A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (1/6550)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

GABAergic excitatory synapses and electrical coupling sustain prolonged discharges in the prey capture neural network of Clione limacina. (2/6550)

Afterdischarges represent a prominent characteristic of the neural network that controls prey capture reactions in the carnivorous mollusc Clione limacina. Their main functional implication is transformation of a brief sensory input from a prey into a lasting prey capture response. The present study, which focuses on the neuronal mechanisms of afterdischarges, demonstrates that a single pair of interneurons [cerebral A interneuron (Cr-Aint)] is responsible for afterdischarge generation in the network. Cr-Aint neurons are electrically coupled to all other neurons in the network and produce slow excitatory synaptic inputs to them. This excitatory transmission is found to be GABAergic, which is demonstrated by the use of GABA antagonists, uptake inhibitors, and double-labeling experiments showing that Cr-Aint neurons are GABA-immunoreactive. The Cr-Aint neurons organize three different pathways in the prey capture network, which provide positive feedback necessary for sustaining prolonged spike activity. The first pathway includes electrical coupling and slow chemical transmission from the Cr-Aint neurons to all other neurons in the network. The second feedback is based on excitatory reciprocal connections between contralateral interneurons. Recurrent excitation via the contralateral cell can sustain prolonged interneuron firing, which then drives the activity of all other cells in the network. The third positive feedback is represented by prominent afterdepolarizing potentials after individual spikes in the Cr-Aint neurons. Afterdepolarizations apparently represent recurrent GABAergic excitatory inputs. It is suggested here that these afterdepolarizing potentials are produced by GABAergic excitatory autapses.  (+info)

Spontaneous network activity transiently depresses synaptic transmission in the embryonic chick spinal cord. (3/6550)

We examined the effects of spontaneous or evoked episodes of rhythmic activity on synaptic transmission in several spinal pathways of embryonic day 9-12 chick embryos. We compared the amplitude of synaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF), the dorsal or ventral roots, before and after episodes of activity. With the exception of the short-latency responses evoked by dorsal root stimulation, the potentials were briefly potentiated and then reduced for several minutes after an episode of rhythmic activity. Their amplitude progressively recovered in the interval between successive episodes. The lack of post-episode depression in the short-latency component of the dorsal root evoked responses is probably attributable to the absence of firing in cut muscle afferents during an episode of activity. The post-episode depression of VLF-evoked potentials was mimicked by prolonged stimulation of the VLF, subthreshold for an episode of activity. By contrast, antidromically induced motoneuron firing and the accompanying calcium entry did not depress VLF-evoked potentials recorded from the stimulated ventral root. In addition, post-episode depression of VLF-evoked synaptic currents was observed in voltage-clamped spinal neurons. Collectively, these findings suggest that somatic postsynaptic activity and calcium entry are not required for the depression. We propose instead that the mechanism may involve a form of long-lasting activity-induced synaptic depression, possibly a combination of transmitter depletion and ligand-induced changes in the postsynaptic current accompanying transmitter release. This activity-dependent depression appears to be an important mechanism underlying the occurrence of spontaneous activity in developing spinal networks.  (+info)

Adult subventricular zone neuronal precursors continue to proliferate and migrate in the absence of the olfactory bulb. (4/6550)

Neurons continue to be born in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles of adult mice. These cells migrate as a network of chains through the SVZ and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) into the olfactory bulb (OB), where they differentiate into mature neurons. The OB is the only known target for these neuronal precursors. Here, we show that, after elimination of the OB, the SVZ and RMS persist and become dramatically larger. The proportion of dividing [bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled] or dying (pyknotic or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end-labeled) cells in the RMS was not significantly affected at 3 d or 3 weeks after bulbectomy (OBX). However, by 3 months after OBX, the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells in the RMS decreased by half and that of dying cells doubled. Surprisingly, the rostral migration of precursors continued along the RMS after OBX. This was demonstrated by focal microinjections of BrdU and grafts of SVZ cells carrying LacZ under the control of a neuron-specific promoter gene. Results indicate that the OB is not essential for proliferation and the directional migration of SVZ precursors.  (+info)

Cellular mechanisms contributing to response variability of cortical neurons in vivo. (5/6550)

Cortical neurons recorded in vivo exhibit highly variable responses to the repeated presentation of the same stimulus. To further understand the cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we performed intracellular recordings from neurons in cat striate cortex in vivo and examined the relationships between spontaneous activity and visually evoked responses. Activity was assessed on a trial-by-trial basis by measuring the membrane potential (Vm) fluctuations and spike activity during brief epochs immediately before and after the onset of an evoked response. We found that the response magnitude, expressed as a change in Vm relative to baseline, was linearly correlated with the preceding spontaneous Vm. This correlation was enhanced when the cells were hyperpolarized to reduce the activation of voltage-gated conductances. The output of the cells, expressed as spike counts and latencies, was only moderately correlated with fluctuations in the preceding spontaneous Vm. Spike-triggered averaging of Vm revealed that visually evoked action potentials arise from transient depolarizations having a rise time of approximately 10 msec. Consistent with this, evoked spike count was found to be linearly correlated with the magnitude of Vm fluctuations in the gamma (20-70 Hz) frequency band. We also found that the threshold of visually evoked action potentials varied over a range of approximately 10 mV. Examination of simultaneously recorded intracellular and extracellular activity revealed a correlation between Vm depolarization and spike discharges in adjacent cells. Together these results demonstrate that response variability is attributable largely to coherent fluctuations in cortical activity preceding the onset of a stimulus, but also to variations in action potential threshold and the magnitude of high-frequency fluctuations evoked by the stimulus.  (+info)

A genetic approach to trace neural circuits. (6/6550)

Mammalian nervous system function involves billions of neurons which are interconnected in a multitude of neural circuits. Here we describe a genetic approach to chart neural circuits. By using an olfactory-specific promoter, we selectively expressed barley lectin in sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ of transgenic mice. The lectin was transported through the axons of those neurons to the olfactory bulb, transferred to the bulb neurons with which they synapse, and transported through the axons of bulb neurons to the olfactory cortex. The lectin also was retrogradely transported from the bulb to neuromodulatory brain areas. No evidence could be obtained for adverse effects of the lectin on odorant receptor gene expression, sensory axon targeting in the bulb, or the generation or transmission of signals by olfactory sensory neurons. Transneuronal transfer was detected prenatally in the odor-sensing pathway, but only postnatally in the pheromone-sensing pathway, suggesting that odors, but not pheromones, may be sensed in utero. Our studies demonstrate that a plant lectin can serve as a transneuronal tracer when its expression is genetically targeted to a subset of neurons. This technology can potentially be applied to a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate neural systems and may be particularly valuable for mapping connections formed by small subsets of neurons and for studying the development of connectivity as it occurs in utero.  (+info)

Plaque-independent disruption of neural circuits in Alzheimer's disease mouse models. (7/6550)

Autosomal dominant forms of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) are associated with increased production of the amyloid beta peptide, Abeta42, which is derived from the amyloid protein precursor (APP). In FAD, as well as in sporadic forms of the illness, Abeta peptides accumulate abnormally in the brain in the form of amyloid plaques. Here, we show that overexpression of FAD(717V-->F)-mutant human APP in neurons of transgenic mice decreases the density of presynaptic terminals and neurons well before these mice develop amyloid plaques. Electrophysiological recordings from the hippocampus revealed prominent deficits in synaptic transmission, which also preceded amyloid deposition by several months. Although in young mice, functional and structural neuronal deficits were of similar magnitude, functional deficits became predominant with advancing age. Increased Abeta production in the context of decreased overall APP expression, achieved by addition of the Swedish FAD mutation to the APP transgene in a second line of mice, further increased synaptic transmission deficits in young APP mice without plaques. These results suggest a neurotoxic effect of Abeta that is independent of plaque formation.  (+info)

Measures of degeneracy and redundancy in biological networks. (8/6550)

