Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A PULMONARY ALVEOLI-filling disease, characterized by dense phospholipoproteinaceous deposits in the alveoli, cough, and DYSPNEA. This disease is often related to, congenital or acquired, impaired processing of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS by alveolar macrophages, a process dependent on GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA occurring mainly in adolescents and young adults, affecting muscles of the extremities, trunk, orbital region, etc. It is extremely malignant, metastasizing widely at an early stage. Few cures have been achieved and the prognosis is poor. "Alveolar" refers to its microscopic appearance simulating the cells of the respiratory alveolus. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Epithelial cells that line the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
A variety of rare sarcoma having a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells, which resemble epithelial cells and are enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue. It is a rare tumor, usually occurring between 15 and 35 years of age. It appears in the muscles of the extremities in adults and most commonly in the head and neck regions of children. Though slow-growing, it commonly metastasizes to the lungs, brain, bones, and lymph nodes. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1365)
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A north temperate species of tapeworm (CESTODA) whose adult form infects FOXES and wild RODENTS. The larval form can infect humans producing HEPATIC HYDATID CYSTS.
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.
A pulmonary surfactant associated protein that plays a role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. It is a membrane-bound protein that constitutes 1-2% of the pulmonary surfactant mass. Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein C is one of the most hydrophobic peptides yet isolated and contains an alpha-helical domain with a central poly-valine segment that binds to phospholipid bilayers.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Preprosthetic surgery involving rib, cartilage, or iliac crest bone grafts, usually autologous, or synthetic implants for rebuilding the alveolar ridge.
A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.
Liquid components of living organisms.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to the lower extremity. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and cutaneous sensory innervation of the inner thigh.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Conservative contouring of the alveolar process, in preparation for immediate or future denture construction. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.
The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.
An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens and enhances their opsinization and killing by phagocytic cells. Surfactant protein D contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA arising primarily in the head and neck, especially the orbit, of children below the age of 10. The cells are smaller than those of other rhabdomyosarcomas and are of two basic cell types: spindle cells and round cells. This cancer is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and has a high cure rate with multi-modality therapy. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.
The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.
Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.
The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A pulmonary surfactant associated-protein that plays an essential role in alveolar stability by lowering the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Inherited deficiency of pulmonary surfactant-associated protein B is one cause of RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
Disease involving the common PERONEAL NERVE or its branches, the deep and superficial peroneal nerves. Lesions of the deep peroneal nerve are associated with PARALYSIS of dorsiflexion of the ankle and toes and loss of sensation from the web space between the first and second toe. Lesions of the superficial peroneal nerve result in weakness or paralysis of the peroneal muscles (which evert the foot) and loss of sensation over the dorsal and lateral surface of the leg. Traumatic injury to the common peroneal nerve near the head of the FIBULA is a relatively common cause of this condition. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p31)
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
alveolar :22. Periodontal ligament :23. Alveolar bone 24. Vessels and nerves: :25. dental :26. periodontal :27. alveolar ... In anatomy the apical foramen is the opening at the apex of the root of a tooth, through which the nerve and blood vessels that ...
Lingual and inferior alveolar nerve. Deep dissection. Anterolateral view References[edit]. This article incorporates text in ... Nerve. mandibular nerve via nerve to medial pterygoid. Actions. elevates mandible, closes jaw, helps lateral pterygoids in ... Medial pterygoid is innervated by nerve to medial pterygoid (a branch of the mandibular nerve), which also innervates tensor ... The mandibular branch of the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, innervates the medial pterygoid muscle. ...
Inferior alveolar nerve • Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia • Ingestion • Inlays and onlays • Inner enamel epithelium • ... Alveolar bony defects • Alveolar osteitis • Alveolar process of maxilla • Alveolar ridge • Amalgam • Ameloblast • Ameloblastic ... Median alveolar cyst • Median palatal cyst • Melbourne Faculty of Dentistry • Mentadent • Metacone • Metastatic tumor of jaws ... Superior alveolar artery • Superior mouth • Supernumerary roots • Swedish Dental Association • Sydney Faculty of Dentistry • ...
Lingual and inferior alveolar nerve. Deep dissection. Anterolateral view Ramus mandibulae This article incorporates text in the ... Coronoid process of mandible Mandibular nerve and bone. Deep dissection. Anterior view. Infratemporal fossa. ...
... where it lies parallel to and a little below the auriculotemporal nerve; it crosses the inferior alveolar nerve, and runs along ... Lingual and inferior alveolar nerve. Deep dissection. Anterolateral view This article incorporates text in the public domain ... Branches include: Deep auricular artery Anterior tympanic artery Middle meningeal artery Inferior alveolar artery which gives ... Anterior superior alveolar arteries (a branch of the infraorbital artery) Formerly, the term "external maxillary artery" was ...
Mandibular nerve and bone. Deep dissection. Anterior view. Infratemporal fossa. Lingual and inferior alveolar nerve. Deep ... the mandibular canal is a canal within the mandible that contains the inferior alveolar nerve, inferior alveolar artery, and ... It carries branches of the inferior alveolar nerve and artery. It is continuous with the mental foramen (which opens onto front ... of over extending the reamer or the root canal filling materials because there is a possible risk of inferior alveolar nerve ...
The groups of fibers are named alveolar crest, horizontal, oblique, periapical, and interradicular fibers.[34] The nerve supply ... Alveolar bone[edit]. The alveolar bone is the bone of the jaw which forms the alveolus around teeth.[36] Like any other bone in ... Periodontal ligaments connect the alveolar bone to the cementum. Alveolar bone surrounds the roots of teeth to provide support ... The periodontal ligament is a specialized connective tissue that attaches the cementum of a tooth to the alveolar bone. This ...
This injury involves the alveolar bone and may extend beyond the alveolus.[5][6] There are 5 different types of alveolar ... Facial nerve branches. Facial nerve should be examined for any potential damage when buccal mucosa is involved. ... Dental trauma refers to trauma (injury) to the teeth and/or periodontium (gums, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone), and ... The facial nerve and parotid duct should be examined for any potential damage when the buccal mucosa is involved. ...
The inferior alveolar nerve is probably anesthetized more often than any other nerve in the body. To anesthetize this nerve, ... Dentists inject anesthetic to block sensory transmission by the alveolar nerves. The superior alveolar nerves are not usually ...
The nerves which are anesthetised in this technique are the inferior alveolar, incisive, mental, lingual and mylohyoid nerves. ... Peripheral nerve block is injection of LA in the vicinity of a peripheral nerve to anesthetize that nerve's area of innervation ... Small and large peripheral nerves can be anesthetized individually (peripheral nerve block) or in anatomic nerve bundles ( ... "Nerve damage associated with peripheral nerve block" (PDF). Risks Associated with Your Anaesthetic. Section 12. January 2006. ...
... is a distal branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. When the inferior alveolar nerve is blocked, the mental nerve is blocked ... auriculotemporal nerve). The facial nerve lies some distance from the inferior alveolar nerve within the parotid salivary gland ... Nerves lying near the point where the inferior alveolar nerve enters the mandible often are also anesthetized during inferior ... Several nondental nerves are usually anesthetized during an inferior alveolar block. The mental nerve, which supplies cutaneous ...
Interventions for iatrogenic inferior alveolar and lingual nerve injury PMID 24740534 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005293 ... Infraorbital nerve block for postoperative pain following cleft lip repair in children PMID 27074283 https://doi.org/10.1002/ ... Liposomal bupivacaine peripheral nerve block for the management of postoperative pain PMID 27558150 https://doi.org/10.1002/ ... Transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) for cancer pain in adults PMID 22419313 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858. ...
Alveolar Bone[edit]. In periodontal health, the alveolar bone surrounds the teeth and forms the bony socket that supports each ... however it also houses blood vessels and nerves within loose connective tissue.[6] Mechanical loads that are placed on the ... Alveolar Mucosa[edit]. This area of tissue is non keratinized and is located beyond the mucogingival junction. It is less ... Untreated, these diseases can lead to alveolar bone loss and tooth loss. As of 2013[update], Periodontal disease accounted for ...
It transmits the terminal branches of the inferior alveolar nerve and vessels (the mental artery). The mental foramen descends ... Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the submaxillary ganglion. Mandibular division of the trifacial nerve ... Soikkonen K, Wolf J, Ainamo A, Xie Q (November 1995). "Changes in the position of the mental foramen as a result of alveolar ...
... the inferior alveolar nerve. The mylohyoid nerve is a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. The mylohyoid nerve emerges to ... The mylohyoid muscle is innervated by a branch of the mandibular nerve, ...
The posterior, middle and anterior superior alveolar nerves are all closely associated with the lining of the sinus. The bone ... and unmyelinated C nerve fibers (slow, dull, aching, or burning pain) of the trigeminal nerve, which supplies sensation to the ... can cause similarly perceived toothache if malignant invasion of the superior alveolar nerves occurs. Classically, sinusitis ... The alveolar process may be tender to palpation over the roots. The tooth may be raised in the socket and feel more prominent ...
The mental nerve is a branch of the mandibular branch ( via the inferior alveolar nerve). It supplies the skin and mucous ... by the nerve of the second pharyngeal arch, the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve). The muscles of facial expression are all ... Trigeminal nerve The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary branch. It supplies not only the upper lip but also much ... The lip has many nerve endings and reacts as part of the tactile (touch) senses. Lips are very sensitive to touch, warmth, and ...
The maxillary sinus is supplied by superior alveolar nerves from the maxillary and infraorbital nerves. The frontal sinus is ... Postganglionic nerve fibers from the deep petrosal nerve join with preganglionic nerve fibers from the greater petrosal nerve ... The nerve supply to the nose and paranasal sinuses comes from two branches of the trigeminal nerve (CN V): the ophthalmic nerve ... The frontal upper part is supplied from a branch of the ophthalmic nerve - the nasociliary nerve, and its branches - the ...
The pterygomandibular space is the area where local anesthetic solution is deposited during an inferior alveolar nerve block, a ... Another possible complication of an inferior alveolar nerve block occurs when the needle is placed too deep, passing through ... improving the success of inferior alveolar nerve blocks". Australian Dental Journal. 56 (2): 112-21. doi:10.1111/j.1834- ... the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, the inferior alveolar artery and vein, the sphenomandibular ligament. ...
The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN), a branch of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), is a nerve that runs through the ... Two nerves are typically of concern, and are found in duplicate (one left and one right): 1. the inferior alveolar nerve, which ... injection containing local anaesthetic is delivered to an earlier branch of a nerve. For example, the inferior alveolar nerve ... permanent or temporary damage to the inferior alveolar nerve +/- lingual nerve, causing permanent or temporary numbness, ...
The superior alveolar (anterior, middle, and posterior) nerves, branches of the maxillary nerve provide sensory innervation.[ ... On the posterior wall are the alveolar canals, transmitting the posterior superior alveolar vessels and nerves to the molar ... Found in the body of the maxilla, this sinus has three recesses: an alveolar recess pointed inferiorly, bounded by the alveolar ... a branch of the facial nerve) and the nerve of the pterygoid canal. ...
Formed by posterior superior alveolar nerve, middle superior alveolar nerve, and anterior superior alveolar nerve. Inferior ... The superior dental plexus is a nerve plexus which supplies the upper jaw. ...
"The role of inferior alveolar nerve involvement in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw". Journal of Oral and ... exposed and necrotic bone extending beyond the alveolar bone resulting in pathological fracture; extra-oral fistula; oral ...
It appears below the inferior alveolar nerve canal in the posterior region of the mandible. Salivary gland dysfunction affects ...
Sensory nerve fibers that originate from inferior and superior alveolar nerves innervate the odontoblastic layer of the pulp ... The dental pulp nerve is innervated by one of the Trigeminal nerves, otherwise known as the fifth cranial nerve. The neurons ... These nerves enter the tooth through the apical foramen as myelinated nerve bundles. They branch to form the subodontoblastic ... Nerves from the plexus of Rasckow give branches to form a marginal plexus around the odontoblasts, with some nerves penetrating ...
The inferior alveolar nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve, (a major division of the trigeminal nerve), enters the ... At the mental foramen, the nerve divides into two terminal branches: incisive and mental nerves. The incisive nerve runs ... On the inside at the center there is an oblique mandibular foramen, for the entrance of the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve ... It contains the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve, from which branches are distributed to the teeth. Borders The lower border ...
Talk:Anterior superior alveolar nerve. *Talk:Anterior talocalcaneal ligament. *Talk:Anterior talofibular ligament ...
Action potentials transmitted via the vagus nerve to spleen mediate the release of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that ... Alveolar macrophage. *Microglia. *Osteoclasts. *Epithelioid cells. *giant cells *Langhans giant cells. *Foreign-body giant cell ...
nerve growth factor binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • integral component of membrane. • integral component of plasma ... extracellular and transmembrane domains is induced in HL-60 by tetradecanoylphorbol acetate and is expressed in alveolar ... "Molecular cloning and expression of a new member of the nerve growth factor receptor family that is characteristic for ...
... of the safety and efficacy of rhPDGF-BB in the healing of chronic foot ulcers in diabetic patients and regeneration of alveolar ...
... which go on to divide into two to eleven alveolar ducts. There are five or six alveolar sacs associated with each alveolar duct ... The alveolar ducts and alveoli consist primarily of simple squamous epithelium, which permits rapid diffusion of oxygen and ... Nerve. Pulmonary branches of vagus nerve. Identifiers. Latin. Bronchus. MeSH. D001980. TA. A06.4.01.001. ... Exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and the blood in the capillaries occurs across the walls of the alveolar ducts ...
This skin membrane consists of connective tissue, elastic fibres, nerves, muscles, and blood vessels. The muscles keep the ... In bats, the relative alveolar surface area and pulmonary capillary blood volume are larger than in most other small ...
It is accompanied by the recurrent nerve, and supplies the muscles and mucous membrane of this part, anastomosing with the ... posterior superior alveolar. *infraorbital (anterior superior alveolar). *descending palatine (greater palatine, lesser ... The relationship between the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery is highly variable.[1] The recurrent ... Yalçin B (February 2006). "Anatomic configurations of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and inferior thyroid artery". Surgery. 139 ...
It is attached to the alveolar bone (C) by the fibers of the periodontal ligament and to the soft tissue of the gingiva by the ... Unlike those in bone, however, these canals in cementum do not contain nerves, nor do they radiate outward. Instead, the canals ... The cementum is the part of the periodontium that attaches the teeth to the alveolar bone by anchoring the periodontal ligament ... Sharpey fibers are part of the principal collagenous fibers of the periodontal ligament embedded in the cementum and alveolar ...
... (Nervus fibularis communis, nervus popliteus externus, nervus peroneus) er en nerve med tykkelse av ca ... inferior alveolar - ganglion otica) , VI abducens , VII facialis (chorda tympani, nervus intermedius) , VIII ... halvparten av nervus tibialis som avgår fra dorsale grener av fjerde og femte lumbale og første og andre sakrale nerve. ... Den tredje (rekurrente) artikulære nerve avgår ved delingsstedet for peroneus communis, hvor den går oppad sammen med arteria ...
... and to its sides on its back surface run the recurrent laryngeal nerves in the upper trachea, and the vagus nerves in the lower ...
感測器(以及在主動脈及頸動脈體的氣體感測器)會感測到。這些血液氣體感測器會送出神經脈衝訊號給延髓中的呼吸中
It also contains nerves that supply the vessel as well as nutrient capillaries (vasa vasorum) in the larger blood vessels. ... posterior superior alveolar. *infraorbital (anterior superior alveolar). *descending palatine (greater palatine, lesser ...
Endothelial dysfunction, or the loss of proper endothelial function, is a hallmark for vascular diseases, and is often regarded as a key early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Impaired endothelial function, causing hypertension and thrombosis, is often seen in patients with coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, as well as in smokers. Endothelial dysfunction has also been shown to be predictive of future adverse cardiovascular events, and is also present in inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. One of the main mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction is the diminishing of nitric oxide, often due to high levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, which interfere with the normal L-arginine-stimulated nitric oxide synthesis and so leads to hypertension. The most prevailing mechanism of endothelial dysfunction is an increase in reactive oxygen species, which can impair nitric oxide production and activity via ...
In bony fish, the maxilla is called the "upper maxilla," with the mandible being the "lower maxilla". The alveolar process of ... There are, in addition, at various points throughout the cranium, smaller foramina for the cranial nerves. The jaws consist of ...
The central retinal artery supplies all the nerve fibers that form the optic nerve, which carries the visual information to the ... posterior superior alveolar. *infraorbital (anterior superior alveolar). *descending palatine (greater palatine, lesser ... The central retinal artery (retinal artery) branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its ... It pierces the eyeball close to the optic nerve, sending branches over the internal surface of the retina, and these terminal ...
posterior superior alveolar. *infraorbital (anterior superior alveolar). *descending palatine (greater palatine, lesser ... Accompanying artery of ischiadic nerve. *Uterine artery (females) / deferential artery (males) *Vaginal artery (sometimes) ...
... while the lingual nerve (not pictured) passes superior to it (for a comparison, the hypoglossal nerve, pictured, passes ... One branch runs behind the alveolar process of the mandible in the substance of the gum to anastomose with a similar artery ... It lies on the lateral side of the genioglossus, the main large extrinsic tongue muscle, accompanied by the lingual nerve. ... It then curves downward and forward, forming a loop which is crossed by the hypoglossal nerve, and passing beneath the ...
Talk:Anterior superior alveolar nerve. *Talk:Anterior white commissure. *Talk:Anterolateral central arteries ...
The mental nerve is a branch of the mandibular branch ( via the inferior alveolar nerve). It supplies the skin and mucous ... by the nerve of the second pharyngeal arch, the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve). The muscles of facial expression are all ... Trigeminal nerve *The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary branch. It supplies not only the upper lip, but much of ... Nerve supplyEdit. Illustration of lips from Gray's Anatomy showing the inferior and superior labial arteries, the glands of the ...
... located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to ... alveolar gas equation. *alveolar-arterial gradient. *hemoglobin. *oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve (Oxygen saturation ...
The superior laryngeal artery accompanies the internal laryngeal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, beneath the thyrohyoid ... posterior superior alveolar. *infraorbital (anterior superior alveolar). *descending palatine (greater palatine, lesser ... To its medial side are the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. ... Together with the internal laryngeal nerve, it pierces the lateral thyrohyoid membrane, and supplies blood to the muscles, ...
Most experts on this topic state that the pain of DH is in reality a normal, physiologic response of the nerves in a healthy, ... Inflammation of the dental pulp, termed pulpitis, produces true hypersensitivity of the nerves in the dental pulp.[5] Pulpitis ... Animal research has demonstrated that potassium ions placed in deep dentin cavities cause nerve depolarization and prevent re- ... or desensitization of nerve fibres/blocking the neural transmission (e.g. potassium chloride,[12] potassium citrate, potassium ...
... (oversatt: «den vidvankende nerve») er synonym med den tiende hjernenerven og kalles også «vagusnerven», « ... inferior alveolar - ganglion otica) , VI abducens , VII facialis (chorda tympani, nervus intermedius) , VIII ... innvollsnerven» og «den vidvankende nerve». Vagusnerven følger de store blodårene i halsen, går gjennom brysthulen og til ...
Alveolar process. *Palatine process (Incisive foramen, Incisive canals, Foramina of Scarpa, Incisive bone, Anterior nasal spine ... Other types of tissue found in bones include bone marrow, endosteum, periosteum, nerves, blood vessels and cartilage. ...
Inferior alveolar nerve. Techniques. *Airway management. *Anesthesia provision in the US. *Arterial catheter ...
... the union of the two vertebral arteries at the junction between the medulla oblongata and the pons between the abducens nerves ... posterior superior alveolar. *infraorbital (anterior superior alveolar). *descending palatine (greater palatine, lesser ...
The inferior alveolar nerve is situated near the lower jawbone, known as the mandible. ... The inferior alveolar nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers that stems from the mandibular nerve in the head. ... The inferior alveolar nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers that stems from the mandibular nerve in the head. The inferior alveolar ... The nerve also provides sensation to canines and incisors.. Anesthesia that blocks the inferior alveolar nerve is often ...
... buccal nerve block. The inferior alveolar nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve, the third division of the trigeminal nerve ... Inferior alveolar nerve block (abbreviated to IANB, and also termed inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia or inferior dental block ... their mandibular teeth on one side (via inferior alveolar nerve block). *their lower lip and chin on one side (via mental nerve ... Inferior alveolar nerve block or IANB - The nerve is approached from the opposite side of the mouth over the contralateral ...
Middle superior alveolar nerve Anterior superior alveolar nerve Left maxilla. Outer surface. This article incorporates text in ... The posterior superior alveolar nerve innervates the second and third maxillary molars, and two of the three roots of the ... The posterior superior alveolar branches (posterior superior dental branches) arise from the trunk of the maxillary nerve just ... communicate with the middle superior alveolar nerve, and give off branches to the lining membrane of the maxillary sinus and ...
Anterior superior alveolar arteries Middle superior alveolar nerve Posterior superior alveolar nerve Jones, Frederic Wood (July ... The anterior superior alveolar nerve (or anterior superior dental nerve), is a branch of the infraorbital nerve, itself a ... It communicates with the middle superior alveolar nerve, and gives off a nasal branch, which passes through a minute canal in ... Dental considerations for this nerve are important. The anterior superior alveolar usually innervates all anterior teeth, loops ...
A dental malpractice lawsuit filed after a woman sustained nerve damage during a dental implant procedure. We talk about how ... The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) runs just above the jawline in the "mandibular canal," supplying the bottom teeth. IAN ... Failing to administer steroids and refer the claimant to an oral surgeon specializing in nerve repair as soon as the nerve ... as soon as it became apparent that the claimants inferior alveolar nerve was injured. ...
Paresthesia as a result of mechanical trauma is one of the most frequent sensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. ... W.C. (2011) Decompression of inferior alveolar nerve: case report comment. [Journal (Paginated)] ... and because of this the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) was spared direct injury. Ikeda et al.2 had shown that there is room ... Part I: Mandibular Canal and Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle in relation with Dental Implantology. J Oral Maxillofac Res ...
... great care is required to avoid entering the alveolar canal which is filled with the inferior alveolar nerve and blood vessels ... Because the precise location of the inferior alveolar nerve (also called the mandibular canal) differs slightly within each ... Steroids are a well-known treatment for nerve injuries, and nearly every nerve injury dental malpractice claim involves a ... he never determined the exact location of the womans Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN). The IAN canal is visible on x-rays and ...
Middle superior alveolar nerve explanation free. What is Middle superior alveolar nerve? Meaning of Middle superior alveolar ... nerve medical term. What does Middle superior alveolar nerve mean? ... Looking for online definition of Middle superior alveolar nerve in the Medical Dictionary? ... deep temporal nerve. Temporal nerve (1).. dental nerve. Alveolar nerve.. depressor nerve. Any nerve whose stimulation depresses ...
Efficacy of Ketorolac Buccal Infiltration on Success Rate of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block. The safety and scientific validity ... Efficacy of Ketorolac infiltration on success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block [ Time Frame: One week ]. ... Efficacy of Ketorolac Buccal Infiltration on Success Rate of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Patients With Irreversible ... All patients received standard inferior alveolar nerve block injection. After achieving the lip numbness, one group received a ...
Inferior alveolar nerve information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health ... Alveolar *Nerve *Nerve symptoms (9132 causes) *Nerve disease *Nerve disorder *Nerve problem (9132 causes) *Nerve pain *Terminal ... Introduction: Inferior alveolar nerve. Description of Inferior alveolar nerve. Inferior alveolar nerve: Related Topics. These ... Terms associated with Inferior alveolar nerve:. The following terms can be used for Inferior alveolar nerve. *trigeminal nerve ...
The National Center for Biomedical Ontology was founded as one of the National Centers for Biomedical Computing, supported by the NHGRI, the NHLBI, and the NIH Common Fund under grant U54-HG004028 ...
It meets the posterior superior alveolar nerve (PSAN) and accompanies it through the alveolar foramen in the alveolar maxillary ... Identification of the Bony Canal of the Posterior Superior Alveolar Nerve and Artery in the Maxillary Sinus: Tomographic, ... and posterior superior alveolar nerve (PSAN) using different identification methods, including computed tomography (CT), ... the anterior superior alveolar artery (ASAA), and the posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) [1, 2]. ...
Mandibular nerve. Mental nerve. Mandibular incisive nerve. Local anesthesia. None, only healthy subjects will be enrolled in ... Quantitative Sensory Testing of the Lower Lip After Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block, and Evaluation of the Role of the Contra- ... lateral Inferior Alveolar Nerve. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the status ... The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of the innervation of the contra-lateral mandibular nerve for the ...
Structure of inferior alveolar nerve. Known as: alveolar inferior nerve, Set of inferior dental nerves, Alveolar Nerve, ... OBJECTIVES Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is the most commonly injured nerve (64.4%) during implant treatment. At present, no… ( ... Inferior alveolar nerve injury associated with implant surgery.. *Gintaras Juodžbalys, Hom-Lay Wang, Gintautas Sabalys, Antanas ... Inferior alveolar nerve canal position: a clinical and radiographic study.. *Marci H. Levine, Allison L. Goddard, Thomas Benton ...
Paresthesia resulting from mechanical trauma may cause sensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. In the case ... as well as a radiolucency in close proximity to the inferior alveolar nerve, apparently in direct contact with the nerve (Fig. ... Endodontic-related inferior alveolar nerve and mental foramen paresthesia. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 1997;18(10):963-8, 970-3, ... Inferior alveolar nerve injury caused by thermoplastic gutta-percha overextension. J Can Dent Assoc. 2004;70(6):384-7. ...
ARTICAINE BUCCAL INFILTRATION VERSUS INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BLOCK IN SYMPTOMATIC MANDIBULAR 1ST MOLAR TOOTH.(Report) by ... APA style: COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS OF 4% ARTICAINE BUCCAL INFILTRATION VERSUS INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BLOCK IN SYMPTOMATIC ... MLA style: "COMPARISON OF EFFECTIVENESS OF 4% ARTICAINE BUCCAL INFILTRATION VERSUS INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BLOCK IN SYMPTOMATIC ... Trismus and non-surgical paraesthesia due to needle injury to inferior alveolar or lingual nerve is prevented in infiltration ...
Four operators performed truncal block of the inferior alveolar nerve and infiltrating anesthesia of the buccal nerve for the ... Comparison of two needle models in terms of bevel deformation during truncal block of the inferior alveolar nerve. Med. oral ... during truncal block of the inferior alveolar nerve. Study design: ...
Ipsilateral teeth along the mandible, as well as the lower lip and chin (mental nerve is distal to inferior alveolar nerve) ... 3 thoughts on "Procedural Blog EXTRA: Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block" * Gita Pensa on November 15, 2015 at 11:34 am. said: ... This entry was posted in Procedural Blog EXTRA, Procedures and tagged block, dental, inferior alveolar nerve block by Jonathan ... Procedural Blog EXTRA: Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block. Posted on November 15, 2015. by Jonathan Ameli ...
Intravenous anaesthesia, The inferior alveolar lingual and buccal nerve blocks and The Maxillary Nerve Block.. Date. c.1970s?. ...
MR Imaging of Traumatic Lesions of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve in Patients with Fractures of the Mandible. B. Kress, A. ... MR Imaging of Traumatic Lesions of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve in Patients with Fractures of the Mandible ... MR Imaging of Traumatic Lesions of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve in Patients with Fractures of the Mandible ... MR Imaging of Traumatic Lesions of the Inferior Alveolar Nerve in Patients with Fractures of the Mandible ...
The average dentist will see permanent nerve damage from this type of local anesthesia at least once and should, therefore, be ... This explains why the lingual nerve is damaged more often than the inferior alveolar nerve.In addition, the lingual nerve tends ... Nerve Damage Associated with Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block: Causes and Management. Share on ... Pogrel MA, Thamby S. Permanent nerve involvement resulting from inferior alveolar nerve blocks. J Am Dent Assoc. 2000;131(7): ...
The inferior alveolar nerve (sometimes called the inferior dental nerve) is a branch of the mandibular nerve, which is itself ... This entry was posted in Oral Surgery and tagged inferior alveolar nerve, mental foramen, mental nerve, mental nerve neuralgia ... Tag Archives: inferior alveolar nerve. Inferior alveolar nerve Part 2 Leave a reply ... inferior alveolar nerve, inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle, lingual nerve block, mandible, mandibular canals, mandibular ...
Coronectomy is a preferable technique for patients who run a risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve during third molar ... whose root apices were very close to the inferior alveolar canal. These patients underwent 47 coronectomies. RESULTS The mean ... so that the possibility of nerve damage is reduced. ... teeth whose root apices are very close to the inferior alveolar ... Coronectomy: a technique to protect the inferior alveolar nerve.. *Michael Anthony Pogrel, Janice S.H. Lee, Daniel Muff ...
PREFERENCE WITH REGARD TO TACTILE OR VISUAL DETERMINATION OF INJECTION SITE FOR AN INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE BLOCK IN CHILDREN: A ... DENTAL STUDENTS PREFERENCE WITH REGARD TO TACTILE OR VISUAL DETERMINATION OF INJECTION SITE FOR AN INFERIOR ALVEOLAR NERVE ... preference with regard to tactile or visual determination of injection site for an inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in ...
... with conventional inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) during injection ... From: RCT on the effectiveness of the intraligamentary anesthesia and inferior alveolar nerve block on pain during dental ... and different experience level for clinical instructors and dental students in the 4th and 5th year for inferior alveolar nerve ...
Teaching Alternatives to the Standard Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Dental Education: Outcomes in Clinical Practice. Thomas ... Estimated number of injections per week with the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block, the Gow-Gates technique, and the ... Estimated success rates with the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block, the Gow-Gates technique, and the Akinosi technique ... Teaching Alternatives to the Standard Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Dental Education: Outcomes in Clinical Practice ...
Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) anaesthesia is one of the common procedures in dental clinic. This procedure is safe, but ... Temporary Blindness after Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block ZD24-ZD25 Animesh Barodiya, Rishi Thukral, Shaila Mahendra Agrawal, ... This case report explains an event where due to individual anatomic variation of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve and ...
... 3 ... Tagged with: adverse effects, inferior alveolar nerve damage, oral and maxillofacial surgery, third molars ... Which Risk Factors Are Associated With Neurosensory Deficits of Inferior Alveolar Nerve After Mandibular Third Molar Extraction ... of this case-control study was to investigate the specific risk factors for neurosensory deficits of inferior alveolar nerve ( ...
Temporary Blindness after Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block. Animesh Barodiya, Rishi Thukral, Shaila Mahendra Agrawal, Anshul Rai, ...
Oral Diagnosis: Lingual Nerve Neuropathy: More than Just Third Molar Surgery and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks. ... or the provision of inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Investigators have reported that the anatomical location and the ... This article briefly reviews the course of the lingual nerve, and summarizes the causes and reports of all uncommon aetiologies ... Clinical relevance: The reader should appreciate the importance of accurately diagnosing lingual nerve neuropathy as it can ...
  • Anesthesia that blocks the inferior alveolar nerve is often administered to patients undergoing dental procedures. (healthline.com)
  • Inferior alveolar nerve block (abbreviated to IANB , and also termed inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia or inferior dental block ) is a nerve block technique which induces anesthesia (numbness) in the areas of the mouth and face innervated by one of the inferior alveolar nerves which are paired on the left and right side. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of anesthesia near the mandibular foramen causes blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve and the nearby lingual nerve by diffusion (includes supplying the tongue ). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a number of techniques that are commonly used to achieve inferior alveolar nerve anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusion: Since there was no difference between the two procedures 4% articaine buccal infiltration can be considered a viable alternative to inferior alveolar nerve block in securing successful pulpal anesthesia for endodontic therapy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Four operators performed truncal block of the inferior alveolar nerve and infiltrating anesthesia of the buccal nerve for the extraction of a lower third molar in 266 patients. (isciii.es)
  • Pogrel and Thamby 1 have calculated the incidence of permanent nerve damage resulting from local anesthesia via inferior alveolar nerve block at somewhere between 1 in 160 571 and 1 in 26 762, which means that the average, full-time dentist will likely see this complication at least once. (jcda.ca)
  • 1 If the nerve is unifascicular in the area of trauma, as has been shown to be the case one-third of the time with the lingual nerve proximal to the lingula, 1 piercing could lead to complete anesthesia distal to the injury site. (jcda.ca)
  • Anesthesia which causes inferior alveolar nerve blockage is often administered to people undergoing dental treatments. (healthylifemed.com)
  • An IANB or inferior alveolar nerve block occurs due to anesthesia given during surgical or deep operative procedures that are performed for permanent and primary teeth located in the mandible. (healthylifemed.com)
  • In this video uploaded by FreeDentalEducation , an instructional video guide about how to properly administrate Mandibular Anesthesia - Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block. (ozident.com)
  • Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block is one of the most used Nerve Block technique as it supplies to Incisors, Canines, Pre-Molars and Molars of the injected side, modifications of Inferior alveolar nerve block are used on failure to achieve anesthesia using the regular technique. (juniordentist.com)
  • Diplopia after inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia: report of 2 cases and literature review. (sparrho.com)
  • Concomitant horner and harlequin syndromes after inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia. (sparrho.com)
  • The effect of pre-anesthesia with a needle-free system versus topical anesthesia on injection pain of the inferior alveolar nerve block: a randomized clinical trial. (sparrho.com)
  • The administration of anesthesia in dentistry is necessary to prevent pain in specific area of the oral cavity which is accomplished by blocking the branches of the trigeminal nerve. (peertechz.com)
  • Surgical procedures performed on Soft tissue and Hard tissue anterior to the First Mandibular Molar where Inferior alveolar nerve block along with anesthesia to Lingual nerve should be given. (juniordentist.com)
  • Intervention and outcome: Cases divided to 2 groups, group A in which surgery done under local anesthesia were the bony windows not involve the mental nerve (the window done distal to mental nerve). (mosuljournals.com)
  • Group B underwent surgery under general anesthesia with bony window involve mental nerve. (mosuljournals.com)
  • However, increasing the volume of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine to 3.6 ml (two cartridges) does not increase the incidence of pulpal anesthesia with the inferior alveolar nerve block 1, 24, 87-89 . (dentisty.org)
  • Does the combination of 3% mepivacaine plain (Carbocaine) plus 2% lidocaine with epinephrine improve anesthesia and reduce the pain of anesthetic injection for the inferior alveolar nerve block? (dentisty.org)
  • Willett and co-authors 93 found the combination of lidocaine/diphenhydramine with epinephrine and diphenhydramine with epinephrine were significantly less effective for pulpal anesthesia than lidocaine with epinephrine for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. (dentisty.org)
  • Ridenour and co-authors 93a found that adding hyaluronidase to a lidocaine solution with epinephrine did not statistically increase the incidence of pulpal anesthesia in inferior alveolar nerve blocks. (dentisty.org)
  • Whitcomb and co-authors 93d compared the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate (8.4%) versus 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in an inferior alveolar nerve block. (dentisty.org)
  • Nerve damage is very rare in a regional injection, according to the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) . (colgate.com)
  • Objectives: This study was aimed at evaluating the anesthetic success rates in various regions of soft tissue after inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block and comparing the success rates of soft tissue anesthesia with those of pulpal anesthesia to find correlations. (elsevier.com)
  • A PSAN block is a dental nerve block used for profound anesthesia of the maxillary molars. (elsevier.com)
  • Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is commonly used to give anesthesia over the soft and had tissue of the corresponding quadrant with the exception of buccal area of molars that receive sensory branches form the buccal nerve. (ircmj.com)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve , the third division of the trigeminal nerve . (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors highlight that there is no purely objected method of clinically assessing iatrogenic injury to the terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve but the BSSO was first described in 1957 so the call for standardised assessment and reporting procedures is long overdue. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve or inferior dental nerve is a mixed sensory and motor branch of the posterior division of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve , located in the pteryogomandibular space of the oral cavity / masticator space . (radiopaedia.org)
  • We present a case of widespread surgical emphysema following cryoablation of the right inferior alveolar nerve in the setting of trigeminal neuralgia refractory to carbamazepine pharmacotherapy. (criticalcareshock.org)
  • In some cases, the pasta filling process is displayed in periodontal tissues in large quantities, sometimes falling mandibular canal and III damaging the branch of the trigeminal nerve. (fundamental-research.ru)
  • The posterior superior alveolar nerve (PSAN) is a major sensory branch of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve. (elsevier.com)
  • The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The mandibular nerve ( V 3 ) is the largest of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve , the fifth cranial nerve (CN V). (wikipedia.org)
  • Mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve . (wikipedia.org)
  • Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve , seen from the middle line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Portio minor, the small motor root of the trigeminal nerve , passes under the trigeminal ganglion and through the foramen ovale to unite with the sensory root just outside the skull . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] However, depending on technique, the long buccal nerve may not be [2] anesthetized by an IANB and therefore an area of buccal gingiva adjacent to the lower posterior teeth will retain normal sensation unless that nerve is anesthetized separately, via a (long) buccal nerve block . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inferior alveolar nerve block or IANB - The nerve is approached from the opposite side of the mouth over the contralateral premolars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most commonly used injection technique for anaesthetizing maxillary teeth is infiltration and commonly used injection technique for anaesthetizing mandibular teeth is inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) 2. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) anaesthesia is one of the common procedures in dental clinic. (jcdr.net)
  • Background: The inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is the most frequent regional anaesthesia technique used in dental procedures and has been reported to have the highest failure rates among dental undergraduates, interns and even, dental professionals. (ejmcm.com)
  • The ability to achieve profound Inferior Alveolar Nerve block (IANB) anaesthesia, quickly, painlessly, and consistently not only reduces the stress level for patients and dentists but is a great practice builder. (langleyendodontics.ca)
  • The aim of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to investigate the effect of articaine combined with ketamine on the success rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in posterior mandible teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. (ac.ir)
  • The Gow-Gates (GG) block and the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) can be used interchangeably for anesthetizing mandibular molars. (ac.ir)
  • Another symptom is harmless numbness and tingling of the body of the tongue and floor of the mouth, which indicates that the lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve, is anesthetized. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another symptom that can occur is "lingual shock" as the needle passes by the lingual nerve during administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sphenomandibular ligament may act as a barrier to the agent if the injection is given too shallow and the lingual nerve is only anesthetized. (wikipedia.org)
  • This explains why the lingual nerve is damaged more often than the inferior alveolar nerve.In addition, the lingual nerve tends to lie directly in the path of needle insertion for an inferior alveolar nerve block ( Fig. 1 ). (jcda.ca)
  • Neuropathy of the lingual nerve, when it occurs, often results from third molar surgery, or the provision of inferior alveolar nerve blocks. (dental-update.co.uk)
  • Investigators have reported that the anatomical location and the unpredictable course of the lingual nerve play important roles in it being affected by these procedures. (dental-update.co.uk)
  • This article briefly reviews the course of the lingual nerve, and summarizes the causes and reports of all uncommon aetiologies of neuropathy that can occur along the path of a lingual nerve. (dental-update.co.uk)
  • The clinical implication and management of lingual nerve neuropathy is discussed. (dental-update.co.uk)
  • The reader should appreciate the importance of accurately diagnosing lingual nerve neuropathy as it can manifest from many other dental procedures and non-dental causes, apart from routine mandibular third molar surgery and local anaesthetic injections. (dental-update.co.uk)
  • To summarize the causes and reports of all uncommon aetiologies of neuropathy that can occur along the path of a lingual nerve. (dental-update.co.uk)
  • The lingual nerve lies nearby and is usually blocked incidentally, anesthetizing the ipsilateral floor of the mouth, medial (lingual) gingiva, and anterior two thirds of the tongue. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The anesthetic injection is given near the mandibular foramen, thereby causing blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve and the lingual nerve located nearby. (healthylifemed.com)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve divides off the posterior division and descends posterior to the lingual nerve , deep to lateral pterygoid muscle and lateral to the pterygomandibular raphe, between the sphenomandibular ligament and the ramus of the mandible . (radiopaedia.org)
  • All of these resolved completely during the period of study except one patient who suffered permanent impairment of the lingual nerve functions and this occurred in general anaesthetic group. (bvsalud.org)
  • Clinical relevance: The clinicians need to consider not doing an additional lingual nerve block after IAN block. (elsevier.com)
  • had lingual nerve damage. (healthtap.com)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve is situated near the lower jawbone, known as the mandible. (healthline.com)
  • It crosses to the mandibular foramen (the upper side portion of the mandible) and provides a nerve extension to the mylohyoid muscle that makes up the bottom of the oral cavity. (healthline.com)
  • The nerve supplies an additional extension to the small muscle just below the mandible known as the digastric. (healthline.com)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve is also located within the mandible in an area called the mandibular canal. (healthline.com)
  • Severely dislocated fracture of the mandible ( A arrows ) and individual ruptured nerve fibers of the neurovascular bundle in the fracture site ( B arrows ) can be seen. (ajnr.org)
  • for determining the location of the inferior alveolar nerve in all three dimensions of the mandible (lower jaw). (intelligentdental.com)
  • An inferior alveolar nerve block, the most common dental nerve block, anesthetizes the ipsilateral hemi-mandible (including teeth and bone), as well as the lateral (buccal) mucosa over the lower incisors, canine, and first premolar, and, cutaneously, the ipsilateral lower lip and chin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve is located near the mandible or the lower jaw. (healthylifemed.com)
  • It passes into the upper side section of the mandible known as the mandibular foramen and offers an extension of nerve to the mylohyoid muscle present at the lower end of the oral cavity. (healthylifemed.com)
  • The nerve also provides an added extension to the minor muscle called the digastric, located just under the mandible. (healthylifemed.com)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve is also situated inside the mandible. (healthylifemed.com)
  • On the anterior surface, the inferior alveolar nerve extends the mental nerve near the level of the second premolars on the mandible, later exiting the lower jaw through the mental foramen and thus providing sensory branches to the lower lip and the chin. (healthylifemed.com)
  • Injury or damage of the inferior alveolar nerve often occurs at the time of dental surgical procedures such as placement of dental implant in the mandible, orthognathic surgery, wisdom tooth removal/surgery, local anesthetic deep dental injections, and root canal procedures which involves the occurrence of tooth roots right next to the nerve canal in the lower jaw. (healthylifemed.com)
  • Trauma and associated fractures of the mandible can also lead to damage of the inferior alveolar nerve. (healthylifemed.com)
  • The injury of the blood vessel due to penetration of needle to far distally during Posterior superior alveolar nerve block may leads to temporary unaesthetic hematoma [1]extraorally in the lower buccal tissue region of the mandible. (peertechz.com)
  • It is sometimes called the Inferior Dental Nerve which gives off a motor branch supplying the Mylohyoid and the anterior belly of digastric and travels through the Mandibular foramen and enters the Mandible. (juniordentist.com)
  • It extends Anteriorly forming the Mental Nerve at the level of Mandibular 2nd Molar roots exiting the mandible through the Mental foramen. (juniordentist.com)
  • The distance between the alveolar crest and the inferior alveolar nerve in the atrophied posterior mandible may sometimes be insufficient for implant placement. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • To the authors' knowledge, the inferior alveolar nerve block has never been reported in this species, and the lateral approach via the masseteric foramen is novel, considering that the nerve is usually targeted at the medial aspect of the mandible. (bmj.com)
  • Haeberle, B , Abreu-Serrano, AC , Metzler, KT & Robles-Moreno, M 2021, ' Complications Associated with Rehabilitation of a Unilateral Partially Edentulous Mandible with Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition and Implant Placement: A Clinical Report ', pp. 285-289. (elsevier.com)
  • The body of the mandible has been partially cut away (22) in order to demonstrate the course of the inferior alveolar vessels and nerve (21). (stanford.edu)
  • When giving a posterior superior alveolar nerve block, it will anesthetize the mesialbuccal root of the maxillary first molar approximately 72% of the time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether combining an intraoral injection of a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ( Ketorolac ), in association with conventional inferior alveolar nerve block, would improve the success rate in teeth with irreversible pulpitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All patients received standard inferior alveolar nerve block injection. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All patients will receive standard inferior alveolar nerve block injection of 4% Articaine with 1:100000 epinephrine and supplemental buccal infiltration of 0.9 mL 4% Articaine with 1:100000 epinephrine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Objective: To evaluate the pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular 1st molar by using 4% articaine in two different techniques i-e buccal infiltration and inferior alveolar nerve block. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups One group received 4% articaine buccal infiltration and the other group received inferior alveolar nerve block of 4% articaine. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In cases of irreversible pulpitis, lip anaesthesia can be achieved following inferior alveolar nerve block, whereas pulpal anaesthesia is ineffective5. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • To evaluate the differences in terms of bevel deformation between two types of needle of the same length and external caliber, but with different internal diameters, during truncal block of the inferior alveolar nerve. (isciii.es)
  • This entry was posted in Procedural Blog EXTRA , Procedures and tagged block , dental , inferior alveolar nerve block by Jonathan Ameli . (brown.edu)
  • Intravenous anaesthesia, The inferior alveolar lingual and buccal nerve blocks and The Maxillary Nerve Block. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • Needle Trauma - Between 3% and 7% of our patients will feel an unpleasant "electric shock" on insertion of the needle for an inferior alveolar nerve block because the needle has come into contact with the nerve. (jcda.ca)
  • Path of needle insertion for routine inferior alveolar nerve block. (jcda.ca)
  • Anesthetic Toxicity - The final and most controversial theory of nerve damage due to inferior alveolar nerve block is neurotoxicity of the local anesthetic solution. (jcda.ca)
  • A buccal block (of the long buccal nerve) is often done as part of the inferior alveolar nerve block procedure, if anesthetization of the lateral (buccal) gingiva and mucosa of the lower molars and second premolar is needed. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A nerve block may be preferred to local anesthetic infiltration when accurate approximation of wound edges is important (eg, skin or lip repair), because a nerve block does not distort the tissue as does local infiltration. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There is no single block location for the superior alveolar nerves (anterior, middle, posterior) as they leave from the infraorbital and maxillary tuberosity prior to forming a plexus in the maxillary gingiva. (wikem.org)
  • This is in contrast to the Nerve Block: Inferior Alveolar . (wikem.org)
  • Thus, for an inferior alveolar nerve block, doctors need to give the anesthetic injection more posteriorly and slightly lower in children than in adults. (healthylifemed.com)
  • Gupta N, Singh K, Sharma S (2015) Hematoma - A Complication of Posterior Superior Alveolar Nerve Block. (peertechz.com)
  • Posterior superior alveolar nerve block is most commonly used for the surgical procedures, extraction or root canal treatment of the maxillary molars (with possible exception of mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar) and buccal soft tissues. (peertechz.com)
  • The posterior superior alveolar (PSA) nerve block targets the posterior superior nerve in the infratemporal fossa. (peertechz.com)
  • The improperly placed posterior superior alveolar nerve block can result in various complications. (peertechz.com)
  • The anterior superior alveolar nerve block (ASA) also known as the infraorbital nerve block. (dentalhygiene411.com)
  • For the right ASA nerve block and right handed operator, sit at a 10 o'clock position facing the patient. (dentalhygiene411.com)
  • However, when evaluated in clinically normal teeth, there was no advantage to using a higher concentration (1:50,000) of epinephrine in an inferior alveolar nerve block. (dentisty.org)
  • In theory, using 3% mepivacaine initially for an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) block would decrease the pain of injection , provide faster onset, increase success, and possibly potentiate the effect of a second cartridge of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine. (dentisty.org)
  • They reported that buffering 2% lidocaine (with 1:100,000 epinephrine) with sodium bicarbonate did not statistically increase anesthetic success, provide a faster onset , or decrease pain of injection when compared to unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for an inferior alveolar nerve block. (dentisty.org)
  • This study is mainly aimed to examine the difference between Year 1 and Year 3 dental undergraduates towards perceived attributes of innovation diffusion theory and intention to use a Novel Local Anaesthesia Simulator Kit (LASK) in competently performing inferior alveolar nerve block in pre-clinical simulation. (ejmcm.com)
  • 2020). 'Perceived Attributes of a Novel Teaching Aid of Local Anaesthetic Simulator Kit in Performing Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block', European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine , 7(3), pp. 898-906. (ejmcm.com)
  • The more inflammation that occurs, the more sodium channels are created, the easier nerve cells depolarize and the more effective the anaesthetic needs to be to achieve a profound block. (langleyendodontics.ca)
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to study the efficacy and the anesthetic characters of using Articaine 4 % with 1:100,000 Epinephrine as a local anesthetic drug in surgical practice through inferior alveolar nerve block and comparing it with Lidocaine 2% with 1:100,000 Epinephrine. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Materials and methods: Thirty patients in two groups, fifteen patients each, undergo extraction of impacted mandibular third molar, Inferior Alveolar Nerve block had been carried out using either Articaine 4% or Lidocaine 2% Local anesthetic drugs. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Mohamed Hossam Moselhy, Eman A. El-Sharrawy, Abdel Badia Abdallah Abdel Mabood, Clinical Assessment of Using Local Anesthetic Articaine 4% with 1:100,000 Epinephrine for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Comparing It with Lidocaine 2% with 1:100,000 Epinephrine, International Journal of Clinical Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Comparative study of the anesthetic efficacy of 4% Articaine versus 2% Lidocaine in inferior alveolar nerve block during surgical extraction of impacted lower third molars. (sciencepublishinggroup.com)
  • Manochehrifar, H. / The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain . (edu.au)
  • This week we discuss some pretty interesting articles from the Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery the first one discussing the Akinosi nerve block technique versus the inferior alveolar nerve block technique for beginners to see whether there's an ease in learning and decrease complication rates for beginners. (dentistbraincandy.com)
  • Vatanpour M, Roghanizad N, bineshmarvasti D, Hosseini R, Mohebbi P. Effect of 2% Lidocaine and 1:80000 Epinephrine on Heart Rate and Blood Oxygen Saturation During Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block and Gow-Gates Block:A Clinical Trial. (ac.ir)
  • Aim: The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of nitrous oxide and oxygen inhalation sedation for pain control during inferior alveolar nerve block administration in children. (journalcra.com)
  • The patients experienced severe dysphagia after inferior alveolar nerve block which was preceded by cervical botolinum toxin injection. (ircmj.com)
  • This is a video on the femoral nerve block which is a nerve located on the leg. (dnatube.com)
  • What is intercostal nerve block? (dnatube.com)
  • This video demonstrates an intercostal nerve block which is an injection of a steroid or other medication around the intercostal nerves that are located under each rib. (dnatube.com)
  • My Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Didn't Work - Now What? (speareducation.com)
  • The anterior superior alveolar nerve (or anterior superior dental nerve), is a branch of the infraorbital nerve, itself a branch of the maxillary nerve (V2). (wikipedia.org)
  • It branches from the infraorbital nerve within the infraorbital canal before the infraorbital nerve exits through the infraorbital foramen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vascular system of the maxillary sinus varies in architecture and vascular anastomosis of the vessels and involves the presence of the infraorbital artery, the anterior superior alveolar artery (ASAA), and the posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Contains angular artery & vein, infraorbital nerve. (slideshare.net)
  • The anterior superior alveolar nerves, branches of the infraorbital nerve (from CN V2), run in canals in the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus and innervate the upper incisors, canines, premolars, and often part of the first molar. (tabers.com)
  • The posterior superior alveolar nerve innervates the second and third maxillary molars, and two of the three roots of the maxillary first molar (all but the mesiobuccal root). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the dentist failed to visualize the IAN, he traumatized the nerve during the process of extracting the woman's molars. (millerandzois.com)
  • A randomised controlled clinical trial to compare the incidence of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve as a result of coronectomy and removal of mandibular third molars. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The first, mechanical trauma, is due mainly to overinstrumentation beyond the apex resulting in damage to the inferior alveolar nerve, which is normally associated with the second molars. (jcda.ca)
  • The anatomical relationship between the roots of mandibular second molars and the inferior alveolar nerve. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • AIM: To evaluate the anatomical relationship between the roots of mandibular second molars and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) in relation to the risk of potential nerve injury during root canal treatment. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: In over 50% of the cases evaluated, there was an intimate relationship between the roots of mandibular second molars and the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). (qmul.ac.uk)
  • For instance, removal of the 3rd molars in teens comes with a lower incidence rate of nerve damage as compared to patients undergoing similar procedures but aged 25 years or older. (healthylifemed.com)
  • Damage to the inferior alveolar nerve at sealing the roots of the lower molars different filling materials - a frequent complication of the danger of traumatic neuritis and paresthesias genesis. (fundamental-research.ru)
  • The posterior superior alveolar nerves (also from CN V2) innervate the rest of the upper molars. (tabers.com)
  • Panoramic radiographic findings as predictors of inferior alveolar nerve exposure following third molar extraction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Panoramic radiographic risk factors for inferior alveolar nerve injury after third molar extraction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inferior alveolar nerve damage after lower third molar surgical extraction: a prospective study of 1117 surgical extractions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • When screening radiographs demonstrate the increased risks for implant placement or third molar extraction, it is below the standard of care for the dentist or oral surgeon to fail to explain the advantages of the CT or CBCT as a diagnostic option to the patient before the patient is subjected to the increased risk of nerve injury. (intelligentdental.com)
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS The 43 patients of this study needed removal of their lower third molar, whose root apices were very close to the inferior alveolar canal. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inferior alveolar nerve injury related to mandibular third molar surgery: an unusual case presentation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Inferior alveolar nerve damage following removal of mandibular third molar teeth. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Incidence of nerve damage following third molar removal: a West of Scotland Oral Surgery Research Group study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the specific risk factors for neurosensory deficits of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) after third molar extraction. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • In the mandibular canal , the nerve also gives off small unnamed twigs that contribute to contributes to the inferior dental plexus supplying the mandibular molar and premolar teeth . (radiopaedia.org)
  • To anesthetize the soft tissue posterior to the 1st molar Long Buccal nerve should be anesthetized. (juniordentist.com)
  • Sometimes there is a middle superior alveolar nerve that innervates the premolars and first molar. (tabers.com)
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the incidence of sensory impairment of the lingual, inferior alveolar and mylohyoid nerves following lower third molar removal and to compare the outcome with the results of other studies with the intention of implementing any change in the treatment protocol , if indicated and to predict the need for routine postoperative follow up and it's cost implications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mental nerve is a general somatic afferent (sensory) nerve which provides sensation to the anterior aspects of the chin and lower lip as well as the buccal gingivae of the mandibular anterior teeth and the premolars. (intelligentdental.com)
  • The bottom row of teeth receives sensory branches from the nerve. (healthline.com)
  • These inferior alveolar branches comprise the network of nerve fibers known as the inferior dental plexus , which then supplies the teeth with sensory information. (healthline.com)
  • Paresthesia as a result of mechanical trauma is one of the most frequent sensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. (cogprints.org)
  • Sensory nerves, sometimes called afferent nerves, carry information from the outside world, such as sensations of heat, cold, and pain, to the brain and spinal cord. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mixed nerves are composed of both motor and sensory fibers, and transmit messages in both directions at once. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • afferent nerve any nerve that transmits impulses from the periphery toward the central nervous system, such as a sensory nerve. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • mixed nerve ( nerve of mixed fibers ) a nerve composed of both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • sensory nerve a peripheral nerve that conducts impulses from a sense organ to the spinal cord or brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • somatic n's the sensory and motor nerves supplying skeletal muscle and somatic tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Measurement of sensory conduction of A-beta, A-delta, C-fibers of mandibular nerve, using electronic neurometer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Healthy subjects with no systemic diseases, chronic medication, past nerve injury, or sensory complaint. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The row of teeth present in the bottom of the oral cavity gets sensory branches from the inferior alveolar nerve. (healthylifemed.com)
  • These branches consist of the inferior dental plexus which is a network of bundled nerve fibers that provides sensory data to the teeth. (healthylifemed.com)
  • The aim of this review was to review the reported incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injury after orthognathic surgery and to assess the methods used to evaluate IAN sensory disturbances in reports published between 1990 and 2013. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • And Supplying Sensory nerve fibres to the Chin and Lower lip of that Side. (juniordentist.com)
  • Paresthesia is a sensation of discomfort and "tingling" that indicates irritation of sensory peripheral nerves or posterior roots. (bvsalud.org)
  • The auricular branch of the vagus nerve is a sensory nerve emerging from the superior ganglion of the vagus nerve, joined by branches from the glossopharyngeal (CN IX) and facial nerves, and innervating the lower part of the tympanic membrane and the floor of the external auditory canal. (tabers.com)
  • Of the 1275 patients , 58 [4.57%] experienced transient sensory impairment affecting single or a combination of the above nerves. (bvsalud.org)
  • No permanent sensory impairment was recorded for inferior alveolar and mylohyoid nerves . (bvsalud.org)
  • These nerves have sensory and motor functions in the face, oral cavity, and nasal cavity. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The main sensory nerve of the head and face, and the motor nerve of the muscles used in chewing. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. (fpnotebook.com)
  • the larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular and maxillary nerves, and the smaller motor part inervates the muscles of mastication. (fpnotebook.com)
  • The posterior division gives off three main sensory branches, the auriculotemporal , lingual and inferior alveolar nerves and motor fibres to supply mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle . (wikipedia.org)
  • After piercing the mandibular tissue on the medial border of the mandibular ramus within the pterygomandibular space and then contacting medial surface of the alveolar bone as well as being lateral to the pterygomandibular fold and the sphenomandibular ligament, the injection is given. (wikipedia.org)
  • It communicates with the middle superior alveolar nerve, and gives off a nasal branch, which passes through a minute canal in the lateral wall of the inferior meatus, and supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior part of the inferior meatus and the floor of the nasal cavity, communicating with the nasal branches from the sphenopalatine ganglion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of the innervation of the contra-lateral mandibular nerve for the innervation of the lower lip area. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Position yourself on the ipsilateral side: the nerves run lateral to the alveolar ridge. (wikem.org)
  • The right inferior alveolar nerve was targeted using a lateral approach with the needle directed medially in a rostro-ventral direction into the masseteric foramen using bupivacaine hydrochloride 0.6 mg/kg. (bmj.com)
  • The IAN was then extracted by gentle carving of the cortex and cancellous bone around the mental foramen and lateral wall of the inferior alveolar canal using a bone-cutting burr. (springeropen.com)
  • The mandibular nerve immediately passes between tensor veli palatini , which is medial, and lateral pterygoid , which is lateral, and gives off a meningeal branch (nervus spinosus) and the nerve to medial pterygoid from its medial side. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most common complications of bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) is neurosensory impairment of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to accumulate data regarding the quality of postoperative neurosensory function after inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) transposition for dental implant placement. (springeropen.com)
  • Here we discuss the case of a patient with a florid osseous dysplasia associated with neurosensory disturbance of the inferior alveolar nerve in the labiomental region. (jomos.org)
  • This paper describes a case of patient I.F.S.S., 51, with paresthesia of the left lower alveolar nerve, which occurred after a surgery for bone graft taken in order to perform dental implants, there was about two years and was treated with acupuncture. (bvsalud.org)
  • 23. Alveolar bone 24. (wikipedia.org)
  • I didn't ask us the use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein for use in grafting of the Alveolar cleft. (dentistbraincandy.com)
  • In such cases, restorative options include the use of short fixtures, onlay bone grafting to increase the ridge height, and more complicated and detailed imaging studies to allow positioning of implants alongside and not in the nerve canal during the procedure [ 4 ]. (springeropen.com)
  • If the alveolus is severely resorbed, implant placement becomes challenging due to inadequate bone and the position of the inferior alveolar nerve. (elsevier.com)
  • It originates from the alveolar ligament and is characterized by the replacement of the normal bone by fibrous tissue and metaplastic bone tissue [ 1 , 2 ]. (jomos.org)
  • It also provides motor function via the mylohyoid nerve to the digastric's anterior belly and the mylohyoid muscle. (healthylifemed.com)
  • The anterior superior alveolar usually innervates all anterior teeth, loops backwards to join the middle superior alveolar nerve to form the superior dental plexus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The posterior auricular nerve is a motor branch of the facial nerve (CN VII) that innervates the posterior and intrinsic auricular muscles. (tabers.com)
  • It meets the posterior superior alveolar nerve (PSAN) and accompanies it through the alveolar foramen in the alveolar maxillary tuberosity and the infratemporal fossa [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. Jorgensens Inferior Alveolar and Maxillary Nerve Blocks. (wellcomecollection.org)
  • This case report explains an event where due to individual anatomic variation of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve and maxillary and middle meningeal arteries, intravascular administration of anaesthetic agent caused unusual ocular signs and symptoms such as temporary blindness. (jcdr.net)
  • The type of maxillary artery that runs medially to the mandibular nerve is rare in many populations. (springer.com)
  • 2009 ) and, especially in Tanaka's investigation, the maxillary artery passed through the auriculotemporal nerve. (springer.com)
  • This research aimed to examine the courses and branching patterns of the trunk and branches of the maxillary artery in a large sample of Japanese adult cadavers to determine if a new classification for the course of the maxillary artery should be established and whether the branching patterns of the maxillary artery, especially the middle meningeal, the inferior alveolar and the posterior deep temporal arteries, need to be reconsidered. (springer.com)
  • Possible mechanisms include intrafascicular injection and the production of aromatic alcohols in the vicinity of the nerve. (jcda.ca)
  • The injury of the blood vessel related to this nerve results in effusion of the blood into the infratemporal fossa which accommodate a large volume of the blood from where it progress inferiorly and anteriorly towards the lower region of the cheek resulting in the swelling and discoloration of the involved region which occurs within few minutes after completion of the injection. (peertechz.com)
  • the inferior alveolar nerves innervate the lower teeth and gingivae. (tabers.com)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve and artery, after traveling through the mandibular foramen, exit at the mental foramen as the mental nerves and vessels which innervate the lower teeth, lip, gingiva and lower face. (ispub.com)
  • Part I: Mandibular Canal and Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle in relation with Dental Implantology. (cogprints.org)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve is a collection of nerve fibers which branch from the mandibular nerve present in the head. (healthylifemed.com)
  • The nerve to tensor veli palatini is a small nerve which is unique in that it is the only branch of the mandibular nerve providing motor innervation to the palate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The various nerve fibers and cells that make up the autonomic nervous system innervate the glands, heart, blood vessels, and involuntary muscles of the internal organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vessels and nerves: :25. (wikipedia.org)
  • In anatomy the apical foramen is the opening at the apex of the root of a tooth , through which the nerve and blood vessels that supply the dental pulp pass. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves , which carry messages to and from the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The aim of this study was to identify the shape and route of the bony canal of the posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) and posterior superior alveolar nerve (PSAN) using different identification methods, including computed tomography (CT), panoramic radiograph, and macroscopic evaluation (corpse and dry skull). (hindawi.com)
  • A surgical approach that ensured the integrity of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) was applied. (balkandentaljournal.com)
  • The nerves (alveolar and lingual) supplying sensation to the tongue, lower lip and chin, may be injured as a result of surgical treatments to the mouth and face, including surgery to remove lower wisdom teeth. (publichealthwell.ie)
  • This procedure attempts to anaesthetise the inferior alveolar nerve prior to it entering the mandibular foramen on the medial surface of the mandibular ramus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entry of the nerve is facilitated by an opening present in the lower jawbone known as the mandibular foramen. (healthylifemed.com)
  • It enters the mandibular foramen anterior to the inferior alveolar artery and vein. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Florid osseous dysplasia lesions, when close to the inferior alveolar nerve, can cause a nerve illness, by compression, on its intracanal trajectory or by its foramen. (jomos.org)
  • The mental foramen is a strategically important landmark during osteotomy procedures, anesthetic nerve blocks and prevention of neurovascular complications after invasive procedures on the lower jaw. (ispub.com)
  • A preferable technique for protecting the inferior alveolar nerve: coronectomy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Dolanmaz2009APT, title={A preferable technique for protecting the inferior alveolar nerve: coronectomy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Coronectomy: a technique to protect the inferior alveolar nerve. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To differentiate the inferior alveolar nerve path, a new technique was applied using Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds. (medfloss.org)
  • In such cases one of the treatment options is inferior alveolar nerve repositioning technique. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Possible complications with this technique are nerve disfunction, infection and pathologic fractures. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • The nerve then moves anteriorly and extends as the mandibular incisive nerve, thereby innervating the mandibular incisors and canines. (healthylifemed.com)
  • It further extends anteriorly as the mandibular incisive nerve to supply the Mandibular incisors and Canine. (juniordentist.com)
  • Because of the proximity of the foreign object to the inferior alveolar nerve, computed tomography (CT) was performed, to determine the location and dimensions of the object and its relation to the anatomic structure. (jcda.ca)
  • Buccolingual cross-sectional computed tomography scans showing a broken endodontic instrument in direct contact with the inferior alveolar canal. (jcda.ca)
  • The main question addressed by this review is how effective are different treatments and what are the best timings for these treatments following accidental damage during surgery to the nerves that supply sensation to the tongue, lower lip and chin. (publichealthwell.ie)
  • Damage to these nerves can lead to altered sensation in the region of the lower lip and chin, or tongue or both. (publichealthwell.ie)
  • Middle superior alveolar nerve Anterior superior alveolar nerve Left maxilla. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anterior superior alveolar arteries Middle superior alveolar nerve Posterior superior alveolar nerve Jones, Frederic Wood (July 1939). (wikipedia.org)
  • PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of coronectomy for teeth whose root apices are very close to the inferior alveolar canal. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The incidence of inferior alveolar nerve damage is also dependent on a variety of factors. (healthylifemed.com)
  • The observed wide variation in the reported incidence of inferior alveolar nerve injury is due to a lack of standardized assessment procedures and reporting. (nationalelfservice.net)
  • The inferior alveolar nerve is a bundle of nerve fibers that stems from the mandibular nerve in the head . (healthline.com)
  • a macroscopic cordlike structure of the body, comprising a collection of nerve fibers that convey impulses between a part of the central nervous system and some other body region. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some authors document the mental nerve carrying parasympathetic fibers from the otic ganglion to the labial glands of the lower lip. (radiopaedia.org)
  • If needle is positioned too posteriorly, anesthetic may be put into parotid gland , that may cause transient facial paralysis of the facial nerve or cranial Nerve VII (7). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the exact mechanism of nerve damage is still up for debate, there are 3 main theories in the literature: needle trauma, intraneural hematoma and anesthetic toxicity. (jcda.ca)
  • However, it is possible for the needle to piercea fascicle and traumatize the nerve, especially when the nerve is held taut, as is the case when the patient's mouth iswide open for anesthetic administration. (jcda.ca)
  • Giving local anesthetic to patient requires the knowledge of anatomy of the skull, Head and neck nerves and tissues. (dentalhygiene411.com)
  • Experimentally, hydrocarbonated anesthetic solutions are supposedly more effective due to the trapping of the anesthetic within the nerve. (dentisty.org)
  • Objectives: direct the surgeons to solve the problem of insufficient posterior alveolar ridge height for successful dental implants.Materials and Methods: Case series: Four patients underwent inferior alveolar nerve translocation operation with dental implant, One male and 3 females. (mosuljournals.com)
  • A second approach for increasing the success of inferior alveolar nerve blocks is to increase the concentration of epinephrine. (dentisty.org)