Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue: Neoplasms composed of nerve tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the nervous system or its component nerves.Portulaca: A plant genus of the family PORTULACACEAE.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Organic Chemistry Phenomena: The conformation, properties, reaction processes, and the properties of the reactions of carbon compounds.PropaneOptical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.GlyoxalMaillard Reaction: One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carbonic Anhydrase III: A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Sarcoma, YoshidaSpinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.TritiumMandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (1/25163)Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain. (+info)
Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (2/25163)The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system  . In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb   , Prospero    and Miranda   into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface . Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized . We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo. (+info)
p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase can be involved in transforming growth factor beta superfamily signal transduction in Drosophila wing morphogenesis. (3/25163)p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) has been extensively studied as a stress-responsive kinase, but its role in development remains unknown. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has two p38 genes, D-p38a and D-p38b. To elucidate the developmental function of the Drosophila p38's, we used various genetic and pharmacological manipulations to interfere with their functions: expression of a dominant-negative form of D-p38b, expression of antisense D-p38b RNA, reduction of the D-p38 gene dosage, and treatment with the p38 inhibitor SB203580. Expression of a dominant-negative D-p38b in the wing imaginal disc caused a decapentaplegic (dpp)-like phenotype and enhanced the phenotype of a dpp mutant. Dpp is a secretory ligand belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily which triggers various morphogenetic processes through interaction with the receptor Thick veins (Tkv). Inhibition of D-p38b function also caused the suppression of the wing phenotype induced by constitutively active Tkv (TkvCA). Mosaic analysis revealed that D-p38b regulates the Tkv-dependent transcription of the optomotor-blind (omb) gene in non-Dpp-producing cells, indicating that the site of D-p38b action is downstream of Tkv. Furthermore, forced expression of TkvCA induced an increase in the phosphorylated active form(s) of D-p38(s). These results demonstrate that p38, in addition to its role as a transducer of emergency stress signaling, may function to modulate Dpp signaling. (+info)
Conserved domains and lack of evidence for polyglutamine length polymorphism in the chicken homolog of the Machado-Joseph disease gene product ataxin-3. (4/25163)Ataxin-3 is a protein of unknown function which is mutated in Machado-Joseph disease by expansion of a genetically unstable CAG repeat encoding polyglutamine. By analysis of chicken ataxin-3 we were able to identify four conserved domains of the protein and detected widespread expression in chicken tissues. In the first such analysis in a non-primate species we found that in contrast to primates, the chicken CAG repeat is short and genetically stable. (+info)
A processive single-headed motor: kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A. (5/25163)A single kinesin molecule can move "processively" along a microtubule for more than 1 micrometer before detaching from it. The prevailing explanation for this processive movement is the "walking model," which envisions that each of two motor domains (heads) of the kinesin molecule binds coordinately to the microtubule. This implies that each kinesin molecule must have two heads to "walk" and that a single-headed kinesin could not move processively. Here, a motor-domain construct of KIF1A, a single-headed kinesin superfamily protein, was shown to move processively along the microtubule for more than 1 micrometer. The movement along the microtubules was stochastic and fitted a biased Brownian-movement model. (+info)
A concise promoter region of the heart fatty acid-binding protein gene dictates tissue-appropriate expression. (6/25163)The heart fatty acid-binding protein (HFABP) is a member of a family of binding proteins with distinct tissue distributions and diverse roles in fatty acid metabolism, trafficking, and signaling. Other members of this family have been shown to possess concise promoter regions that direct appropriate tissue-specific expression. The basis for the specific expression of the HFABP has not been previously evaluated, and the mechanisms governing expression of metabolic genes in the heart are not completely understood. We used transient and permanent transfections in ventricular myocytes, skeletal myocytes, and nonmyocytic cells to map regulatory elements in the HFABP promoter, and audited results in transgenic mice. Appropriate tissue-specific expression in cell culture and in transgenic mice was dictated by 1.2 kb of the 5'-flanking sequence of FABP3, the HFABP gene. Comparison of orthologous murine and human genomic sequences demonstrated multiple regions of near-identity within this promoter region, including a CArG-like element close to the TATA box. Binding and transactivation studies demonstrated that this element can function as an atypical myocyte enhancer-binding factor 2 site. Interactions with adjacent sites are likely to be necessary for fully appropriate, tissue-specific, developmental and metabolic regulation. (+info)
Induction of serotonin transporter by hypoxia in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. Relationship with the mitogenic action of serotonin. (7/25163)-The increased delivery of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) to the lung aggravates the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats, possibly through stimulation of the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PA-SMCs). In cultured rat PA-SMCs, 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) induced DNA synthesis and potentiated the mitogenic effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (10 ng/mL). This effect was dependent on the 5-HT transporter (5-HTT), since it was prevented by the 5-HTT inhibitors fluoxetine (10(-6) mol/L) and paroxetine (10(-7) mol/L), but it was unaltered by ketanserin (10(-6) mol/L), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. In PA-SMCs exposed to hypoxia, the levels of 5-HTT mRNA (measured by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) increased by 240% within 2 hours, followed by a 3-fold increase in the uptake of [3H]5-HT at 24 hours. Cotransfection of the cells with a construct of human 5-HTT promoter-luciferase gene reporter and of pCMV-beta-galactosidase gene allowed the demonstration that exposure of cells to hypoxia produced a 5.5-fold increase in luciferase activity, with no change in beta-galactosidase activity. The increased expression of 5-HTT in hypoxic cells was associated with a greater mitogenic response to 5-HT (10(-8) to 10(-6) mol/L) in the absence as well as in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB. 5-HTT expression assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization in the lungs was found to predominate in the media of pulmonary artery, in which a marked increase was noted in rats that had been exposed to hypoxia for 15 days. These data show that in vitro and in vivo exposure to hypoxia induces, via a transcriptional mechanism, 5-HTT expression in PA-SMCs, and that this effect contributes to the stimulatory action of 5-HT on PA-SMC proliferation. In vivo expression of 5-HTT by PA-SMC may play a key role in serotonin-mediated pulmonary vascular remodeling. (+info)
Functional consequences of mutations in the human alpha1A calcium channel subunit linked to familial hemiplegic migraine. (8/25163)Mutations in alpha1A, the pore-forming subunit of P/Q-type calcium channels, are linked to several human diseases, including familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). We introduced the four missense mutations linked to FHM into human alpha1A-2 subunits and investigated their functional consequences after expression in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. By combining single-channel and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we show that all four mutations affect both the biophysical properties and the density of functional channels. Mutation R192Q in the S4 segment of domain I increased the density of functional P/Q-type channels and their open probability. Mutation T666M in the pore loop of domain II decreased both the density of functional channels and their unitary conductance (from 20 to 11 pS). Mutations V714A and I1815L in the S6 segments of domains II and IV shifted the voltage range of activation toward more negative voltages, increased both the open probability and the rate of recovery from inactivation, and decreased the density of functional channels. Mutation V714A decreased the single-channel conductance to 16 pS. Strikingly, the reduction in single-channel conductance induced by mutations T666M and V714A was not observed in some patches or periods of activity, suggesting that the abnormal channel may switch on and off, perhaps depending on some unknown factor. Our data show that the FHM mutations can lead to both gain- and loss-of-function of human P/Q-type calcium channels. (+info)
Grip2 - Glutamate receptor-interacting protein 2 - Mus musculus (Mouse) - Grip2 gene & protein
GRIP1 - Glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1 - Homo sapiens (Human) - GRIP1 gene & protein
Transfer of disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 aggregates between neuronal-like cells occurs in tunnelling nanotubes and is promoted...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 28275106. Open Biol 2017 03;7(3). The disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 () gene was identified as a genetic risk factor for chronic mental illnesses (CMI) such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and severe recurrent depression. Insoluble aggregated DISC1 variants were found in the cingular cortex of sporadic, i.e. non-genetic, CMI patients. This suggests protein pathology as a novel, additional pathogenic mechanism, further corroborated in a recent transgenic rat model presenting DISC1 aggregates. Since the potential role of aggregation of DISC1 in sporadic CMI is unknown, we investigated whether DISC1 undergoes aggregation in cell culture and could spread between neuronal cells in a prion-like manner, as shown for amyloid proteins in neurodegenerative diseases. Co-culture experiments between donor cells forming DISC1 aggregates and acceptor cells showed that 4.5% of acceptor cells contained donor-derived DISC1 aggregates, thus indicating an efficient transfer DISC1 aggregates ...
Transfer of disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 aggregates between neuronal-like cells occurs in tunnelling nanotubes and is promoted...
PANP/PILR alpha associated neural protein Overexpression Lysate (Native) (NBP2-05244): Novus Biologicals
Isolation of the PSD fraction. PSD fractions were prepared from rat forebrains as previously described (Carlin et al., 1980; Cho et al., 1992). Synaptosomes were isolated from homogenates by differential and density gradient centrifugation and then extracted with 0.5% Triton X-100 for 15 min. The resulting "One-Triton" PSD fraction was pelleted by centrifugation at 36,800 × gfor 45 min. A portion of the One-Triton fraction was extracted again either with 0.5% Triton X-100 for 15 min or with 3%N-lauroyl-sarcosine for 10 min and then pelleted by centrifugation at 201,800 × g for 1 hr to obtain the "Two-Triton" PSD fraction or the "One-Triton plus Sarcosyl" PSD fraction, respectively. Protein concentrations were determined by a modified method of Lowrey (Peterson, 1983).. Identification of proteins in the PSD fraction by mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed by mass spectrometry combined with sequence database searches (Jensen et al., 1998). Protein bands cut from a Coomassie ...
The mouse SLIT family: secreted ligands for ROBO expressed in patterns that suggest a role in morphogenesis and axon guidance
The Slit gene encodes a secreted molecule essential for neural development in Drosophila embryos. Here we report the identification of three Slit homologues in the mouse. We demonstrate that the mouse SLIT1 protein can bind ROBO1, a transmembrane receptor implicated in axon guidance. Both whole-moun …
The Solution Is a Gay Socialist Utopia Built for Two - The Millions
Comrade is a loaded word. Tongzhi, literally "same aspiration," was the appropriate term of address for an entire generation of Chinese, from influential Party officials and generals to ordinary mothers, street-sweepers, and butchers. Its usage signified membership in a shared, Communist dream of equality and progress. Sometime in the late-80s, tongzhi took on a secondary meaning for a less public community. It began to mean "gay.". Unlike many linguistic changes, this shift was deliberate. The new connotation was proposed by Edward Lam, one of the artist-activists who organized the first Hong Kong Gay and Lesbian Film Festival in 1989. In borrowing and reshaping tongzhi, with its suggestion of unity and shared purpose, they hoped to bring gay Chinese people out of the shadows and into the broader community. That same year, the Tiananmen protests began. Then the Berlin Wall collapsed. Tongzhi took off, but the broader community it once symbolized had fallen apart. You have to wonder if ...
Phosphorylation of CRMP2 (Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2) is Involved in Proper Dendritic Field Organization<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phosphorylation of CRMP2 (Collapsin Response Mediator Protein 2) is Involved in Proper Dendritic Field Organization. AU - Yamashita, Naoya. AU - Ohshima, Toshio. AU - Nakamura, Fumio. AU - Kolattukudy, Papachan. AU - Honnorat, Jérôme. AU - Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko. AU - Goshima, Yoshio. PY - 2012/1/25. Y1 - 2012/1/25. N2 - Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate signals for several extracellular molecules, such as Semaphorin3A and neurotrophins. The phosphorylation of CRMP1 and CRMP2 by Cdk5 at Ser522 is involved in axonal guidance and spine development. Here, we found that the Ser522-phosphorylated CRMP1 and/or CRMP2 are enriched in the dendrites of cultured cortical neurons and P7 cortical section. To determine the physiological role of CRMPs in dendritic development, we generated CRMP2 knock-in mutant mice (crmp2ki/ki) in which the Ser residue at 522 was replaced with Ala. Strikingly, the cortical basal dendrites of double mutant ...
Novel neuritic clusters with accumulations of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 immunoreactivity...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel neuritic clusters with accumulations of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 immunoreactivity in brain regions damaged by thiamine deficiency. AU - Calingasan, Noel Y.. AU - Gandy, Samuel E.. AU - Baker, Harriet. AU - Sheu, Kwan Fu Rex. AU - Smith, Jonathan D.. AU - Lamb, Bruce T.. AU - Gearhart, John D.. AU - Buxbaum, Joseph D.. AU - Harper, Clive. AU - Selkoe, Dennis J.. AU - Price, Donald L.. AU - Sisodia, Sangram S.. AU - Gibson, Gary E.. PY - 1996/9/1. Y1 - 1996/9/1. N2 - Experimental thiamine deficiency (TD) is a classical model of a nutritional deficit associated with a generalized impairment of oxidative metabolism and selective cell loss in the brain. In rats, TD-induced cell degeneration is accompanied by an accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) immunoreactivity in abnormal neurites and perikarya along the periphery of, or scattered within, the lesion. Prompted by these data and our ...
Collapsin response mediator protein 4 promotor methylation level as a potential predictor for diagnosing primary malignant...
Primary malignant lymphoma of the prostate (PMLP) is prone to occur in the elderly, and it has no significant correlation with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and prostate specific antigen (PSA). Clinical symptoms and imaging data of PMLP remain unspecific, and its prognosis is poor. A previous result showed that collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) promotor methylation can be used as a predictor for lymph node metastases in prostate biopsies. However, the relationship between CRMP4 promotor methylation and PMLP has not been studied. We investigated the clinicopathological features of PMLP and the significance of CRMP4 methylation in PMLP. The clinical data and diagnosis information of 10 patients with PMLP were retrospectively analyzed. The CRMP4 promotor methylation level in paraffin-embedded tissues of the 10 patients with PMLP were determined and then compared to limited prostate cancer (LPCa) and its negative lymph node tissue [LPCa-LN (−) (10 cases)] and also to metastatic prostate
Tau-tubulin kinase 1 and amyloid-β peptide induce phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein-2 and enhance neurite...
Huntingtin-associated protein 1 interacts with Ahi1 to regulate cerebellar and brainstem development in mice<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Huntingtin-associated protein 1 interacts with Ahi1 to regulate cerebellar and brainstem development in mice. AU - Sheng, Guoqing. AU - Xu, Xingshun. AU - Lin, Yung Feng. AU - Wang, Chuan En. AU - Rong, Juan. AU - Cheng, Dongmei. AU - Peng, Junmin. AU - Jiang, Xiaoyan. AU - Li, Shi Hua. AU - Li, Xiao Jiang. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Joubert syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the cerebellum and brainstem, with abnormal decussation in the brain. Mutations in the Abelson helper integration site 1 gene, which encodes the protein AHI1, have been shown to cause Joubert syndrome. In this study, we found that mouse Ahi1 formed a stable complex with huntingtin-associated protein 1 (Hap1), which is critical for neonatal development and involved in intracellular trafficking. Hap1-knockout mice showed significantly reduced Ahi1 levels, defective cerebellar development, and abnormal axonal decussation. Suppression of Ahi1 also ...
Huntingtin and huntingtin-associated protein 1 influence neuronal calcium signaling mediated by inositol-(1,4,5) triphosphate...
Huntingtons disease (HD) is caused by polyglutamine expansion (exp) in huntingtin (Htt). The type 1 inositol (1,4,5)-triphosphate receptor (InsP3R1) is an intracellular calcium (Ca2+) release channel that plays an important role in neuronal function. In a yeast two-hybrid screen with the InsP3R1 carboxy terminus, we isolated Htt-associated protein-1A (HAP1A). We show that an InsP3R1-HAP1A-Htt ternary complex is formed in vitro and in vivo. In planar lipid bilayer reconstitution experiments, InsP3R1 activation by InsP3 is sensitized by Httexp, but not by normal Htt. Transfection of full-length Httexp or caspase-resistant Httexp, but not normal Htt, into medium spiny striatal neurons faciliates Ca2+ release in response to threshold concentrations of the selective mGluR1/5 agonist 3,5-DHPG. Our findings identify a novel molecular link between Htt and InsP3R1-mediated neuronal Ca2+ signaling and provide an explanation for the derangement of cytosolic Ca2+ signaling in HD patients and mouse models ...
Distribution and chemical coding of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART)-immunoreactive neurons in the...
Anti-Human CRMP-2 Antibody | Anti-Human CRMP-2 (Phosphorylated) Antibody | Human CRMP-2 Antibody | CRMP-2 Antibody
The collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) family of intracellular phosphoproteins are predominantly expressed in the nervous system during development. These proteins play important roles in axon formation from neurites, and in neuron guidance, growth, and polarity. CRMP-2 is encoded by the DPYSL2 gene in humans. It is also known as dihydropyrimidinase-like 2 (DRP2), dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DHPRP2), unc-33-like phosphoprotein 2 (ULIP2), and N2A3. CRMP-2 promotes microtubule assembly and is required for growth cone collapse. It also plays a role in synaptic signaling through interactions with calcium channels. Mutations in the DPYSL2 gene have been implicated in multiple neurological disorders. A hyperphosphorylated form of CRMP-2 may play a key role in the development of Alzheimers disease.. ...
Anti-Human CRMP-2 Antibody | Anti-Human CRMP-2 (Phosphorylated) Antibody | Human CRMP-2 Antibody | CRMP-2 Antibody
The collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) family of intracellular phosphoproteins are predominantly expressed in the nervous system during development. These proteins play important roles in axon formation from neurites, and in neuron guidance, growth, and polarity. CRMP-2 is encoded by the DPYSL2 gene in humans. It is also known as dihydropyrimidinase-like 2 (DRP2), dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DHPRP2), unc-33-like phosphoprotein 2 (ULIP2), and N2A3. CRMP-2 promotes microtubule assembly and is required for growth cone collapse. It also plays a role in synaptic signaling through interactions with calcium channels. Mutations in the DPYSL2 gene have been implicated in multiple neurological disorders. A hyperphosphorylated form of CRMP-2 may play a key role in the development of Alzheimers disease.. ...
Pathological α-synuclein transmission initiated by binding lymphocyte-activation gene 3 | Science
The selectivity of LAG3, neurexin 1β, and APLP1 and related transmembrane proteins for α-syn-biotin PFF versus α-syn-biotin monomers was determined via the ratio of Kd values (Fig. 1B). LAG3 exhibited the highest selectivity with a ratio of 38, followed by neurexin 1β with a ratio of 11 and APLP1 with a ratio of 7. The binding of α-syn-biotin PFF to LAG3 was specific because α-syn-biotin PFF does not bind to the CD4 receptor, which has 20% homology to LAG3 (Fig. 1B and fig. S4). In addition to α-syn-biotin PFF binding to neurexin 1β, it also binds to neurexin 3β and mildly binds to neurexin 1α and neurexin 2β (Fig. 1B). α-Syn-biotin PFF does not bind the amyloid precursor protein (APP) or the amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2), suggesting that the binding to APLP1 was specific (Fig. 1B). Because LAG3 exhibited the highest selectivity for α-syn-biotin PFF, it was advanced for further study. No LAG3 immunoreactive band was observed in HEK293FT and SH-SY5Y cells, which is ...
NUB1 suppression of Huntington toxicity: mechanistic insights | RRBC
NUB1 suppression of Huntington toxicity: mechanistic insights Yao Yao, Boxun Lu Department of Biophysics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, Peopleâ s Republic of China Abstract: Huntingtonâ s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder marked by chorea, dystonia, incoordination, and cognitive and motor disturbance. The major cause of HD is the cytotoxicity of the mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT), encoded by the mutant HTT gene. The mechanism by which mHTT leads to cytotoxicity and neuronal death is unclear, and thus enhancing clearance of the mHTT protein is likely to be an effective approach to treat HD. We have recently identified NUB1 (negative regulator of ubiquitin-like proteins 1) as a modifier of mHTT levels via enhancement of its proteasomal degradation. In this review, we will discuss the mechanism of NUB1-mediated mHTT clearance and potential targeting strategies. Keywords: drug target discovery, Huntingtonâ s disease, NEDD8, ubiquitination
snapcoma icu - Page 28 - simple wordpress site
Kim-1-induced kidney injury was associated with reduction of growth of adult fish. Collapsin response mediator protein 3 increases the dendritic arborization of is vidalista 10 generic cialis buy online hippocampal neurons. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evidence with perindopril. A ...
Increased CRMP2 Phosphorylation is Observed in Alzheimers Disease; Does this Tell us Anything About Disease Development? |...
Title: Increased CRMP2 Phosphorylation is Observed in Alzheimers Disease; Does this Tell us Anything About Disease Development?. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):M. P.M. Soutar, P. Thornhill, A. R. Cole and C. Sutherland. Affiliation:Biomedical Research Institute, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, United Kingdom.. Abstract: Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) was recently identified as a physiological substrate for GSK3 and Cdk5, two protein kinases suggested to exhibit greater activity in Alzheimer s disease (AD). Indeed, phosphorylation of CRMP2, at the residues targeted by GSK3 and Cdk5, is relatively high in cortex isolated from human AD brain, as well as in the brains of animal models of AD, while phospho-CRMP2 is found in neurofibrillary tangles. In mouse models of AD, increased phosphorylation occurs prior to pathology. Although CRMP2 has no known enzymatic activity, a great deal of information is appearing on its importance in neuronal ...
Abstract W P199: Deficiency of Glia Maturation Factor Abrogates Brain Injury and Inflammation in a Murine Model of Stroke |...
Background and purpose: Glia maturation factor (GMF), a brain specific protein, discovered and characterized in our laboratory, induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines/ chemokines in the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, it has been demonstrated that deficiency of GMF mitigates neuronal damage in tissue culture cell and animal models of neurodegeneration. Since, GMF expression in brain enhances inflammation; we tested the hypothesis that deficiency of GMF abrogates the inflammatory responses in experimental model of ischemic stroke.. Methods: Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by 1 hour of occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (MCAO) with a 7.0 monofilament in GMF-containing wild type (Wt) and GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice. Mice were anesthetized with 1-1.5% isoflurane mixed with medical oxygen. Body temperature was maintained at 37°C ± 1.0 using a heating pad. At 23 hours after ischemia/reperfusion, mice were tested for neurological scores and were sacrificed ...
Protein phosphatase 1 regulates huntingtin exon 1 aggregation and toxicity<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein phosphatase 1 regulates huntingtin exon 1 aggregation and toxicity. AU - Branco-Santos, Joana. AU - Herrera, Federico. AU - Poças, Gonçalo M.. AU - Pires-Afonso, Yolanda. AU - Giorgini, Flaviano. AU - Domingos, Pedro M.. AU - Outeiro, Tiago F.. PY - 2017/10/1. Y1 - 2017/10/1. N2 - Huntingtons disease is neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin protein (N17). Here, we analysed the relative contribution of each phosphorylatable residue in the N17 region (T3, S13 and S16) towards huntingtin exon 1 (HTTex1) oligomerization, aggregation and toxicity in human cells and Drosophila neurons.We used bimolecular fluorescence complementation to show that expression of single phosphomimic mutations completely abolished HTTex1 aggregation in human cells. In Drosophila, mimicking phosphorylation at T3 decreased HTTex1 aggregation both in larvae and adult flies. Interestingly, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of ...
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Nmnat restores neuronal integrity by neutralizing mutant Huntingtin aggregate-induced progressive toxicity<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nmnat restores neuronal integrity by neutralizing mutant Huntingtin aggregate-induced progressive toxicity. AU - Zhu, Yi. AU - Li, Chong. AU - Tao, Xianzun. AU - Brazill, Jennifer M.. AU - Park, Joun. AU - Diaz-Perez, Zoraida. AU - Grace Zhai, R.. PY - 2019/9/17. Y1 - 2019/9/17. N2 - Accumulative aggregation of mutant Huntingtin (Htt) is a primary neuropathological hallmark of Huntingtons disease (HD). Currently, mechanistic understanding of the cytotoxicity of mutant Htt aggregates remains limited, and neuroprotective strategies combating mutant Htt-induced neurodegeneration are lacking. Here, we show that in Drosophila models of HD, neuronal compartment-specific accumulation of mutant Htt aggregates causes neurodegenerative phenotypes. In addition to the increase in the number and size, we discovered an age-dependent acquisition of thioflavin S+, amyloid-like adhesive properties of mutant Htt aggregates and a concomitant progressive clustering of aggregates with mitochondria ...
Gene Therapy Drug May Show Promise In Treatment Of Huntington's Disease - Xtalks
A novel gene therapy drug developed by antibody company Vybion has been shown to block cellular gene dysregulation and delay cognitive and motor problems associated with Huntingtons disease. The details of the intrabody drug INT41, an antibody that binds to an intracellular protein, were published in the Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases.. INT41 prevents toxic N-terminal huntingtin fragments from being transported into the nucleus of the cell and blocks them from binding with the DNA. The drug was tested in the well-validated R6/2 mouse model of Huntingtons disease.. "We believe that our therapeutic approach to the treatment of Huntingtons disease has provided a biological rationale linking Huntingtons disease progression and toxic N-terminal fragments," said Dr. Lee Henderson, CEO of Vybion. "We look forward to completing our plans for human patient trials.". The drug candidate is currently in late-stage preclinical development for the treatment of Huntingtons disease. Vybions ...
Functional Dissection of Huntington's Disease Protein Huntingtin Using Drosophila - Sheng Zhang
Frontiers | Subcellular Clearance and Accumulation of Huntington Disease Protein: A Mini-Review | Frontiers in Molecular...
Huntingtons disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the N-terminal region of mutant huntingtin (mHtt). As a result, mHtt forms aggregates that are abundant in the nuclei and processes of neuronal cells. Although the roles of mHtt aggregates are still debated, the formation of aggregates points to deficient clearance of mHtt in brain cells. Since the accumulation of mHtt is a prerequisite for its neurotoxicity, exploring the mechanisms for mHtt accumulation and clearance would advance our understanding of HD pathogenesis and help us develop treatments for HD. We know that the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy play important roles in clearing mHtt; however, how mHtt preferentially accumulates in neuronal nuclei and processes remains unclear. Studying the clearance of mHtt in neuronal cells is a challenge because neurons are morphologically and functionally polarized, which means the turnover of mHtt may be
Feinstein Institute Researchers Discover New Way to Track Huntington's Disease Progression Using PET Scans - Huntington's...
Manhasset, NY - Investigators at The The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research have discovered a new way to measure the progression of Huntingtons disease, using positron emission tomography (PET) to scan the brains of carriers of the gene. The findings are published in the September issue of The Journal of Clinical Investigation.. Huntingtons disease causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the brain, which leads to impairments in movement, thinking and emotions. Most people with Huntingtons disease develop signs and symptoms in their 40s or 50s, but the onset of disease may be earlier or later in life. Medications are available to help manage the symptoms of Huntingtons disease, but treatments do not prevent the physical, mental and behavioral decline associated with the condition.. Huntingtons disease is an inherited disease, passed from parent to child through a mutation in the normal gene. Each child of a parent with Huntingtons disease has a 50/50 chance of inheriting ...
Huntington's disease: The latest research
High throughput screening Scientists know that the faulty huntingtin protein causes HD, but how it kills cells is not fully known. By screening hundreds of compounds, scientists hope to find one that prevents the aggregation or cleavage of the mutant huntingtin protein - and thereby stops the cells being killed. If successful, they will try this in tissue culture, then examine the effects on animals carrying the faulty HD gene. If the results of both these are successful, the compound can be safety tested in preparation for human trials. ...
The transcriptional induction and cellular localization study on two neuronal proteins: Neurogranin and GAP43 | [email protected]
Two neuron-specific proteins, neurogranin (Ng), and neuromodulin (GAP43), were studied. Our first aim was to know the potentiality of various chemicals for their induction of Ng mRNA expression; our second one was to know the intracellular localization of GAP43 and its co-localization with calmodulin (CaM). Our results indicated that although some of the NO donors could enhance Ng promoter activity, they could not induce Ng mRNA expression in HEK293 and PC12 cells. Moreover, our findings revealed that Ng mRNA could be induced only by NGF and only in PC12 cells. For GAP43b s intracellular localization and co-localization with CaM, our results revealed DsRed-GAP43 and its mutants (S41D, S41G) were expressed mainly in the region near to cell membrane while EGFP-GAP43 and its mutants (S41D, S41G) were mostly distributed in cytoplasm. PMA treatment did not affect the localization of GAP43. For the co-transfection experiments, a particular region of co-localization of GAP43 and CaM was found to be ...
LC3-mHTT-IN-2 | mHTT-LC3 Linker Compound | MedChemExpress
LC3-mHTT-IN-2 (Compound AN2) is a mHTT-LC3 linker compound, which interacts with both mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) and LC3B but not with wtHTT or irrelevant control proteins. LC3-mHTT-IN-2 reduces the levels of mHTT in an allele-selective manner in cultured Huntington disease (HD) mouse neurons. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
MicroRNA-218 Regulates Vascular Patterning by Modulation of Slit-Robo SignalingNovelty and Significance | Circulation Research
These data are consistent with previous reports of intronic miRNA function, in which the miRNA regulates the same biological process as the protein encoded by the host gene.29 miR-218 may contribute to "fine-tuning" of Slit-Robo pathway genes or generate negative feedback in response to Slit gene activation. It is interesting to speculate that miR-218 may serve to repress the expression of the Robo1/2 receptors in the Slit ligand-expressing cells, thereby spatially separating ligand from receptor. Because Robo4 is not a target of miR-218 regulation, it also is possible that miR-218 affects the ratio of Robo1/2 and Robo4 proteins, thereby influencing vascular patterning.. It is currently debated whether the Robo1 and -2 receptors provide a positive or negative influence on EC migration, although Robo4 is generally thought of as a repulsive or stabilizing cue during vascular pathfinding.9,37 In our hands, it appears that repression of Robo1/2 and HSPG biosynthetic molecules by miR-218 negatively ...
Recombinant Mouse Htt Protein, MYC/DDK-tagged Htt-1107M - Creative BioMart
Day 68 (3p12.3-3p12.1): a gene desert with two roundabout genes | Genome Year
Day 68 is the most gene-poor of any part of Chromosome 3: only four protein-coding genes (browser view). Two are related: ROBO1 and ROBO2 (roundabout homologs 1 and 2).. Roundabout genes were discovered in fly. The roundabout proteins are on the surface of growing axons in the brain, and help them decide whether to cross between the halves of the brain.. Roundabout genes are found as far away as worm, meaning they are at least 550 million years old.. Click here to see the sequence of Day 68 with ROBO1 underlined.. ...
US20120252879A1 - Modulation of huntingtin expression - Google Patents
At Risk for Huntington's Disease: Huntington's disease patients get first dosing in historic Isis Pharmaceuticals' gene...
We designed ISIS-HTTRx to target the huntingtin gene and reduce the production of huntingtin protein, which is the known cause of the disease," stated Frank Bennett, Ph.D., the Isis senior vice president for research. "This approach has the potential to prevent or slow the progression of this disease. If this first-in-human trial proves the drug is safe, we look forward to continuing our successful partnership with Roche to bring the drug to market ...
Comparative Analysis of Mutant Huntingtin Binding Partners in Yeast Species
Huntingtons disease is caused by the pathological expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch in Huntingtin (Htt), but the molecular mechanisms by which polyQ expansion in Htt causes toxicity in selective neuronal populations remain poorly understood. Interestingly, heterologous expression of expa …
November 2017 - LabScribbles
I have been continuing to characterise the huntingtin protein samples I am generating in the lab. You can read about my first attempts to map post-translational modifications by mass spec here. Previously I found phosphorylation modifications on the huntingtin protein which are located on the same sites as huntingtin protein derived from human cells which Read More …. ...
Genetics, Pathology, & Potential Future Advances in the Study of Huntington's Disease - Inquiries Journal
ALZFORUM | NETWORKING FOR A CURE
Scientists Unite to Accelerate Huntington's Disease Research
The Hereditary Disease Array Group (HDAG) today reported important new findings on Huntingtons disease, in six peer-reviewed papers published in the online version of the August 15th issue of Human Molecular Genetics. The papers are part of the HDAGs two-year research effort that brought over 50 scientists from 19 universities together to discover how the mutant Huntingtons disease gene causes brain cells to die by affecting other biological pathways.
Slit-Robo信号通路作用的研究进展 · 临床与病理杂志
Health Article - Huntington's Disease - AARP
A defect in a single gene causes Huntingtons disease. Its considered an autosomal dominant disorder. This means that one copy of the abnormal gene is enough to cause the disease. If one of your parents has this genetic defect, you have a 50 percent chance of inheriting it. You can also pass it on to your children.. The genetic mutation responsible for Huntingtons disease is different from many other mutations. There isnt a substitution or a missing section in the gene. Instead, there is a copying error. An area within the gene is copied too many times. The number of repeated copies tends to increase with each generation.. In general, symptoms of Huntingtons disease show up earlier in people with a larger number of repeats. The disease also progresses faster as more repeats build up.. ...
How do you get Huntingtons disease?. Huntingtons disease is caused by a faulty gene, which is passed from parent to child. The faulty gene makes a faulty protein called huntingtin. Scientists throughout the world are working to find out exactly what this protein does.. Each person whose parent has Huntingtons disease is born with a 50-50 chance of inheriting the faulty gene on chromosome 4 . Anyone who inherits the gene will at some stage develop the disease. ...
NUCB2 Protein Human Recombinant | Nucleobindin 2 | ProSpec
Huntingtons Disease impacts people around the world with a growing occurrence, which may have important biological, economic, and social implications for the future. All over the world, communities impacted by HD are coming together to work towards new solutions and ways to cope. Our team has developed a graphic concordant with other cartographic representations of HD prevalence. ...
At Risk for Huntington's Disease: September 2014
In collaboration with Dr. Macdonald and others at CHDI, the Isis HD team is working to validate huntingtin lowering biomarkers. Beside the development of assays (investigative procedures) to measure the huntingtin protein in CSF, CHDI is also looking at PET-ligands to measure the effects of ISIS-HTTRx in the brain. The ligand, sometimes called a PET tracer, binds to a target or receptor in the brain, which can be measured in people using PET scan imaging. The team has selected ligands to targets that are altered in HD; the hope is that when huntingtin is lowered the level of these targets will be restored, indicating that ISIS-HTTRx has a desired effect ...
Huntington's Disease: Causes, Symptoms, Types, Stages and Treatments
Publications | Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique
Landmark study identifies large number of new proteins implicated in Huntington's disease | EurekAlert! Science News
Researchers from four organizations have identified more than 200 new proteins that bind to normal and mutant forms of the protein that causes Huntingtons disease (HD). HD is a fatal inherited disease that affects 30,000 Americans annually by laying waste to their nervous system. The research was led by Buck Institute faculty member Robert E. Hughes, Ph.D.
Huntington's disease - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic
Scientists revealed a weak spot of the Huntington's disease | Science in the net
Researchers have found that aberrant protein aggregates responsible for Huntingtons disease have some weak spots that could be exploited to hinder the development of this pathology. The study, published on Scientific Report, has been conducted by scientists of the Centre for Complexity and Biosystems (CC&B) of the University of Milan, in collaboration with colleagues from
A shared mechanism of muscle wasting in cancer and Huntington's disease - pdf descargar
A shared mechanism of muscle wasting in cancer and Huntingtons disease. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Huntington's disease: Symptoms, causes, and treatment
Huntingtons disease can take a long time to diagnose. It is a hereditary illness with numerous symptoms that leave a person unable to walk or talk and needing full-time care. We explain genetic testing, drug treatments, and the state of research to find a cure, plus the stages of the disease and therapies available.
New Drug Shows Promise in Reversing Symptoms of Huntington's Disease
October | 2018 | Huntington's Disease Society of America
When Marjorie Guthrie founded our organization in 1967, her vow was to "do something" about this devastating disease. Today we continue her legacy by bringing together the entire community to provide help and hope to all families affected by Huntingtons disease. Listed here are some of the ways you can get involved in the fight against HD. ...
Huntington's Disease Society of America
The battle against Huntingtons disease rages on and we need you to join TEAM HOPE - VIRTUALLY! A virtual walk is a real walk, but on your terms. You get choose your own course. Now, you can take part wherever you are…from the comfort and safety of your own home, around your yard, or even your neighborhood (following social distance guidelines, of course). ...
Connective tissue in the peripheral nervous system Epineurium Nerve fascicle Nerve fiber Perineurium Elaine N. Marieb and Katja ... The endoneurium contains a liquid known as endoneurial fluid, which contains little protein. In the peripheral nervous system ... In sufficiently large nerves multiple fascicles, each with its blood supply and fatty tissue, may be bundled within yet another ... Peripheral nerve injuries commonly release increased amounts of endoneurial fluid into surrounding tissues; these can be ...
... is a myostatin(GDF8)-homologous protein that acts as an inhibitor of nerve tissue growth. GDF11 has been shown to ... Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) also known as bone morphogenetic protein 11 (BMP-11) is a protein that in humans is ... "GDF11 forms a bone morphogenetic protein 1-activated latent complex that can modulate nerve growth factor-induced ... It acts as a cytokine. The BMP group of proteins is characterized by a polybasic proteolytic processing site, ...
Inside the tunic is the body wall or mantle composed of connective tissue, muscle fibres, blood vessels, and nerves. Two ... The cellulose body wall can be broken down and converted into ethanol, and other parts of the animal are protein-rich and can ... Nerves arise from the two ends of the ganglion; those from the anterior end innervate the buccal siphon and those from the ... Their name derives from their unique outer covering or "tunic", which is formed from proteins and carbohydrates, and acts as an ...
... ilin expression in human tissues is mainly restricted to striated muscles and nerves. In muscles, myotilin is predominantly ... Myotilin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYOT gene. Myotilin (myofibrillar titin-like protein) also known as TTID ... TiTin Immunoglobulin Domain) is a muscle protein that is found within the Z-disc of sarcomeres. Myotilin is a 55.3 kDa protein ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ...
It has moderate expression in testis, larynx, nerve, blood, and adipose tissue sites. According to the Human Protein Atlas, ... "Tissue Atlas". The Human Protein Atlas. "Ensembl". Ensembl. "Ensembl". Ensembl. "Uniprot". Uniprot. "Expasy". Expasy. "PSORT II ... The protein is largely coiled. The DUF is composed mainly of alpha helices and coils. It has slightly fewer beta sheets ... PROSER1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PROSER1 gene. PROSER1 has several aliases: C13orf23, KIAA2032, and ...
As a result muscle atrophy and soft tissue injuries due to delayed nerve transmission can occur. In males, due to the ... Gap junction beta-1 protein (GJB1), also known as connexin 32 (Cx32) is a transmembrane protein that in humans is encoded by ... Gap junction beta-1 protein is a member of the gap junction connexin family of proteins that regulates and controls the ... GJB1 is a gap junction, beta 1 protein also identified as connexin 32, with 238 amino acids. This protein contains four ...
Proteins are important to supply the essential amino acids for the development of body tissues like muscles, nerves, cartilage ... Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in energy and protein, have been used in place of corn and soybean ... Swine rations are generally based on a ground cereal grain as a carbohydrate source, soybean meal as a protein source, minerals ... Meals from soybean, canola, and corn gluten are the major source of plant protein in poultry diets. Supplementations of ...
This is called peripheral nerve reconstruction. The injured nerve is identified and exposed so that normal nerve tissue can be ... Proteins of oligodendritic or glial debris origin that influence neuroregeneration: NOGO -The protein family Nogo, particularly ... on nerve autografts and tissue-engineered nerve grafts. Muscle Nerve. 2002;26:87-93. Shiotani A, O'Malley BW Jr, Coleman ME, ... PCAF causes chemical and genetic events that allow nerves to regenerate. Unfortunately, scar tissue interferes with the nerves ...
... its abundant expression in brain suggests that it may have an essential role in nerve tissue. Several alternatively spliced ... Olfactomedin 1, also known as noelin 1 or pancortin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OLFM1 gene. The name noelin ... "Identification and cloning of neuroblastoma-specific and nerve tissue-specific genes through compiled expression profiles". DNA ... "Entrez Gene: OLFM1 olfactomedin 1". Anholt, Robert R. H. (2014). "Olfactomedin proteins: central players in development and ...
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.641)
Acquired non-inflammatory myopathy
These muscular diseases usually arise from a pathology within the muscle tissue itself rather than the nerves innervating that ... Abnormal levels of these proteins are indicative of both inflammatory myopathy and ANIM. EMGs are particularly useful in ... A myopathy refers to a problem or abnormality with the myofibrils, which compose muscle tissue. In general, non-inflammatory ... Statins induce myopathy by inhibiting protein synthesis within the muscle. Statin therapy tends to not show any ...
... which is a group of proteins that help control the growth and development of tissues throughout the body. This protein ... with or without the breakdown of nerve tissue. Some metabolic diseases affect the normal metabolic processes in the body: Acid ... It provides instructions for making a protein called myostatin. This protein transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily ... Those are typically either diseases that affect muscles and/or protein synthesis, or there might be a genetic disorder that ...
... such as three-dimensional microstructural scaffolding and protein components inherent to nerve tissue. One of the adverse ... Another option to bridge the gap is nerve allotransplantation. Nerve allografts are prepared from donated human nerve tissue. ... In case of insufficient amount of autologous nerve tissue or the inability to attach both nerve ends securely and tension free ... Golden standard therapy for transected nerves is an end-to-end repair of the nerve, also known as primary nerve repair. With a ...
... the roles of proteins showing loss of nerve tissue such as neurofilaments, tau, and N-acetylaspartate are under investigation. ... These features interact in a complex and not yet fully understood manner to produce the breakdown of nerve tissue and in turn ... The nervous system in MS may respond less actively to stimulation of the optic nerve and sensory nerves due to demyelination of ... Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord ...
It was discovered that MSC is able to induce blood vessel and nerve growth during damaged tissues recovery. It was also ... After that it was classified as T-Cadherin - a protein from the group of cadherins responsible for hemophilic intracellar ... tissue and organ regeneration and reparation, as well as the role of mesenchyme stem cells (MSC) of various tissues in this ... These results formed the basis of the development of a drug for therapeutic angiogenesis via uPA gene delivery to the tissues ...
Gene therapy of the human retina
Juvenile retinoschisis is a disease that affects the nerve tissue in the eye. This disease is an X-linked recessive ... When mutations occur in the rhodopsin the directional protein movement is affected because the mutations can affect protein ... The protein RPE65 is used in the retinoid cycle where the all-trans-retinol within the rod outer segment is isomerized to its ... In normal tissues VEGF stimulates endothelial cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner, but such activity is lost with ...
Human Endogenous Retrovirus-W
... of a synctin-1 promoter the Mameli Lab was able to better understand the mechanism for ERVWE1 regulation in nerve tissue. They ... Since the detection of MSRV Env protein in the plasma of multiple sclerosis patients and the realization that is a member of ... Performing multiple-tissue Northern Blots on a variety of human tissues lead to the discovery of 8-, 3.1- and 1.3-kb ... adipose tissue, placenta and muscle). Further, human tissues that lack some sort of HERV expression could not be found which ...
Mutations in SCN10A are associated to Brugada syndrome . Nerve growth factor levels in inflamed or injured tissues are ... which in turn activates protein kinase A. Protein kinase A phosphorylates Nav1.8 at intracellular sites, resulting in increased ... Malik-Hall M, Poon WY, Baker MD, Wood JN, Okuse K (February 2003). "Sensory neuron proteins interact with the intracellular ... Therefore, nociceptors are easily sensitised by agents such as bradykinin and nerve growth factor, which are released at the ...
The abnormal protein PrPSc accumulates in the brain and destroys nerve cells, which leads to the mental and behavioral features ... Kardos J, Kovács I, Hajós F, Kálmán M, Simonyi M (August 1989). "Nerve endings from rat brain tissue release copper upon ... PRNP (PRioN Protein) is the human gene encoding for the major prion protein PrP (for prion protein), also known as CD230 ( ... A strong interaction exists between PrP and cochaperone Hsp70/Hsp90 organizing protein/Stress-induced protein 1 (hop (protein)/ ...
... because it can cause injury to soft tissue and/or the nerves and vascular structures around the dislocation. ... syndrome is genetically inherited disorder that is thought to affect the encoding of the connective tissue protein's collagen ... A joint dislocation can cause damage to the surrounding ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves. Dislocations can occur in ... Vessel and nerve injuries during a shoulder dislocation is rare, but can cause many impairments and requires a longer recovery ...
... connective tissue) of the optic nerve head. Their findings were that perlecan and several other proteoglycans were upregulated ... This is not evidence that MMP-2 and MMP-9 directly cleave perlecan protein in vivo but shows that the proteins clearly modulate ... Timing of gene expression during development varies from tissue to tissue. Basement membranes are often the driving force ... Another procedure that could be made possible by tissue engineering is keratoepithelioplasty. Transplanted tissue must remain ...
... is an R-SMAD-binding protein and acts as a transcriptional corepressor. ZEB2 transcripts are found in tissues ... disease also has many symptoms that can be explained by lack of ZEB2 during development of the digestive tract nerves. This ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB2 gene. The ZEB2 protein is a ... "Smad-interacting protein 1 is a repressor of liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase transcription in bone morphogenetic protein ...
Loose connective tissue
It may be found in tissue sections from almost every part of the body. It surrounds blood vessels and nerves and penetrates ... Fibroblasts are widely dispersed in this tissue; they are irregular branching cells that secrete strong fibrous proteins and ... Loose connective tissue is a category of connective tissue which includes areolar tissue, reticular tissue, and adipose tissue ... They join connective tissues to other tissues. Areolar tissue (/əˈriːələr/ or /ˌɛəriˈoʊlər, ˌær-/) is a common type of loose ...
Fatty acid metabolism
... or norepinephrine secreted by sympathetic nerves in adipose tissue), caused by declining blood glucose levels after meals, ... PKC is a multifunctional protein kinase which phosphorylates serine and threonine residues in many target proteins. However PKC ... The ability of the same prostaglandin to stimulate a reaction in one tissue and inhibit the same reaction in another tissue is ... especially in adipose tissue, but to a lesser extent also in other tissues, partially digests the chylomicrons into free fatty ...
Local anesthetic nerve block
Lipid solubility, blood flow in the tissue, and presence of vasoconstrictors with the anesthetic all play a role in this. A ... G-protein coupled receptors, NMDA receptors, and calcium channels in vitro. The duration of the block is mostly influenced by ... Local anesthetic nerve block (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve ... The local anesthetic bathes the nerve and numbs the area of the body that is innervated by that nerve. The goal of the nerve ...
Encephalopsins and neuropsins are highly expressed in nerve cells and brain tissue, but so far their function is unknown. ... a protein moiety and a reversibly covalently bound non-protein cofactor, retinal (retinaldehyde). The protein structure of ... Retinylidene protein, is a family of proteins that use retinal as a chromophore for light reception. It is the molecular basis ... Retinylidene proteins include all forms of opsin and rhodopsin (in the broad sense). While rhodopsin in the narrow sense refers ...
... and 1 gram of protein is roughly equivalent to 4 gram of muscle tissue. Subsequently, in situations such as muscle wasting, 1 ... Neurogenic atrophy, which has a similar effect, is muscle atrophy resulting from damage to the nerve which stimulates the ... A CT scan can distinguish muscle tissue from other tissues and thereby estimate the amount of muscle tissue in the body. Fast ... The protein balance at time of dormancy is also maintained by lower levels of protein breakdown during the winter time. At ...
For example, after a back surgery that removed a herniated disc from causing a pinched nerve, the patient may still continue to ... In "central sensitization," nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord become sensitized by peripheral tissue ... as well as a protein inside mesolimbic neurons called delta FosB. An associative process may contribute to addiction, for ...
The arrangement of veins (the vascular tissue). These three tissue systems typically form a regular organization at the ... 2 major basal nerves besides the midrib. Diagrams of venation patternsEdit. ... The concentration of photosynthetic structures in leaves requires that they be richer in protein, minerals, and sugars than, ... Both are embedded in a dense parenchyma tissue, called the sheath, which usually includes some structural collenchyma tissue. ...
with an amidation at the C-terminus. Substance P is released from the terminals of specific sensory nerves. It is found in ... The original discovery of Substance P (SP) was in 1931 by Ulf von Euler and John H. Gaddum as a tissue extract that caused ... "The neuropeptide substance P activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase resulting in IL-6 expression independently from NF- ... The above processes are part and parcel to tissue integrity and repair. Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in ...
Once the shell is penetrated, the prey dies almost instantaneously, its muscles relax, and the soft tissues are easy for the ... It contains tetrodotoxin, which causes paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles. This causes ... Editing is concentrated in the nervous system and affects proteins involved in neural excitability and neuronal morphology. ... The skin consists of a thin outer epidermis with mucous cells and sensory cells, and a connective tissue dermis consisting ...
... neoplasms including sarcomas such as hemangiopericytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in ... Type I collagen is present in many forms of connective tissue, and makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the ... Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and ... and special connective tissue. Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue ( ...
NervesEdit. The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and ... The albumin (9) further protects the embryo and serves as a reservoir for water and protein. The allantois (8) is a sac that ... Morphological and cellular aspects of tail and limb regeneration in lizards a model system with implications for tissue ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ...
Efferent nerve fibers of gamma motoneurons also terminate in muscle spindles; they make synapses at either or both of the ends ... Muscle spindles have a capsule of connective tissue, and run parallel to the extrafusal muscle fibers.[c] ... They convey length information to the central nervous system via afferent nerve fibers. This information can be processed by ... Muscle Nerve. 31 (2): 135-56. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.126.3583. doi:10.1002/mus.20261. PMID 15736297.. ...
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome
Cylindrospermopsin is toxic to liver and kidney tissue and is thought to inhibit protein synthesis and to covalently modify DNA ... The nerve tissues which communicate with muscles contain a receptor called the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Stimulation of ... Nerve synapse Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Lyngbya, Cylindrospermopsis Lipopolysaccharides Potential irritant; affects any exposed ... Toxic effects from anatoxin-a progress very rapidly because it acts directly on the nerve cells (neurons) as a neurotoxin. The ...
Diabetic ketoacidosis - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Next, the body begins to break down protein. (When the body cannot create enough energy by breaking down fat and glycogen into ... Without enough electrolytes, the heart, muscles, and nerve cells cannot work properly. Also, eventually, the kidneys can fail ... sugar, it breaks down protein.) This causes the tissues in the body to lose nitrogen. ...
කොලෙස්ටරෝල් - විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය
In myelin, it envelopes and insulates nerves, helping greatly to conduct nerve impulses. ... Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 and 2). In the presence of cholesterol, SREBP is bound to two other proteins: ... Cholesterol is primarily synthesized from acetyl CoA through the HMG-CoA reductase pathway in many cells and tissues. About 20- ... The main regulatory mechanism is the sensing of intracellular cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum by the protein SREBP ( ...
Fruit and vegetables for kids
Vitamin A assists in the maintenance and promotion of healthy growth of skin and tissues cells. Healthy growth of tissue cells ... Assists in functionality of muscle construction and nerve impulses - Calcium regulates the transmutation of nerve impulses for ... When activated by light Rhodopsin slips into two proteins (Opsin and All Trans Retinal), in the dark the reverse process occurs ... Vitamin A ensures sufficient collagen is produced to build strong healthy bones and other connecting tissues (Deen & Hark, 2007 ...
Proteins do not have to unfold to be imported into the peroxisome. The protein receptors, the peroxins PEX5 and PEX7, accompany ... Evert RF, Eichhorn SE (2006). Esau's Plant Anatomy: Meristems, Cells, and Tissues of the Plant Body: Their Structure, Function ... Deficiency of plasmalogens causes profound abnormalities in the myelination of nerve cells, which is one reason why many ... The protein content of peroxisomes varies across species or organism, but the presence of proteins common to many species has ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. • peripheral nervous system development. • memory. • nerve ... Although BDNF is needed in the developmental stages, BDNF levels have been shown to decrease in tissues with aging. Studies ... Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. ...
The cancerous tissue is removed and the incision is closed. Post operative care may employ the use of suction drainage to ... The surgeon cuts the shaft of the elongated phallus and sews the glans and preserved nerves back onto the stump. In a less ... If the malignancy is present in muscular tissue in the region, it is also removed. In some cases, the surgeon is able to ... allow the deeper tissues to heal toward the surface. Follow up after surgery includes the stripping of the drainage device to ...
These include dendritic protein microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) [137,138], brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) [ ... and interdependent cascades of biological reactions at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels. Due to the extended length ... Temporal protein biomarkers in tracking different phases of TBIEdit. A continuum of protein biomarkers in tracking different ... Post-injury neurodegeneration/tauopathy such as Tau protein and phospho-tau protein. There are also autoantibodies as ...
The influence of isotretinoin and 5-a reductase inhibitors in metaloproteases of connective tissue in patients with ance] (in ... Isotretinoin is primarily (99.9%) bound to plasma proteins, mostly albumin. Three metabolites of Isotretinoin are detectable in ... It is also used for treatment of neuroblastoma, a form of nerve cancer. ... the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases). It is already known that metalloproteases play an important role in the ...
Olfactory ensheathing cells
OECs express glial markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, s100, and p75, and radial glial markers such as nestin and ... Olfactory axons invade the basal lamina of the glia limitans and the olfactory bulb to create the olfactory nerve and ... By mimicking native tissue, the delivery cells are less likely to be rejected by the body and biological functions such as cell ... Fidyka], who is believed to be the first person in the world to recover from complete severing of the spinal nerves, can now ...
White blood cells and fibroblasts produce granulation tissue and then scar tissue, effectively healing the cornea. ... There may also be signs of anterior uveitis, such as miosis (small pupil), aqueous flare (protein in the aqueous humour), and ... Other tests that may be necessary include a Schirmer's test for keratoconjunctivitis sicca and an analysis of facial nerve ... Proper nutrition, including protein intake and Vitamin C are usually advised. In cases of Keratomalacia, where the corneal ...
List of atheists in science and technology
R. L. Wysong (1976). "5: Origin of Proteins". The Creation-evolution Controversy (implications, Methodology and Survey of ... Rapport, Richard L. Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the Synapse. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005. Print. ... Nobel Prize-winning British scientist best known for his work on how the immune system rejects or accepts tissue transplants.[ ... Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896): German physician and physiologist, the discoverer of nerve action potential, and the father ...
Kisspeptin is a protein that regulates the release of GnRH from the hypothalamus, which in turn regulates the release of LH and ... Any problems with the development of the olfactory nerve fibres will prevent the progression of the GnRH releasing neurons ... Skin and related tissue. *Dyskeratosis congenita. *Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA). *X-linked ichthyosis ... along with the fibres of the olfactory nerves, and into the rostral forebrain. From there they migrate to what will become the ...
Innate immune system
This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ... swelling of affected tissues, such as the upper throat during the common cold or joints affected by rheumatoid arthritis; ... Action potentials transmitted via the vagus nerve to spleen mediate the release of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that ... "Resistance" (R) proteins, encoded by R genes, are widely present in plants and detect pathogens. These proteins contain domains ...
陰部神經 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
蛋白質（英语：Template:Nerve tissue protein）. *神經遞質 ... 闭孔内肌神经（英语：Obturator internus nerve）. *梨状肌神经（英语：Piriformis nerve）). 皮神经（英语：Cutaneous nerve）: 股后皮神经（英语：Posterior cutaneous nerve ... 薦神經（英语：Sacral nerve）（S2 ~ S4）. 走向. 下直腸神經（英语：Inferior rectal nerves）. 會陰神經. 陰莖背神經（英语：dorsal nerve of the penis）. 陰蒂背神經（英语：dorsal ... 陰部神經
WIPI2, a PtdIns(3)P binding protein of the WIPI (WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides) protein family, was ... Mizushima, N; Komatsu, M (11 November 2011). "Autophagy: renovation of cells and tissues". Cell. 147 (4): 728-41. doi:10.1016/j ... The study in mice fed with olive oil resulted in an increase in nerve cell autophagy activation compared to controls that had ... Without efficient autophagy, neurons gather ubiquitinated protein aggregates and degrade. Ubiquitinated proteins are proteins ...
Platelet-derived growth factor
Binding proteins: IGFBP (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). *Cleavage products/derivatives with unknown target: Glypromate (GPE, (1-3)IGF-1) ... PDGF is a required element in cellular division for fibroblasts, a type of connective tissue cell that is especially prevalent ... a b Proto-Oncogene+Proteins+c-sis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Hannink M, Donoghue DJ (1989). "Structure and function of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and related proteins". Biochim ...
Muscle - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
These are the proteins that make the muscle contract (get shorter.) Muscle contraction[change , change source]. When a nerve ... Muscle is a tissue in animal bodies. Their main purpose is to help us to move our body parts. They are one of the major systems ... This calcium sticks to the specialized proteins actin and myosin. This triggers these proteins to contract the muscle. ... These holes are proteins that are called calcium channels. The calcium ions rush into the cell. Calcium also comes out of a ...
Male reproductive system
The spermatic cord, formed from spermatic artery, vein and nerve bound together with connective tissue passes into the testis ... 19 July 1990). "A gene from the human sex-determining region encodes a protein with homology to a conserved DNA-binding motif ... It carries with it the ductus deference, that is testicular vessels and nerves, a portion of the abdominal muscle, and lymph ... Erection occurs because sinuses within the erectile tissue of the penis become filled with blood. The arteries of the penis are ...
Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
It prolonged SMA mouse life span by 35% and showed increased levels of SMN protein in spinal cord tissue. However, ... Peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) ... The UBQLN2 gene encodes the protein ubiquilin 2 which is responsible for controlling the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins ... As that gene's name suggests, BACE1 is an enzymatic protein that cleaves the Amyloid Precursor Protein into the insoluble ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins - DrugBank
Nerve tissue protein - Wikipedia
Nerve tissue is a biological molecule related to the function and maintenance of normal nervous tissue. An example would ... Nerve tissue proteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Raiker, S. J.; Lee, H.; Baldwin, K ... Neuronal Apoptosis-Inhibitory Protein Neuronal Calcium-Sensor Proteins Neuropeptides Olfactory Marker Protein S100 Proteins ... Brain Nerve Growth Factors Neuroendocrine Secretory Protein 7B2 Neurofilament Proteins Neurogranin ...
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors : amplicon search by FISH and protein expression profiling using tissue micro arrays
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors : amplicon search by FISH and protein expression profiling using tissue micro arrays. ... as well as the neurofibromin protein were analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a TMA with tissue cores from 106 MPNSTs and 3 ... which encodes the protein neurofibromin. This protein is in normal cells responsible for the deactivation of RAS through GTP- ... The second part of this study focused on in situ expression taking advantage of tissue microarray (TMA) as a tool for analyses ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins | Profiles RNS
"Nerve Tissue Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "Nerve Tissue Proteins" was a major or minor topic of ... "Nerve Tissue Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Nerve Tissue Proteins*Nerve Tissue Proteins. *Proteins, Nerve Tissue. *Tissue Proteins, Nerve ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Nerve Tissue Proteins" by people in Profiles. ...
Nerve Tissue Proteins Archivi | Biocrystal Facility
Molecular aging of the brain, neuroplasticity, and vulnerability to depression and other brain-related disorders. - PubMed -...
Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism. Substance. *Nerve Tissue Proteins. Grant support. *UL1 TR000005/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/United ... glial fibrillary acidic protein; NF-KB, nuclear factor kappa B; CNP, 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase; MHC, myosin ... Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics. * ... Proteins*BioSystems. *BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) ...
Genetics of synaptic vesicle function: toward the complete functional anatomy of an organelle. - PubMed - NCBI
Nerve Tissue Proteins. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *Atypon. Other Literature Sources. *Cited by Patents in - ... At present, the majority of synaptic vesicle proteins has been characterized, and many have been genetically analyzed in mice, ... These studies have shown that synaptic vesicles contain proteins with diverse structures and functions. Although the genetic ...
Category:Physiology - Wikimedia Commons
Category:Proteins - Wikimedia Commons
Nerve tissue proteins (226 В). *. ► Neuregulin-1 (13 В). *. ► Nevit Dilmen Proteins (1 С, 215 В) ... Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ...
Prominent decline of newborn cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in the aging dentate gyrus, in absence of an...
Evidence of a distinct behavioral phenoty... & related info | Mendeley
Fast mapping of protein-protein interfaces by NMR spectroscopy
Here, we report a method for the fast mapping of interfaces of protein complexes by NMR without the need for the assignments of ... Identifying the interface of protein complexes can represent a difficult task in structural biology. ... Nerve Tissue Proteins / chemistry* * Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism * Nitric Oxide Synthase / chemistry* ... Fast mapping of protein-protein interfaces by NMR spectroscopy J Am Chem Soc. 2003 Nov 26;125(47):14250-1. doi: 10.1021/ ...
Get PDF - 2,5-hexanedione (HD) treatment alters calmodulin, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase C...
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase C in rats' nerve tissues ... nerve tissues. 2,5-hexanedione (HD) treatment alters calmodulin, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and protein ... NF-M and NF-H were also elevated in nerve tissues, which was consistent with the activation of protein kinases. The results ... protein kinase C, cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Febs Letters 258(1): ...
Volume 1, Issue 4B, September 2006: Stiff Person Syndrome | National Rehabilitation Information Center
Nerve Tissue Proteins. *Neural Inhibition. *Neuromuscular Agents (therapeutic use). *Neuromuscular Disorders. *Physical Therapy ... People with SPS may have certain proteins in their blood called anti-GAD antibodies that may cause some of the symptoms of the ... This syndrome is thought to be an autoimmune dieases in which the body produces antibodies that attack certain healthy tissues ... Both the rigidity and the spasms are relieved by sleep, general anaesthesia, myoneural blockade and peripheral nerve blockade. ...
Vatalanib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Progressive Meningioma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue. Meningeal Neoplasms. Vatalanib. Protein Kinase Inhibitors. Enzyme ... Correlation of response rates with the expression of certain types of genes will be assessed by examining tissue samples taken ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Soft Tissue Sarcoma Meningioma Brain Tumor, Adult Hemangiopericytoma ... Negative proteinuria dipstick OR total urinary protein ≤ 500 mg AND creatinine clearance ≥ 50 mL/min ...
A Study of PD 0332991 in Patients With Recurrent Rb Positive Glioblastoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Palbociclib. Antineoplastic Agents. Protein Kinase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms ... Additional tissue from previous surgeries will also be obtained to evaluate molecular abnormalities in the tumor. These studies ... Blocks or slides of tumor tissue from a previous surgery must be available to do IHC Rb staining. Patients with negative tumors ...
Current version of study NCT01512251 on ClinicalTrials.gov
Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Recurrent Ewing's Family of Tumors or Desmoplastic Small Round-Cell Tumor -...
Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Imatinib Mesylate. Antineoplastic Agents. Protein Kinase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular ... Neoplasms, Bone Tissue. Neoplasms, Connective Tissue. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Soft Tissue Sarcoma Neuroepithelioma Ewing Sarcoma Desmoplastic Small ... Neoplasms, Connective and Soft Tissue. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms. Osteosarcoma. ...
1974) Isolation of myelin from nerve tissue. Methods Enzymol 31:435-444. ... The proteolipid protein (PLP) gene encodes two myelin-specific protein isoforms, DM-20 and PLP, which are members of the highly ... 1996) Parallel evolution and coexpression of the proteolipid proteins and protein zero in vertebrate myelin. Neuron 16:1115- ... 1999) Identification of a new exon in the myelin proteolipid protein gene encoding novel protein isoforms that are restricted ...
A 'bridge' of carbon between nerve tissues
A new material made of carbon nanotubes supports the growth of nerve fibers, bridging segregated neural explants and providing ... Engineers can detect ultra rare proteins in blood using a cellphone camera. February 19, 2019 One of the frontiers of medical ... A bridge of carbon between nerve tissues. July 15, 2016, International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA) ... In the present study, Ballerini and her team first investigated the materials reaction to nerve tissue in vitro. "We explanted ...
Immunohistochemical localization of nerve injury-induced protein-1 in mouse tissues | Anatomy & Cell Biology;: 455-461, 2019. ...
Immunohistochemical localization of nerve injury-induced protein-1 in mouse tissues Immunohistochemical localization of nerve ... Nerve injury-induced protein (Ninjurin)-1 is a cell adhesion molecule that is upregulated in neurons and Schwann cells after ... In this study, we investigated the localization of Ninjurin-1 in various tissues, including the cerebrum, sciatic nerve, spleen ... Full text: Available Index: WPRIM (Western Pacific) Main subject: Pancreas / Rats / Schwann Cells / Sciatic Nerve / Skin / ...
Concomitant increase by peroxisome proliferators of fatty acid-binding protein, peroxisomal beta-oxidation and cytosolic acyl...
0/Fabp7 protein, rat; 0/Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins; 0/Fatty Alcohols; 0/Neoplasm Proteins; 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins; 637-07-0/ ... Neoplasm Proteins*. Nerve Tissue Proteins*. Oxidation-Reduction. Palmitoyl-CoA Hydrolase / biosynthesis*. Rats. Rats, Inbred ... 0/Carrier Proteins; 0/Fabp5 protein, mouse; 0/Fabp7 protein, mouse; ... Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins. Fatty Alcohols / pharmacology*. Guinea Pigs. Liver / metabolism*. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains ...
Fat depot origin affects fatty acid handling in cultured rat and human preadipocytes.
0/Fabp7 protein, rat; 0/Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins; 0/Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; 0/Neoplasm Proteins; 0/Nerve Tissue Proteins ... Neoplasm Proteins*. Nerve Tissue Proteins*. Omentum / cytology. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Stem Cells / metabolism*. Substrate ... Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Epididymis. Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins. Fatty Acids, Nonesterified / ... Adipose-specific fatty acid binding protein (aP2) and keratinocyte lipid binding protein abundance was higher in differentiated ...
TCF7L1 | Cancer Genetics Web
Proto-Oncogene Proteins. *DNA-Binding Proteins. *Neoplastic Cell Transformation. *Nerve Tissue Proteins ... Lmo2 is part of a protein complex comprised of class II basic helix loop helix proteins, Tal1and Lyl1. The latter transcription ... we found that TLX expression was high in NB patient tissues when compared with normal peripheral nervous system tissues. ... while enhancing TAp73 mRNA and protein expression. Conversely, CK2 inhibitor attenuation of CSC protein expression and the SP ...
SEMA3F | Cancer Genetics Web
rac1 GTP-Binding Protein. *Nerve Tissue Proteins. *Membrane Glycoproteins. *Tumor Suppressor Gene ... Osprey software was used to construct the interaction network of DEGs, and genes at protein-protein interaction (PPI) nodes ... BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish an osteosarcoma (OS) associated protein-protein interaction network and ... Establishing an osteosarcoma associated protein-protein interaction network to explore the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma.. Eur J ...
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
0 (Integrin beta1); 0 (Nerve Tissue Proteins); 0 (SHARPIN protein, human); 0 (Talin); 0 (Ubiquitins); EC 3.6.1.- (RRAS protein ... GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go); EC 220.127.116.11 (rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins); EC 18.104.22.168 (rab3 GTP-Binding Proteins). ... Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt); EC 22.214.171.124 (Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases). ... atypically for G protein-coupled receptors that normally act on heterotrimeric G proteins. Through multidimensional screenings ...
MEDLINE - Resultado p gina 1
Cldn3 protein, mouse); 0 (Cldn4 protein, mouse); 0 (Ltap protein, mouse); 0 (Nerve Tissue Proteins); 0 (Pard3 protein, mouse); ... Protein ria/sangue. Protein ria/complica es. Protein ria/tratamento farmacol gico. Protein ria/preven o & controle. Ratos ... 0 (claudin 8); EC 126.96.36.199 (RhoA protein, mouse); EC 188.8.131.52 (cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein); EC 184.108.40.206 (rho GTP-Binding Proteins) ... 0 (Cell Adhesion Molecules); 0 (Claudin-1); 0 (Claudin-4); 0 (Cldn1 protein, mouse); 0 (Cldn4 protein, mouse); 0 (Cytokines); 0 ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Tissue-culture; Animals; Laboratory-animals; Fibrosis; Bone-structure; Muscles; Nerve-tissue; Nerve-function; Proteins; ... Increased tendon calcification and a bone mineralization protein in musculoskeletal tissues with repetitive reaching task. ... Musculoskeletal tissues were harvested. Soft tissues were dissected out and frozen sectioned en bloc into 15 micrometer ... nerves and associated loose connective tissues. Osteoactivin (OA) is a recently identified factor that plays a role in bone ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Nerve tissue; Tissue culture; Animals; Laboratory animals; Molecular biology; Exposure levels; Risk factors; Proteins; Cell ... and nerve tissues. Methods: Transcript expression in tissues from control and vibration-exposed rats (4 h/day for 10 days at ... Other pathways associated with breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein related signaling, or associated with cancer and ... Vibration; Models; Vibration exposure; Injuries; Skin; Nerves; ...
'bacteriophage t7' Protocols and Video...
... and Purification of Soluble and Insoluble Biotinylated Proteins for Nerve Tissue Regeneration, Reverse Genetics Mediated ... Combining Wet and Dry Lab Techniques to Guide the Crystallization of Large Coiled-coil Containing Proteins. ... Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for the Identification of Multiple Phosphorylations of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins, ... Kinetics of Lagging-strand DNA Synthesis In Vitro by the Bacteriophage T7 Replication Proteins, Protocols for Implementing an ...
Connective tissuesNeuronsMetabolismCellsFibersMiceAmyloidSignal TransductionTumorsBlood vesselsBoneMyelinMuscle tissueKinasesTransmembrane proteinsMutationsAminoSciaticCalcium-bindingScar tissuePeptideFamily of proteinsSynthesisCellTendonsInjury-inducedMalignant peripheral nerve sheathOrgansCellularEndingsIncreasesTyrosineSubcutaneousMeSHPeripheral nervesSynapticAlzheimer'sReceptorsMoleculesMembraneCarbohydratesSpinalFatty AcidsGlucose
- Immunohistochemical analysis largely confirmed the results of the western blot analysis with often localization of Ninjurin-1 in the regions with abundant connective tissues . (bvsalud.org)
- A normal result means the bone marrow contains the proper number and types of blood-forming (hematopoietic) cells, fat cells, and connective tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
- Our results indicate that performance of a high rate, low force (HRLF) task regimen results in injury, inflammation and fibrosis in bone, muscles, tendons, nerves and associated loose connective tissues. (cdc.gov)
- Traditional bodybuilding exercises focus on the contractile element of the muscle responsible for generating force, yet it is the fascia and elastic connective tissues (ECT) that control how that force is transmitted throughout the body. (acefitness.org)
- Fascia and connective tissues contain more sensory nerve endings than muscle tissue. (acefitness.org)
- The misshapen protein from the mutated gene weakens the tendons, ligaments and other connective tissues in the body. (dnalc.org)
- In sympathetic neurons, the expression of NAIP-BIR3 and hippocalcin did not provide any significant protection from cell death from the withdrawal of nerve growth factor. (wikipedia.org)
- When overexpressed, XAIP is able to block caspases extremely well and prevents cell death of sympathetic neurons when nerve growth factors are deprived. (wikipedia.org)
- Nerve injury -induced protein (Ninjurin)-1 is a cell adhesion molecule that is upregulated in neurons and Schwann cells after transection injury in rats . (bvsalud.org)
- The increased Na+-dependent amino acid uptake by BDNF is followed by an enhancement of overall protein synthesis associated with the differentiation of cortical neurons. (epfl.ch)
- Sensory neurons (a type of nerve cell) in culture that were exposed to p53-deficient oral cancer cells sprouted projections called neurites. (nih.gov)
- These microRNAs nudge sensory neurons to reduce their normal gene activity and adopt genetic characteristics of a different class of nerve cells, known as adrenergic neurons, that are usually rare in the oral cavity. (nih.gov)
- To confirm that the adrenergic neurons were promoting tumors, the scientists blunted adrenergic signaling in mice-either by disabling sensory nerves or giving adrenergic-blocking drugs. (nih.gov)
- Nerve injury induces changes in gene transcription in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. (nature.com)
- Here, we report that peripheral nerve injury increases expression of the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a in the injured DRG neurons via the activation of the transcription factor octamer transcription factor 1. (nature.com)
- Conversely, in the absence of nerve injury, mimicking this increase reduces the Kcna2 promoter activity, diminishes Kcna2 expression, decreases Kv current, increases excitability in DRG neurons and leads to spinal cord central sensitization and neuropathic pain symptoms. (nature.com)
- We report here that the de novo methyltransferase DNMT3a, but not DNMT3b, is significantly increased in the injured DRG neurons after peripheral nerve injury. (nature.com)
- In Alzheimer's disease, nerve cells (neurons) stop functioning, lose connections with each other and ultimately die. (healthcentral.com)
- These data are consistent with interdepot differences in fatty acid flux ensuing from differences in fatty acid binding proteins and enzymes of fat metabolism. (biomedsearch.com)
- The effect of Piracetam on rat cerebral protein metabolism in vivo and in vitro was studied. (tudelft.nl)
- These products of cell metabolism are primarily nitrogenous substances derived from protein, especially ammonia, or possibly certain short-chain fatty acids. (britannica.com)
- metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins (for example, Vitamin B12 is necessary for the conversion of methylmalonate to succinic acid, an important Krebs cycle intermediate in energy production). (integratedhealth.com)
- The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
- Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze the chemical reactions in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
- Myelination of axons by these Schwann cells are essential for normal nerve function. (wikipedia.org)
- Peripheral nerves rely on communication between axons and Schwaan cells. (wikipedia.org)
- This protein is in normal cells responsible for the deactivation of RAS through GTP-hydrolysis and inactivation of the gene will lead to hyperstimulation of the MAP-kinase pathway. (uio.no)
- Presumably, the appearance of exon 3b in amphibians ∼300 million years before present imparted new functions on the protein or proteins encoded by the ancestral PLP gene that proved to be advantageous to myelinating cells. (jneurosci.org)
- The expression level of HIWI and HILI and cancer stem cells markers in paired cancerous and non-cancerous tissues was measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. (cancerindex.org)
- Bone marrow is the soft tissue inside bones that helps form blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- A virus is a self-assembling collection of proteins and genetic material, a bacteria is a free-living single cell and a protist is a complex organism consisting of multiple cells. (answers.com)
- Alzheimer's tissue has many fewer nerve cells and synapses than a healthy brain. (alz.org)
- Dead and dying nerve cells contain tangles, which are made up of twisted strands of another protein. (alz.org)
- D-Ala2,D-Leu enkephalin , which decreased cyclic AMP levels and reversed the 2-chloroadenosine-stimulated phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in differentiated PC12 cells, also reversed the stimulation of phosphorylation of the 90-kDa protein in NCB-20 cells. (curehunter.com)
- This suggests that in NCB-20 cells, several unique proteins can be phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase in response to hormonal elevation of cyclic AMP levels. (curehunter.com)
- Chronic exposure can lead to destruction of nerve cells with replacement by scar tissue (gliosis). (britannica.com)
- Aganglionic megacolon , or Hirschsprung disease, is a condition of unknown cause that is characterized by the absence of ganglion cells and normal nerve fibres from the distal (or lower) 3 to 40 cm (1 to 16 inches) of the large intestine. (britannica.com)
- Old human cells return to a more youthful and vigorous state after being induced to briefly express a panel of proteins involved in embryonic development, according to a new study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. (news-medical.net)
- The Rice University team led by Antonios Mikos says otherwise with its development of a groovy method to seed sophisticated, 3D-printed tissue-engineering scaffolds with living cells to help heal injuries. (news-medical.net)
- Researchers are using the tissue, synthesized with human pluripotent stem cells and implanted into mice, to study a rare form of Hirschprung's disease. (the-scientist.com)
- Boosts the ability to cause hyperplasia in muscle cells resulting in fuller muscle tissue. (burrillandco.com)
- Over 25 years ago, Ali H. Brivanlou demonstrated that the protein Activin causes embryonic frog cells to take on traits specific to certain tissue types, a process called differentiation. (rockefeller.edu)
- A protein found in the cells lining blood vessels plays a central role in preventing fluid and inflammatory cells from leaking into lung tissue in a low-oxygen environment, Weill Cornell Medicine researchers discovered. (healthcanal.com)
- Annexin A2 is one of the proteins found in the junctions between tightly packed endothelial cells, which line blood vessels. (healthcanal.com)
- When oxygen is low in the lung, compounds called phosphates can stick onto the gates, jamming them open and allowing fluid and inflammatory cells to pass into tissue. (healthcanal.com)
- In engineered tissues the cells produce initially an immature matrix, and the maturation process makes it tougher," Makris said. (healthcanal.com)
- Scientists discovered a new role for nerves in oral cancer progression, in which tumor cells send genetic messages that transform nerves into cancer-promoting agents. (nih.gov)
- Effective therapies must target both the tumor and its microenvironment-the supportive network of connective tissue, blood vessels, cells, and molecules that surround the tumor. (nih.gov)
- The scientists found that spherical delivery vehicles called extracellular vesicles were transferring the microRNAs from tumors to nerve cells in the microenvironment. (nih.gov)
- Binding to cells via a high affinity receptor, laminin is thought to mediate the attachment, migration and organization of cells into tissues during embryonic development by interacting with other extracellular matrix components. (abcam.com)
- These protein formations lead to loss of dopamine-generating cells. (digitaljournal.com)
- Amyloid plaques consist of dense, mostly insoluble clumps in the spaces between the nerve cells in the brain tissue. (news-medical.net)
- The plaques are made up of beta-amyloid, which is a protein peptide or fragment that appears to have toxic effects on the function of the surrounding brain cells. (news-medical.net)
- They involve the twisting of tau protein threads of the nerve cells in the brain tissue. (news-medical.net)
- The difference between the plaques and tangles lies in their structure and effect on the nerve cells in the brain tissues. (news-medical.net)
- Amyloid plaques are clusters that form in the spaces between the nerve cells, whereas the neurofibrillary tangles are a knot of the brain cells. (news-medical.net)
- It is a progressive disorder of the brain and is characterized by a gradual deterioration of mental faculties caused by a loss of nerve cells and the connections between them. (healthcentral.com)
- As nerve cells in the hippocampus break down, memory of recent events begins to fail, and the ability to do familiar tasks begins to decline as well. (healthcentral.com)
- Amyloid plaques are a mixture of abnormal proteins and nerve cell fragments that develop in the tissue between nerve cells. (healthcentral.com)
- When nerve cells die, this large molecule must be broken down and removed from the brain. (healthcentral.com)
- The upper-most layer, known as the epidermis, controls the loss of water from cells and tissue. (medicinenet.com)
- This protein forms a network of fibers that provides a framework for the growth of cells and blood vessels. (medicinenet.com)
- The DMD gene codes for a large protein called dystrophin that is necessary for muscle cells to maintain their shape. (dnalc.org)
- When this protein is missing, muscle cells literally explode as material from outside the cell walls leaks in raising cell pressure. (dnalc.org)
- The NF2 gene produces a protein, called merlin, in the schwann cells that wrap around the axons of nerve cells. (dnalc.org)
- Mutations in the HEX A gene cause a disorder called Tay-Sachs, where a person's nerve cells deteriorate and finally die. (dnalc.org)
- Raw meat provides easily used proteins to build, rebuild, regenerate, and reproduce cells throughout the body. (barfworld.com)
- Nerve cells are destroyed. (sciencephoto.com)
- Autophagosome formation was also morphologically confirmed using ectopically expressed green fluorescent protein-LC3 fusion proteins in DLD-1 and SW480 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
- Once released from nerves in the antrum of the STOMACH, the neuropeptide stimulates release of GASTRIN from the GASTRIN-SECRETING CELLS. (umassmed.edu)
- Gollan TJ, Green MR. Selective targeting and inducible destruction of human cancer cells by retroviruses with envelope proteins bearing short peptide ligands. (umassmed.edu)
- Our laboratory has developed a novel method, called VBIM, for validation-based insertional mutagenesis, for inserting strong cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoters approximately randomly into the genomes of mammalian cells in tissue culture. (aacrjournals.org)
- The kinesin motor proteins, found in all cells, attach to microtubules and move along them to transport cellular cargoes. (aacrjournals.org)
- The proteins that Schutzer found suggest there's also damage to the gray matter, a different tissue that contains the nerve cells themselves. (dailyherald.com)
- We demonstrate that the Arf1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 1 (BIG1)/Arfgef1, and the effector Arf1 regulate the initiation of myelination of axons by Schwann cells. (sciencemag.org)
- As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
- Large fibers we affected in axons when morphometry was used and identical pathologies were detected in the sciatic nerves. (wikipedia.org)
- A new material made of carbon nanotubes supports the growth of nerve fibers, bridging segregated neural explants and providing a functional re-connection. (phys.org)
- In those conditions, without any scaffolds reconstructing the space between the two explants, we observed growth of nerve fibers that extended in straight bundles in any direction, but not necessarily toward the other tissue. (phys.org)
- If we insert a small piece of the carbon sponge into the space between the two, however, we see dense growth of nerve fibers that fill the structure and intertwine with the other sample. (phys.org)
- MS is an autoimmune disease -one in which the body attacks itself-in this case the immune system attacks the tissues of the brain and spinal cord (more specifically, the myelin sheaths surrounding the nerve fibers). (forksoverknives.com)
- Doctors don't know what causes MS, just that it occurs when the protective insulation, called myelin, that coats nerve fibers is gradually destroyed, leaving behind tough scar tissue. (dailyherald.com)
- A mature myelin sheath insulates axons and increases nerve conduction velocity while protecting nerve fibers from various stresses such as physical ones. (sciencemag.org)
- At present, the majority of synaptic vesicle proteins has been characterized, and many have been genetically analyzed in mice, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans. (nih.gov)
- Intraperitoneal immunization of mice revealed a very weak response against the S region, and a high response against yeast itself: It is proposed that increasing the amount of the antigen and reducing the number of native cell wall proteins, might lead to a yeast that is usable as a safe and cheap live oral vaccine. (tudelft.nl)
- Results from experiments in mice revise a long-held hypothesis that certain protein scaffolds are needed for synaptic activity. (the-scientist.com)
- In mice and flies, the Arc protein forms capsids and carries genetic information. (the-scientist.com)
- In the study , published July 10 in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, the scientists genetically engineered mice without the protein annexin A2. (healthcanal.com)
- The investigators found that mice without annexin A2 showed a two-fold greater leakage of dye into lung tissue compared to mice with the protein. (healthcanal.com)
- To clarify the roles of the principal thermogenic molecule mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the sympathetically stimulated glucose utilization, we investigated the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) into BAT and some other tissues of UCP1-knockout (KO) mice in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
- NE also increased the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) in BAT of WT but not UCP1-KO mice. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Schwann cell-specific BIG1 conditional knockout mice, which have been generated here, exhibit reduced myelin thickness and decreased localization of myelin protein zero in the myelin membrane, compared with their littermate controls. (sciencemag.org)
- The amounts of Arf1 in the COPI coatomer protein subunits were comparable in the knockout mice and controls. (sciencemag.org)
- Amyloidosis is a term that represents several different types of diseases where an abnormal protein called amyloid is produced. (caringbridge.org)
- The amyloid protein can deposit into organs, tissues, nerves and other places in the body. (caringbridge.org)
- As the amyloid protein increases, health problems and organ damage occur. (caringbridge.org)
- This combination therapy helps to slow down (or stop) the overproduction of the amyloid protein. (caringbridge.org)
- the protein aggregates and amyloid fibrils began forms. (digitaljournal.com)
- Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are unique structures in the brain tissue that are suspected to be involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. (news-medical.net)
- Their main component is beta-amyloid, a protein fragment that breaks off from a larger molecule called the amyloid precursor protein. (healthcentral.com)
- Amyloid precursor protein is part of the cell membrane that encases every nerve cell. (healthcentral.com)
- Enzymes called secretases split the protein in pieces, forming smaller beta-amyloid fragments. (healthcentral.com)
- Beta-secretase, one of the enzymes that slices the amyloid precursor protein, cuts the protein into a piece that is insoluble, that is, not easily dissolved. (healthcentral.com)
- Amyloid plaques made of protein also form lesions in the brain (not seen). (sciencephoto.com)
- Fewer tumors than expected had positive score of tumor protein 53 (TP53). (uio.no)
- The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of recombinant anti- tumor and anti-virus protein for injection in treating patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors who have failed standard treatment or are unable to receive standard treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Recently, aberrant expression of P-element induced wimpy testis proteins-PIWI (HIWI and HILI) has been identified in various types of tumors. (cancerindex.org)
- Tumors known as neurofibromas develop on the nerves, and these can lead to other problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The tumors may be harmless, or they may compress the nerves and other tissues, leading to serious damage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If tumors growing on the optic nerve are affecting eyesight, they can be surgically removed. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Neurofibromas are tumors, generally non-cancerous, that grow on the nerves of the skin, and sometimes on nerves deeper inside the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Nf2 is a more serious condition in which tumors grow on nerves deep inside the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Basement membranes (blood vessels of any tissue, tumors and nerve). (abcam.com)
- Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are soft-tissue tumors with a very poor prognosis and largely resistant to chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are soft-tissue tumors with a very poor prognosis ( 7 - 9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The onset of diabetic foot ulcer is being linked to the complications of the disease in the nerve and in the blood vessels. (amazonaws.com)
- The dermis, although it contains blood vessels, nerves and hair follicles, is primarily made up of a protein called "collagen. (medicinenet.com)
- The hypodermis is a layer of fat and connective tissue that contains larger blood vessels and nerves. (medicinenet.com)
- Increased tendon calcification and a bone mineralization protein in musculoskeletal tissues with repetitive reaching task. (cdc.gov)
- Enhanced expression of this protein would suggest that repetitive and/or forceful tasks lead to accelerated bone remodeling and tendon matrix changes, which would further our understanding of the etiology of MSDs. (cdc.gov)
- Discussion: Increases in osteoactivin (OA) staining in the periosteum parallels previously reported infl mmatory responses in this same tissue, suggesting that OA may play a role in inflammation- induced bone remodeling by a repetitive reaching and grasping task. (cdc.gov)
- It can manifest as bumps under the skin, colored spots, bone problems, pressure on spinal nerve roots, and other neurological problems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Noggin interacts with members of a group of proteins called bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). (medlineplus.gov)
- These proteins help control the development of bone and other tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
- In one embodiment, the replacement body part is a skeletal joint and the new plural distinct tissues include bone and articular cartilage. (google.com)
- 3. The device of claim 1 wherein said plural distinct tissues comprise articular cartilage and bone. (google.com)
- Copper proteins are necessary for the body to build bone, nerves, and other tissue. (epnet.com)
- An example would include, for example, the generation of myelin which insulates and protects nerves. (wikipedia.org)
- Prion protein triggers are an important factor in the signals that ensure myelin maintenance and are distinct from those that direct myelination. (wikipedia.org)
- Prion protein and antibodies POM1 and POM3, which recognize epitopes in the terminus (around amino acids (aa) 140-152) and charged clusters of prion protein (aa95-100)were used to their roll in myelin maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
- The result indicated that neuronal expression and regulated proteolysis of prion protein are essential for myelin maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
- The proteolipid protein ( PLP ) gene encodes two myelin-specific protein isoforms, DM-20 and PLP, which are members of the highly conserved lipophilin family of transmembrane proteins. (jneurosci.org)
- Mature myelin sheaths play essential roles not only in insulating axons to increase nerve conduction velocity but also in protecting them from various external stresses such as physical ones. (sciencemag.org)
- Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (cancerindex.org)
- This condition is caused by mutations in the NOG gene that change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the noggin protein. (medlineplus.gov)
- These mutations alter the structure or stability of noggin, impair the transport of noggin out of the cell, or reduce the protein's ability to bind to BMPs, resulting in a reduction of functional noggin protein. (medlineplus.gov)
- These gene mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the noggin protein. (medlineplus.gov)
- As in tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome, the NOG gene mutations that cause these conditions reduce the amount of functional noggin protein. (medlineplus.gov)
- The team found that high nerve density and TP53 mutations in oral cancer tissue were associated with earlier death. (nih.gov)
- The interaction between NAIP and hippocalcin, a neuronal calcium-sensor protein, has been observed to take place in the zinc-binding region along with other specific amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
- PLP differs from its smaller splice isoform, DM-20, by the presence of 35 amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain near the middle of the protein. (jneurosci.org)
- Together, these data demonstrate the ability of BDNF to stimulate glucose utilization in response to an enhanced energy demand resulting from increases in amino acid uptake and protein synthesis associated with the promotion of neuronal differentiation by BDNF. (epfl.ch)
- Both of these high-quality proteins are easily digested and contain nutritionally-significant amounts of all essential amino acids, arginine in particular. (chicagotribune.com)
- Proteins provide the amino acids necessary for cell repair, neurotransmitter synthesis and immune function. (nfcr.org)
- Proteins are made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain joined together by peptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
- For that, we investigated the changes of CaM, CaMKII, protein kinase C (PKC) and polymerization ratios (PRs) of NF-L, NF-M and NF-H in cerebral cortex (CC, including total cortex and some gray), spinal cord (SC) and sciatic nerve (SN) of rats treated with HD at a dosage of 1.75 or 3.50 mmol/kg for 8 weeks (five times per week). (eurekamag.com)
Family of proteins3
- Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) belongs to the family of proteins called the inhibiter of apoptosis family (IAP), these proteins are one of the key regulators of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- The semaphorins are a family of proteins that are involved in signaling. (cancerindex.org)
- These homologous endopeptidases belong to the large family of proteins called caspases (cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific protease). (hindawi.com)
- In mouse skeletal muscle, EPO stimulation can activate the AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT) signaling pathway, the main positive regulator of muscle protein synthesis. (frontiersin.org)
- We hypothesized that a single intravenous EPO injection combined with acute resistance exercise would have a synergistic effect on skeletal muscle protein synthesis via activation of the AKT pathway. (frontiersin.org)
- 2 h after the injection, the subjects completed an acute bout of leg extension resistance exercise to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis. (frontiersin.org)
- Significant interaction effects in the phosphorylation levels of the members of the AKT signaling pathway indicated a differential activation of protein synthesis signaling in older subjects when compared to young subjects. (frontiersin.org)
- However, EPO offered no synergistic effect on vastus lateralis mixed muscle protein synthesis rate in young or older subjects. (frontiersin.org)
- Despite its ability to activate the AKT pathway in skeletal muscle, an acute EPO injection had no additive or synergistic effect on the exercise-induced activation of muscle protein synthesis or muscle protein synthesis signaling pathways. (frontiersin.org)
- Helps to increase nutrient shuttling (protein synthesis). (burrillandco.com)
- This is unexpected because in nerve growth factor withdrawal, caspase-3 and -9 are activated, causing cell death, which are the very caspases blocked by NAIP. (wikipedia.org)
- A selected set (n=11) of cell cycle components and proliferation markers (n=2) as well as the neurofibromin protein were analyzed by immunohistochemistry on a TMA with tissue cores from 106 MPNSTs and 3 neurofibromas. (uio.no)
- In addition, Ninjurin-1 was differentially expressed in various cell types in the tissues under the investigation. (bvsalud.org)
- The encoded protein contains a high mobility group-box DNA binding domain and participates in the regulation of cell cycle genes and cellular senescence. (cancerindex.org)
- Other pathways associated with breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein related signaling, or associated with cancer and cell cycle/cell survivability were also affected. (cdc.gov)
- Immunofluorescence studies showed that the fusion protein was detectable at the cell surface and was stably expressed at a relatively high level. (tudelft.nl)
- The antibody will cleanly immunoprecipitate the entire dynein complex from TX-100 or NP-40 lysates (including the 530 kD heavy chain, the light intermediate chains, and the light chains) from various tissues and cultured cell lines. (abcam.com)
- Scientists are not absolutely sure what causes cell death and tissue loss in the Alzheimer's brain, but plaques and tangles are prime suspects. (alz.org)
- Neuromodulator-mediated phosphorylation of specific proteins in a neurotumor hybrid cell line (NCB-20). (curehunter.com)
- They pass to the brain where they damage functioning nervous tissue or subvert the actions of neurotransmitters, chemical messengers that carry impulses from one brain cell to another. (britannica.com)
- It mainly affects the development of nerve cell tissues. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Phospholipase A 2 is another protein that works with melittin to destroy cell membranes at the sting site. (beeculture.com)
- Hyaluronidase (2% of venom,) helps the reaction to spread to surrounding tissue by breaking down one of the components of cell tissue. (beeculture.com)
- This makes IGF-1 a good protagonist at targeting tissues to spur cell to cell communication (growth) or in a more autocrine cell signaling process that facilitates cell division. (burrillandco.com)
- Colostrum has the unique ability to support normal cell growth & tissue repair. (selfgrowth.com)
- Using mouse models of oral cancer and laboratory cell cultures, the scientists confirmed the connection between p53 and nerve density. (nih.gov)
- Sodium influx through these channels is necessary for the depolarization of nerve cell membranes and subsequent propagation of impulses along the course of the nerve. (medscape.com)
- The corona virus has proteins that attach to the membrane of a cell. (thenakedscientists.com)
- They need to penetrate the cell, and their surface protein is the key. (thenakedscientists.com)
- Laminins promote early stages of peripheral nerve myelination by assembling basement membranes (BMs) on Schwann cell surfaces, leading to activation of β1 integrins and other receptors. (biologists.org)
- Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway results in the transcriptional induction of cyclin D1 with activation of CDK4, phosphorylation of pRb, and continued cell cycle progression from G 1 to S ( 5 , 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- In principle, the method is capable of identifying any protein or RNA whose overexpression in a mutant cell line confers a selectable phenotype ( 10 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- KIFC1 ( 15 ) is expressed primarily in proliferating tissues and cell lines, and KIFC2 ( 15 , 16 ) is expressed specifically in neural tissues. (aacrjournals.org)
- Arf1 is a small guanosine triphosphate-binding protein that plays multiple roles in intracellular trafficking and related signaling, both of which are processes involved in cell morphogenesis. (sciencemag.org)
- Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
- Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath1
- They exposed rodents with and without the protein to a low-oxygen or normal-oxygen environment for 48 hours, injected an experimental dye and then examined their organs. (healthcanal.com)
- TUESDAY, May 21, 2019 (American Heart Association News) -- A potentially fatal buildup of abnormal proteins in the heart and other organs is being delayed in its diagnosis and undertreated -- despite new drugs that can combat it, a new study suggests. (medicinenet.com)
- Amyloidosis happens when abnormal proteins join and attach to organs, tissues, nerves and other places in the body, disrupting normal function. (medicinenet.com)
- The Harvard professor is pursuing fundamental questions about autophagy, protein homeostasis, and other cellular processes, and he's always on the lookout for his next new topic. (the-scientist.com)
- In order to begin these developmental processes, BMPs attach (bind) to other proteins called receptors, and this binding stimulates specific cellular processes. (medlineplus.gov)
- Researchers had shown that the dose of the protein determines cellular fate. (rockefeller.edu)
- The cellular events associated with sympathetic activation of BAT thermogenesis are the binding of norepinephrine (NE) released from sympathetic nerve terminal to β-adrenergic receptor, the activation of adenylate cyclase, and increased hydrolysis of triglyceride. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Raw meat is the only protein that facilitates nerve-tissue regeneration and cellular reproduction. (barfworld.com)
- The tendon OA increases in week 8 indicate matrix remodeling changes that are delayed compared to bony tissues possibly due to the avascular nature of tendon. (cdc.gov)
- Increases regenerative functions of nerve tissues. (burrillandco.com)
- As Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease progresses, vacuolization increases and brain tissue becomes spongy. (sciencephoto.com)
- Neurofibrillary tangles are another hallmark characteristic of the brain tissue associated with Alzheimer's disease. (news-medical.net)
- For individuals with Alzheimer's disease, there is a larger number of phosphate molecules bound to the tau protein than normal, known as hyperphosphorylation. (news-medical.net)
- Once in the brain tissue, there was a higher risk of developing brain or nerve diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or multiple sclerosis. (theregister.co.uk)
- The tau protein threads with some phosphate molecules usually bind to the microtubules, helping to stabilize them. (news-medical.net)
- In addition, a comprehensive analysis of current small molecules targeting these antiapoptotic BCL2-proteins (e.g. (hindawi.com)
- We are not sure yet whether this is a harmful effect, but it seems that molecules such as proteins and toxins can pass out of the blood while the phone is switched on and cross into the brain. (theregister.co.uk)
- Indeed, the importance of this evolutionary event is emphasized by the replacement of P 0 with PLP as the dominant integral membrane protein in the CNS of higher vertebrates ( Yoshida and Colman, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
- 4. The device of claim 1 or 2 wherein said non-mineralized skeletal joint tissue is selected from the group consisting of articular cartilage, ligament, tendon, intervertebral discs, joint capsule and synovial membrane tissue. (google.com)
- Dr. Steven Schutzer of Rutgers New Jersey Medical School analyzed spinal fluid stored from nine patients who had experienced early symptoms that turned out to be MS. Using a special high-powered technology, he uncovered a small cluster of proteins that was unique to those first attacks. (dailyherald.com)
- Thus, the principal substrate for BAT thermogenesis is considered to be fatty acids derived from triglycerides in this tissue and also from blood lipoproteins. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition to being an excellent fiber source (mostly insoluble, which creates bulk for stool), chia is a rich plant-based source of Omega-3 fatty acids, consists of about 20 percent protein, and contains high levels of antioxidants, calcium, magnesium and iron. (chicagotribune.com)
- Indeed, it has been reported that glucose utilization in BAT is markedly enhanced in parallel with heat production after cold exposure, sympathetic nerve stimulation, and β-adrenergic agonist administration in vivo ( 4 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In BAT, as in white adipose tissue (WAT) and other insulin-sensitive tissues, glucose utilization is activated by insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
- It can lower blood sugar (glucose) after a meal, reduce inflammation (C-Reactive Protein) and blood pressure, and is a natural blood thinner. (chicagotribune.com)