Degeneracy, the ability of elements that are structurally different to perform the same function, is a prominent property of many biological systems ranging from genes to neural networks to evolution itself. Because structurally different elements may produce different outputs in different contexts, degeneracy should be distinguished from redundancy, which occurs when the same function is performed by identical elements. However, because of ambiguities in the distinction between structure and function and because of the lack of a theoretical treatment, these two notions often are conflated. By using information theoretical concepts, we develop here functional measures of the degeneracy and redundancy of a system with respect to a set of outputs. These measures help to distinguish the concept of degeneracy from that of redundancy and make it operationally useful. Through computer simulations of neural systems differing in connectivity, we show that degeneracy is low both for systems in which each element affects the output independently and for redundant systems in which many elements can affect the output in a similar way but do not have independent effects. By contrast, degeneracy is high for systems in which many different elements can affect the output in a similar way and at the same time can have independent effects. We demonstrate that networks that have been selected for degeneracy have high values of complexity, a measure of the average mutual information between the subsets of a system. These measures promise to be useful in characterizing and understanding the functional robustness and adaptability of biological networks.  (+info)

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Neurons use a variety of mechanisms to homeostatically regulate neural network activity in order to maintain firing in a bounded range. One such process involves the bi-directional modulation of excitatory synaptic drive in response to chronic changes in network activity. Down-scaling of excitatory synapses in response to high activity requires Arc-dependent endocytosis of glutamate receptors. However, the temporal dynamics and signaling pathways regulating Arc during homeostatic plasticity are not well understood. Here we determine the relative contribution of transcriptional and translational control in the regulation of Arc, the signaling pathways responsible for the activity-dependent production of Arc, and the time course of these signaling events as they relate to the homeostatic adjustment of network activity in hippocampal neurons. We find that an ERK1/2-dependent transcriptional pathway active within 1-2 h of up-regulated network activity induces Arc leading to a restoration of network spiking
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Learning- and memory-related processes are thought to result from dynamic interactions in large-scale brain networks that include lateral and mesial structures of the temporal lobes. We investigate the impact of incidental and intentional learning of verbal episodic material on functional brain networks that we derive from scalp-EEG recorded continuously from 33 subjects during a neuropsychological test schedule. Analyzing the networks global statistical properties we observe that intentional but not incidental learning leads to a significantly increased clustering coefficient, and the average shortest path length remains unaffected. Moreover, network modifications correlate with subsequent recall performance: the more pronounced the modifications of the clustering coefficient, the higher the recall performance. Our findings provide novel insights into the relationship between topological aspects of functional brain networks and higher cognitive functions.
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Individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) have a risk of developing a psychotic disorder significantly greater than the general population. However, it is not currently possible to predict which ARMS individuals will develop psychosis from clinical assessment alone. Comparison of ARMS subjects who do, and do not, develop psychosis can reveal which factors are critical for the onset of illness. In the present study, 37 patients with an ARMS were followed clinically at least 24 months subsequent to initial referral. Functional MRI data were collected at the beginning of the follow-up period during performance of an executive task known to recruit frontal lobe networks and to be impaired in psychosis. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the organization of a functional brain network in ARMS patients who developed a psychotic disorder following the scan (ARMS-T) to those who did not become ill during the same follow-up period (ARMS-NT) and aged-matched controls. The global properties of
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Degree, which is the number of connections incident upon a node, measures the relative importance of the node within a network. By computing degree metrics in voxel-wise functional brain networks, many studies performed high-resolution mapping of brain network hubs using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Despite its extensive applications, defining nodes as voxels without considering the different sizes of brain regions may result in a network where the degree cannot accurately represent the importance of nodes. In this study, we designed a data-driven method to reduce this impact of the region size in degree metrics by (1) disregarding all self-connections among voxels within the same region and (2) regulating connections from voxels of other regions by the sizes of those regions. The modified method that we proposed allowed direct evaluation of the impact of the region size, showing that traditional degree metrics overestimated the degree of previous identified hubs in humans,
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We propose a general dynamic regression framework for partial correlation and causality analysis of functional brain networks. Using the optimal prediction theory, we present the solution of the...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Interferon-α acutely impairs whole-brain functional connectivity network architecture - A preliminary study. AU - Dipasquale, Ottavia. AU - Cooper, Ella A. AU - Tibble, Jeremy. AU - Voon, Valerie. AU - Baglio, Francesca. AU - Baselli, Giuseppe. AU - Cercignani, Mara. AU - Harrison, Neil A.. N1 - Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. PY - 2016/11. Y1 - 2016/11. N2 - Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a key mediator of antiviral immune responses used to treat Hepatitis C infection. Though clinically effective, IFN-α rapidly impairs mood, motivation and cognition, effects that can appear indistinguishable from major depression and provide powerful empirical support for the inflammation theory of depression. Though inflammation has been shown to modulate activity within discrete brain regions, how it affects distributed information processing and the architecture of whole brain functional connectivity networks have not previously been ...
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Deep neural networks have recently been applied to the study of brain disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with great success. However, the internal logics of these networks are difficult to interpret, especially with regard to how specific network architecture decisions are made. In this paper, we study an interpretable neural network model as a method to identify ASD participants from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data and interpret results of the model in a precise and consistent manner. First, we propose an interpretable fully connected neural network (FCNN) to classify two groups, ASD versus healthy controls (HC), based on input data from resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between regions of interests (ROIs). The proposed FCNN model is a piecewise linear neural network (PLNN) which uses piecewise linear function LeakyReLU as its activation function. We experimentally compared the FCNN model against widely used classification models including support vector
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical pain and functional network topology in Parkinsons disease. T2 - a resting-state fMRI study. AU - Engels, Gwenda. AU - McCoy, Brónagh. AU - Vlaar, Annemarie. AU - Theeuwes, Jan. AU - Weinstein, Henry. AU - Scherder, Erik. AU - Douw, Linda. PY - 2018/10. Y1 - 2018/10. N2 - Pain is an important non-motor symptom in Parkinsons disease (PD), but its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear. Research has shown that functional connectivity during the resting-state may be involved in persistent pain in PD. In the present cross-sectional study, 24 PD patients (both during on and off medication phase) and 27 controls participated. We assessed pain with the colored analogue scale and the McGill pain questionnaire. We examined a possible pathophysiological mechanism with resting-state fMRI using functional network topology, i.e., the architecture of functional connections. We took betweenness centrality (BC) to assess hubness, and global efficiency (GE) to ...
Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) refers to the observed phenomenon that functional connectivity changes over a short time. Dynamic functional connectivity is a recent expansion on traditional functional connectivity analysis which typically assumes that functional networks are static in time. DFC is related to a variety of different neurological disorders, and has been suggested to be a more accurate representation of functional brain networks. The primary tool for analyzing DFC is fMRI, but DFC has also been observed with several other mediums. DFC is a recent development within the field of functional neuroimaging whose discovery was motivated by the observation of temporal variability in the rising field of steady state connectivity research Functional connectivity refers to the functionally integrated relationship between spatially separated brain regions. Unlike structural connectivity which looks for physical connections in the brain, functional connectivity is related to similar ...
In this study, we investigated changes in resting state networks (RSNs) in patients with gliomas located in the left hemisphere and its relation to cognitive function. We hypothesized that long distance connection, especially between hemispheres, would be affected by the presence of the tumor. We further hypothesized that these changes would correlate with, or reflect cognitive changes observed in patients with gliomas. Resting state functional MRI datasets from 12 patients and 12 healthy controls were used in the analysis. The tumors effect on three well-known RSNs including the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) identified using independent component analysis were investigated using dual regression analysis. Scores of neuropsychometric testing (WAIS-III and WMS-R) were also compared. Compared to the healthy control group, the patient group showed significant decrease in functional connectivity in the right angular gyrus/inferior parietal lobe of the
Microglia dynamically survey the brain parenchyma. Microglial processes interact with neuronal elements; however, what role neuronal network activity plays in regulating microglial dynamics is not entirely clear. Most studies of microglial dynamics use either slice preparations or in vivo imaging in anesthetized mice. Here we demonstrate that microglia in awake mice have a relatively reduced process area and surveillance territory and that reduced neuronal activity under general anesthesia increases microglial process velocity, extension and territory surveillance. Similarly, reductions in local neuronal activity through sensory deprivation or optogenetic inhibition increase microglial process surveillance. Using pharmacological and chemogenetic approaches, we demonstrate that reduced norepinephrine signaling is necessary for these increases in microglial process surveillance. These findings indicate that under basal physiological conditions, noradrenergic tone in awake mice suppresses microglial
In line with our hypothesis, we identified aberrant functional connectivity of salience network and default mode network with the pSTS in adolescents with IGD. Moreover, functional connectivity between the salience network and pSTS correlated with proneness to Internet addiction and self-reported cognitive problems. Regarding that the pSTS is an essential part of the social brain network, our findings imply that excessive exposure to game-related social stimuli during adolescence might affect the dynamic interaction between the salience network and social brain network, which seems to be associated with executive dysfunction and cognitive problems.. Adolescents with IGD showed different functional connectivity patterns among large-scale intrinsic networks. The PCC and right AIC, which are the hubs of the default mode network and salience network, both showed significant interactions with the left pSTS only in adolescents with IGD. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the ...
Age-related effects on the default mode network (DMN) connectivity as measured at rest using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are now well described. Little is known however about the relationships between these changes and age-related effects on cognition or on the unconstrained thoughts which occur during the resting-state scan, called inner experience. Brain resting-state activity, inner experience, and cognitive ability measurements were obtained in 70 participants aged 19-80 years. The anterior-posterior disruption of DMN activity with age reported in previous studies was recovered here. A significant effect of age was also found on cognitive abilities but not on inner experience. Finally, age-related changes in DMN connectivity were found to correlate with cognitive abilities, and more specifically with autobiographical memory performance. These findings provide new information to fuel the debate on the role of the brain default mode and more specifically on the effect of age-related
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common and disabling, but its neuropathophysiology remains unclear. Most studies of functional brain networks in MDD have had limited statistical power and data analysis approaches have varied widely. The REST-meta-MDD Project of resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) address …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of APOE ε4 status on intrinsic network connectivity in cognitively normal elderly subjects. AU - Machulda, Mary M.. AU - Jones, David T.. AU - Vemuri, Prashanthi. AU - McDade, Eric. AU - Avula, Ramesh. AU - Przybelski, Scott. AU - Boeve, Brad F.. AU - Knopman, David S.. AU - Petersen, Ronald C.. AU - Jack, Clifford R.. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - Objective: To examine default mode and salience network functional connectivity as a function of APOE ε4 status in a group of cognitively normal age-, sex-, and education-matched older adults. Design: Case-control study. Subjects: Fifty-six cognitively normal APOE ε4 carriers and 56 age-, sex- and education-matched cognitively normal APOE ε4 noncarriers. Main Outcome Measure: Alterations in in-phase default mode and salience network connectivity in APOE ε4 carriers compared with APOE ε4 noncarriers ranging from 63 to 91 years of age. Results: A posterior cingulate seed revealed decreased inphase connectivity in ...
There has been increasing focus on studying large-scale brain networks using graph theory to characterize resting-state functional connectivity. By describing t
High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) has gained great interest in multiple clinical and research fields and is believed to accomplish its effect by influencing neuronal networks. The dlPFC is frequently chosen as the cortical target for HF-rTMS. However very little is known about the differential effect of HF-rTMS over the left and right dlPFC on intrinsic functional connectivity networks in patients or in healthy individuals. The current study assessed the differential effects of left or right HF-rTMS (corrected for sham) on intrinsic Independent Component Analysis (ICA) defined functional connectivity networks in a sample of 45 healthy individuals ...
BACKGROUND: Attention is frequently impaired after stroke, and its impairment is associated with poor quality of life. Physical activity benefits attention in healthy populations and has also been associated with recovery after brain injury. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relationship between objectively measured daily physical activity, attention network connectivity, and attention task performance after stroke. We hypothesized that increased daily physical activity would be associated with improved attention network function. METHODS: Stroke patients (n = 62; mean age = 67 years, SD = 12.6 years) and healthy controls (n = 27; mean age = 68 years, SD = 6 years) underwent cognitive testing and 7 minutes of functional magnetic resonance imaging in the resting-state. Patients were tested 3 months after ischemic stroke. Physical activity was monitored with an electronic armband worn for 7 days. Dorsal and ventral attention network function was examined using seed-based connectivity analyses. RESULTS:
The development of large-scale functional organization of the human brain across the lifespan is not well understood. Here we used magnetoencephalographic recordings of 53 adults (ages 18-89) to characterize functional brain networks in the resting state. Slow frequencies engage larger networks than higher frequencies and show different development over the lifespan. Networks in the delta (2-4 Hz) frequency range decrease, while networks in the beta/gamma frequency range (, 16 Hz) increase in size with advancing age. Results show that the right frontal lobe and the temporal areas in both hemispheres are important relay stations in the expanding high-frequency networks. Neuropsychological tests confirmed the tendency of cognitive decline with older age. The decrease in visual memory and visuoconstructive functions was strongly associated with the age-dependent enhancement of functional connectivity in both temporal lobes. Using functional network analysis this study elucidates important neuronal ...
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The global signal in resting-state functional MRI data is considered to be dominated by physiological noise and artifacts, yet a growing literature suggests that it also carries information about widespread neural activity. The biological relevance of the global signal remains poorly understood. Applying principal component analysis to a large neuroimaging dataset, we found that individual variation in global signal topography recapitulates well-established patterns of large-scale functional brain networks. Using canonical correlation analysis, we delineated relationships between individual differences in global signal topography and a battery of phenotypes. The first canonical variate of the global signal, resembling the frontoparietal control network, was significantly related to an axis of positive and negative life outcomes and psychological function. These results suggest that the global signal contains a rich source of information related to trait-level cognition and behavior. This work has
For older adults with type 2 diabetes, a single dose of intranasal insulin increases resting-state brain functional connectivity.
Cortical cultures grown long-term on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) are frequently and extensively used as models of cortical networks in studies of neuronal firing activity, neuropharmacology, toxicology and mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. However, in contrast to the predominantly asynchronous neuronal firing activity exhibited by intact cortex, electrophysiological activity of mature cortical cultures is dominated by spontaneous epileptiform-like global burst events which hinders their effective use in network-level studies, particularly for neurally-controlled animat (artificial animal) applications. Thus, the identification of culture features that can be exploited to produce neuronal activity more representative of that seen in vivo could increase the utility and relevance of studies that employ these preparations. Acetylcholine has a recognised neuromodulatory role affecting excitability, rhythmicity, plasticity and information flow in vivo although its endogenous production by
Mackey, S., and Petrides, M. Quantitative demonstration of comparable architectonic areas within the ventromedial and lateral orbital frontal cortex in the human and macaque monkey brains. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2010, 32, 1940-1950.. Kelly, C., Uddin, L.Q., Shehzad, Z., Margulies, D.S., Xavier Castellanos, F., Milham, M.P., and Petrides, M. Brocas region: linking human brain functional connectivity data and non-human primate tracing anatomy studies. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2010, 32, 383-398.. Champod, A.S. and Petrides, M. Dissociation within the frontoparietal network in verbal working memory: A parametric functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of Neuroscience, 2010, 30, 3849-3856.. Margulies, D.S., Vincent, J.L., Kelly, C., Lohmann, G., Uddin, L.Q., Biswal, B.B., Villringer, A., Castellanos, F.X., Milham, M.P., and Petrides, M. Precuneus shares intrinsic functional architecture in humans and monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 2009, ...
The four compounds tested generated interesting, and in one case paradoxical effects. Frontal cortex cultures were all inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, which included total cessation of activity by halothane, CBX, I-octanol, or oleamide (at concentrations 250 muM, 100 muM, 20 muM, 20 muM, respectively). All cultures showed spontaneous recovery at lower concentrations and reversibility after culture medium changes at higher concentrations. In addition, measurements of network burst rates and coefficients of variation of burst period indicate that burst coordination among channels was reduced by these compounds. These responses were generally mirrored in the spinal cord, except for CBX, which produced a paradoxical transient intense increase in network spike and burst production ...
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Here, the state of the jth oscillator, j = 1, 2, …, N, is determined by a complex variable zj(t) at time t. N is the total number of brain regions acquired from group-averaged diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with 82 nodes (van den Heuvel & Sporns, 2011). The Ajk = 1 if there is a connection between the jth and kth oscillators, and Ajk = 0 if there is not, based on the structural brain network. Each node undergoes supercritical Hopf bifurcation, and the dynamics of the oscillator settle on a limit cycle if λj , 0 and on a stable focus if λj , 0. Here, we fixed all λj as 1. The ωj = 2πfj and is an initial angular natural frequency of each jth oscillator. We used a Gaussian distribution for natural frequency with a mean frequency of 10 Hz and standard deviation of 0.5 Hz to simulate the alpha bandwidth of human EEG activity (H. Kim et al., 2018; M. Kim et al., 2017; Lee et al., 2018; Moon et al., 2017, 2015). We also used the homogeneous coupling term Kjk = K between the jth and kth ...
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Nerve nets[edit]. Main article: Nerve net. Jellyfish, comb jellies, and related animals have diffuse nerve nets rather than a ... These nerve cords are connected by transverse nerves like the rungs of a ladder. These transverse nerves help coordinate the ... Simple nerve nets seen in animals like Cnidaria (jellyfish) evolved first, consisted of polymodal neurons which serve a dual ... The nerve nets consist of sensory neurons that pick up chemical, tactile, and visual signals, motor neurons that can activate ...
A sensory nerve-net in the polcald flatworm Notoplana acticola". Biological Bulletin. 145 (2): 352-359. doi:10.2307/1540045. ... Nociceptors are sensory receptors that respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending nerve signals to the brain. Although ... Extracellular recordings of antennal nerves in the Louisiana red swamp crayfish revealed continual spontaneous activity, but no ... The brains of arthropods and cephalopods arise from twin parallel nerve cords that extend through the body of the animal. ...
... with motor nerve cells, which lie mostly between the bases of the muscle cells. Some form a simple nerve net. Interstitial ... intermediate neurons in the nerve net can also form ganglia that act as local coordination centers. Communication between nerve ... Medusa usually have several of them around the margin of the bell that work together to control the motor nerve net, that ... In scyphozoans, this takes the form of a diffuse nerve net, which has modulatory effects on the nervous system. As well as ...
From nerve nets to neuron doctrine". Minds behind the brain: A history of the pioneers and their discoveries. New York: Oxford ... He was a proponent of polarization of nerve cell function and his student, Rafael Lorente de Nó, would continue this study of ... Structure of the Chiasma opticum and general theory of the crossing of nerve tracks)" [Die Structur des Chiasma opticum nebst ... Even before Ramón y Cajal's work, Norwegian scientist Fridtjof Nansen established the contiguous nature of nerve cells in his ...
Nerve nets connect sensory photoreceptors and touch-sensitive nerve cells located in the body wall and tentacles. The structure ... The nervous system of Hydra is a nerve net, which is structurally simple compared to more derived animal nervous systems. Hydra ... Ji N, Flavell SW (April 2017). "Hydra: Imaging Nerve Nets in Action". Current Biology. 27 (8): R294-R295. doi:10.1016/j.cub. ... and this may be due to the simplicity of the nerve nets. Hydra are generally sedentary or sessile, but do occasionally move ...
... intermediate neurons in the nerve net can also form ganglia that act as local coordination centers. Communication between nerve ... In scyphozoans, this takes the form of a diffuse nerve net, which has modulatory effects on the nervous system.[21] As well as ... Medusa usually have several of them around the margin of the bell that work together to control the motor nerve net, that ... Most of their bodies are innervated by decentralized nerve nets that control their swimming musculature and connect with ...
Play media Nerve net Meglitsch, Paul A. (1991). Invertebrate Zoology, Oxford University Press, 86. ISBN 0-19-504900-4. Ruppert ...
Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata (PDF). Automata Studies. Princeton University Press. pp. 3-42.. ... "Vimdoc.sourceforge.net. Retrieved 2013-09-25.. *^ a b "UTS#18 on Unicode Regular Expressions, Annex A: Character Blocks". ... Liger, François; McQueen, Craig; Wilton, Paul (2002). Visual Basic .NET Text Manipulation Handbook. Wrox Press. ISBN 1-86100- ... Microsoft's .NET Framework, and XML Schema. Some languages and tools such as Boost and PHP support multiple regex flavors. Perl ...
Kleene, S. C. (1956). "Representation of events in nerve nets and finite automata". In C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy (ed.). ...
Kleene, S.C. (1956). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata". Annals of Mathematics Studies (34). ... The outputs of the final output neurons of the neural net accomplish the task, such as recognizing an object in an image. To ... Siegelmann, H.T.; Sontag, E.D. (1991). "Turing computability with neural nets" (PDF). Appl. Math. Lett. 4 (6): 77-80. doi: ... Adrian, Edward D. (1926). "The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings". The Journal of Physiology. 61 (1): 49-72. doi: ...
The nerve system most resembles a round nerve net. Chiton body fluid is isosmotic with sea water, implying no osmotic ...
Kleene, S.C. (1956). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata". Annals of Mathematics Studies (34). ... This work led to work on nerve networks and their link to finite automata. In the late 1940s, D. O. Hebb created a learning ... Hinton, G. E.; Osindero, S.; Teh, Y. (2006). "A fast learning algorithm for deep belief nets" (PDF). Neural Computation. 18 (7 ... 15 January 2001). "Gradient flow in recurrent nets: the difficulty of learning long-term dependencies". In Kolen, John F.; ...
Kleene, Stephen Cole (15 December 1951). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata" (PDF). U. S. Air Force ... Kleene, Stephen Cole (1956). Shannon, Claude; McCarthy, John (eds.). Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata ...
"Op Redfold: MOD Activates No-Deal Brexit Nerve Centre". forces.net. Forces Network. Retrieved 23 March 2019. Ripley, Tim; Urwin ...
They carry a nerve net with no brain or ganglia. A gastrovascular cavity is present where the digestion starts and later ...
"Muscle and nerve net organization in stalked jellyfish (Medusozoa: Staurozoa)". Journal of Morphology. 278: 29-49. doi:10.1002/ ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Album Review: Brian Eno - The Shutov Assembly, Nerve Net, Neroli, The Drop (expanded ... Nerve Net/The Shutov Assembly/Neroli/The Drop Album Review - Pitchfork". Retrieved 20 August 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged ... Nerve Net / Shutov Assembly / Neroli / The Drop Reissues". Retrieved 20 August 2016. ...
Kleene, Stephen C. (1951). Shannon, Claude E.; McCarthy, John (eds.). Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite ... Liger, François; McQueen, Craig; Wilton, Paul (2002). Visual Basic .NET Text Manipulation Handbook. Wrox Press. ISBN 978-1- ... NET Framework, and XML Schema. Some languages and tools such as Boost and PHP support multiple regex flavors. Perl-derivative ... Vimdoc.sourceforge.net. Archived from the original on 2020-10-07. Retrieved 2013-09-25. "UTS#18 on Unicode Regular Expressions ...
ISBN 1-58488-090-2. Here: sect.2.1, remark R13 on p.65 Kleene, Stephen C. (1956). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and ...
Kozen (1990), sect.2.1.2, p.5 S.C. Kleene (Dec 1951). Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata (PDF) ( ... Here: sect.7.2, p.52 Kleene, Stephen C. (1956). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata" (PDF). Automata ...
A plexus refers to a net-like arrangement of a nerve. The term anatomical variation is used to refer to a difference in ...
There are two current theories on the emergence of nerve nets. One theory is that nerve nets may have developed independently ... Before the evolutionary development of the brain, nerve nets, the simplest form of a nervous system developed. These nerve nets ... They are able to rudimentarily detect food and other chemicals but these nerve nets do not allow them to detect the source of ... The other theory states that a common ancestor may have developed nerve nets, but they were lost in Porifera. A trend in brain ...
Kleene, S.C.: Representation of events in nerve nets and finite automata. In: Shannon, C.E., McCarthy, J. (eds.) