Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Neoplasms composed of nerve tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the nervous system or its component nerves.
A plant genus of the family PORTULACACEAE.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (1/25163)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (2/25163)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase can be involved in transforming growth factor beta superfamily signal transduction in Drosophila wing morphogenesis. (3/25163)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) has been extensively studied as a stress-responsive kinase, but its role in development remains unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has two p38 genes, D-p38a and D-p38b. To elucidate the developmental function of the Drosophila p38's, we used various genetic and pharmacological manipulations to interfere with their functions: expression of a dominant-negative form of D-p38b, expression of antisense D-p38b RNA, reduction of the D-p38 gene dosage, and treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Expression of a dominant-negative D-p38b in the wing imaginal disc caused a decapentaplegic (dpp)-like phenotype and enhanced the phenotype of a dpp mutant. Dpp is a secretory ligand belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily which triggers various morphogenetic processes through interaction with the receptor Thick veins (Tkv). Inhibition of D-p38b function also caused the suppression of the wing phenotype induced by constitutively active Tkv (TkvCA). Mosaic analysis revealed that D-p38b regulates the Tkv-dependent transcription of the optomotor-blind (omb) gene in non-Dpp-producing cells, indicating that the site of D-p38b action is downstream of Tkv. Furthermore, forced expression of TkvCA induced an increase in the phosphorylated active form(s) of D-p38(s). These results demonstrate that p38, in addition to its role as a transducer of emergency stress signaling, may function to modulate Dpp signaling.  (+info)

Conserved domains and lack of evidence for polyglutamine length polymorphism in the chicken homolog of the Machado-Joseph disease gene product ataxin-3. (4/25163)

Ataxin-3 is a protein of unknown function which is mutated in Machado-Joseph disease by expansion of a genetically unstable CAG repeat encoding polyglutamine. By analysis of chicken ataxin-3 we were able to identify four conserved domains of the protein and detected widespread expression in chicken tissues. In the first such analysis in a non-primate species we found that in contrast to primates, the chicken CAG repeat is short and genetically stable.  (+info)

A processive single-headed motor: kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A. (5/25163)

A single kinesin molecule can move "processively" along a microtubule for more than 1 micrometer before detaching from it. The prevailing explanation for this processive movement is the "walking model," which envisions that each of two motor domains (heads) of the kinesin molecule binds coordinately to the microtubule. This implies that each kinesin molecule must have two heads to "walk" and that a single-headed kinesin could not move processively. Here, a motor-domain construct of KIF1A, a single-headed kinesin superfamily protein, was shown to move processively along the microtubule for more than 1 micrometer. The movement along the microtubules was stochastic and fitted a biased Brownian-movement model.  (+info)

A concise promoter region of the heart fatty acid-binding protein gene dictates tissue-appropriate expression. (6/25163)

The heart fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) is a member of a family of binding proteins with distinct tissue distributions and diverse roles in fatty acid metabolism, trafficking, and signaling. Other members of this family have been shown to possess concise promoter regions that direct appropriate tissue-specific expression. The basis for the specific expression of the HFABP has not been previously evaluated, and the mechanisms governing expression of metabolic genes in the heart are not completely understood. We used transient and permanent transfections in ventricular myocytes, skeletal myocytes, and nonmyocytic cells to map regulatory elements in the HFABP promoter, and audited results in transgenic mice. Appropriate tissue-specific expression in cell culture and in transgenic mice was dictated by 1.2 kb of the 5'-flanking sequence of FABP3, the HFABP gene. Comparison of orthologous murine and human genomic sequences demonstrated multiple regions of near-identity within this promoter region, including a CArG-like element close to the TATA box. Binding and transactivation studies demonstrated that this element can function as an atypical myocyte enhancer-binding factor 2 site. Interactions with adjacent sites are likely to be necessary for fully appropriate, tissue-specific, developmental and metabolic regulation.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (7/25163)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Functional consequences of mutations in the human alpha1A calcium channel subunit linked to familial hemiplegic migraine. (8/25163)

Mutations in alpha1A, the pore-forming subunit of P/Q-type calcium channels, are linked to several human diseases, including familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). We introduced the four missense mutations linked to FHM into human alpha1A-2 subunits and investigated their functional consequences after expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. By combining single-channel and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we show that all four mutations affect both the biophysical properties and the density of functional channels. Mutation R192Q in the S4 segment of domain I increased the density of functional P/Q-type channels and their open probability. Mutation T666M in the pore loop of domain II decreased both the density of functional channels and their unitary conductance (from 20 to 11 pS). Mutations V714A and I1815L in the S6 segments of domains II and IV shifted the voltage range of activation toward more negative voltages, increased both the open probability and the rate of recovery from inactivation, and decreased the density of functional channels. Mutation V714A decreased the single-channel conductance to 16 pS. Strikingly, the reduction in single-channel conductance induced by mutations T666M and V714A was not observed in some patches or periods of activity, suggesting that the abnormal channel may switch on and off, perhaps depending on some unknown factor. Our data show that the FHM mutations can lead to both gain- and loss-of-function of human P/Q-type calcium channels.  (+info)

Neoplasms, nerve tissue can be caused by a variety of factors, such as genetic mutations, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, or viral infections. Some common types of neoplasms, nerve tissue include:

1. Neurofibromas: These are benign tumors that grow on the nerve sheath and can cause symptoms such as numbness, weakness, or pain.
2. Schwannomas: These are benign tumors that grow on the covering of the nerves and can cause similar symptoms as neurofibromas.
3. Meningiomas: These are benign tumors that grow on the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
4. Neurilemmomas: These are rare, benign tumors that grow on the covering of the nerves.
5. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs): These are rare, malignant tumors that can grow on the nerve sheath and can cause symptoms such as pain, weakness, or numbness.
6. Gangliocytomas: These are rare, benign tumors that grow on the nerve cells.
7. Plexiform neurofibromas: These are rare, benign tumors that grow on the nerve cells and can cause symptoms such as pain, weakness, or numbness.

Neoplasms, nerve tissue can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, and tissue biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

The symptoms of Sarcoma, Yoshida can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but may include pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected limb. The diagnosis of this condition is based on a combination of imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment for Sarcoma, Yoshida usually involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The prognosis for this condition is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of around 30%. However, early detection and aggressive treatment can improve outcomes.

Types of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Traumatic Nerve Injury: This type of injury occurs due to direct trauma to the nerve, such as a blow or a crush injury.
2. Compression Neuropathy: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is compressed or pinched, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.
3. Stretch Injury: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is stretched or overstretched, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.
4. Entrapment Neuropathy: This type of injury occurs when a nerve is compressed or trapped between two structures, leading to damage or disruption of the nerve signal.

Symptoms of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Weakness or paralysis of specific muscle groups
2. Numbness or tingling in the affected area
3. Pain or burning sensation in the affected area
4. Difficulty with balance and coordination
5. Abnormal reflexes
6. Incontinence or other bladder or bowel problems

Causes of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Trauma, such as a car accident or fall
2. Sports injuries
3. Repetitive strain injuries, such as those caused by repetitive motions in the workplace or during sports activities
4. Compression or entrapment of nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome or tarsal tunnel syndrome
5. Infections, such as Lyme disease or diphtheria
6. Tumors or cysts that compress or damage nerves
7. Vitamin deficiencies, such as vitamin B12 deficiency
8. Autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus
9. Toxins, such as heavy metals or certain chemicals

Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injuries:

1. Physical therapy to improve strength and range of motion
2. Medications to manage pain and inflammation
3. Surgery to release compressed nerves or repair damaged nerves
4. Electrical stimulation therapy to promote nerve regeneration
5. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy to stimulate healing
6. Stem cell therapy to promote nerve regeneration
7. Injection of botulinum toxin to relieve pain and reduce muscle spasticity
8. Orthotics or assistive devices to improve mobility and function

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a peripheral nerve injury, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several types of nerve compression syndromes, including:

1. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, commonly caused by repetitive motion or injury.
2. Tarsal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the posterior tibial nerve in the ankle, similar to carpal tunnel syndrome but affecting the lower leg.
3. Cubital tunnel syndrome: Compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, often caused by repetitive leaning or bending.
4. Thoracic outlet syndrome: Compression of the nerves and blood vessels that pass through the thoracic outlet (the space between the neck and shoulder), often caused by poor posture or injury.
5. Peripheral neuropathy: A broader term for damage to the peripheral nerves, often caused by diabetes, vitamin deficiencies, or other systemic conditions.
6. Meralgia paresthetica: Compression of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve in the thigh, commonly caused by direct trauma or compression from a tight waistband or clothing.
7. Morton's neuroma: Compression of the plantar digital nerves between the toes, often caused by poorly fitting shoes or repetitive stress on the feet.
8. Neuralgia: A general term for pain or numbness caused by damage or irritation to a nerve, often associated with chronic conditions such as shingles or postherpetic neuralgia.
9. Trigeminal neuralgia: A condition characterized by recurring episodes of sudden, extreme pain in the face, often caused by compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve.
10. Neuropathic pain: Pain that occurs as a result of damage or dysfunction of the nervous system, often accompanied by other symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness.

Types of Optic Nerve Injuries:

1. Traumatic optic neuropathy: This type of injury is caused by direct damage to the optic nerve as a result of trauma, such as a car accident or sports injury.
2. Ischemic optic neuropathy: This type of injury is caused by a lack of blood flow to the optic nerve, which can lead to cell death and vision loss.
3. Inflammatory optic neuropathy: This type of injury is caused by inflammation of the optic nerve, which can be caused by conditions such as multiple sclerosis or sarcoidosis.
4. Tumor-induced optic neuropathy: This type of injury is caused by a tumor that compresses or damages the optic nerve.
5. Congenital optic nerve disorders: These are present at birth and can cause vision loss or blindness. Examples include optic nerve hypoplasia and coloboma.

Symptoms of Optic Nerve Injuries:

* Blurred vision or double vision
* Loss of peripheral vision
* Difficulty seeing in dim lighting
* Pain or discomfort in the eye or head
* Redness or swelling of the eye

Diagnosis and Treatment of Optic Nerve Injuries:

Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, and visual field testing. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the injury, but may include medication, surgery, or vision rehabilitation. In some cases, vision loss may be permanent, but early diagnosis and treatment can help to minimize the extent of the damage.

Prognosis for Optic Nerve Injuries:

The prognosis for optic nerve injuries varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the injury. In some cases, vision may be partially or fully restored with treatment. However, in other cases, vision loss may be permanent. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if any symptoms of an optic nerve injury are present, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

There are several types of facial nerve injuries, including:

1. Bell's palsy: This is a condition that affects the facial nerve and causes weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face. It is often temporary and resolves on its own within a few weeks.
2. Facial paralysis: This is a condition in which the facial nerve is damaged, leading to weakness or paralysis of the muscles of facial expression. It can be caused by trauma, tumors, or viral infections.
3. Ramsay Hunt syndrome: This is a rare condition that occurs when the facial nerve is affected by a virus, leading to symptoms such as facial paralysis and pain in the ear.
4. Traumatic facial nerve injury: This can occur as a result of trauma to the head or face, such as a car accident or a fall.
5. Tumor-related facial nerve injury: In some cases, tumors can grow on the facial nerve and cause damage.
6. Ischemic facial nerve injury: This occurs when there is a reduction in blood flow to the facial nerve, leading to damage to the nerve fibers.
7. Neurofibromatosis type 2: This is a rare genetic disorder that can cause tumors to grow on the facial nerve, leading to damage and weakness of the facial muscles.

Treatment for facial nerve injuries depends on the underlying cause and severity of the injury. In some cases, physical therapy may be recommended to help regain strength and control of the facial muscles. Surgery may also be necessary in some cases to repair damaged nerve fibers or remove tumors.

The symptoms of cranial nerve neoplasms depend on the location and size of the tumor, but may include:

* Headaches
* Pain in the face or head
* Numbness or weakness in the arms or legs
* Difficulty with vision, hearing, or balance
* Double vision
* Nausea and vomiting

Cranial nerve neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:

* Imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans
* Biopsy, where a sample of tissue is removed for examination under a microscope
* Neurological examination to assess vision, hearing, balance, and other functions.

Treatment options for cranial nerve neoplasms depend on the location, size, and type of tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor
* Radiation therapy to kill any remaining cancer cells
* Chemotherapy to kill cancer cells
* Targeted therapy to attack specific molecules on the surface of cancer cells
* Observation, with regular monitoring and check-ups to see if the tumor is growing or changing.

It's important to note that cranial nerve neoplasms are relatively rare, and the prognosis and treatment options can vary depending on the specific type of tumor and the patient's overall health. A healthcare professional should be consulted for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.

Some examples of Facial Nerve Diseases include:

* Bell's Palsy: A condition that causes weakness or paralysis of the facial muscles on one side of the face, often resulting in drooping or twitching of the eyelid and facial muscles.
* Facial Spasm: A condition characterized by involuntary contractions of the facial muscles, which can cause twitching or spasms.
* Progressive Bulbar Palsy (PBP): A rare disorder that affects the brain and spinal cord, leading to weakness and wasting of the muscles in the face, tongue, and throat.
* Parry-Romberg Syndrome: A rare condition characterized by progressive atrophy of the facial muscles on one side of the face, leading to a characteristic "smile" or "grimace."
* Moebius Syndrome: A rare neurological disorder that affects the nerves responsible for controlling eye movements and facial expressions.
* Trauma to the Facial Nerve: Damage to the facial nerve can result in weakness or paralysis of the facial muscles, depending on the severity of the injury.

These are just a few examples of Facial Nerve Diseases, and there are many other conditions that can affect the facial nerve and cause similar symptoms. A comprehensive diagnosis and evaluation by a healthcare professional is necessary to determine the specific underlying condition and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Nerve tissue is a biological molecule related to the function and maintenance of normal nervous tissue. An example would ... Calcium-Sensor Proteins Neuropeptides Olfactory Marker Protein S100 Proteins Synapsins Synaptophysin Synucleins Tubulin Nerve+ ... Brain Nerve Growth Factors Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2 Neurofilament Proteins Neurogranin Neuronal Apoptosis- ... Peripheral nerves rely on communication between axons and Schwaan cells. Prion protein triggers are an important factor in the ...
This list covers nerve tissue proteins. For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes (D12.776). Codes before these ... MeSH D12.776.641.580.510.500 - myelin p2 protein MeSH D12.776.641.600.381.500 - glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ...
... is a type of nerve tissue protein. Chimerins are a family of non-PKC phorbol-ester receptors. They were the first to ... Over expression of this protein in hippocampus tissue can inhibit the formation of new spines and remove existing spines. ... an SH2-containing GTPase-activating protein for the ras-related protein p21rac derived by alternate splicing of the human n- ... α1-Chimerin is a GTPase-activating protein in the brain that effects the ras related p21rac. α1-Chimerin is also able to ...
Abnormal proteins called prions aggregate in brain tissue leading to nerve cell death. Prions are misfolded PRNP proteins. They ... Amyloid beta is a fragment from a larger protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein that ... myelin basic protein, and proteolipid protein, causing an autoimmune response. This sets off a cascade of signaling molecules ... protein ubiquitin along with enzymes is key for the degradation of many proteins that cause proteopathies including polyQ ...
Peripheral nervous system damage is typically treated by an autograft of nerve tissue to bridge a severed gap. This treatment ... or autologous tissue may produce the protein coating. Immediately following insertion, an implant (and the tissue damage from ... As proteins are made up of different sequences of amino acids, proteins can have various functions as its structural shape ... Protein adhesion can be encouraged by favorably altering the surface charge of a biomaterial. Improved protein adhesion leads ...
Encephalopsins and neuropsins are highly expressed in nerve cells and brain tissue, but so far their function is unknown. ... a protein moiety and a reversibly covalently bound non-protein cofactor, retinal (retinaldehyde). The protein structure of ... Retinylidene proteins, are proteins that use retinal as a chromophore for light reception. They are the molecular basis for a ... Retinylidene proteins include all forms of opsin and rhodopsin (in the broad sense). While rhodopsin in the narrow sense refers ...
It can also be used for light microscopy to stain nerve tissue. It is normally available as 8% silver in combination with ... The inventor of the first silver protein formulation was Arthur Eichengrün, a German chemist working for Bayer. It was ...
... shows that weakness is caused by destruction of muscle tissue rather than by damage to nerves.) Genetic testing (looks for ... if a primary protein is not functioning properly then maybe another protein could take its place by augmenting it. Upregulation ... checks the level of Creatine Kinase proteins in the blood. Creatine Kinase proteins are normally found inside of healthy muscle ... but the enlarged muscle tissue is eventually replaced by fat and connective tissue (pseudohypertrophy) as the legs become less ...
... ilin expression in human tissues is mainly restricted to striated muscles and nerves. In muscles, myotilin is predominantly ... Myotilin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOT gene. Myotilin (myofibrillar titin-like protein) also known as TTID ... TiTin Immunoglobulin Domain) is a muscle protein that is found within the Z-disc of sarcomeres. Myotilin is a 55.3 kDa protein ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. Bibcode:2005Natur. ...
MHV-JHM (especially the more virulent JHM.SD and JHM-cl2), which infects nerve tissue, may not require surface exposure[ ... In addition to the four structural proteins of coronaviruses - spike protein (S), membrane protein (M), envelope protein (E) ... All four auxiliary proteins are dispensible for viral replication. The E protein is divided into the E1 and E2 glycoproteins, ... The types of auxiliary proteins in different virus strains may differ. For example, MHV-S lacks auxiliary protein 5a, so it is ...
Degeneration of nerve tissue in the spinal cord causes the ataxia; particularly affected are the sensory neurons essential for ... acyl carrier protein and ATPase-mediated transfer to recipient proteins". Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 55: 34-44. doi: ... Degeneration of nerve tissue in the spinal cord causes ataxia. The sensory neurons essential for directing muscle movement of ... The disease primarily affects the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The spinal cord becomes thinner and nerve cells lose some ...
It has moderate expression in testis, larynx, nerve, blood, and adipose tissue sites. According to the Human Protein Atlas, ... "Tissue Atlas". The Human Protein Atlas. "Ensembl". Ensembl. "Ensembl". Ensembl. "Uniprot". Uniprot. "Expasy". Expasy. "PSORT II ... The protein is largely coiled. The DUF is composed mainly of alpha helices and coils. It has slightly fewer beta sheets ... PROSER1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PROSER1 gene. PROSER1 has several aliases: C13orf23, KIAA2032, and ...
As a result, muscle atrophy and soft tissue injuries due to delayed nerve transmission can occur. In males, due to the ... Gap junction beta-1 protein (GJB1), also known as connexin 32 (Cx32) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by ... Gap junction beta-1 protein is a member of the gap junction connexin family of proteins that regulates and controls the ... GJB1 is a gap junction, beta 1 protein also identified as connexin 32, with 238 amino acids. This protein contains four ...
Proteins are important to supply the essential amino acids for the development of body tissues like muscles, nerves, cartilage ... Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in energy and protein, have been used in place of corn and soybean ... Swine rations are generally based on a ground cereal grain as a carbohydrate source, soybean meal as a protein source, minerals ... Meals from soybean, canola, and corn gluten are the major source of plant protein in poultry diets. Supplementation of minerals ...
Endogenous cellular responses are activated within nerve tissue in response to damage in order to protect cellular, protein, ... Either of these scenarios can result in calcium overload, protein degradation, the unfolded protein response or an accumulation ... In various tissues, such as the skin, the release of bioactive tachykinins by sensory nerve fibers C, that extend from the ... tissue healing and cell proliferation have been linked to both SP and neurokinin A release into surrounding tissues. The ...
... that harm tissues including nerves and the heart. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration considers tafamidis to be a first-in- ... Tafamidis is a pharmacological chaperone that stabilizes the correctly folded tetrameric form of the transthyretin protein by ... Tafamidis is used to delay nerve damage in adults who have transthyretin amyloidosis with polyneuropathy, or heart disease in ... Tafamidis was approved by the European Medicines Agency in November 2011, to delay peripheral nerve impairment in adults with ...
Connective tissue in the peripheral nervous system Epineurium Nerve Nerve fascicle Nerve fiber Nervous system Perineurium " ... The endoneurium contains a liquid known as endoneurial fluid, which contains little protein. In the peripheral nervous system ... In sufficiently large nerves multiple fascicles, each with its blood supply and fatty tissue, may be bundled within yet another ... Peripheral nerve injuries commonly release increased amounts of endoneurial fluid into surrounding tissues; these can be ...
... found in nerve tissue. The word galactose was coined by Charles Weissman in the mid-19th century and is derived from Greek ... D-Galactose is also known as brain sugar since it is a component of glycoproteins (oligosaccharide-protein compounds) ... It is also synthesized by the body, where it forms part of glycolipids and glycoproteins in several tissues; and is a by- ... molecules with at least one sugar attached to a protein or lipid. Many speculate that it is for this reason that a pathway for ...
... and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head cells and tissues". Molecular Vision. 8: 241-50. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. This protein may act as an ... "Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5 in synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid ...
... its abundant expression in brain suggests that it may have an essential role in nerve tissue. Several alternatively spliced ... Olfactomedin 1, also known as noelin 1 or pancortin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OLFM1 gene. The name noelin ... "Identification and cloning of neuroblastoma-specific and nerve tissue-specific genes through compiled expression profiles". DNA ... "Entrez Gene: OLFM1 olfactomedin 1". Anholt, Robert R. H. (2014). "Olfactomedin proteins: central players in development and ...
... such as three-dimensional microstructural scaffolding and protein components inherent to nerve tissue. One of the adverse ... Another option to bridge the gap is nerve allotransplantation. Nerve allografts are prepared from donated human nerve tissue. ... In case of insufficient amount of autologous nerve tissue or the inability to attach both nerve ends securely and tension free ... Golden standard therapy for transected nerves is an end-to-end repair of the nerve, also known as primary nerve repair. With a ...
Inside the tunic is the body wall or mantle composed of connective tissue, muscle fibres, blood vessels, and nerves. Two ... The cellulose body wall can be broken down and converted into ethanol, and other parts of the animal are protein-rich and can ... Nerves arise from the two ends of the ganglion; those from the anterior end innervate the buccal siphon and those from the ... Their name derives from their unique outer covering or "tunic", which is formed from proteins and carbohydrates, and acts as an ...
Since disease progression is the result of degeneration of neurons, the roles of proteins showing loss of nerve tissue such as ... These features interact in a complex and not yet fully understood manner to produce the breakdown of nerve tissue and in turn ... These lesions most commonly affect the white matter in the optic nerve, brain stem, basal ganglia, and spinal cord, or white ... Chen Y, Popko B (2018). "Cholesterol crystals impede nerve repair". Science. 359 (6376): 635-636. Bibcode:2018Sci...359..635C. ...
These muscular diseases usually arise from a pathology within the muscle tissue itself rather than the nerves innervating that ... Abnormal levels of these proteins are indicative of both inflammatory myopathy and ANIM. EMGs are particularly useful in ... A myopathy refers to a problem or abnormality with the myofibrils, which compose muscle tissue. In general, non-inflammatory ... Statins induce myopathy by inhibiting protein synthesis within the muscle. Statin therapy tends to not show any ...
... the protein that causes cell growth due to stimulated nerve tissue. On 1 August 2001, she was appointed as Senator for Life by ... the nerves took over areas that would become other tissues and even entered veins in the embryo. But nerves did not grow into ... from observations of certain cancerous tissues that cause extremely rapid growth of nerve cells. By transferring pieces of ... The discovery of nerves growing everywhere like a halo around the tumor cells was surprising. When describing it, Montalcini ...
Several experiments have shown neurogenesis (the development of nerve tissues) often increases in the dentate gyrus of adult ... Mutations in a synapse-associated protein SAP97, a scaffold protein in the dentate gyrus might play a role in the ... as well as some surrounding tissue. This targeted brain tissue removal left Mr. Molaison with an inability to form new memories ... "Opposing actions of the synapse-associated protein of 97-kDa molecular weight (SAP97) and Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) ...
... can facilitate speed of transmission of electrical impulses along nerve tissue. For many neuron fibers, a myelin sheath, rich ... sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and 2). In the presence of cholesterol, SREBP is bound to two other proteins: SCAP ... Chylomicrons carry fats from the intestine to muscle and other tissues in need of fatty acids for energy or fat production. ... HDL particles are thought to transport cholesterol back to the liver, either for excretion or for other tissues that synthesize ...
It was discovered that MSC is able to induce blood vessel and nerve growth during damaged tissues recovery. It was also ... After that it was classified as T-Cadherin - a protein from the group of cadherins responsible for hemophilic intracellular ... tissue and organ regeneration and reparation, as well as the role of mesenchyme stem cells (MSC) of various tissues in this ... These results formed the basis of the development of a drug for therapeutic angiogenesis via uPA gene delivery to the tissues ...
... nerve tissue mini-hemoglobin (lack the first helix but otherwise is more similar to conventional globins than the truncated ... Protein structure, Protein folds, Protein classification, Protein superfamilies, Science and technology in Cambridgeshire). ... For simple proteins, it can be the entire protein. The broadest groups on SCOP version 1.75 are the protein fold classes. These ... The source of protein structures is the Protein Data Bank. The unit of classification of structure in SCOP is the protein ...
Juvenile retinoschisis is a disease that affects the nerve tissue in the eye. This disease is an X-linked recessive ... When mutations occur in the rhodopsin the directional protein movement is affected because the mutations can affect protein ... The protein RPE65 is used in the retinoid cycle where the all-trans-retinol within the rod outer segment is isomerized to its ... In normal tissues VEGF stimulates endothelial cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner, but such activity is lost with ...
The syndrome is caused by mutations in both copies of the CENPF gene, which codes for centromere protein F. This protein is ... and less commonly there may be twisted retinal blood vessels or optic nerve hypoplasia. The eye anomalies can result in an ... as well as reduced heart muscle tissue (myocardium) and abnormally small heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). One affected ... CENPF codes for centromere protein F. Centromere proteins are involved in the separation of chromosomes during cell division. ...
ASCL1 protein encoded by the ASCL1 gene, Dok-7 protein encoded by the DOK7 gene, enolase 2 encoded by the ENOL2 gene, ... supporting tissues) may be seen. SPC tumor tissues typically (>50% of cases) have areas of neuroendocrine differentiation. The ... sites of accumulated neoplastic cells with features combining those of nerve and hormone-producing cells including in ... and/or distant tissues. The microscopic histopathology (refer to adjacent high-power photomicrograph) of EPC tissues typically ...
Tau proteins have been found in some glial cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Clinical diagnostic criteria were defined in 1998 and ... They are most frequently due to primary neurodegenerative disease, resulting in the loss of dopaminergic nerve terminals along ... pathology in the pontine nuclei and medullary inferior olivary nucleus upon histological analysis of neurological tissue from ... A modified form of the alpha-synuclein protein within affected neurons may cause MSA. About 55% of MSA cases occur in men, with ...
These cells have proteins that make up the characteristics of the tumor. These proteins arise from blood vessels, nerve cells ... The cells of the tumor will often grow into nearby normal brain tissue. Grade III tumors tend to recur as higher-grade tumors. ... They have a slightly abnormal microscopic appearance and can spread into nearby normal tissue. Grade II tumors can also recur ... The cytoplasmic and often nuclear expression of S100 protein is present in nearly all tumor cells, and vimentin typically ...
Ions are also critical for nerve and muscle function, as action potentials in these tissues are produced by the exchange of ... Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined by peptide bonds. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze ... In prokaryotes, these proteins are found in the cell's inner membrane. These proteins use the energy from reduced molecules ... Amino acids are made into proteins by being joined in a chain of peptide bonds. Each different protein has a unique sequence of ...
Thus, tumor growth can impinge nerve function and result in vision loss and diplopia. As the tumor metastasizes to the oral ... Histological tests such as keratin, CK5/6, S-100 protein or NSE can be run to further differentiate esthesioneuroblastoma from ... A report from the TREP project in cooperation with the Italian Neuroblastoma and Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committees". BMC Cancer. ... Esthesioneuroblastoma occurs in the upper nasal cavity, near the optic nerves and optic chiasm. ...
Phylogenetic studies of proteins expressed in bacteria revealed the existence of a superfamily of voltage-gated sodium channels ... They also play a role in neurotransmitter release in pre-synaptic nerve endings. In most cells, Ca2+ channels regulate a wide ... They have a crucial role in excitable cells such as neuronal and muscle tissues, allowing a rapid and co-ordinated ... Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the ...
The CD34 protein is a member of a family of single-pass transmembrane sialomucin proteins that show expression on early ... The presence of CD34 on non-hematopoietic cells in various tissues has been linked to progenitor and adult stem cell phenotypes ... malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, meningeal hemangiopericytomas, meningiomas, neurofibromas, schwannomas, and papillary ... Felschow DM, McVeigh ML, Hoehn GT, Civin CI, Fackler MJ (June 2001). "The adapter protein CrkL associates with CD34". Blood. 97 ...
The predicted structures are below for both proteins. MENTHA interacting proteins for FAM178B. STRING interacting proteins for ... FAM178B is most highly expressed in the skeletal muscle and brain tissues.The structure in which it is highly concentrated is ... Additionally, it is of high levels in the trigeminal nerve and spinal cord. Further, there is also high concentrations of the ... The protein is most readily found in primates, and other non-primate mammals. The protein is also conserved across reptiles, ...
Protein-protein interactions play a very important role in Na⁺-K⁺ pump-mediated signal transduction. For example, the Na⁺-K⁺ ... In fact, all cells expend a large fraction of the ATP they produce (typically 30% and up to 70% in nerve cells) to maintain ... In many types of tissue, ATP consumption by the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPases have been related to glycolysis. This was first discovered in ... this membrane protein can also relay extracellular ouabain-binding signalling into the cell through regulation of protein ...
... protein defect of Cystinosis Cystinuria Cystinuria-lysinuria Cytochrome C oxidase deficiency Cytomegalic inclusion disease ... Cohen syndrome Camfak syndrome Campomelia Cumming type Camptobrachydactyly Camptocormism Camptodactyly fibrous tissue ... Coloboma of iris Coloboma of lens ala nasi Coloboma of macula type B brachydactyly Coloboma of macula Coloboma of optic nerve ... syndrome Congestive heart failure Conjunctivitis ligneous Conjunctivitis with pseudomembrane Conjunctivitis Connective tissue ...
... nucleocapsid protein (N), and the spike protein (S). The M protein of SARS-CoV-2 is about 98% similar to the M protein of bat ... When not wearing a mask, the CDC recommends covering the mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing and recommends ... the exact mechanism by which it invades the CNS remains unclear and may first involve invasion of peripheral nerves given the ... interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP‑10), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), macrophage inflammatory protein 1‑alpha ...
Nerve rootlets combine to form nerve roots. Likewise, sensory nerve rootlets form off right and left dorsal lateral sulci and ... The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, which extends from the medulla oblongata in the ... Meanwhile, the overlying ectoderm secretes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). This induces the roof plate to begin to secrete ... It is made of 31 segments from which branch one pair of sensory nerve roots and one pair of motor nerve roots. The nerve roots ...
Furthermore, those affected may develop kernicterus (deposits of pigment in the brain) that can cause nerve degeneration. In ... These conditions are associated with either defective intracellular protein binding (for the second time) or disturbed ... lipoprotein in order to decrease its hydrophobicity and to limit the probability of unnecessary contact with other tissues and ... or defective intracellular protein binding. In similar fashion, the conjugated hyperbilirubinemia emerges in case the ...
Two families of genes, the cip/kip (CDK interacting protein/Kinase inhibitory protein) family and the INK4a/ARF (Inhibitor of ... with possible exception of nerves; see nerve damage). After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a ... in tumors is much higher than that in normal tissue. Thus there is a net increase in cell number as the number of cells that ... Originally, a green fluorescent protein, mAG, was fused to hGem(1/110) and an orange fluorescent protein (mKO2) was fused to ...
... the H3 receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor. The H3 receptor is coupled to the Gi G-protein, so it leads to inhibition of ... tele-methylhistamine and down-regulation of histamine H3 receptor sites in autopsied brain tissue from cirrhotic patients who ... calcium mediates the histamine H3-receptor-induced attenuation of norepinephrine exocytosis from cardiac sympathetic nerve ... July 2005). "G protein-dependent pharmacology of histamine H3 receptor ligands: evidence for heterogeneous active state ...
Mahowald was concerned as to why organisms have multiple, very similar, genes that encode for the same proteins with only a few ... Despite all of this, Mahowald concluded that tissues rich in Act5C gene expression cannot adequately function with only the ... receptor tyrosine phosphatase targets selection and synapse formation with nerve cells. After testing, it was discovered that ... and tissue-specific manner". Cell. 33 (1): 115-23. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(83)90340-9. PMID 6432334. S2CID 23746956. Herman IM ( ...
Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... Biopsy and confirmation of Borrelia cells in myocardial tissue may be used in specific cases but are usually not done because ... The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... After the bacteria migrate from the midgut to the salivary glands, OspC binds to Salp15, a tick salivary protein that appears ...
Proteins called PDZ proteins frequently anchor mGluRs near enough to NMDARs to modulate their activity. It has been suggested ... Baskys A, Blaabjerg M (March 2005). "Understanding regulation of nerve cell death by mGluRs as a method for development of ... as well as other parts of the brain and in peripheral tissues. Like other metabotropic receptors, mGluRs have seven ... They are members of the group C family of G-protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs. Like all glutamate receptors, mGluRs bind with ...
The RARβ agonist C286 can activate the RARβ receptor which initiates axonal outgrowth in models of nerve injury and leads to ... C286 has mouse and human plasma protein binding of 95% and 98% respectively and has beneficial physico-chemical properties. It ... with nearly equivalent amounts detected in plasma as compared to brain tissue, eight hours after administering an oral dose to ... and is being evaluated for the treatment of nerve injury. Replacing the amide linkage in the novel selective RARα agonist 1 ...
The protein keratin stiffens epidermal tissue to form fingernails. Nails grow from a thin area called the nail matrix at an ... sensory nerve endings, and muscular tissue. Between the integument and the deep body musculature there is a transitional ... It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue and areolar connective tissue such as a collagen with elastin arranged in a ... The skin (integument) is a composite organ, made up of at least two major layers of tissue: the epidermis and the dermis. The ...
Under the skin is a layer of nerve tissue, and two layers of muscles-a thin outer layer of circular muscle, and a much thicker ... Earthworms use, in addition to the digestive proteins, a class of surface active compounds called drilodefensins, which help ... The ventral nerve cord (formed by nerve cells and nerve fibers) begins at the sub-pharyngeal ganglia and extends below the ... Eight to ten nerves arise from the cerebral ganglia to supply the prostomium, buccal chamber and pharynx. Three pairs of nerves ...
Collagen alpha-2(IV) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL4A2 gene. This gene encodes one of the six subunits ... Hernandez MR, Igoe F, Neufeld AH (1986). "Extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve head". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102 (2): 139- ... Cell Tissue Res. 296 (2): 221-7. doi:10.1007/s004410051283. PMID 10382266. S2CID 20282995. Kurpakus Wheater M, Kernacki KA, ... The C-terminal portion of the protein, known as canstatin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Like the other ...
... or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological ... which target specific nerve channels or receptors). Biotoxins in nature have two primary functions: Predation, such as in the ... Toxins occur especially as a protein or conjugated protein. The term toxin was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger ( ... Necrotoxins spread through the bloodstream.[citation needed] In humans, skin and muscle tissues are most sensitive to ...
Blood tests show the level of IgM in the blood and the presence of proteins, or tumor markers, that are the key signs of ... Source: Modified from WHO Blue Book on Tumour of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. 2001, p. 2001.) Waldenstrom J (1944). " ... Patients with findings of peripheral neuropathy should have nerve conduction studies and antimyelin associated glycoprotein ... Serum protein electrophoresis results indicate evidence of a monoclonal spike but cannot establish the spike as IgM. An M ...
First, the males have evolved a hemipenis instead of a single penis with erectile tissue that is found in crocodilians, birds, ... Viperines can sense their prey's infrared radiation through bare nerve endings on the skin of their heads. Also, viperines and ... "Sister group relationship of turtles to the bird-crocodilian clade revealed by nuclear DNA-coded proteins". Molecular Biology ...
... surgery or radiation therapy due to factors that include damage to the urethral sphincter or surrounding tissue and nerves. The ... Transport protein ZIP1 is responsible for the transport of zinc into prostate cells. One of zinc's important roles is to change ... of glandular tissue; central zone: 20% of glandular tissue). Some is found in the transitional space (5% of glandular tissue). ... The grade tells how much the tumor tissue differs from normal prostate tissue and suggests how fast the tumor is likely to grow ...
... protein. MHC is the most abundant protein expressed in striated muscle; and this structural / regulatory protein serves as the ... Catabolic tissue processes may have been accentuated by increased cortisol secretion as a consequence of mission stress and ... Nerve. 19 (8): 989-93. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(199608)19:8. 3.0.CO;2-4. PMID 8756164. S2CID 31901693. Rittweger, J; Frost, ... As a result of the reduction in net capacity for protein synthesis and the augmentation of protein degradation, a net loss of ...
Like many other protein synthesis inhibitors, telithromycin can also inhibit the formation of ribosomal subunits 50S and 30S. ... The concentration of telithromycin in the tissues is much higher than in plasma. Telithromycin fulfills a role that has arisen ... the ciliary ganglion of the eye and the vagus nerve innervating the liver. Other macrolides, such as azithromycin and ... It is fairly rapidly absorbed, and diffused into most tissues and phagocytes. Due to the high concentration in phagocytes, ...
... nerve - nerve growth factor - nerve growth factor receptor - nerve tissue protein - nerve tissue protein S 100 - nervous system ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 - Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins - Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * Anti- ... Nerve Tissue Proteins - Myelin Proteins PubMed MeSh Term ©2023 Regents of the University of Colorado , Terms of Use , Powered ...
... suggesting that systemic alterations affecting both brain and peripheral tissues might underlie the disorders. Numerous studies ... Nerve Tissue Proteins Grant support * P50 MH094268/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States ... suggesting that systemic alterations affecting both brain and peripheral tissues might underlie the disorders. Numerous studies ...
Pathogenesis is Linked to Native Protein Biochemistry Function ... Nerve Tissue Proteins. Nuclear Proteins. Spinocerebellar ... Polyglutamine-induced neurodegeneration : pathogenesis is linked to native protein biochemistry function / Harry Orr. ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins. 2. 2016. 4561. 0.100. Why? Linear Models. 2. 2019. 5983. 0.100. Why? ...
Tissue-culture; Animals; Laboratory-animals; Fibrosis; Bone-structure; Muscles; Nerve-tissue; Nerve-function; Proteins; ... Increased tendon calcification and a bone mineralization protein in musculoskeletal tissues with repetitive reaching task. ... Musculoskeletal tissues were harvested. Soft tissues were dissected out and frozen sectioned en bloc into 15 micrometer ... nerves and associated loose connective tissues. Osteoactivin (OA) is a recently identified factor that plays a role in bone ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Enrichment of DNase 1 hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in cis eQTMs across multiple tissues. Tissue-specific regulatory enrichment ... From blood to lung tissue: effect of cigarette smoke on DNA methylation and lung function. de Vries M, van der Plaat DA, ... This putatively causal relationship was further validated in lung tissue data. Conclusions: Our results provide a large and ...
Microtubule-Associated Proteins/metabolism; Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism; Neurons/drug effects*; Neuropeptides/metabolism; ... Doublecortin Domain Proteins; Doublecortin Protein; Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism; Glutathione/metabolism; Humans; ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Orthogonal approaches required to measure proteasome composition and activity in mammalian brain tissue. Türker F, Bharadwaj RA ...
... with secondary necrosis of the subcutaneous tissues. The speed of spread is directly proportional to the thickness of the ... M-1 and M-3 surface proteins, which increase the adherence of the streptococci to the tissues, also protect the bacteria ... This deep infection causes vascular occlusion, ischemia, and tissue necrosis. Superficial nerves are damaged, producing the ... Once all of the affected tissues have been debrided, soft tissue reconstruction can be considered. ...
Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. It is found in the hollow part of most bones. ... Abnormal protein buildup in tissues and organs (amyloidosis). *Bone marrow disorder in which the marrow is replaced by fibrous ... A nerve tissue tumor called neuroblastoma. *Bone marrow disease that leads to an abnormal increase in blood cells (polycythemia ... Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. It is found in the hollow part of most bones. ...
White matter is tissue made up of bundles of nerve fibers (axons) that connect nerve cells. The fibers are covered and ... It is caused by a mutation in the gene that controls the production of a myelin protein called proteolipid protein-1 (PLP1). ... and damage to the optic nerve (optic atrophy). It is caused by mutations in any of the 5 genes that make the protein eukaryotic ... The disorder is caused by mutations in the LMNB1 gene which is responsible for making lamin B1 protein. Lamin B1 is a ...
Nerve Growth Factors [D12.776.467.860]. *Neurotrophin 3 [D12.776.467.860.775]. *Nerve Tissue Proteins [D12.776.631] ... It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. ...
An NIDCR-supported study uncovered a new role for nerves in oral cancer progression. Tumors send messages that transform ... The scientists began by analyzing patient data and found that TP53 mutations and high nerve density in oral cancer tissue were ... Its protein product, p53, is a tumor suppressor that acts as a brake on cancer growth. This function is lost when tumor ... In both mice and humans, adrenergic nerve fibers were denser in p53-deficient oral tumor tissue. ...
The tangles involve the twisting of tau protein threads of the nerve cells in the brain tissue. The rate and degree of ... The scientists gathered genetic data from the brain tissue of 508 autopsied individuals via RNA sequencing, a technique used to ... a hallmark characteristic of the brain tissue associated with Alzheimers. ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins Preferred Concept UI. M0014664. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Nerve Tissue Proteins Preferred Term Term UI ... IM & coord with specific protein (IM) + specific nerve or nerve tissue (IM); /‌biosyn /‌drug eff /‌physiol /‌ultrastruct ... Nerve Tissue Proteins. Tree Number(s). D12.776.631. Unique ID. D009419. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/ ... Mutant Proteins [D12.776.602] * Neoplasm Proteins [D12.776.624] * Nerve Tissue Proteins [D12.776.631] * Acid Sensing Ion ...
Misfolded amyloid proteins produced by plasma cells cause buildup in and around tissues, nerves and organs, gradually affecting ...
... but this time using a Triton-insoluble fraction of nerve protein for the SDS-PAGE instead of the total nerve protein used by ... used whole unfractionated nerve homogenates for the SDS-PAGE, whereas Yuan et al. (2009) first solubilized the nerve tissue in ... By simulating the movement of slow component b proteins in optic nerve, we confirmed that contamination with these proteins can ... it is necessary to separate these proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis or to separate the total nerve protein into ...
... or nerve function; o Anatomy and tissue pathology; o Hormone, cytokine, metabolite, ion, enzyme profiles in very small volumes ... protein, amino acid, or lipid uptake and production; o Body composition measurements; o Appetite, food intake, whole body ... These new mice include animals containing multiple altered genes or genes altered in specific tissues. Heterozygous knock-out ... Emphasis will be placed on technologies that study live animals, although Centers may accept tissue samples (pancreas, kidney, ...
PRNewswire/ -- BioCircuit Technologies, a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded medical device company focused on tissue ... embedded with microscale hooks for tissue attachment. It can be quickly and easily wrapped around two ends of a severed nerve ... Responsibly®" and serve as one of the worlds leading vertically integrated protein companies. We have pioneered sustainability ... today announced the companies will produce Nerve Tape®, a medical device enabling suture-less nerve repair following traumatic ...
Misfolded amyloid proteins produced by plasma cells cause buildup in and around tissues, nerves and organs, gradually affecting ...
Asparagine has a significant role in the metabolic control of cell functions in the brain tissues and nerve cells. The demand ... for asparagine is surging as it is one of the crucial compounds for producing enzymes, proteins, and muscle tissues. Asparagine ... It is a beta-amido derivative of aspartic acid and portrays a significant role in the glycoproteins and other proteins ...
The progressive death of nerve cells in the brain and other tissues leads to the signs and symptoms of CLN2 disease. ... Protein function in these individuals is higher than in those who have the condition beginning earlier in childhood. As a ... Tripeptidyl peptidase 1 acts as a peptidase, which means that it breaks down protein fragments, known as peptides, into their ... These accumulations occur in cells throughout the body; however, nerve cells seem to be particularly vulnerable to their ...
We studied the expression levels of proteins in CeA of spinal nerve transection (SNT) model rats. Total tissue lysate proteins ... We also identified more than 40 membrane proteins as notably up- or down-regulated in CeA of SNT model rats relative to a ... These dysregulated proteins may play roles in reciprocal relationships between pain and psychological distress in the amygdala ... We identified more than 50 cytosolic proteins as significantly altered in their expressions in CeA of SNT rats, and most of ...
... which was known to have been transmitted through nerve-tissue grafts that the patients had received. Of the eight, seven were ... Alzheimers disease is strongly associated with the buildup of a certain type of protein in the brain. As such, it has long ... For example, radioactive ions encased in buckyballs have shown promise in targeting cancerous tissue without the associated ... The study examined the brain tissue of eight patients who had died from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, ...
The failure of an experimental drug that targets clumps of protein inside the brains of Alzheimers patients called into ... nerve cells). Accumulation of tau in brain tissue is linked with a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinsons ... One such road might be to target the tau protein, which also accumulates in tangles inside the Alzheimers-hindered brain. ... nerve cells). Accumulation of tau in brain tissue is linked with a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinsons ...
Expression changes of apoptotic-related proteins in nerve tissues of rats treated with allyl chloride. Toxicology. 2007;231:58- ... Sciatic nerves of HD/HD + BMSCs treated rats, as a representative tissue for peripheral nerve, were analyzed using electron ... Tissues and cells were homogenized using ice-cold RIPA buffer (Beyotime, China). Protein lysates were separated on SDS-PAGE gel ... The concentrations of NGF in sciatic nerve tissue, BMSC-CM and cell culture medium were detected using an enzyme linked ...
... collections of these misfolded proteins, they collect in overabundance between nerve tissue, lead to a rapid deterioration in ... What Are Prion Proteins?. Proteins that prions are made of PrPc, or prion protein, which are normal proteins which occur mainly ... Cool, right? Except this coding is coming from the outside in, to create a protein from the inside out. A protein your body ... Why are we artificially introducing mRNA to change the way our cells express proteins? How do we know these proteins dont have ...
We characterize these nerves as sensory in nature and demonstrate that axonogenesis is potentiated by the exosome-packaged ... We hypothesize that in some tumors, nerves are acquired by a tumor-induced process, called axonogenesis. Here, we use PC12 ... of A33 immunoaffinity-purified exosomes released from the human colon tumor cell line LIM1215 reveals a tissue-specific protein ... BCA protein assay of exosomes. The standard BCA protein assay was utilized with modifications to accommodate the low protein ...
NF causes tissue along the nerves to grow uncontrollably. This growth can put pressure on affected nerves. ... NF1 is caused by problems with a gene for a protein called neurofibromin. ... Nerves from the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal root nerves) ... If the growths are in other nerves or parts of the body, they can cause pain, severe nerve damage, and loss of function in the ...
... and bone morphogenic proteins, as these factors are expressed in the developing nerve, and cause nerve NCSCs to generate ... Adult dental tissues have unusual neurotrophin biology. Pulpal fibroblasts express nerve growth factor (NGF) and the low- ... Although the nerve-derived protein agrin has been suggested to be a positive signal, the negative signals remain elusive. Here ... Elevated levels of uncoupling protein-1 in brown adipose tissue as well as smaller white and brown adipocytes from CRFR2-mutant ...
  • Nerves infiltrate this cancerous environment early in tumor development. (nih.gov)
  • Nerves infiltrate this cancerous environment early on. (nih.gov)
  • Sensory neurons (a type of nerve cell) in culture that were exposed to p53-deficient oral cancer cells sprouted projections called neurites. (nih.gov)
  • These microRNAs nudge sensory neurons to reduce their normal gene activity and adopt genetic characteristics of a different class of nerve cells, known as adrenergic neurons, that are usually rare in the oral cavity. (nih.gov)
  • To confirm that the adrenergic neurons were promoting tumors, the scientists blunted adrenergic signaling in mice-either by disabling sensory nerves or giving adrenergic-blocking drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Nerve injury-induced protein (Ninjurin)-1 is a cell adhesion molecule that is upregulated in neurons and Schwann cells after transection injury in rats. (koreamed.org)
  • Once being damaged, the peripheral nerves, formed by axons of terminally differentiated neurons and glial cells, are well-known to process with a slow and limited recovery and serious damage may result in permanent debilitation or disability. (researchsquare.com)
  • Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. (uchicago.edu)
  • Ever since Dr. George G. Glenner's 1984 discovery that amyloid is the main component of the plaques that riddle the Alzheimer's-afflicted brain, it has been assumed that the protein somehow contributes to the disorder - that it jams up cellular machinery, rendering neurons unable to effectively communicate, to form new memories, to remember where the keys are. (npr.org)
  • Alexander disease-a disorder characterized by the destruction of white matter and the formation of abnormal clumps of protein called Rosenthal fibers that accumulate in astrocytes in the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Hamartoma is composed by an excessive growth of mature tissue present in wrong proportions and abnormal arrangements. (koreamed.org)
  • Onpattro is a medicine used to treat nerve damage caused by hereditary transthyretin (hATTR) amyloidosis, a disease in which abnormal proteins called amyloids build up in tissues around the body including around the nerves. (europa.eu)
  • Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease is a progressive loss of mental function, characterized by degeneration of brain tissue, including loss of nerve cells, the accumulation of an abnormal protein called beta-amyloid. (merckmanuals.com)
  • These abnormal antibodies can't be broken down, so they build up in tissue, nerves and organs. (usahealthsystem.com)
  • The broken protein forms amyloid deposits in tissues and organs around the body, including around nerves, where it interferes with their normal functions. (europa.eu)
  • By harvesting porcine bioproducts for medical applications - such as organs, mucosa, and tissues - we have the ability to improve lives through the development of innovative pharmaceuticals and medical devices like this one. (prnewswire.com)
  • NIH-funded scientists organ, if it can perform the are exploring innovative ways to right job and functions, it fix faulty organs and tissues or may not need to look like even grow new ones. (nih.gov)
  • One research team guided out tissues and organs with living, human stem cells to become working parts. (nih.gov)
  • Other scientists are using different working animal kidneys, livers, hearts, to restore a damaged organ or tissue, 3-D bioprinting technologies--some lungs, and other organs. (nih.gov)
  • The decellularization technique ease or injury or something else," says ate new tissues or organs," Lundberg was used by Dr. Martin Yarmush and Dr. Martha Lundberg, an NIH expert says. (nih.gov)
  • A normal result means the bone marrow contains the proper number and types of blood-forming (hematopoietic) cells, fat cells, and connective tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Our results indicate that performance of a high rate, low force (HRLF) task regimen results in injury, inflammation and fibrosis in bone, muscles, tendons, nerves and associated loose connective tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists discovered a new role for nerves in oral cancer progression, in which tumor cells send genetic messages that transform nerves into cancer-promoting agents. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we show that the apparent existence of a stationary neurofilament network in mouse optic nerve is most likely an experimental artifact due to contamination of the neurofilament transport kinetics with cytosolic proteins that move at faster rates. (jneurosci.org)
  • We identified more than 50 cytosolic proteins as significantly altered in their expressions in CeA of SNT rats, and most of these changes have been validated at mRNA levels by qRT-PCR. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Tripeptidyl peptidase 1 acts as a peptidase, which means that it breaks down protein fragments, known as peptides, into their individual building blocks (amino acids). (nih.gov)
  • CLN2 disease is characterized by the accumulation of proteins or peptides and other substances in lysosomes. (nih.gov)
  • As a result, it takes longer for peptides and other substances to accumulate in the lysosomes and damage nerve cells. (nih.gov)
  • Sciatic nerves of HD/HD + BMSCs treated rats, as a representative tissue for peripheral nerve, were analyzed using electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RNA sequencing. (researchsquare.com)
  • We studied the expression levels of proteins in CeA of spinal nerve transection (SNT) model rats. (iasp-pain.org)
  • We also identified more than 40 membrane proteins as notably up- or down-regulated in CeA of SNT model rats relative to a control using stable isotope dimethyl labeling nano-LC-MS/MS based proteomics and found that one of such protein, doublecortin, is specifically localized in the membrane fraction without changes in total amount of the protein. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that doublecortin is expressed in processes in CeA of rats 7 and 21 days post SNT surgery, suggesting doublecorin is one of the proteins which may contribute to the plastic changes in CeA in the neuropathic pain model. (iasp-pain.org)
  • The latest success of a study attempting to knock out the transthyretin (TTR) protein-the gene encoding the symptom-inducing protein related to transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR)-has many within the genetics field believing we've entered a new era of breakthroughs in CRISPR research, one where treatment options for even more challenging genetic diseases might be on the horizon. (idtdna.com)
  • In patients with hATTR amyloidosis, a protein called transthyretin which circulates in the blood is defective and breaks easily. (europa.eu)
  • In one main study involving 225 hATTR amyloidosis patients with stage 1 or 2 nerve damage, Onpattro was shown to be more effective than placebo (a dummy treatment) at slowing down the nerve damage caused by the disease. (europa.eu)
  • Over time, amyloidosis damages the tissue and interferes with its function. (usahealthsystem.com)
  • Dr. Solomon, who is presently retired, is a worldwide recognized leader in the research about the pathogenesis of light-chain-derived (AL) amyloidosis and other disorders caused by overproduction of monoclonal light chains, also known as Bence Jones Proteins," del Pozo-Yauner said. (usahealthsystem.com)
  • For example, radioactive ions encased in buckyballs have shown promise in targeting cancerous tissue without the associated damage to healthy tissue. (listverse.com)
  • In AL patients, plasma cells in the bone marrow produce misfolded proteins called amyloids. (usahealthsystem.com)
  • BioCircuit is committed to developing medical technologies, such as Nerve Tape ® , to repair, monitor, and control peripheral nerves precisely and reliably. (prnewswire.com)
  • White matter is tissue made up of bundles of nerve fibers (axons) that connect nerve cells. (nih.gov)
  • The fibers are covered and protected by an insulating layer of proteins and fatty materials (lipids) called myelin. (nih.gov)
  • The pulp is extensively supplied with nerve fibers, a rich blood supply, and is surrounded by dentin making it an important model for the study of pain, inflammation, and the movement of fluids, bacteria, or their products through the dentinal tubules. (nih.gov)
  • In both mice and humans, adrenergic nerve fibers were denser in p53-deficient oral tumor tissue. (nih.gov)
  • In order to counteract this, a new therapy concept is being established: An in situ malleable, resorbable hydrogel is to serve regenerating nerve fibers as a growth matrix. (nmi.de)
  • Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene CASK are associated with mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH) and ophthalmological disorders including optic nerve atrophy (ONA) and optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH). (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in any of these genes can affect how the lipid or protein works and can interrupt the normal formation, processing, and development of myelin and the function of white matter. (nih.gov)
  • The disorder is caused by mutations in the LMNB1 gene which is responsible for making lamin B1 protein. (nih.gov)
  • The team found that high nerve density and TP53 mutations in oral cancer tissue were associated with earlier death. (nih.gov)
  • The scientists began by analyzing patient data and found that TP53 mutations and high nerve density in oral cancer tissue were associated with earlier death. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers found that in mouse models of oral cancer, animals lacking p53 had denser nerve networks around their tumors compared to control mice with p53. (nih.gov)
  • To induce autoimmune uveitis in mice, they gave the mice injections of a retinal protein that appears to agitate immune cells in people with the condition. (nih.gov)
  • These mice developed damage to the uvea, retina, and optic nerve. (nih.gov)
  • Diabetic mice displayed significantly reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density and sudomotor function. (omeka.net)
  • Both high and low dose diabetic mice displayed significantly less axonal regeneration in the sciatic nerve, when measured in vivo, 48h after crush injury. (omeka.net)
  • Signals from adrenergic nerves trigger the body's "fight-or-flight" response. (nih.gov)
  • Adrenergic nerves can trigger the body's "fight-or-flight" response by releasing stimulating chemical messengers. (nih.gov)
  • Uveitis can be triggered by eye infections or by autoimmunity, a process in which an overly aggressive response by the immune system results in damage to the body's own tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Studies on mouse optic nerve have led to the controversial proposal that only a small proportion of neurofilaments are transported in axons and that the majority are deposited into a persistently stationary and extensively cross-linked cytoskeletal network that remains fixed in place for months without movement. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that the transport kinetics and distribution of neurofilaments in mouse optic nerve can all be explained fully by a "stop-and-go" model of neurofilament transport, in which axons contain a single population of neurofilaments that all move stochastically in a rapid, intermittent, and bidirectional manner. (jneurosci.org)
  • Importantly, we find that the transport kinetics are not consistent with deposition of neurofilaments into a persistently stationary phase, and that deposition models cannot account for the observed distribution of neurofilaments along mouse optic nerve axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, there is no evidence for the deposition of axonally transported neurofilaments into a persistently stationary neurofilament network in optic nerve axons. (jneurosci.org)
  • who analyzed neurofilament transport in mouse optic nerve in a different way and saw no evidence for a stationary cytoskeleton. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we use computational modeling to reexamine the data of Nixon and colleagues on the mechanism neurofilament transport in mouse optic nerve. (jneurosci.org)
  • They can damage not only the uvea, but also the retina and the optic nerve. (nih.gov)
  • The retina is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye, and the optic nerve connects the retina to the brain. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies suggest that these nerves play a role in tumor growth and progression. (nih.gov)
  • So far though, progress has been stymied by scientists' lack of understanding of how cancer-associated nerves arise and promote tumor growth. (nih.gov)
  • Targeting this nerve-tumor crosstalk could lead to more effective treatments for people with head and neck cancers. (nih.gov)
  • We wanted to understand the reciprocal tumor-nerve signals that drive cancer progression," says first author Moran Amit, MD, PhD. "This information could help scientists develop the means to target this crosstalk. (nih.gov)
  • Accelerated axon regeneration in sciatic nerves was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, GAP43 western blotting and MBP/SMI312 immunostaining. (researchsquare.com)
  • However, there are numerous treatment options available, including chemotherapy, heart medications, targeted and surgical therapies, and surgical procedures, such as dialysis or transplant to help patients manage and limit the overproduction of amyloid protein. (idtdna.com)
  • But the frustration brought by this particular failure could signal a shift in Alzheimer's research - a shift away from targeting accumulations of so-called amyloid protein in the brain, long considered by many in the field to be the crux of Alzheimer's pathology. (npr.org)
  • Five Holstein calves 2-3 months of age accumulation of a protease-resistant form of a normal cel- were intracerebrally injected with 1 mL of 10% (w/v) brain lular prion protein (PrPres) in the central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • ATTR is marked by an accumulation of misfolded TTR protein in tissues, most significantly those found near nerves and the heart. (idtdna.com)
  • Once completed, this process would then prevent the accumulation of TTR protein in blood serum over time. (idtdna.com)
  • The hope is that although the body has already built-up high levels of the TTR protein, removal of the TTR gene using CRISPR technology would dramatically reduce additional accumulation, giving the body an opportunity to clear itself of the excess and return to a closer-to-normal state. (idtdna.com)
  • Myelin, which is whitish in color and makes up much of the white matter in the brain, is a complex substance made up of many different proteins and lipids (fatty substances). (nih.gov)
  • Some use a including the pathways for tiny blood in the early stages of testing newly mixture of natural substances called vessels and nerves. (nih.gov)
  • Nanotherapeutics, such as oligonucleotide biomaterial Nanoparticles are integrated into the above mentioned implant and will modulate certain cellular processes to a) specifically counteract scarring and b) desensitize growing neurites against growth-inhibiting proteins in adult nerve tissue. (nmi.de)
  • The intracellular signalling pathways of neurites are therapeutically modified by the suppression of central proteins. (nmi.de)
  • Nerve regeneration is primarily prevented by gaps in the tissue, scarring and inhibitory proteins. (nmi.de)
  • It can be quickly and easily wrapped around two ends of a severed nerve to form a strong, reliable connection with distributed tension to promote regeneration. (prnewswire.com)
  • While the mechanism of this neuropathy is not well understood, it is believed to result in part from deficient nerve regeneration. (omeka.net)
  • Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Increased tendon calcification and a bone mineralization protein in musculoskeletal tissues with repetitive reaching task. (cdc.gov)
  • Enhanced expression of this protein would suggest that repetitive and/ or forceful tasks lead to accelerated bone remodeling and tendon matrix changes, which would further our understanding of the etiology of MSDs. (cdc.gov)
  • Discussion: Increases in osteoactivin (OA) staining in the periosteum parallels previously reported infl mmatory responses in this same tissue, suggesting that OA may play a role in inflammation- induced bone remodeling by a repetitive reaching and grasping task. (cdc.gov)
  • The tooth is a hollow, porous hard tissue embedded in bone, projecting through an epithelial membrane into a septic environment. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of several nerve tissues indicated that this cytokine is primarily localized to neuronal cell bodies. (nih.gov)
  • Myelin provides nutritional support to nerve cells and helps speed up signals between them, allowing them to send and receive messages quickly. (nih.gov)
  • Oligodendrocytes and astrocytes belong to a group of cells called glial cells which surround, support, and insulate nerve cells. (nih.gov)
  • Effective therapies must target both the tumor and its microenvironment-the supportive network of connective tissue, blood vessels, cells, and molecules that surround the tumor. (nih.gov)
  • The scientists found that spherical delivery vehicles called extracellular vesicles were transferring the microRNAs from tumors to nerve cells in the microenvironment. (nih.gov)
  • un- provisionally categorized the adrenal gland as nerve tissue like classical BSE, atypical BSE has been detected mainly because of the presence of chromaffi n cells in the medulla in aged cattle and suggested as a possible sporadic form of of the gland. (cdc.gov)
  • The tangles involve the twisting of tau protein threads of the nerve cells in the brain tissue. (nih.gov)
  • The scientists gathered genetic data from the brain tissue of 508 autopsied individuals via RNA sequencing, a technique used to measure how many copies of specific genes are present in a human's cells at a given time. (nih.gov)
  • 1. BMCC1 is an AP-2 associated endosomal protein in prostate cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • That's because existing therapies treat only the tumor itself, and not its microenvironment, the network of connective tissue, blood vessels, cells, and molecules that surround it. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers discovered that loss of the tumor-suppressing TP53 gene allows tumor cells to send genetic messages that transform nerves into cancer-promoting agents. (nih.gov)
  • Spherical compartments called extracellular vesicles deliver microRNAs to targeted nerve cells, where they can genetically alter cell growth, identity, and other functions. (nih.gov)
  • however, nerve cells seem to be particularly vulnerable to their effects. (nih.gov)
  • The progressive death of nerve cells in the brain and other tissues leads to the signs and symptoms of CLN2 disease. (nih.gov)
  • Asparagine has a significant role in the metabolic control of cell functions in the brain tissues and nerve cells. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • Several clinical stud- desired shapes and then coaxing cells organ's natural structural proteins, ies (involving human volunteers) are to grow within them. (nih.gov)
  • Immature cells that have the potential the correct blood vessel patterns, to develop into many different cell nerve connections, and other com- newsinhealth.nih.gov types in the body. (nih.gov)
  • Onpattro is used in adult patients in the first two stages of the nerve damage (stage 1, when the patient is able to walk unaided, and stage 2, when the patient can still walk but needs help). (europa.eu)
  • This has been attributed to a variety of causes, including pulp-dentin pathology, fluid movements through tubules, and excessive nerve excitability. (nih.gov)
  • Uveitis literally means inflammation of the uvea, which is a middle layer of the eye that includes the iris (the colored ring) and the choroid, a tissue filled with tiny blood vessels. (nih.gov)
  • Using mouse models of oral cancer and laboratory cell cultures, the scientists confirmed the connection between p53 and nerve density. (nih.gov)
  • The scientists suspected a connection between p53 loss and enhanced nerve density, and they set out to explore it. (nih.gov)
  • Neuropathic pain resulting from nerve injury can become persistent and difficult to treat but the molecular signaling responsible for its development remains poorly described. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, activation of DLK is an early event, or even the master regulator, controlling a wide variety of pathways downstream of nerve injury that ultimately lead to chronic pain. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Rab24 interacts with the Rab7/Rab interacting lysosomal protein complex to regulate endosomal degradation. (nih.gov)
  • Sometimes, cognitive changes are accompanied by changes in the brain such as the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, a hallmark characteristic of the brain tissue associated with Alzheimer's. (nih.gov)
  • Diseased brain tissue from an Alzheimer's patient showing amyloid plaques (in blue) located in the gray matter of the brain. (npr.org)
  • tau Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • We hypothesized that chronic leptin treatment, within physiologic limits, would reduce the fatty acid uptake capacity of red and white skeletal muscle due to a reduction in transport protein expression (fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and plasma membrane-associated fatty acid-binding protein (FABPpm)) at the plasma membrane. (mcmaster.ca)
  • These studies provide the first evidence that protein-mediated long chain fatty acid transport is subject to long term regulation by leptin. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Autosomal dominant leukodystrophy with autonomic diseases (ADLD)-a rare, slowly progressive disorder characterized by the onset of autonomic dysfunction (dysfunction of the nerves that regulate nonvoluntary body functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), and mild cognitive impairment. (nih.gov)
  • Sensory nerves are highly abundant in the oral cavity and convey touch, texture, and taste. (nih.gov)
  • Lamin B1 is a structural protein that helps determine the shape of the cell nucleus and plays an important role in cell division and gene expression, including expression of the genes for oligodendrocyte development and production of some myelin proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression is the process by which the instructions in our DNA are converted into a functional product, such as a protein. (nih.gov)
  • From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this gene is a T cell-derived cytokine that shares sequence similarity with IL17. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, DLK inhibition also prevents the spinal cord microgliosis that results from nerve injury and arises distant from the injury site. (nih.gov)
  • Doctors have long used tissue- may lead to improved treat- engineered skin to heal severe ment for spinal cord injuries, burns or other injuries. (nih.gov)
  • In parallel with establishing a commercial supply chain for Nerve Tape ® , BioCircuit is also developing non-invasive, bioelectronic devices able to tap into nerve and muscle activity to provide sensitive, high-resolution monitoring and selective, closed-loop stimulation. (prnewswire.com)
  • SMITHFIELD, Va. and ATLANTA , March 16, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- BioCircuit Technologies , a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded medical device company focused on tissue repair and neural interfacing, and Smithfield BioScience , a unit of Smithfield Foods delivering life-saving medical solutions from porcine-derived bioproducts, today announced the companies will produce Nerve Tape ® , a medical device enabling suture-less nerve repair following traumatic injuries. (prnewswire.com)
  • Production, degradation, and maintenance of each protein and lipid are controlled by a specific group of genes. (nih.gov)
  • Canavan disease-a neurological disorder in which the brain degenerates into spongy tissue full of small fluid-filled spaces. (nih.gov)
  • It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. (umassmed.edu)
  • Overview of Stroke A stroke occurs when an artery to the brain becomes blocked or ruptures, resulting in death of an area of brain tissue due to loss of its blood supply (cerebral infarction) and symptoms that. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. (uchicago.edu)
  • These results suggest that loss of p53 in oral cancer enhances nerve growth and density in the tumor microenvironment. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggested that loss of p53 in oral cancer enhances nerve growth and density in the tumor microenvironment. (nih.gov)
  • Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) arise from repeated performance of tasks at submaximal levels of physical exertion that eventually lead to tissue damage due, perhaps, to insufficient recovery of tissues between bouts of performance. (cdc.gov)
  • With these biomaterial-based implants we will be able to specifically bridge the lesion site in the nerve tissue. (nmi.de)
  • However, in leptin-treated animals plasma membrane fractions of both FAT/CD36 and FABPpm protein expression were significantly reduced in red (-28 and -34%, respectively) and white (-44 and -56%, respectively) muscles (p (mcmaster.ca)
  • 14. Leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1 binds adaptor protein complex-1 and 2 and participates in trafficking of transferrin receptor 1. (nih.gov)
  • Recent evidence suggests nerves play a role in cancer development and progression, and that they could be targets for new therapies. (nih.gov)