Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Neoplasms composed of nerve tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the nervous system or its component nerves.
A plant genus of the family PORTULACACEAE.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.
The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.
Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (1/25163)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (2/25163)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase can be involved in transforming growth factor beta superfamily signal transduction in Drosophila wing morphogenesis. (3/25163)

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) has been extensively studied as a stress-responsive kinase, but its role in development remains unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has two p38 genes, D-p38a and D-p38b. To elucidate the developmental function of the Drosophila p38's, we used various genetic and pharmacological manipulations to interfere with their functions: expression of a dominant-negative form of D-p38b, expression of antisense D-p38b RNA, reduction of the D-p38 gene dosage, and treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Expression of a dominant-negative D-p38b in the wing imaginal disc caused a decapentaplegic (dpp)-like phenotype and enhanced the phenotype of a dpp mutant. Dpp is a secretory ligand belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily which triggers various morphogenetic processes through interaction with the receptor Thick veins (Tkv). Inhibition of D-p38b function also caused the suppression of the wing phenotype induced by constitutively active Tkv (TkvCA). Mosaic analysis revealed that D-p38b regulates the Tkv-dependent transcription of the optomotor-blind (omb) gene in non-Dpp-producing cells, indicating that the site of D-p38b action is downstream of Tkv. Furthermore, forced expression of TkvCA induced an increase in the phosphorylated active form(s) of D-p38(s). These results demonstrate that p38, in addition to its role as a transducer of emergency stress signaling, may function to modulate Dpp signaling.  (+info)

Conserved domains and lack of evidence for polyglutamine length polymorphism in the chicken homolog of the Machado-Joseph disease gene product ataxin-3. (4/25163)

Ataxin-3 is a protein of unknown function which is mutated in Machado-Joseph disease by expansion of a genetically unstable CAG repeat encoding polyglutamine. By analysis of chicken ataxin-3 we were able to identify four conserved domains of the protein and detected widespread expression in chicken tissues. In the first such analysis in a non-primate species we found that in contrast to primates, the chicken CAG repeat is short and genetically stable.  (+info)

A processive single-headed motor: kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A. (5/25163)

A single kinesin molecule can move "processively" along a microtubule for more than 1 micrometer before detaching from it. The prevailing explanation for this processive movement is the "walking model," which envisions that each of two motor domains (heads) of the kinesin molecule binds coordinately to the microtubule. This implies that each kinesin molecule must have two heads to "walk" and that a single-headed kinesin could not move processively. Here, a motor-domain construct of KIF1A, a single-headed kinesin superfamily protein, was shown to move processively along the microtubule for more than 1 micrometer. The movement along the microtubules was stochastic and fitted a biased Brownian-movement model.  (+info)

A concise promoter region of the heart fatty acid-binding protein gene dictates tissue-appropriate expression. (6/25163)

The heart fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) is a member of a family of binding proteins with distinct tissue distributions and diverse roles in fatty acid metabolism, trafficking, and signaling. Other members of this family have been shown to possess concise promoter regions that direct appropriate tissue-specific expression. The basis for the specific expression of the HFABP has not been previously evaluated, and the mechanisms governing expression of metabolic genes in the heart are not completely understood. We used transient and permanent transfections in ventricular myocytes, skeletal myocytes, and nonmyocytic cells to map regulatory elements in the HFABP promoter, and audited results in transgenic mice. Appropriate tissue-specific expression in cell culture and in transgenic mice was dictated by 1.2 kb of the 5'-flanking sequence of FABP3, the HFABP gene. Comparison of orthologous murine and human genomic sequences demonstrated multiple regions of near-identity within this promoter region, including a CArG-like element close to the TATA box. Binding and transactivation studies demonstrated that this element can function as an atypical myocyte enhancer-binding factor 2 site. Interactions with adjacent sites are likely to be necessary for fully appropriate, tissue-specific, developmental and metabolic regulation.  (+info)

Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (7/25163)

-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling.  (+info)

Functional consequences of mutations in the human alpha1A calcium channel subunit linked to familial hemiplegic migraine. (8/25163)

Mutations in alpha1A, the pore-forming subunit of P/Q-type calcium channels, are linked to several human diseases, including familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). We introduced the four missense mutations linked to FHM into human alpha1A-2 subunits and investigated their functional consequences after expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. By combining single-channel and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we show that all four mutations affect both the biophysical properties and the density of functional channels. Mutation R192Q in the S4 segment of domain I increased the density of functional P/Q-type channels and their open probability. Mutation T666M in the pore loop of domain II decreased both the density of functional channels and their unitary conductance (from 20 to 11 pS). Mutations V714A and I1815L in the S6 segments of domains II and IV shifted the voltage range of activation toward more negative voltages, increased both the open probability and the rate of recovery from inactivation, and decreased the density of functional channels. Mutation V714A decreased the single-channel conductance to 16 pS. Strikingly, the reduction in single-channel conductance induced by mutations T666M and V714A was not observed in some patches or periods of activity, suggesting that the abnormal channel may switch on and off, perhaps depending on some unknown factor. Our data show that the FHM mutations can lead to both gain- and loss-of-function of human P/Q-type calcium channels.  (+info)

cytoplasm, dendrite, dendritic shaft, glutamatergic synapse, membrane, neuron spine, plasma membrane, postsynaptic density, postsynaptic membrane, glutamate receptor binding
May play a role as a localized scaffold for the assembly of a multiprotein signaling complex and as mediator of the trafficking of its binding partners at specific subcellular location in neurons.
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 28275106. Open Biol 2017 03;7(3). The disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 () gene was identified as a genetic risk factor for chronic mental illnesses (CMI) such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe recurrent depression. Insoluble aggregated DISC1 variants were found in the cingular cortex of sporadic, i.e. non-genetic, CMI patients. This suggests protein pathology as a novel, additional pathogenic mechanism, further corroborated in a recent transgenic rat model presenting DISC1 aggregates. Since the potential role of aggregation of DISC1 in sporadic CMI is unknown, we investigated whether DISC1 undergoes aggregation in cell culture and could spread between neuronal cells in a prion-like manner, as shown for amyloid proteins in neurodegenerative diseases. Co-culture experiments between donor cells forming DISC1 aggregates and acceptor cells showed that 4.5% of acceptor cells contained donor-derived DISC1 aggregates, thus indicating an efficient transfer DISC1 aggregates ...
Transfer of disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 aggregates between neuronal-like cells occurs in tunnelling nanotubes and is promoted by dopamine has been published
Lead may contribute to the pathogenesis of nervous system diseases by stimulating the production of autoantibodies against neural proteins including myelin basic protein.
PANP/PILR alpha associated neural protein Overexpression Lysate (Native). Tested Reactivity: Hu. Validated: WB. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
Isolation of the PSD fraction. PSD fractions were prepared from rat forebrains as previously described (Carlin et al., 1980; Cho et al., 1992). Synaptosomes were isolated from homogenates by differential and density gradient centrifugation and then extracted with 0.5% Triton X-100 for 15 min. The resulting One-Triton PSD fraction was pelleted by centrifugation at 36,800 × gfor 45 min. A portion of the One-Triton fraction was extracted again either with 0.5% Triton X-100 for 15 min or with 3%N-lauroyl-sarcosine for 10 min and then pelleted by centrifugation at 201,800 × g for 1 hr to obtain the Two-Triton PSD fraction or the One-Triton plus Sarcosyl PSD fraction, respectively. Protein concentrations were determined by a modified method of Lowrey (Peterson, 1983).. Identification of proteins in the PSD fraction by mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed by mass spectrometry combined with sequence database searches (Jensen et al., 1998). Protein bands cut from a Coomassie ...
The Slit gene encodes a secreted molecule essential for neural development in Drosophila embryos. Here we report the identification of three Slit homologues in the mouse. We demonstrate that the mouse SLIT1 protein can bind ROBO1, a transmembrane receptor implicated in axon guidance. Both whole-moun …
Comrade is a loaded word. Tongzhi, literally same aspiration, was the appropriate term of address for an entire generation of Chinese, from influential Party officials and generals to ordinary mothers, street-sweepers, and butchers. Its usage signified membership in a shared, Communist dream of equality and progress. Sometime in the late-80s, tongzhi took on a secondary meaning for a less public community. It began to mean gay.. Unlike many linguistic changes, this shift was deliberate. The new connotation was proposed by Edward Lam, one of the artist-activists who organized the first Hong Kong Gay and Lesbian Film Festival in 1989. In borrowing and reshaping tongzhi, with its suggestion of unity and shared purpose, they hoped to bring gay Chinese people out of the shadows and into the broader community. That same year, the Tiananmen protests began. Then the Berlin Wall collapsed. Tongzhi took off, but the broader community it once symbolized had fallen apart. You have to wonder if ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of CRMP2 (Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2) is Involved in Proper Dendritic Field Organization. AU - Yamashita, Naoya. AU - Ohshima, Toshio. AU - Nakamura, Fumio. AU - Kolattukudy, Papachan. AU - Honnorat, Jérôme. AU - Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko. AU - Goshima, Yoshio. PY - 2012/1/25. Y1 - 2012/1/25. N2 - Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate signals for several extracellular molecules, such as Semaphorin3A and neurotrophins. The phosphorylation of CRMP1 and CRMP2 by Cdk5 at Ser522 is involved in axonal guidance and spine development. Here, we found that the Ser522-phosphorylated CRMP1 and/or CRMP2 are enriched in the dendrites of cultured cortical neurons and P7 cortical section. To determine the physiological role of CRMPs in dendritic development, we generated CRMP2 knock-in mutant mice (crmp2ki/ki) in which the Ser residue at 522 was replaced with Ala. Strikingly, the cortical basal dendrites of double mutant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel neuritic clusters with accumulations of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 immunoreactivity in brain regions damaged by thiamine deficiency. AU - Calingasan, Noel Y.. AU - Gandy, Samuel E.. AU - Baker, Harriet. AU - Sheu, Kwan Fu Rex. AU - Smith, Jonathan D.. AU - Lamb, Bruce T.. AU - Gearhart, John D.. AU - Buxbaum, Joseph D.. AU - Harper, Clive. AU - Selkoe, Dennis J.. AU - Price, Donald L.. AU - Sisodia, Sangram S.. AU - Gibson, Gary E.. PY - 1996/9/1. Y1 - 1996/9/1. N2 - Experimental thiamine deficiency (TD) is a classical model of a nutritional deficit associated with a generalized impairment of oxidative metabolism and selective cell loss in the brain. In rats, TD-induced cell degeneration is accompanied by an accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) immunoreactivity in abnormal neurites and perikarya along the periphery of, or scattered within, the lesion. Prompted by these data and our ...
Primary malignant lymphoma of the prostate (PMLP) is prone to occur in the elderly, and it has no significant correlation with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and prostate specific antigen (PSA). Clinical symptoms and imaging data of PMLP remain unspecific, and its prognosis is poor. A previous result showed that collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) promotor methylation can be used as a predictor for lymph node metastases in prostate biopsies. However, the relationship between CRMP4 promotor methylation and PMLP has not been studied. We investigated the clinicopathological features of PMLP and the significance of CRMP4 methylation in PMLP. The clinical data and diagnosis information of 10 patients with PMLP were retrospectively analyzed. The CRMP4 promotor methylation level in paraffin-embedded tissues of the 10 patients with PMLP were determined and then compared to limited prostate cancer (LPCa) and its negative lymph node tissue [LPCa-LN (−) (10 cases)] and also to metastatic prostate
Anti-β-Amyloid Precursor-Like Protein 1, C-Terminal (643-653) Rabbit pAb - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Tau-tubulin kinase 1 and amyloid-β peptide induce phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein-2 and enhance neurite degeneration in Alzheimer disease mouse models. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Huntingtin-associated protein 1 interacts with Ahi1 to regulate cerebellar and brainstem development in mice. AU - Sheng, Guoqing. AU - Xu, Xingshun. AU - Lin, Yung Feng. AU - Wang, Chuan En. AU - Rong, Juan. AU - Cheng, Dongmei. AU - Peng, Junmin. AU - Jiang, Xiaoyan. AU - Li, Shi Hua. AU - Li, Xiao Jiang. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Joubert syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the cerebellum and brainstem, with abnormal decussation in the brain. Mutations in the Abelson helper integration site 1 gene, which encodes the protein AHI1, have been shown to cause Joubert syndrome. In this study, we found that mouse Ahi1 formed a stable complex with huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), which is critical for neonatal development and involved in intracellular trafficking. Hap1-knockout mice showed significantly reduced Ahi1 levels, defective cerebellar development, and abnormal axonal decussation. Suppression of Ahi1 also ...
Huntingtons disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion (exp) in huntingtin (Htt). The type 1 inositol (1,4,5)-triphosphate receptor (InsP3R1) is an intracellular calcium (Ca2+) release channel that plays an important role in neuronal function. In a yeast two-hybrid screen with the InsP3R1 carboxy terminus, we isolated Htt-associated protein-1A (HAP1A). We show that an InsP3R1-HAP1A-Htt ternary complex is formed in vitro and in vivo. In planar lipid bilayer reconstitution experiments, InsP3R1 activation by InsP3 is sensitized by Httexp, but not by normal Htt. Transfection of full-length Httexp or caspase-resistant Httexp, but not normal Htt, into medium spiny striatal neurons faciliates Ca2+ release in response to threshold concentrations of the selective mGluR1/5 agonist 3,5-DHPG. Our findings identify a novel molecular link between Htt and InsP3R1-mediated neuronal Ca2+ signaling and provide an explanation for the derangement of cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in HD patients and mouse models ...
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript-immunoreactive (CART-IR) neurons and nerve fibers were abundant in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses of t
The collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) family of intracellular phosphoproteins are predominantly expressed in the nervous system during development. These proteins play important roles in axon formation from neurites, and in neuron guidance, growth, and polarity. CRMP-2 is encoded by the DPYSL2 gene in humans. It is also known as dihydropyrimidinase-like 2 (DRP2), dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DHPRP2), unc-33-like phosphoprotein 2 (ULIP2), and N2A3. CRMP-2 promotes microtubule assembly and is required for growth cone collapse. It also plays a role in synaptic signaling through interactions with calcium channels. Mutations in the DPYSL2 gene have been implicated in multiple neurological disorders. A hyperphosphorylated form of CRMP-2 may play a key role in the development of Alzheimers disease.. ...
The collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) family of intracellular phosphoproteins are predominantly expressed in the nervous system during development. These proteins play important roles in axon formation from neurites, and in neuron guidance, growth, and polarity. CRMP-2 is encoded by the DPYSL2 gene in humans. It is also known as dihydropyrimidinase-like 2 (DRP2), dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DHPRP2), unc-33-like phosphoprotein 2 (ULIP2), and N2A3. CRMP-2 promotes microtubule assembly and is required for growth cone collapse. It also plays a role in synaptic signaling through interactions with calcium channels. Mutations in the DPYSL2 gene have been implicated in multiple neurological disorders. A hyperphosphorylated form of CRMP-2 may play a key role in the development of Alzheimers disease.. ...
The selectivity of LAG3, neurexin 1β, and APLP1 and related transmembrane proteins for α-syn-biotin PFF versus α-syn-biotin monomers was determined via the ratio of Kd values (Fig. 1B). LAG3 exhibited the highest selectivity with a ratio of 38, followed by neurexin 1β with a ratio of 11 and APLP1 with a ratio of 7. The binding of α-syn-biotin PFF to LAG3 was specific because α-syn-biotin PFF does not bind to the CD4 receptor, which has 20% homology to LAG3 (Fig. 1B and fig. S4). In addition to α-syn-biotin PFF binding to neurexin 1β, it also binds to neurexin 3β and mildly binds to neurexin 1α and neurexin 2β (Fig. 1B). α-Syn-biotin PFF does not bind the amyloid precursor protein (APP) or the amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2), suggesting that the binding to APLP1 was specific (Fig. 1B). Because LAG3 exhibited the highest selectivity for α-syn-biotin PFF, it was advanced for further study. No LAG3 immunoreactive band was observed in HEK293FT and SH-SY5Y cells, which is ...
NUB1 suppression of Huntington toxicity: mechanistic insights Yao Yao, Boxun Lu Department of Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, Peopleâ s Republic of China Abstract: Huntingtonâ s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder marked by chorea, dystonia, incoordination, and cognitive and motor disturbance. The major cause of HD is the cytotoxicity of the mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT), encoded by the mutant HTT gene. The mechanism by which mHTT leads to cytotoxicity and neuronal death is unclear, and thus enhancing clearance of the mHTT protein is likely to be an effective approach to treat HD. We have recently identified NUB1 (negative regulator of ubiquitin-like proteins 1) as a modifier of mHTT levels via enhancement of its proteasomal degradation. In this review, we will discuss the mechanism of NUB1-mediated mHTT clearance and potential targeting strategies. Keywords: drug target discovery, Huntingtonâ s disease, NEDD8, ubiquitination
Processing from the amyloid proteins precursor (APP) from the and secretases potential clients to the creation of two little peptides, amyloid as well as the APP intracellular site (Help, or called elsewhere AICD). in conjunction with Fe65 by 1st displaying that although Fe65 enters the nucleus in the lack of full-length APP, JIP-1 will not. Additionally, JIP-1-induced activation can be Suggestion60 3rd party, whereas a complicated with Help, Fe65, and Suggestion60 can be shaped for Fe65-induced activation. Finally, and most interestingly probably, we display that even though the APP family APLP1 and APLP2 (for amyloid precursor-like protein) can cause activation in combination Rabbit polyclonal to AACS with Fe65, APLP1 and APLP2 show little or no activation in combination with JIP-1. This activity for the AID fragment may help explain the unique functions of APP relative to its other family members, and changes in gene expression found in Alzheimers disease. The importance of amyloid protein ...
In Huntingtons disease there is a characteristic selective loss of neurons. The finding of pathological intraneuronal protein aggregations, that partially consist of huntingtin fragments, was suggested to be the cause of nerve cell loss. This histological study on postmortem brain tissue now shows a dissociation between huntingtin aggregation and the selective pattern of nerve cell loss. In primary degenerating brain regions and nerve cell subpopulations, there are significantly fewer intraneuronal huntingtin aggregates than in regions and neurons that are relatively spared in the degenerative process. Furthermore, it is observed that within vulnerable nerve cell subpopulations there are degenerating neurons that don t contain any huntingtin aggregates, while in neurons that are relatively spared from degeneration there are strikingly often perikaryal and intranuclear huntingtin aggregates. These observations indicate that huntingtin aggregations per se are not directly responsible for cell ...
Kim-1-induced kidney injury was associated with reduction of growth of adult fish. Collapsin response mediator protein 3 increases the dendritic arborization of is vidalista 10 generic cialis buy online hippocampal neurons. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evidence with perindopril. A ...
Title: Increased CRMP2 Phosphorylation is Observed in Alzheimers Disease; Does this Tell us Anything About Disease Development?. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):M. P.M. Soutar, P. Thornhill, A. R. Cole and C. Sutherland. Affiliation:Biomedical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, United Kingdom.. Abstract: Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) was recently identified as a physiological substrate for GSK3 and Cdk5, two protein kinases suggested to exhibit greater activity in Alzheimer s disease (AD). Indeed, phosphorylation of CRMP2, at the residues targeted by GSK3 and Cdk5, is relatively high in cortex isolated from human AD brain, as well as in the brains of animal models of AD, while phospho-CRMP2 is found in neurofibrillary tangles. In mouse models of AD, increased phosphorylation occurs prior to pathology. Although CRMP2 has no known enzymatic activity, a great deal of information is appearing on its importance in neuronal ...
Background and purpose: Glia maturation factor (GMF), a brain specific protein, discovered and characterized in our laboratory, induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines/ chemokines in the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, it has been demonstrated that deficiency of GMF mitigates neuronal damage in tissue culture cell and animal models of neurodegeneration. Since, GMF expression in brain enhances inflammation; we tested the hypothesis that deficiency of GMF abrogates the inflammatory responses in experimental model of ischemic stroke.. Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 1 hour of occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) with a 7.0 monofilament in GMF-containing wild type (Wt) and GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice. Mice were anesthetized with 1-1.5% isoflurane mixed with medical oxygen. Body temperature was maintained at 37°C ± 1.0 using a heating pad. At 23 hours after ischemia/reperfusion, mice were tested for neurological scores and were sacrificed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein phosphatase 1 regulates huntingtin exon 1 aggregation and toxicity. AU - Branco-Santos, Joana. AU - Herrera, Federico. AU - Poças, Gonçalo M.. AU - Pires-Afonso, Yolanda. AU - Giorgini, Flaviano. AU - Domingos, Pedro M.. AU - Outeiro, Tiago F.. PY - 2017/10/1. Y1 - 2017/10/1. N2 - Huntingtons disease is neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin protein (N17). Here, we analysed the relative contribution of each phosphorylatable residue in the N17 region (T3, S13 and S16) towards huntingtin exon 1 (HTTex1) oligomerization, aggregation and toxicity in human cells and Drosophila neurons.We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation to show that expression of single phosphomimic mutations completely abolished HTTex1 aggregation in human cells. In Drosophila, mimicking phosphorylation at T3 decreased HTTex1 aggregation both in larvae and adult flies. Interestingly, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of ...
DRP-2, also known as collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2), is expressed at high levels in the developing nervous system and plays a critical…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nmnat restores neuronal integrity by neutralizing mutant Huntingtin aggregate-induced progressive toxicity. AU - Zhu, Yi. AU - Li, Chong. AU - Tao, Xianzun. AU - Brazill, Jennifer M.. AU - Park, Joun. AU - Diaz-Perez, Zoraida. AU - Grace Zhai, R.. PY - 2019/9/17. Y1 - 2019/9/17. N2 - Accumulative aggregation of mutant Huntingtin (Htt) is a primary neuropathological hallmark of Huntingtons disease (HD). Currently, mechanistic understanding of the cytotoxicity of mutant Htt aggregates remains limited, and neuroprotective strategies combating mutant Htt-induced neurodegeneration are lacking. Here, we show that in Drosophila models of HD, neuronal compartment-specific accumulation of mutant Htt aggregates causes neurodegenerative phenotypes. In addition to the increase in the number and size, we discovered an age-dependent acquisition of thioflavin S+, amyloid-like adhesive properties of mutant Htt aggregates and a concomitant progressive clustering of aggregates with mitochondria ...
A novel gene therapy drug developed by antibody company Vybion has been shown to block cellular gene dysregulation and delay cognitive and motor problems associated with Huntingtons disease. The details of the intrabody drug INT41, an antibody that binds to an intracellular protein, were published in the Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases.. INT41 prevents toxic N-terminal huntingtin fragments from being transported into the nucleus of the cell and blocks them from binding with the DNA. The drug was tested in the well-validated R6/2 mouse model of Huntingtons disease.. We believe that our therapeutic approach to the treatment of Huntingtons disease has provided a biological rationale linking Huntingtons disease progression and toxic N-terminal fragments, said Dr. Lee Henderson, CEO of Vybion. We look forward to completing our plans for human patient trials.. The drug candidate is currently in late-stage preclinical development for the treatment of Huntingtons disease. Vybions ...
Huntingtons disease (HD) is caused by an abnormal expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract within the Huntingtin (Htt) protein. Recent studies have demonstra...
Huntingtons disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the N-terminal region of mutant huntingtin (mHtt). As a result, mHtt forms aggregates that are abundant in the nuclei and processes of neuronal cells. Although the roles of mHtt aggregates are still debated, the formation of aggregates points to deficient clearance of mHtt in brain cells. Since the accumulation of mHtt is a prerequisite for its neurotoxicity, exploring the mechanisms for mHtt accumulation and clearance would advance our understanding of HD pathogenesis and help us develop treatments for HD. We know that the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy play important roles in clearing mHtt; however, how mHtt preferentially accumulates in neuronal nuclei and processes remains unclear. Studying the clearance of mHtt in neuronal cells is a challenge because neurons are morphologically and functionally polarized, which means the turnover of mHtt may be
Manhasset, NY - Investigators at The The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research have discovered a new way to measure the progression of Huntingtons disease, using positron emission tomography (PET) to scan the brains of carriers of the gene. The findings are published in the September issue of The Journal of Clinical Investigation.. Huntingtons disease causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, which leads to impairments in movement, thinking and emotions. Most people with Huntingtons disease develop signs and symptoms in their 40s or 50s, but the onset of disease may be earlier or later in life. Medications are available to help manage the symptoms of Huntingtons disease, but treatments do not prevent the physical, mental and behavioral decline associated with the condition.. Huntingtons disease is an inherited disease, passed from parent to child through a mutation in the normal gene. Each child of a parent with Huntingtons disease has a 50/50 chance of inheriting ...
High throughput screening Scientists know that the faulty huntingtin protein causes HD, but how it kills cells is not fully known. By screening hundreds of compounds, scientists hope to find one that prevents the aggregation or cleavage of the mutant huntingtin protein - and thereby stops the cells being killed. If successful, they will try this in tissue culture, then examine the effects on animals carrying the faulty HD gene. If the results of both these are successful, the compound can be safety tested in preparation for human trials. ...
Two neuron-specific proteins, neurogranin (Ng), and neuromodulin (GAP43), were studied. Our first aim was to know the potentiality of various chemicals for their induction of Ng mRNA expression; our second one was to know the intracellular localization of GAP43 and its co-localization with calmodulin (CaM). Our results indicated that although some of the NO donors could enhance Ng promoter activity, they could not induce Ng mRNA expression in HEK293 and PC12 cells. Moreover, our findings revealed that Ng mRNA could be induced only by NGF and only in PC12 cells. For GAP43b s intracellular localization and co-localization with CaM, our results revealed DsRed-GAP43 and its mutants (S41D, S41G) were expressed mainly in the region near to cell membrane while EGFP-GAP43 and its mutants (S41D, S41G) were mostly distributed in cytoplasm. PMA treatment did not affect the localization of GAP43. For the co-transfection experiments, a particular region of co-localization of GAP43 and CaM was found to be ...
LC3-mHTT-IN-2 (Compound AN2) is a mHTT-LC3 linker compound, which interacts with both mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) and LC3B but not with wtHTT or irrelevant control proteins. LC3-mHTT-IN-2 reduces the levels of mHTT in an allele-selective manner in cultured Huntington disease (HD) mouse neurons. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Our enthusiasm for this program is bolstered by a compelling set of preclinical data that demonstrated selectivity, potency, and durability of WVE-003 with effects in relevant brain regions. Further, emerging data continue to indicate that a fundamental requirement for clinical success in HD treatment will be the need to preserve wild-type HTT protein, supporting our allele-selective approach to mutant HTT protein reduction.. Waves approach to HD and the WVE-003 program is guided by the recognition that, in addition to a gain of function of the mHTT protein, people with this disease have lost one copy of the wtHTT allele, leaving them with a smaller protective reservoir of healthy protein than unaffected individuals. A growing body of scientific evidence suggests that preserving as much of this essential wtHTT protein as possible, when in the setting of stress from the toxic mHTT protein, may be important for favorable clinical outcomes.. WVE-003 incorporates the companys novel PN backbone ...
These data are consistent with previous reports of intronic miRNA function, in which the miRNA regulates the same biological process as the protein encoded by the host gene.29 miR-218 may contribute to fine-tuning of Slit-Robo pathway genes or generate negative feedback in response to Slit gene activation. It is interesting to speculate that miR-218 may serve to repress the expression of the Robo1/2 receptors in the Slit ligand-expressing cells, thereby spatially separating ligand from receptor. Because Robo4 is not a target of miR-218 regulation, it also is possible that miR-218 affects the ratio of Robo1/2 and Robo4 proteins, thereby influencing vascular patterning.. It is currently debated whether the Robo1 and -2 receptors provide a positive or negative influence on EC migration, although Robo4 is generally thought of as a repulsive or stabilizing cue during vascular pathfinding.9,37 In our hands, it appears that repression of Robo1/2 and HSPG biosynthetic molecules by miR-218 negatively ...
Purified Recombinant Mouse Htt Protein, MYC/DDK-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Mouse Htt Protein, MYC/DDK-tagged can be used for research.
Day 68 is the most gene-poor of any part of Chromosome 3: only four protein-coding genes (browser view). Two are related: ROBO1 and ROBO2 (roundabout homologs 1 and 2).. Roundabout genes were discovered in fly. The roundabout proteins are on the surface of growing axons in the brain, and help them decide whether to cross between the halves of the brain.. Roundabout genes are found as far away as worm, meaning they are at least 550 million years old.. Click here to see the sequence of Day 68 with ROBO1 underlined.. ...
Provided herein are methods, compounds, and compositions for reducing expression of huntingtin mRNA and protein in an animal. Such methods, compounds, and compositions are useful to treat, prevent, delay, or ameliorate Huntingtons disease, or a symptom thereof.
We designed ISIS-HTTRx to target the huntingtin gene and reduce the production of huntingtin protein, which is the known cause of the disease, stated Frank Bennett, Ph.D., the Isis senior vice president for research. This approach has the potential to prevent or slow the progression of this disease. If this first-in-human trial proves the drug is safe, we look forward to continuing our successful partnership with Roche to bring the drug to market ...
Huntingtons disease is caused by the pathological expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch in Huntingtin (Htt), but the molecular mechanisms by which polyQ expansion in Htt causes toxicity in selective neuronal populations remain poorly understood. Interestingly, heterologous expression of expa …
I have been continuing to characterise the huntingtin protein samples I am generating in the lab. You can read about my first attempts to map post-translational modifications by mass spec here. Previously I found phosphorylation modifications on the huntingtin protein which are located on the same sites as huntingtin protein derived from human cells which Read More …. ...
Huntingtons disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects around five people in every 100,000. It is caused by an increase in a polyglutamine region of the Huntingtin protein, resulting in a toxic gain of function mutation...
Legleiter J, Lotz GP, Miller J, Ko J, Ng C, Williams GL, Finkbeiner S, Patterson PH, Muchowski PJ. Monoclonal antibodies recognize distinct conformational epitopes formed by polyglutamine in a mutant huntingtin fragment ...
The Hereditary Disease Array Group (HDAG) today reported important new findings on Huntingtons disease, in six peer-reviewed papers published in the online version of the August 15th issue of Human Molecular Genetics. The papers are part of the HDAGs two-year research effort that brought over 50 scientists from 19 universities together to discover how the mutant Huntingtons disease gene causes brain cells to die by affecting other biological pathways.
A defect in a single gene causes Huntingtons disease. Its considered an autosomal dominant disorder. This means that one copy of the abnormal gene is enough to cause the disease. If one of your parents has this genetic defect, you have a 50 percent chance of inheriting it. You can also pass it on to your children.. The genetic mutation responsible for Huntingtons disease is different from many other mutations. There isnt a substitution or a missing section in the gene. Instead, there is a copying error. An area within the gene is copied too many times. The number of repeated copies tends to increase with each generation.. In general, symptoms of Huntingtons disease show up earlier in people with a larger number of repeats. The disease also progresses faster as more repeats build up.. ...
How do you get Huntingtons disease?. Huntingtons disease is caused by a faulty gene, which is passed from parent to child. The faulty gene makes a faulty protein called huntingtin. Scientists throughout the world are working to find out exactly what this protein does.. Each person whose parent has Huntingtons disease is born with a 50-50 chance of inheriting the faulty gene on chromosome 4 . Anyone who inherits the gene will at some stage develop the disease. ...
Researchers say the Huntingtin gene affects brain development from an early age, even though most patients do not develop Huntingtons disease until later life.
The Recombinant Human NUCB2 (Nesfatin) produced in E.coli has a molecular mass of 9.7kDa containing 82 amino acid residues of the human NUCB2.
Huntingtons Disease impacts people around the world with a growing occurrence, which may have important biological, economic, and social implications for the future. All over the world, communities impacted by HD are coming together to work towards new solutions and ways to cope. Our team has developed a graphic concordant with other cartographic representations of HD prevalence. ...
In collaboration with Dr. Macdonald and others at CHDI, the Isis HD team is working to validate huntingtin lowering biomarkers. Beside the development of assays (investigative procedures) to measure the huntingtin protein in CSF, CHDI is also looking at PET-ligands to measure the effects of ISIS-HTTRx in the brain. The ligand, sometimes called a PET tracer, binds to a target or receptor in the brain, which can be measured in people using PET scan imaging. The team has selected ligands to targets that are altered in HD; the hope is that when huntingtin is lowered the level of these targets will be restored, indicating that ISIS-HTTRx has a desired effect ...
Commonly asked questions about Huntingtons Disease. Learn about causes, symptoms, types, stages and treatments of Huntingtons Disease. Call:(866) 280-4722
Pūrere Battery. Hokona nga waahanga hiko Pūrere Battery mai i te kaitautoko o nga waahanga hiko nui o te ao - Infinity-Electron.com
Bocahut A., Bernad S., Sebban P., Sacquin-Mora S. 2009. Relating the Diffusion of Small Ligands in Human Neuroglobin to Its Structural and Mechanical Properties. J. Phys. Chem. B. 113:16257-16267. ...
Researchers from four organizations have identified more than 200 new proteins that bind to normal and mutant forms of the protein that causes Huntingtons disease (HD). HD is a fatal inherited disease that affects 30,000 Americans annually by laying waste to their nervous system. The research was led by Buck Institute faculty member Robert E. Hughes, Ph.D.
Huntingtons disease causes a progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain. Find out about symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
This list covers nerve tissue proteins. For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes (D12.776). Codes before these ... MeSH D12.776.641.580.510.500 - myelin p2 protein MeSH D12.776.641.600.381.500 - glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor ...
... is a type of nerve tissue protein. Chimerins are a family of non-PKC phorbol-ester receptors. They were the first to ... Over expression of this protein in hippocampus tissue can inhibit the formation of new spines and remove existing spines. α2- ... an SH2-containing GTPase-activating protein for the ras-related protein p21rac derived by alternate splicing of the human n- ... α1-Chimerin is a GTPase-activating protein in the brain that effects the ras related p21rac. α1-Chimerin is also able to ...
Connective tissue in the peripheral nervous system Epineurium Nerve fascicle Nerve fiber Perineurium "Neurohistology lecture" ( ... The endoneurium contains a liquid known as endoneurial fluid, which contains little protein. In the peripheral nervous system ... In sufficiently large nerves multiple fascicles, each with its blood supply and fatty tissue, may be bundled within yet another ... Peripheral nerve injuries commonly release increased amounts of endoneurial fluid into surrounding tissues; these can be ...
... shows that weakness is caused by destruction of muscle tissue rather than by damage to nerves.) Genetic testing (looks for ... if a primary protein is not functioning properly then maybe another protein could take its place by augmenting it. Upregulation ... checks the level of Creatine Kinase proteins in the blood. Creatine Kinase proteins are normally found inside of healthy muscle ... but the enlarged muscle tissue is eventually replaced by fat and connective tissue (pseudohypertrophy) as the legs become less ...
It can also be used for light microscopy to stain nerve tissue. It is normally available as 8% silver in combination with ... The inventor of the first silver protein formulation was Arthur Eichengrün, a German chemist working for Bayer. It was ...
Degeneration of nerve tissue in the spinal cord causes the ataxia; particularly affected are the sensory neurons essential for ... acyl carrier protein and ATPase-mediated transfer to recipient proteins". Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 55: 34-44. doi: ... Degeneration of nerve tissue in the spinal cord causes ataxia. The sensory neurons essential for directing muscle movement of ... The disease primarily affects the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The spinal cord becomes thinner and nerve cells lose some ...
It has moderate expression in testis, larynx, nerve, blood, and adipose tissue sites. According to the Human Protein Atlas, ... "Tissue Atlas". The Human Protein Atlas. "Ensembl". Ensembl. "Ensembl". Ensembl. "Uniprot". Uniprot. "Expasy". Expasy. "PSORT II ... The protein is largely coiled. The DUF is composed mainly of alpha helices and coils. It has slightly fewer beta sheets ... PROSER1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PROSER1 gene. PROSER1 has several aliases: C13orf23, KIAA2032, and ...
... because it can cause injury to soft tissue and/or the nerves and vascular structures around the dislocation.[3] ... syndrome is genetically inherited disorder that is thought to affect the encoding of the connective tissue protein's collagen ... A joint dislocation can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.[2] Dislocations can occur in ... Vessel and nerve injuries during a shoulder dislocation is rare, but can cause many impairments and requires a longer recovery ...
As a result, muscle atrophy and soft tissue injuries due to delayed nerve transmission can occur. In males, due to the ... Gap junction beta-1 protein (GJB1), also known as connexin 32 (Cx32) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by ... Gap junction beta-1 protein is a member of the gap junction connexin family of proteins that regulates and controls the ... GJB1 is a gap junction, beta 1 protein also identified as connexin 32, with 238 amino acids. This protein contains four ...
... the roles of proteins showing loss of nerve tissue such as neurofilaments, tau, and N-acetylaspartate are under investigation.[ ... These features interact in a complex and not yet fully understood manner to produce the breakdown of nerve tissue and in turn ... The nervous system in MS may respond less actively to stimulation of the optic nerve and sensory nerves due to demyelination of ... Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord ...
... is an R-SMAD-binding protein and acts as a transcriptional corepressor. ZEB2 transcripts are found in tissues ... disease also has many symptoms that can be explained by lack of ZEB2 during development of the digestive tract nerves. This ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB2 gene. The ZEB2 protein is a ... "Smad-interacting protein 1 is a repressor of liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase transcription in bone morphogenetic protein ...
... its abundant expression in brain suggests that it may have an essential role in nerve tissue. Several alternatively spliced ... Olfactomedin 1, also known as noelin 1 or pancortin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OLFM1 gene. The name noelin ... "Identification and cloning of neuroblastoma-specific and nerve tissue-specific genes through compiled expression profiles". DNA ... "Entrez Gene: OLFM1 olfactomedin 1". Anholt, Robert R. H. (2014). "Olfactomedin proteins: central players in development and ...
Inside the tunic is the body wall or mantle composed of connective tissue, muscle fibres, blood vessels, and nerves. Two ... The cellulose body wall can be broken down and converted into ethanol, and other parts of the animal are protein-rich and can ... Nerves arise from the two ends of the ganglion; those from the anterior end innervate the buccal siphon and those from the ... Their name derives from their unique outer covering or "tunic", which is formed from proteins and carbohydrates, and acts as an ...
These muscular diseases usually arise from a pathology within the muscle tissue itself rather than the nerves innervating that ... Abnormal levels of these proteins are indicative of both inflammatory myopathy and ANIM. EMGs are particularly useful in ... A myopathy refers to a problem or abnormality with the myofibrils, which compose muscle tissue. In general, non-inflammatory ... Statins induce myopathy by inhibiting protein synthesis within the muscle. Statin therapy tends to not show any ...
... the protein that causes cell growth due to stimulated nerve tissue. On 1 August 2001, she was appointed as Senator for Life by ... the nerves took over areas that would become other tissues and even entered veins in the embryo. But nerves did not grow into ... from observations of certain cancerous tissues that cause extremely rapid growth of nerve cells. By transferring pieces of ... The discovery of nerves growing everywhere like a halo around the tumor cells was surprising. When describing it, Montalcini ...
... the roles of proteins showing loss of nerve tissue such as neurofilaments, tau, and N-acetylaspartate are under investigation. ... These features interact in a complex and not yet fully understood manner to produce the breakdown of nerve tissue and in turn ... The nervous system in MS may respond less actively to stimulation of the optic nerve and sensory nerves due to demyelination of ... These lesions most commonly affect the white matter in the optic nerve, brain stem, basal ganglia, and spinal cord, or white ...
... can facilitate speed of transmission of electrical impulses along nerve tissue. For many neuron fibers, a myelin sheath, rich ... sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and 2). In the presence of cholesterol, SREBP is bound to two other proteins: SCAP ... Chylomicrons carry fats from the intestine to muscle and other tissues in need of fatty acids for energy or fat production. ... HDL particles are thought to transport cholesterol back to the liver, either for excretion or for other tissues that synthesize ...
Juvenile retinoschisis is a disease that affects the nerve tissue in the eye. This disease is an X-linked recessive ... When mutations occur in the rhodopsin the directional protein movement is affected because the mutations can affect protein ... The protein RPE65 is used in the retinoid cycle where the all-trans-retinol within the rod outer segment is isomerized to its ... In normal tissues VEGF stimulates endothelial cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner, but such activity is lost with ...
... nerve tissue mini-hemoglobin (lack the first helix but otherwise is more similar to conventional globins than the truncated ... For simple proteins, it can be the entire protein.. Classes[edit]. The broadest groups on SCOP version 1.75 are the protein ... The source of protein structures is the Protein Data Bank. The unit of classification of structure in SCOP is the protein ... Protein domain: The domains in families are grouped into protein domains, which are essentially the same protein. ...
It may be found in tissue sections from almost every part of the body. It surrounds blood vessels and nerves and penetrates ... Fibroblasts are widely dispersed in this tissue; they are irregular branching cells that secrete strong fibrous proteins and ... is a category of connective tissue which includes areolar tissue, reticular tissue, and adipose tissue. Loose connective tissue ... areolar connective tissue, reticular connective tissue, and adipose tissue. It is a pliable, mesh-like tissue with a fluid ...
DHX8 protein is not expressed in all tissues and organs significantly, some clear examples are the bone marrow or the soft ... tissue (Peripheral nerve), where we do not have enough quantity of the protein to be representative. Assays in enzymology for ... "Tissue expression of DHX8 - Summary - The Human Protein Atlas". www.proteinatlas.org. Retrieved 2019-10-25. Maity R, Pauty J, ... Protein DHX8 is part of a protein complex called spliceosome, which is in charge of pre-mRNA splicing. The spliceosome has ...
Nerve growth factor levels in inflamed or injured tissues are increased creating an increased sensitivity to pain (hyperalgesia ... which in turn activates protein kinase A. Protein kinase A phosphorylates Nav1.8 at intracellular sites, resulting in increased ... Malik-Hall M, Poon WY, Baker MD, Wood JN, Okuse K (February 2003). "Sensory neuron proteins interact with the intracellular ... Therefore, nociceptors are easily sensitised by agents such as bradykinin and nerve growth factor, which are released at the ...
... such as three-dimensional microstructural scaffolding and protein components inherent to nerve tissue. One of the adverse ... Another option to bridge the gap is nerve allotransplantation. Nerve allografts are prepared from donated human nerve tissue. ... In case of insufficient amount of autologous nerve tissue or the inability to attach both nerve ends securely and tension free ... Golden standard therapy for transected nerves is an end-to-end repair of the nerve, also known as primary nerve repair. With a ...
By attaching to integrin, natalizumab is thought to stop white blood cells from entering the brain and spinal cord tissue, ... Natalizumab, is a monoclonal antibody which targets a protein called α4β1 integrin on white blood cells involved in ... thereby reducing inflammation and the resulting nerve damage. The most common side effects are urinary tract infection, ... expressed in the endothelium of venules in the small intestine and are critical in guiding T-lymphocytes to lymphatic tissues ...
Encephalopsins and neuropsins are highly expressed in nerve cells and brain tissue, but so far their function is unknown. ... a protein moiety and a reversibly covalently bound non-protein cofactor, retinal (retinaldehyde). The protein structure of ... Retinylidene protein, is a family of proteins that use retinal as a chromophore for light reception. It is the molecular basis ... Retinylidene proteins include all forms of opsin and rhodopsin (in the broad sense). While rhodopsin in the narrow sense refers ...
Nerve tissue is a biological molecule related to the function and maintenance of normal nervous tissue. An example would ... Calcium-Sensor Proteins Neuropeptides Olfactory Marker Protein S100 Proteins Synapsins Synaptophysin Synucleins Tubulin Nerve+ ... Brain Nerve Growth Factors Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2 Neurofilament Proteins Neurogranin Neuronal Apoptosis- ... Peripheral nerves rely on communication between axons and Schwaan cells. Prion protein triggers are an important factor in the ...
The abnormal protein PrPSc accumulates in the brain and destroys nerve cells, which leads to the mental and behavioral features ... Kardos J, Kovács I, Hajós F, Kálmán M, Simonyi M (August 1989). "Nerve endings from rat brain tissue release copper upon ... PRNP (prion protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (protease-resistant-protein, Pr for prion, and ... in the prion protein. Others insert additional amino acids into the protein or cause an abnormally short protein to be made. ...
Peripheral nervous system damage is typically treated by an autograft of nerve tissue to bridge a severed gap. This treatment ... or autologous tissue may produce the protein coating. Immediately following insertion, an implant (and the tissue damage from ... As proteins are made up of different sequences of amino acids, proteins can have various functions as its structural shape ... Protein adhesion can be encouraged by favorably altering the surface charge of a biomaterial. Improved protein adhesion leads ...
... and BMP associated proteins in human trabecular meshwork and optic nerve head cells and tissues". Molecular Vision. 8: 241-50. ... Bone morphogenetic protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BMP5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... These proteins are synthesized as prepropeptides, cleaved, and then processed into dimeric proteins. This protein may act as an ... "Decrease in expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 5 in synovial tissue of patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid ...
Lipid solubility, blood flow in the tissue, and presence of vasoconstrictors with the anesthetic all play a role in this. A ... G protein-coupled receptors, NMDA receptors, and calcium channels in vitro. The duration of the block is mostly influenced by ... Local anesthetic nerve block (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve ... The local anesthetic bathes the nerve and numbs the area of the body that is supplied by that nerve. The goal of the nerve ...
Nerve tissue is a biological molecule related to the function and maintenance of normal nervous tissue. An example would ... Calcium-Sensor Proteins Neuropeptides Olfactory Marker Protein S100 Proteins Synapsins Synaptophysin Synucleins Tubulin Nerve+ ... Brain Nerve Growth Factors Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2 Neurofilament Proteins Neurogranin Neuronal Apoptosis- ... Peripheral nerves rely on communication between axons and Schwaan cells. Prion protein triggers are an important factor in the ...
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors : amplicon search by FISH and protein expression profiling using tissue micro arrays. ... as well as the neurofibromin protein were analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a TMA with tissue cores from 106 MPNSTs and 3 ... which encodes the protein neurofibromin. This protein is in normal cells responsible for the deactivation of RAS through GTP- ... The second part of this study focused on in situ expression taking advantage of tissue microarray (TMA) as a tool for analyses ...
"Nerve Tissue Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Nerve Tissue Proteins" was a major or minor topic of ... "Nerve Tissue Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Nerve Tissue Proteins*Nerve Tissue Proteins. *Proteins, Nerve Tissue. *Tissue Proteins, Nerve ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Nerve Tissue Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism. Substance. *Nerve Tissue Proteins. Grant support. *UL1 TR000005/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United ... glial fibrillary acidic protein; NF-KB, nuclear factor kappa B; CNP, 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase; MHC, myosin ... Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics. * ... Proteins*BioSystems. *BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Atypon. Other Literature Sources. *Cited by Patents in - ... At present, the majority of synaptic vesicle proteins has been characterized, and many have been genetically analyzed in mice, ... These studies have shown that synaptic vesicles contain proteins with diverse structures and functions. Although the genetic ...
Nerve tissue proteins‎ (226 F). *. ► Nervous system physiology‎ (1 C, 17 F) ... Inert gas tensions in the tissue compartments during a decompression dive.png 1 714 × 1 288; 527 KB. ...
Nerve tissue proteins‎ (226 В). *. ► Neuregulin-1‎ (13 В). *. ► Nevit Dilmen Proteins‎ (1 С, 215 В) ... Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism * Neuroglia / cytology * Neuroglia / physiology * Neurons / cytology * Neurons / physiology ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins. *Phenotype. *Psychological Tests. *Psychopathology. *Social Behavior. Get free article suggestions today ...
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Nevi and Melanomas. Adalimumab. Obinutuzumab. Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Antirheumatic Agents. ... A Study of RO7293583 in Participants With Unresectable Metastatic Tyrosinase Related Protein 1 (TYRP1)-Positive Melanomas. The ...
Here, we report a method for the fast mapping of interfaces of protein complexes by NMR without the need for the assignments of ... Identifying the interface of protein complexes can represent a difficult task in structural biology. ... Nerve Tissue Proteins / chemistry* * Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism * Nitric Oxide Synthase / chemistry* ... Fast mapping of protein-protein interfaces by NMR spectroscopy J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Nov 26;125(47):14250-1. doi: 10.1021/ ...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase C in rats' nerve tissues ... nerve tissues. 2,5-hexanedione (HD) treatment alters calmodulin, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein ... NF-M and NF-H were also elevated in nerve tissues, which was consistent with the activation of protein kinases. The results ... protein kinase C, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Febs Letters 258(1): ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins. *Neural Inhibition. *Neuromuscular Agents (therapeutic use). *Neuromuscular Disorders. *Physical Therapy ... People with SPS may have certain proteins in their blood called anti-GAD antibodies that may cause some of the symptoms of the ... This syndrome is thought to be an autoimmune dieases in which the body produces antibodies that attack certain healthy tissues ... Both the rigidity and the spasms are relieved by sleep, general anaesthesia, myoneural blockade and peripheral nerve blockade. ...
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue. Meningeal Neoplasms. Vatalanib. Protein Kinase Inhibitors. Enzyme ... Correlation of response rates with the expression of certain types of genes will be assessed by examining tissue samples taken ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Soft Tissue Sarcoma Meningioma Brain Tumor, Adult Hemangiopericytoma ... Negative proteinuria dipstick OR total urinary protein ≤ 500 mg AND creatinine clearance ≥ 50 mL/min ...
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Lenvatinib. Antineoplastic Agents. Protein Kinase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms ... Subjects with urine protein ≥ 1 g/24h will be ineligible.. *Gastrointestinal malabsorption, or any other condition in the ...
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Sorafenib. Antineoplastic Agents. Protein Kinase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms ... for visceral or nodal/soft tissue disease. ...
1974) Isolation of myelin from nerve tissue. Methods Enzymol 31:435-444. ... The proteolipid protein (PLP) gene encodes two myelin-specific protein isoforms, DM-20 and PLP, which are members of the highly ... 1996) Parallel evolution and coexpression of the proteolipid proteins and protein zero in vertebrate myelin. Neuron 16:1115- ... 1999) Identification of a new exon in the myelin proteolipid protein gene encoding novel protein isoforms that are restricted ...
A new material made of carbon nanotubes supports the growth of nerve fibers, bridging segregated neural explants and providing ... Engineers can detect ultra rare proteins in blood using a cellphone camera. February 19, 2019 One of the frontiers of medical ... A bridge of carbon between nerve tissues. July 15, 2016, International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA) ... In the present study, Ballerini and her team first investigated the materials reaction to nerve tissue in vitro. "We explanted ...
0/Fabp7 protein, rat; 0/Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins; 0/Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; 0/Neoplasm Proteins; 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins ... Neoplasm Proteins*. Nerve Tissue Proteins*. Omentum / cytology. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Stem Cells / metabolism*. Substrate ... Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Epididymis. Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins. Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / ... Adipose-specific fatty acid binding protein (aP2) and keratinocyte lipid binding protein abundance was higher in differentiated ...
Proto-Oncogene Proteins. *DNA-Binding Proteins. *Neoplastic Cell Transformation. *Nerve Tissue Proteins ... Lmo2 is part of a protein complex comprised of class II basic helix loop helix proteins, Tal1and Lyl1. The latter transcription ... we found that TLX expression was high in NB patient tissues when compared with normal peripheral nervous system tissues. ... while enhancing TAp73 mRNA and protein expression. Conversely, CK2 inhibitor attenuation of CSC protein expression and the SP ...
rac1 GTP-Binding Protein. *Nerve Tissue Proteins. *Membrane Glycoproteins. *Tumor Suppressor Gene ... Osprey software was used to construct the interaction network of DEGs, and genes at protein-protein interaction (PPI) nodes ... BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish an osteosarcoma (OS) associated protein-protein interaction network and ... Establishing an osteosarcoma associated protein-protein interaction network to explore the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma.. Eur J ...
Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 7); 0 (Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins); 0 (Insulin); 0 (Lipids); 0 (Neoplasm Proteins); 0 (Nerve Tissue ... 0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Carrier Proteins); 0 (Dietary Fats); 0 (Fabp5 protein, mouse); 0 (Fabp7 protein, mouse); 0 ( ... The intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) belongs to a family of 15 kDa clamshell-like proteins that are found in many ... Leptin (OB protein) elicits a neuroendocrine response to starvation and states of nutritional abundance to stabilize the ...
Here we report that guanylate kinase-associated protein (GKAP; also known as SAPAP), a scaffolding molecule linking NMDA ... How does chronic activity modulation lead to global remodeling of proteins at synapses and synaptic scaling? ... 0/Membrane Proteins; 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0/Psd protein, rat; 0/SAPAP proteins ... Membrane Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics, metabolism*. Neuronal Plasticity / physiology*. ...
0 (Integrin beta1); 0 (Nerve Tissue Proteins); 0 (SHARPIN protein, human); 0 (Talin); 0 (Ubiquitins); EC 3.6.1.- (RRAS protein ... GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go); EC (rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins); EC (rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins). ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt); EC (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases). ... atypically for G protein-coupled receptors that normally act on heterotrimeric G proteins. Through multidimensional screenings ...
Nerve tissue; Tissue culture; Animals; Laboratory animals; Molecular biology; Exposure levels; Risk factors; Proteins; Cell ... and nerve tissues. Methods: Transcript expression in tissues from control and vibration-exposed rats (4 h/day for 10 days at ... Other pathways associated with breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein related signaling, or associated with cancer and ... Vibration; Models; Vibration exposure; Injuries; Skin; Nerves; ...
Tissue-culture; Animals; Laboratory-animals; Fibrosis; Bone-structure; Muscles; Nerve-tissue; Nerve-function; Proteins; ... Increased tendon calcification and a bone mineralization protein in musculoskeletal tissues with repetitive reaching task. ... Musculoskeletal tissues were harvested. Soft tissues were dissected out and frozen sectioned en bloc into 15 micrometer ... nerves and associated loose connective tissues. Osteoactivin (OA) is a recently identified factor that plays a role in bone ...
... and Purification of Soluble and Insoluble Biotinylated Proteins for Nerve Tissue Regeneration, Reverse Genetics Mediated ... Combining Wet and Dry Lab Techniques to Guide the Crystallization of Large Coiled-coil Containing Proteins. ... Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for the Identification of Multiple Phosphorylations of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, ... Kinetics of Lagging-strand DNA Synthesis In Vitro by the Bacteriophage T7 Replication Proteins, Protocols for Implementing an ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins. 1. 2015. 4829. 0.060. Why? Analysis of Variance. 1. 2010. 6916. 0.050. Why? ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins. 1. 2013. 4670. 0.050. Why? Risk Assessment. 1. 2020. 22491. 0.050. Why? ...
Lymphoid Tissue · Mice · Mice, Inbred Strains · Myelin Sheath · Nerve Tissue Proteins · Species Specificity · T-Lymphocytes · ... protein aggregation · protein degradation · protein expression · protein folding · protein phosphorylation · protein structure ... heat shock protein 90 · I kappa B · immunoglobulin enhancer binding protein · protein bcl 2 · RANTES · tau protein · toll like ... Chemicals/CAS: Crystallins; H-2 Antigens; Interferon Type II, 82115-62-6; Interleukin-4, 207137-56-2; Nerve Tissue Proteins ...
  • Immunohistochemical analysis largely confirmed the results of the western blot analysis with often localization of Ninjurin-1 in the regions with abundant connective tissues . (bvsalud.org)
  • A normal result means the bone marrow contains the proper number and types of blood-forming (hematopoietic) cells, fat cells, and connective tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Our results indicate that performance of a high rate, low force (HRLF) task regimen results in injury, inflammation and fibrosis in bone, muscles, tendons, nerves and associated loose connective tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Traditional bodybuilding exercises focus on the contractile element of the muscle responsible for generating force, yet it is the fascia and elastic connective tissues (ECT) that control how that force is transmitted throughout the body. (acefitness.org)
  • Fascia and connective tissues contain more sensory nerve endings than muscle tissue. (acefitness.org)
  • The misshapen protein from the mutated gene weakens the tendons, ligaments and other connective tissues in the body. (dnalc.org)
  • In sympathetic neurons, the expression of NAIP-BIR3 and hippocalcin did not provide any significant protection from cell death from the withdrawal of nerve growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • When overexpressed, XIAP is able to block caspases extremely well and prevents cell death of sympathetic neurons when nerve growth factors are deprived. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve injury -induced protein (Ninjurin)-1 is a cell adhesion molecule that is upregulated in neurons and Schwann cells after transection injury in rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • The increased Na+-dependent amino acid uptake by BDNF is followed by an enhancement of overall protein synthesis associated with the differentiation of cortical neurons. (epfl.ch)
  • With the use of antisera against neurofilament protein (NFP) and S-100 protein which are specific for neurons and glial elements, respectively, the innervation in human teeth, rat molars, and rat periodontium was discussed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The nerve fibers showing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were first shown to be present in the predentin of rat molars with light and electron microscopes, and the functional significance of peptidergic neurons was discussed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Sensory neurons (a type of nerve cell) in culture that were exposed to p53-deficient oral cancer cells sprouted projections called neurites. (nih.gov)
  • These microRNAs nudge sensory neurons to reduce their normal gene activity and adopt genetic characteristics of a different class of nerve cells, known as adrenergic neurons, that are usually rare in the oral cavity. (nih.gov)
  • To confirm that the adrenergic neurons were promoting tumors, the scientists blunted adrenergic signaling in mice-either by disabling sensory nerves or giving adrenergic-blocking drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Nerve injury induces changes in gene transcription in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. (nature.com)
  • Here, we report that peripheral nerve injury increases expression of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a in the injured DRG neurons via the activation of the transcription factor octamer transcription factor 1. (nature.com)
  • Conversely, in the absence of nerve injury, mimicking this increase reduces the Kcna2 promoter activity, diminishes Kcna2 expression, decreases Kv current, increases excitability in DRG neurons and leads to spinal cord central sensitization and neuropathic pain symptoms. (nature.com)
  • We report here that the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3a, but not DNMT3b, is significantly increased in the injured DRG neurons after peripheral nerve injury. (nature.com)
  • In Alzheimer's disease, nerve cells (neurons) stop functioning, lose connections with each other and ultimately die. (healthcentral.com)
  • These data are consistent with interdepot differences in fatty acid flux ensuing from differences in fatty acid binding proteins and enzymes of fat metabolism. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The effect of Piracetam on rat cerebral protein metabolism in vivo and in vitro was studied. (tudelft.nl)
  • These products of cell metabolism are primarily nitrogenous substances derived from protein, especially ammonia, or possibly certain short-chain fatty acids. (britannica.com)
  • metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (for example, Vitamin B12 is necessary for the conversion of methylmalonate to succinic acid, an important Krebs cycle intermediate in energy production). (integratedhealth.com)
  • Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prion protein and antibodies POM1 and POM3, which recognize epitopes in the terminus (around amino acids (aa) 140-152) and charged clusters of prion protein (aa95-100) were used to their role in myelin maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interaction between NAIP and hippocalcin, a neuronal calcium-sensor protein, has been observed to take place in the zinc-binding region along with other specific amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLP differs from its smaller splice isoform, DM-20, by the presence of 35 amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain near the middle of the protein. (jneurosci.org)
  • This condition is caused by mutations in the NOG gene that change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the noggin protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These gene mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the noggin protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Both of these high-quality proteins are easily digested and contain nutritionally-significant amounts of all essential amino acids, arginine in particular. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Proteins provide the amino acids necessary for cell repair, neurotransmitter synthesis and immune function. (nfcr.org)
  • Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myelination of axons by these Schwann cells are essential for normal nerve function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral nerves rely on communication between axons and Schwaan cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is in normal cells responsible for the deactivation of RAS through GTP-hydrolysis and inactivation of the gene will lead to hyperstimulation of the MAP-kinase pathway. (uio.no)
  • Presumably, the appearance of exon 3b in amphibians ∼300 million years before present imparted new functions on the protein or proteins encoded by the ancestral PLP gene that proved to be advantageous to myelinating cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • The expression level of HIWI and HILI and cancer stem cells markers in paired cancerous and non-cancerous tissues was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. (cancerindex.org)
  • Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A virus is a self-assembling collection of proteins and genetic material, a bacteria is a free-living single cell and a protist is a complex organism consisting of multiple cells. (answers.com)
  • Alzheimer's tissue has many fewer nerve cells and synapses than a healthy brain. (alz.org)
  • Dead and dying nerve cells contain tangles, which are made up of twisted strands of another protein. (alz.org)
  • D-Ala2,D-Leu5]- enkephalin , which decreased cyclic AMP levels and reversed the 2-chloroadenosine-stimulated phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in differentiated PC12 cells, also reversed the stimulation of phosphorylation of the 90-kDa protein in NCB-20 cells. (curehunter.com)
  • This suggests that in NCB-20 cells, several unique proteins can be phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in response to hormonal elevation of cyclic AMP levels. (curehunter.com)
  • Chronic exposure can lead to destruction of nerve cells with replacement by scar tissue (gliosis). (britannica.com)
  • Aganglionic megacolon , or Hirschsprung disease, is a condition of unknown cause that is characterized by the absence of ganglion cells and normal nerve fibres from the distal (or lower) 3 to 40 cm (1 to 16 inches) of the large intestine. (britannica.com)
  • The brain is made up of billions of nerve cells that connect to each other. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • Eventually nerve cells die and brain tissue is lost. (alzheimers.org.uk)
  • Researchers are using the tissue, synthesized with human pluripotent stem cells and implanted into mice, to study a rare form of Hirschprung's disease. (the-scientist.com)
  • Boosts the ability to cause hyperplasia in muscle cells resulting in fuller muscle tissue. (burrillandco.com)
  • Over 25 years ago, Ali H. Brivanlou demonstrated that the protein Activin causes embryonic frog cells to take on traits specific to certain tissue types, a process called differentiation. (rockefeller.edu)
  • A protein found in the cells lining blood vessels plays a central role in preventing fluid and inflammatory cells from leaking into lung tissue in a low-oxygen environment, Weill Cornell Medicine researchers discovered. (healthcanal.com)
  • Annexin A2 is one of the proteins found in the junctions between tightly packed endothelial cells, which line blood vessels. (healthcanal.com)
  • When oxygen is low in the lung, compounds called phosphates can stick onto the gates, jamming them open and allowing fluid and inflammatory cells to pass into tissue. (healthcanal.com)
  • In engineered tissues the cells produce initially an immature matrix, and the maturation process makes it tougher," Makris said. (healthcanal.com)
  • Scientists discovered a new role for nerves in oral cancer progression, in which tumor cells send genetic messages that transform nerves into cancer-promoting agents. (nih.gov)
  • Effective therapies must target both the tumor and its microenvironment-the supportive network of connective tissue, blood vessels, cells, and molecules that surround the tumor. (nih.gov)
  • The scientists found that spherical delivery vehicles called extracellular vesicles were transferring the microRNAs from tumors to nerve cells in the microenvironment. (nih.gov)
  • Binding to cells via a high affinity receptor, laminin is thought to mediate the attachment, migration and organization of cells into tissues during embryonic development by interacting with other extracellular matrix components. (abcam.com)
  • These protein formations lead to loss of dopamine-generating cells. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Amyloid plaques consist of dense, mostly insoluble clumps in the spaces between the nerve cells in the brain tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • The plaques are made up of beta-amyloid, which is a protein peptide or fragment that appears to have toxic effects on the function of the surrounding brain cells. (news-medical.net)
  • They involve the twisting of tau protein threads of the nerve cells in the brain tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • The difference between the plaques and tangles lies in their structure and effect on the nerve cells in the brain tissues. (news-medical.net)
  • Amyloid plaques are clusters that form in the spaces between the nerve cells, whereas the neurofibrillary tangles are a knot of the brain cells. (news-medical.net)
  • It is a progressive disorder of the brain and is characterized by a gradual deterioration of mental faculties caused by a loss of nerve cells and the connections between them. (healthcentral.com)
  • As nerve cells in the hippocampus break down, memory of recent events begins to fail, and the ability to do familiar tasks begins to decline as well. (healthcentral.com)
  • Amyloid plaques are a mixture of abnormal proteins and nerve cell fragments that develop in the tissue between nerve cells. (healthcentral.com)
  • When nerve cells die, this large molecule must be broken down and removed from the brain. (healthcentral.com)
  • The upper-most layer, known as the epidermis, controls the loss of water from cells and tissue. (medicinenet.com)
  • This protein forms a network of fibers that provides a framework for the growth of cells and blood vessels. (medicinenet.com)
  • The DMD gene codes for a large protein called dystrophin that is necessary for muscle cells to maintain their shape. (dnalc.org)
  • When this protein is missing, muscle cells literally explode as material from outside the cell walls leaks in raising cell pressure. (dnalc.org)
  • The NF2 gene produces a protein, called merlin, in the schwann cells that wrap around the axons of nerve cells. (dnalc.org)
  • Mutations in the HEX A gene cause a disorder called Tay-Sachs, where a person's nerve cells deteriorate and finally die. (dnalc.org)
  • Raw meat provides easily used proteins to build, rebuild, regenerate, and reproduce cells throughout the body. (barfworld.com)
  • Nerve cells are destroyed. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Autophagosome formation was also morphologically confirmed using ectopically expressed green fluorescent protein-LC3 fusion proteins in DLD-1 and SW480 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These structures result in connections between nerve cells being lost and the death of nerve cells and brain tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS. (umassmed.edu)
  • Gollan TJ, Green MR. Selective targeting and inducible destruction of human cancer cells by retroviruses with envelope proteins bearing short peptide ligands. (umassmed.edu)
  • Our laboratory has developed a novel method, called VBIM, for validation-based insertional mutagenesis, for inserting strong cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoters approximately randomly into the genomes of mammalian cells in tissue culture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The kinesin motor proteins, found in all cells, attach to microtubules and move along them to transport cellular cargoes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fewer tumors than expected had positive score of tumor protein 53 (TP53). (uio.no)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant anti- tumor and anti-virus protein for injection in treating patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors who have failed standard treatment or are unable to receive standard treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Recombinant anti-tumor and anti-virus protein for injection, 10μg,im,3 times for the first week, followed by 20μg for two weeks, and followed a maintenance dose of 30μg, the frequency of administration is three times per week. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At the time of disease progression, if investigators believe patients can continue to benefit from the investigational product, patients may be provided with recombinant anti-tumor and anti-virus protein for injection,but only survival follow-up datas will be recorded. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Recombinant anti- tumor and anti-virus protein for injection(Novaferon), three times per week. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They may remove a vestibulocochlear nerve tumor at the same time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Targeting this nerve-tumor crosstalk could lead to more effective treatments for people with head and neck cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Nerves infiltrate this cancerous environment early in tumor development. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies suggest that these nerves play a role in tumor growth and progression. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists are trying to understand the tumor-nerve relationship in hope that it could lead to better therapies for head and neck cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Its protein product, p53, is a tumor suppressor that acts as a brake on cancer growth. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that loss of p53 in oral cancer enhances nerve growth and density in the tumor microenvironment. (nih.gov)
  • We wanted to understand the reciprocal tumor-nerve signals that drive cancer progression," Amit says. (nih.gov)
  • Merlin is a tumor suppressor protein, involved in regulation of the cell's activities. (dnalc.org)
  • The results of immunohistochemical staining suggested that this tumor originates in nerve tissue. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Tumor angiogenesis is one way to increase the blood flow to supply the required oxygen and energy source to the growing tumor tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • At present, the majority of synaptic vesicle proteins has been characterized, and many have been genetically analyzed in mice, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans. (nih.gov)
  • The intestinal fatty acid binding protein is not essential for dietary fat absorption in mice. (bireme.br)
  • Intraperitoneal immunization of mice revealed a very weak response against the S region, and a high response against yeast itself: It is proposed that increasing the amount of the antigen and reducing the number of native cell wall proteins, might lead to a yeast that is usable as a safe and cheap live oral vaccine. (tudelft.nl)
  • Results from experiments in mice revise a long-held hypothesis that certain protein scaffolds are needed for synaptic activity. (the-scientist.com)
  • In mice and flies, the Arc protein forms capsids and carries genetic information. (the-scientist.com)
  • In the study , published July 10 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, the scientists genetically engineered mice without the protein annexin A2. (healthcanal.com)
  • The investigators found that mice without annexin A2 showed a two-fold greater leakage of dye into lung tissue compared to mice with the protein. (healthcanal.com)
  • To clarify the roles of the principal thermogenic molecule mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the sympathetically stimulated glucose utilization, we investigated the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) into BAT and some other tissues of UCP1-knockout (KO) mice in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • NE also increased the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) in BAT of WT but not UCP1-KO mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These are typically calcium-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the upcoming years, calcium-binding proteins (CaBP) calretinin, parvalbumin (PV), and calbindin (CB) could be shown to be expressed in largely non-overlapping interneuronal populations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
  • Amyloidosis is a term that represents several different types of diseases where an abnormal protein called amyloid is produced. (caringbridge.org)
  • In addition to relatively fast inhibition by ionotropic receptors, GABA can modulate many signal transduction pathways by activating metabotropic G protein coupled GABA B receptors that play critical roles in long-term modulation of synaptic transmission ( Bowery 1993 ). (physiology.org)
  • Recently, aberrant expression of P-element induced wimpy testis proteins-PIWI (HIWI and HILI) has been identified in various types of tumors. (cancerindex.org)
  • Tumors known as neurofibromas develop on the nerves, and these can lead to other problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The tumors may be harmless, or they may compress the nerves and other tissues, leading to serious damage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If tumors growing on the optic nerve are affecting eyesight, they can be surgically removed. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Neurofibromas are tumors, generally non-cancerous, that grow on the nerves of the skin, and sometimes on nerves deeper inside the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nf2 is a more serious condition in which tumors grow on nerves deep inside the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Basement membranes (blood vessels of any tissue, tumors and nerve). (abcam.com)
  • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are soft-tissue tumors with a very poor prognosis and largely resistant to chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are soft-tissue tumors with a very poor prognosis ( 7 - 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The onset of diabetic foot ulcer is being linked to the complications of the disease in the nerve and in the blood vessels. (amazonaws.com)
  • The dermis, although it contains blood vessels, nerves and hair follicles, is primarily made up of a protein called "collagen. (medicinenet.com)
  • The hypodermis is a layer of fat and connective tissue that contains larger blood vessels and nerves. (medicinenet.com)
  • Increased tendon calcification and a bone mineralization protein in musculoskeletal tissues with repetitive reaching task. (cdc.gov)
  • Enhanced expression of this protein would suggest that repetitive and/ or forceful tasks lead to accelerated bone remodeling and tendon matrix changes, which would further our understanding of the etiology of MSDs. (cdc.gov)
  • Discussion: Increases in osteoactivin (OA) staining in the periosteum parallels previously reported infl mmatory responses in this same tissue, suggesting that OA may play a role in inflammation- induced bone remodeling by a repetitive reaching and grasping task. (cdc.gov)
  • It can manifest as bumps under the skin, colored spots, bone problems, pressure on spinal nerve roots, and other neurological problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Noggin interacts with members of a group of proteins called bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (medlineplus.gov)
  • These proteins help control the development of bone and other tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In one embodiment, the replacement body part is a skeletal joint and the new plural distinct tissues include bone and articular cartilage. (google.com)
  • 3. The device of claim 1 wherein said plural distinct tissues comprise articular cartilage and bone. (google.com)
  • Copper proteins are necessary for the body to build bone, nerves, and other tissue. (epnet.com)
  • Large fibers we affected in axons when morphometry was used and identical pathologies were detected in the sciatic nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new material made of carbon nanotubes supports the growth of nerve fibers, bridging segregated neural explants and providing a functional re-connection. (phys.org)
  • In those conditions, without any scaffolds reconstructing the space between the two explants, we observed growth of nerve fibers that extended in straight bundles in any direction, but not necessarily toward the other tissue. (phys.org)
  • If we insert a small piece of the carbon sponge into the space between the two, however, we see dense growth of nerve fibers that fill the structure and intertwine with the other sample. (phys.org)
  • Immunohistochemical study on the sensory and autonomic nerve fibers in dental pulp and periodontium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • However, complex nerve fibers showing three-dimensional extension as recognized in human teeth were not observed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Distribution of neurofilament protein-immunoreactive nerve fibers in rat molars and periodontium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive nerve fibers in rat molars. (nii.ac.jp)
  • MS is an autoimmune disease -one in which the body attacks itself-in this case the immune system attacks the tissues of the brain and spinal cord (more specifically, the myelin sheaths surrounding the nerve fibers). (forksoverknives.com)
  • brain tissue, or affected motor related, ie nerve related matter? (answers.com)
  • Neurofibrillary tangles are another hallmark characteristic of the brain tissue associated with Alzheimer's disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are unique structures in the brain tissue that are suspected to be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Both are thought to interfere with the nervous messages within the brain tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • As Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease progresses, vacuolization increases and brain tissue becomes spongy. (sciencephoto.com)
  • MR imaging easily distinguishes between cerebral gray matter and white matter and presents the brain tissue in a 3D form. (news-medical.net)
  • For other protein-related codes, see List of MeSH codes (D12.776). (wikipedia.org)
  • Except for that of NF-M in CC, the PRs of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H were also elevated in nerve tissues, which was consistent with the activation of protein kinases. (eurekamag.com)
  • Sensory innervation in the dental tissues has been studied for years in our group with the aid of the urea silver impregnation method and the transmission electron microscope. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The three-dimensional constitution of nerves in the human dentin and predentin was clearly demonstrated, and the sensory mechanism of human teeth was discussed. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Sensory nerves are highly abundant in the oral cavity and convey touch, texture, and taste. (nih.gov)
  • Viruses and bacteria can damage nerve tissue, usually sensory fibres, leading to a painful neuropathy. (amazonaws.com)
  • Multiplanar movement patterns challenge the tissue to control a load (e.g., a limb and the weight it's lifting) as it moves through space, which signals more information into the afferent (sensory) nerves. (acefitness.org)
  • The proteolipid protein ( PLP ) gene encodes two myelin-specific protein isoforms, DM-20 and PLP, which are members of the highly conserved lipophilin family of transmembrane proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Integral transmembrane proteins. (flashcardmachine.com)
  • Scientists are not absolutely sure what causes cell death and tissue loss in the Alzheimer's brain, but plaques and tangles are prime suspects. (alz.org)
  • For individuals with Alzheimer's disease, there is a larger number of phosphate molecules bound to the tau protein than normal, known as hyperphosphorylation. (news-medical.net)
  • As Alzheimer's progresses, proteins build up in the brain and form neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques (Aβ plaques). (news-medical.net)
  • These mutations alter the structure or stability of noggin, impair the transport of noggin out of the cell, or reduce the protein's ability to bind to BMPs, resulting in a reduction of functional noggin protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As in tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome, the NOG gene mutations that cause these conditions reduce the amount of functional noggin protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The team found that high nerve density and TP53 mutations in oral cancer tissue were associated with earlier death. (nih.gov)
  • The NF1 patients are carriers of a germline mutation in the NF1 gene, which encodes the protein neurofibromin. (uio.no)
  • What does this gene/protein do? (cancerindex.org)
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (cancerindex.org)
  • The mutation in the gene means that the nerve tissue is not properly controlled. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The NOG gene provides instructions for making a protein called noggin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • For that, we investigated the changes of CaM, CaMKII, protein kinase C (PKC) and polymerization ratios (PRs) of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H in cerebral cortex (CC, including total cortex and some gray), spinal cord (SC) and sciatic nerve (SN) of rats treated with HD at a dosage of 1.75 or 3.50 mmol/kg for 8 weeks (five times per week). (eurekamag.com)
  • Together, these data demonstrate the ability of BDNF to stimulate glucose utilization in response to an enhanced energy demand resulting from increases in amino acid uptake and protein synthesis associated with the promotion of neuronal differentiation by BDNF. (epfl.ch)
  • Helps to increase nutrient shuttling (protein synthesis). (burrillandco.com)
  • or anabolic - the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the PLP-specific peptide appears to confer extreme sensitivity to changes in higher-ordered protein structure. (jneurosci.org)
  • In order to begin these developmental processes, BMPs attach (bind) to other proteins called receptors, and this binding stimulates specific cellular processes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These nerve terminals are considered to function as stretch receptors in the periodontal ligament. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We investigated the distribution of GABA B receptors on spider leg mechanosensilla using specific antibodies against 2 proteins needed to form functional receptors and an antibody that labels the synaptic vesicles on presynaptic sites. (physiology.org)
  • Sympathetic stimulation activates glucose utilization in parallel with fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the β-adrenergic receptors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Laminins promote early stages of peripheral nerve myelination by assembling basement membranes (BMs) on Schwann cell surfaces, leading to activation of β1 integrins and other receptors. (biologists.org)
  • Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) belongs to the family of proteins called the inhibiter of apoptosis family (IAP), these proteins are one of the key regulators of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The semaphorins are a family of proteins that are involved in signaling. (cancerindex.org)
  • These homologous endopeptidases belong to the large family of proteins called caspases (cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific protease). (hindawi.com)
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (viictr.org)
  • This is unexpected because, in nerve growth factor withdrawal, caspase-3 and -9 are activated, causing cell death, which are the very caspases blocked by NAIP. (wikipedia.org)
  • A selected set (n=11) of cell cycle components and proliferation markers (n=2) as well as the neurofibromin protein were analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a TMA with tissue cores from 106 MPNSTs and 3 neurofibromas. (uio.no)
  • In addition, Ninjurin-1 was differentially expressed in various cell types in the tissues under the investigation. (bvsalud.org)
  • The encoded protein contains a high mobility group-box DNA binding domain and participates in the regulation of cell cycle genes and cellular senescence. (cancerindex.org)
  • Other pathways associated with breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein related signaling, or associated with cancer and cell cycle/cell survivability were also affected. (cdc.gov)
  • Immunofluorescence studies showed that the fusion protein was detectable at the cell surface and was stably expressed at a relatively high level. (tudelft.nl)
  • The antibody will cleanly immunoprecipitate the entire dynein complex from TX-100 or NP-40 lysates (including the 530 kD heavy chain, the light intermediate chains, and the light chains) from various tissues and cultured cell lines. (abcam.com)
  • Neuromodulator-mediated phosphorylation of specific proteins in a neurotumor hybrid cell line (NCB-20). (curehunter.com)
  • They pass to the brain where they damage functioning nervous tissue or subvert the actions of neurotransmitters, chemical messengers that carry impulses from one brain cell to another. (britannica.com)
  • It mainly affects the development of nerve cell tissues. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Phospholipase A 2 is another protein that works with melittin to destroy cell membranes at the sting site. (beeculture.com)
  • Hyaluronidase (2% of venom,) helps the reaction to spread to surrounding tissue by breaking down one of the components of cell tissue. (beeculture.com)
  • This makes IGF-1 a good protagonist at targeting tissues to spur cell to cell communication (growth) or in a more autocrine cell signaling process that facilitates cell division. (burrillandco.com)
  • Colostrum has the unique ability to support normal cell growth & tissue repair. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Cell and Tissue Research. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Using mouse models of oral cancer and laboratory cell cultures, the scientists confirmed the connection between p53 and nerve density. (nih.gov)
  • Sodium influx through these channels is necessary for the depolarization of nerve cell membranes and subsequent propagation of impulses along the course of the nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Amyloid precursor protein is part of the cell membrane that encases every nerve cell. (healthcentral.com)
  • The corona virus has proteins that attach to the membrane of a cell. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • They need to penetrate the cell, and their surface protein is the key. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway results in the transcriptional induction of cyclin D1 with activation of CDK4, phosphorylation of pRb, and continued cell cycle progression from G 1 to S ( 5 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In principle, the method is capable of identifying any protein or RNA whose overexpression in a mutant cell line confers a selectable phenotype ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • KIFC1 ( 15 ) is expressed primarily in proliferating tissues and cell lines, and KIFC2 ( 15 , 16 ) is expressed specifically in neural tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amyloid protein can deposit into organs, tissues, nerves and other places in the body. (caringbridge.org)
  • As the amyloid protein increases, health problems and organ damage occur. (caringbridge.org)
  • This combination therapy helps to slow down (or stop) the overproduction of the amyloid protein. (caringbridge.org)
  • There are several types of amyloid, and the classification of amyloidosis is based on which amyloid protein is involved. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • AL amyloid is another common form of amyloid protein. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The major component of cartilage is a protein called collagen, which also provides strength and flexibility to the majority of our tissues, including ligaments, tendons, skin and bones. (healthcanal.com)
  • Blocking this increase prevents nerve injury-induced methylation of the voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channel subunit Kcna2 promoter region and rescues Kcna2 expression in the injured DRG and attenuates neuropathic pain. (nature.com)
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common autosomal dominant inherited disorders, and carriers are at greatly increased risk of developing malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNST). (uio.no)
  • An example would include, for example, the generation of myelin which insulates and protects nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prion protein triggers are an important factor in the signals that ensure myelin maintenance and are distinct from those that direct myelination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result indicated that neuronal expression and regulated proteolysis of prion protein are essential for myelin maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • They exposed rodents with and without the protein to a low-oxygen or normal-oxygen environment for 48 hours, injected an experimental dye and then examined their organs. (healthcanal.com)
  • Amyloidosis is a condition that occurs when amyloid , a substance composed of abnormally folded protein, is deposited in various organs of the body. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The disease can become fatal if amyloid is deposited into the tissue of critical organs, such as the kidneys, liver, or heart. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The Harvard professor is pursuing fundamental questions about autophagy, protein homeostasis, and other cellular processes, and he's always on the lookout for his next new topic. (the-scientist.com)
  • Researchers had shown that the dose of the protein determines cellular fate. (rockefeller.edu)
  • The cellular events associated with sympathetic activation of BAT thermogenesis are the binding of norepinephrine (NE) released from sympathetic nerve terminal to β-adrenergic receptor, the activation of adenylate cyclase, and increased hydrolysis of triglyceride. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Raw meat is the only protein that facilitates nerve-tissue regeneration and cellular reproduction. (barfworld.com)
  • Thus, the technique of immunohistochemistry for nervous system-specific proteins was introduced to study the morphology of neural elements. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Using Western blot analysis we tested specific antibodies against the two essential GABA B receptor subtypes in spider brain and peripheral nerve tissues and we located both receptor proteins on the mechanosensilla using immunocytochemistry. (physiology.org)
  • A healthy meal includes proteins, carbohydrates and fats. (nfcr.org)
  • Although the methods were useful for demonstrating the distribution and ultrastructure of nerves in the dental tissues, their origin and nature remained to be further clarified. (nii.ac.jp)
  • May play a role in nerve regeneration and in the formation and function of other tissues. (uniprot.org)
  • The researchers discovered that annexin A2 links with another protein called vascular endothelial cadherin (VEC) and two enzymes, endothelial-specific protein tyrosine phosphatase and Src homology phosphatase-2, that help remove the phosphates and keep the gates closed. (healthcanal.com)
  • Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive inflammatory infection of the fascia, with secondary necrosis of the subcutaneous tissues. (medscape.com)
  • Skin consists of three layers: the epidermis , dermis, and subcutaneous tissue (hypodermis). (medicinenet.com)
  • Chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy was 100% penetrant and conspicuous in all investigated peripheral nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Local anesthetics produce anesthesia by inhibiting excitation of nerve endings or by blocking conduction in peripheral nerves. (medscape.com)
  • These studies have shown that synaptic vesicles contain proteins with diverse structures and functions. (nih.gov)
  • Enzymes called secretases split the protein in pieces, forming smaller beta-amyloid fragments. (healthcentral.com)
  • Beta-secretase, one of the enzymes that slices the amyloid precursor protein, cuts the protein into a piece that is insoluble, that is, not easily dissolved. (healthcentral.com)
  • Immunohistochemical demonstration of nerves in the predentin and dentin of human third molars with the use of an antiserum against neurofilament protein (NFP). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Immunohistochemical staining revealed that both were positive for S-100 protein and neuron-specific enolase. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These materials could be useful for covering electrodes used for treating movement disorders like Parkinson's because they are well accepted by tissue, while the implants being used today become less effective over time because of scar tissue. (phys.org)
  • Fats help with satiation, storing essential vitamins and protecting nerve tissues. (nfcr.org)
  • Thus, the principal substrate for BAT thermogenesis is considered to be fatty acids derived from triglycerides in this tissue and also from blood lipoproteins. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition to being an excellent fiber source (mostly insoluble, which creates bulk for stool), chia is a rich plant-based source of Omega-3 fatty acids, consists of about 20 percent protein, and contains high levels of antioxidants, calcium, magnesium and iron. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Indeed, it has been reported that glucose utilization in BAT is markedly enhanced in parallel with heat production after cold exposure, sympathetic nerve stimulation, and β-adrenergic agonist administration in vivo ( 4 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In BAT, as in white adipose tissue (WAT) and other insulin-sensitive tissues, glucose utilization is activated by insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It can lower blood sugar (glucose) after a meal, reduce inflammation (C-Reactive Protein) and blood pressure, and is a natural blood thinner. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Nerve tissue is a biological molecule related to the function and maintenance of normal nervous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eating the meat - and especially the brains and other nervous tissue - of diseased animals. (answers.com)
  • In time, the damaged tissues heal, but often leave thickened, fibrous scars (scleroses), which doctors commonly call "plaques. (forksoverknives.com)
  • Amyloid plaques made of protein also form lesions in the brain (not seen). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Smith et al first classified soft tissue infections as either local or spreading. (medscape.com)
  • It combines the advanced soft tissue contrast and imaging parameters of MR and the high sensitivity of PET. (news-medical.net)
  • MR imaging uses tissue characterization with enhanced soft tissue contrast, providing structural and functional information of the brain. (news-medical.net)
  • Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogenous group of cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Identifying the interface of protein complexes can represent a difficult task in structural biology. (nih.gov)
  • Intracellular protein calretinin (CR) acquired its name based on structural similarity to calbindin D28k and the site of first detection-retina ( Rogers, 1987 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Prions are infectious proteins and they cause a structural change to other proteins that they interact with and that is how they cause damage. (answers.com)
  • Probably the most famous prion disease is Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis (mad cow) where the structural change that the prion causes to the proteins in the brain causes holes to appear in the tissue, making it look like a sponge. (answers.com)
  • Calcium-dependent mechanisms, particularly those mediated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), have been implicated in neurotoxicant-induced neuropathy. (eurekamag.com)
  • In contrast, an 80-kDa protein is the primary substrate for calcium/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase , and its phosphorylation is inhibited by agents that elevate cyclic AMP levels and thereby activate cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase . (curehunter.com)
  • In view of this, MPNST may be susceptible to inhibition of the activated Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by the B-Raf inhibitor sorafenib. (aacrjournals.org)
  • With growth inhibition at the low nanomolar range, sorafenib, by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, may prove to be a novel therapy for patients with MPNST. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Candidate proteins that might mediate taxane resistance through their inclusion in microtubules or their association with these structures include βIII-tubulin ( 2 ), the microtubule-associated proteins MAP4 and Tau, and the microtubule-destabilizing phosphoprotein Stathmin ( 8 , 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)