, about 30 people in the U.S. endure some paralysis as a result of a spinal cord injury. (spineuniverse.com)
- In these kinds of mishaps, the spinal cord or its nerve roots are damaged, and the brain has difficulty communicating with the parts of the body, particularly if they are below the site of the injury. (spineuniverse.com)
- In addition to the initial physical damage, injury to the spinal cord may be aggravated by inflammation or poor blood flow. (spineuniverse.com)
- The average lifetime cost of living with a spinal cord injury can range from $500,000 to more than $3 million, depending on its severity, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (spineuniverse.com)
- The scope of the effects of a spinal cord injury depends on where it occurs. (spineuniverse.com)
- Less than 1 percent of patients with a spinal cord injury fully recovery, according to ThinkFirst. (spineuniverse.com)
- For the first time, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Institute of Engineering in Medicine have used rapid 3D printing technologies to create a spinal cord, then successfully implanted that scaffolding, loaded with neural stem cells, into sites of severe spinal cord injury in rats. (ucsd.edu)
- Like a bridge, it aligns regenerating axons from one end of the spinal cord injury to the other. (ucsd.edu)
- The implants contain dozens of tiny, 200-micrometer-wide channels (twice the width of a human hair) that guide neural stem cell and axon growth along the length of the spinal cord injury. (ucsd.edu)
- Researchers grafted the two-millimeter implants, loaded with neural stem cells, into sites of severe spinal cord injury in rats. (ucsd.edu)
- After a few months, new spinal cord tissue had regrown completely across the injury and connected the severed ends of the host spinal cord. (ucsd.edu)
- It seems to shield grafted stem cells from the often toxic, inflammatory environment of a spinal cord injury and helps guide axons through the lesion site completely. (ucsd.edu)
- According to a new animal study by scientists from three US universities, scar tissue that forms around a spinal injury, causing blockage to the nerve pathway, can by bypassed. (barchester.com)
- Researchers used nerve fibres taken from the leg to regenerate the severed nerve around the "roadblock" of scar tissue, which forms around an injury. (barchester.com)
- Second, undamaged nerves surrounding the injury can branch out and form new circuits to replace lost connections, which is referred to as plasticity or sprouting . (icord.org)
- Some new nerves formed new connections below the site of the injury. (icord.org)
- SCInfo is an initiative of the Community SCI Resource Centre, a partnership between ICORD, Spinal Cord Injury BC and the Rick Hansen Institute. (icord.org)
- ICORD is a spinal cord injury research centre of the UBC Faculty of Medicine and VCH Research Institute. (icord.org)
- Our studies provide evidence that an enhanced nerve grafting strategy represents a potential regenerative treatment after severe spinal cord injury. (jneurosci.org)
- Peripheral nerve injury with a significant gap between the proximal and distal stumps is currently treated with autologous nerve grafting but this is limited by availability of donor nerve and has associated morbidities. (diva-portal.org)
- In a peripheral nerve injury model, ASC were seeded into a fibrin conduit, which was used to bridge a 10 mm rat sciatic nerve gap. (diva-portal.org)
- In this study, the neurotrophic and angiogenic properties of human ASC were evaluated, and their effects in a peripheral nerve injury model were determined. (diva-portal.org)
- Here we report that pharmacological blockade of spinal P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs), a subtype of ionotropic ATP receptor, reversed tactile allodynia caused by peripheral nerve injury without affecting acute pain behaviours in naive animals. (nih.gov)
- Intraspinal administration of P2X4R antisense oligodeoxynucleotide decreased the induction of P2X4Rs and suppressed tactile allodynia after nerve injury. (nih.gov)
- Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of P2X4Rs in hyperactive microglia is necessary for tactile allodynia after nerve injury and is sufficient to produce tactile allodynia in normal animals. (nih.gov)
- Thus, blocking P2X4Rs in microglia might be a new therapeutic strategy for pain induced by nerve injury. (nih.gov)
- The presence of p45 (stained green) and p75 (stained red) show that both proteins are expressed after sciatic nerve injury in animals. (medicaldaily.com)
- Scientists from the Salk Institute are working on perfecting a molecule that convinces damaged nerves to regrow following spinal cord injury. (medicaldaily.com)
- The human trial, involving eight volunteer patients, aims to determine the safety of this pioneering procedure and the potential benefits to those who have suffered a recent spinal injury. (newsweekly.com.au)
- The experiment rebuts claims that embryonic stem cells alone are suitable for spinal injury, a claim made by actor Christopher Reeve, who became a quadriplegic after falling from a horse. (newsweekly.com.au)
- Reeve, who played Superman before suffering his injury, has vigorously supported embryonic stem cell research as a cure for spinal cord injury. (newsweekly.com.au)
- Anthony Windebank, MD and coauthors, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, evaluated the response of nerve tissue over time to an implanted biomaterial scaffold, with or without Schwann cells, at the site of a full transection spinal cord injury in rats. (healthcanal.com)
- In their study of spinal cord transection injury in rats, Hakim et al. (healthcanal.com)
- When Degenerative disc disease is caused by heavy lifting or injury it is more prominent and painful due to disc inflammation and subsequent nerve pain. (ssdrc.com)
- As defined by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale. (unicare.com)
- Spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in varying degrees of neurological impairment depending on the location and severity of the injury. (unicare.com)
- As of yet, scientists and researchers have not been able to completely reverse the damage caused by spinal cord injury, but a core group of experts in this fast-moving field have been making advances with therapies that can return function and make life easier for SCI patients. (beckersspine.com)
- At the Institute for Advanced Reconstruction, we do things like nerve transplant, re-intubation of the diaphragm for ventilator-dependent patients and therapies to help spinal cord injury patients regain function," says Andrew Elkwood, MD, chairman and founder of The Institute for the Treatment of Paralysis, Jersey Shore Medical Center, N.J., where the symposium will take place. (beckersspine.com)
- Dr. Zhang has also experienced success rerouting the nerves from the damaged site to other peripheral nerves, such as the ulnar nerve, when the injury site is above the thoracic area where intercostal nerves originate. (beckersspine.com)
- This technique has been able to restore function for patients with virtually any level of injury: for high-level injury sites, the surgeon can connect functional peripheral nerves above the injury site to nearby dysfunctional nerves below the injury site. (beckersspine.com)
- The nerves of the spinal cord branch out in the lumbar spine. (spine-health.com)
- Features flexible spine with spinal cord, nerve roots and removable three-piece skull and extremities. (alimed.com)
- So the team repeated the study, again severing the nerves on one side of the lumbar spine and letting function return via new connections. (scientificamerican.com)
- Elsewhere in the spine, the nerve emerges below the vertebra with the same name. (wikipedia.org)
- The nerves that exit the neural foramina in the lumbar spine go on to form the lumbar plexus, a complex anastomosis of different nerves. (verywellhealth.com)
- A spine-injured patient would also have to rebuild the other nerves, which carry messages from the brain to the spinal cord, such as the corticospinal tracts. (uchicago.edu)
- According to Shoichet, the technique is part of an overall strategy to repair spinal cord injuries where the spine is cut in two. (bio-medicine.org)
- After joining the ends of the severed spine with a tube, researchers would then fill this tube with the gel channels and peptides to stimulate nerve cell growth and bridge the gap between the two ends. (bio-medicine.org)
- Spinal nerves emerge through corresponding intervertebral foramina symmetrically on both sides of the spine and are divided into four branches. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Containing spinal cord and ca uda equina, the thoracolumbar spine may partly recover in spinal nerve roots. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Clinical signs produced by tumors of the spine are the same as those seen for any spinal disorder. (vin.com)
- For example, a common procedure includes rerouting an intercostal nerve from the spinal cord around each rib to the sternum before reaching the target nerve site below the injured level of the spine. (beckersspine.com)
- There are delicate nerves that run up and down the spine combined with tendons and a group of strong bands called ligaments. (towerorthopaedics.com)
Emerging from the spinal cord1
Injured spinal cord1
Patients with spinal cord inj2
- Some patients with spinal cord injuries later experience a substantial recovery of movement, and a new study in monkeys may explain why this is. (livescience.com)
- Hypothesis: Peripheral nerve transfers in patients with spinal cord injuries will improve hand function and provide improvement in patient quality of life and functional independence. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Anterior divisions: The intercostal nerves come from thoracic nerves T1-T11, and run between the ribs. (wikipedia.org)
- Dr. Zhang and his colleagues have been able to report on the results of his nerve transplantation technique in 23 patients, who received 2-4 intercostal nerves transferred to the vertebral canal through a submuscular tunnel and connected to lumbar nerve roots. (beckersspine.com)
Cells in the spinal2
- It originates from the spinal column from above the cervical vertebra 6 (C6). (wikipedia.org)
- It originates from the spinal column from below the thoracic vertebra 1 (T1). (wikipedia.org)
- This pattern repeats until the C8 spinal nerve exits inferior to the C7 vertebra at the base of the neck and superior to the T1 vertebra in the thorax. (innerbody.com)
- Each spinal nerve exits the spinal cord at the intervertebral foramen just inferior to the vertebra of the same name. (innerbody.com)
- So, for example, the T10 spinal nerve exits from the intervertebral foramen just inferior to the T10 vertebra and superior to the T11 vertebra. (innerbody.com)
- In general, the spinal nerves emerge below the pedicle of the vertebra for which they are named. (umich.edu)
- The nerve exiting below vertebra T1 is spinal nerve T1. (umich.edu)
- the eight pairs of spinal nerves that arise from the cervical segments of the spinal cord, from above the atlas to below the seventh vertebra. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This is true for all spinal nerves except for the first spinal nerve pair (C1), which emerges between the occipital bone and the atlas (the first vertebra). (wikipedia.org)
- Thus the cervical nerves are numbered by the vertebra below, except spinal nerve C8, which exists below vertebra C7 and above vertebra T1. (wikipedia.org)
- In the case of a lumbarized S1 vertebra (aka L6) or a sacralized L5 vertebra, the nerves are typically still counted to L5 and the next nerve is S1. (wikipedia.org)
- Each thoracic nerve T1 -T12 originates from below each corresponding thoracic vertebra. (wikipedia.org)
- It originates from the spinal column from above the cervical vertebra 2 (C2). (wikipedia.org)
- Using small, specialized instruments, the surgeon can remove the lamina (roof of affected vertebra) and bone fragments causing nerve compression. (towerorthopaedics.com)
- Although, the accessory nerve is the 11th cranial nerve, we will discuss here the spinal component due to its importance in nerve injuries and repair. (springer.com)
- Hanna A.S. (2015) Spinal Accessory Nerve. (springer.com)
- spinal accessory nerve is a topic covered in the Taber's Medical Dictionary . (tabers.com)
- Taber's Online , www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/729228/all/spinal_accessory_nerve. (tabers.com)
- Damage to the C6 motor neuron, by way of impingement, ischemia , trauma , or degeneration of nerve tissue, can cause denervation of one or more of the associated muscles. (wikipedia.org)
- A thin layer of connective tissue known as the endoneurium individually wraps each neuron in a spinal nerve. (innerbody.com)
- The exterior of the spinal nerve is wrapped in yet another protective layer of connective tissue known as the epineurium. (innerbody.com)
- Between the two injuries was a zone of spinal cord tissue left unharmed. (scientificamerican.com)
- Infusion of decorin into spinal cord injuries prevents the formation of proteoglycan rich scar tissue by suppressing inflammation. (sci-info-pages.com)
- Decorin inhibits the action of pro - inflammatory molecules released in spinal cord injuries, called transforming growth factors, which are thought to promote the formation of scar tissue. (sci-info-pages.com)
- Studying the growth of nerve cells is a difficult proposition because one has to isolate them from surrounding tissue and then analyze the very fine slices under the microscope. (medgadget.com)
- Spinal cord tissue is opaque due to the fact that the water and the proteins contained in it refract light differently. (medgadget.com)
- The new accomplishment of this study - published in the Journal of Neuroscience - was to successfully kick start the nerve transmission again, using an enzyme to prevent scar tissue forming where the bypass had been made. (barchester.com)
- CT and MRI also allow for differentiation between normal spinal cord parenchyma and the neoplastic tissue. (vin.com)
- 2. Spinal arachoiditis , verified by an operative note, or pathology report of tissue biopsy, or by medically acceptable imaging. (ssdrc.com)
- Nerves to and from the rest of the body branch off of the spinal cord all the way down the back. (lhsc.on.ca)
- These nerves branch off further, providing the signals needed to make muscles move and feel sensations like pressure, heat, and pain. (lhsc.on.ca)
- The eight cervical nerve may give rise to a cutaneous branch of considerable size. (anatomyatlases.org)
- Departing reversely from each spinal nerve is a delicate meningeal branch that participates in the innervation of the meninges of the spinal cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Autonomic sympathetic conductors, called white communicating branches, separate from the spinal nerves or from the anterior branch of spinal nerves and proceed to the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk of the sympathetic nervous system. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The other branch of L 3 gave rise to the genitofemoral nerve and 1 branch from L 4 gave rise to the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve. (scielo.org.za)
- The pudendal nerve arose from S 1-2 and the other branch of S 2 and S 3 formed the rectal caudal nerve. (scielo.org.za)
Growth of nerve2
- A team of researchers from Penn State and University of Michigan have developed a way of building hydrogel tunnels that can guide the natural growth of nerve endings. (medgadget.com)
- This is the first guidance mechanism that regulates growth of nerve cells up and down the spinal cord," said Yimin Zou, Assistant Professor in Neurobiology, Pharmacology & Physiology at the University. (uchicago.edu)
- The nervous system is capable of being modified to a level where we can achieve nerve fiber growth. (rxpgnews.com)
- Pain after nerve damage is an expression of pathological operation of the nervous system, one hallmark of which is tactile allodynia-pain hypersensitivity evoked by innocuous stimuli. (nih.gov)
- These cells help nerves grow from the nose to the brain and are the only glial cells that can exist both within and outside the central nervous system. (newsweekly.com.au)
- Use this essential spinal nerve chart to make the nervous system the centerpiece of your chiropractic patient communications. (patientmedia.com)
- It's a spinal nerve function chart that connects deeply with today's patients, who quickly see the potential nervous system implications of impaired spinal biomechanics. (patientmedia.com)
- A nervous system focus is new to most patients who think of chiropractors as back doctors, not nerve doctors. (patientmedia.com)
- Frame Your Nervous System Controls Everything nerve chart behind glass and place it in your examination room. (patientmedia.com)
- Reinforce your nerve-centric message of vertebral subluxation at the report of findings by using the handout version of this popular nervous system chart. (patientmedia.com)
- The researchers who made the discovery scanned the spinal cords of volunteers while applying painful heat to one arm. (newscientist.com)
- In the study, Rosenzweig and his colleagues made precise cuts to the spinal cords of 14 rhesus monkeys, severing only connections on the right side of their corticospinal tract. (livescience.com)
- In 2013 and 2014, the Zhang laboratory created new nerve cells in the brains and spinal cords of mice by introducing transcription factors that promoted the transition of adult glial cells into more primitive, stem cell-like states, and then coaxed them to mature into adult nerve cells. (medindia.net)
- University of Toronto researchers have designed a method to facilitate nerve cell repair that could ultimately lead to treating severed spinal cords. (bio-medicine.org)
- However, the researchers said the findings might still have implications for those with more serious spinal injuries. (livescience.com)
- This growth was able to restore 60 percent of the original spinal cord connections, the researchers said. (livescience.com)
- But he noted the study only shows a correlation, and the researchers don't know yet whether the nerve growth they observed actually caused the behavioral improvements. (livescience.com)
- Surgical procedures to help nerve fiber growth are sometimes helpful, but researchers believe the addition of this treatment could be beneficial. (sci-info-pages.com)
- The researchers are the first to use decorin to suppress inflammation and scar formation in spinal cord injuries. (sci-info-pages.com)
- An international team of researchers headed by neurobiologists at Max-Planck-Institut für Neurobiologie have developed a method of making the spinal cord transparent so that slicing and their 3D reconstruction is not necessary. (medgadget.com)
- The number of new spinal nerve cells generated by this process was low, however, leading researchers to focus on ways to amplify adult neuron production. (medindia.net)
- In a two-step process, researchers first silenced parts of the p53-p21 protein pathway that acts as a roadblock to the reprogramming of glial cells into the more primitive, stem-like types of cells with potential to become nerve cells. (medindia.net)
- Ultimately, the researchers intend to move into clinical trials on humans, where they hope their device can restore functions that were lost because of spinal cord injuries. (spineuniverse.com)
- As proof of concept, researchers printed four-centimeter-sized implants modeled from MRI scans of actual human spinal cord injuries. (ucsd.edu)
- Researchers have produced "the most conclusive evidence to date" that severed nerves in the spinal cord can regenerate. (barchester.com)
- The researchers conducted experiments in animal models of SCI to examine the role in nerve growth of a protein named mTOR . (icord.org)
- Obviously the researchers are working to reactivate the mTOR protein, but it is present in many parts of the body, and has many functions, so it is very important to restrict the effect just to the corticospinal nerves. (icord.org)
- If we can understand how this growth is naturally occurring, how this compensatory sprouting is naturally occurring, then we can potentially develop new treatments to elicit the same growth, or enhance the same growth in humans" with severe spinal cord injuries, said study researcher Ephron Rosenzweig of the Department of Neurosciences at the University of California, San Diego. (livescience.com)
- Spinal cord injuries can be fatal or cause severe disability. (medindia.net)
- I am told surgery is a possibility, but due to the enormity problems created by my recent surgery the doctors think that surgery would be too risky so they said that I would have to live with chronic pain and severe nerve damage forever. (healingwell.com)
- Clinically, injuries affecting the spinal cord or peripheral nerves can leave those affected with severe disability and, at present, there are limited options for treatment. (diva-portal.org)
- A new study suggests the tiny shift, which happens naturally among whales, snails, frogs, and dogs, could lead to major breakthroughs in treating victims of severe nerve damage. (medicaldaily.com)
- 3 We identified an infant with severe SMA who fulfilled two exclusion criteria and also showed inexcitability of all nerves as well as muscles. (bmj.com)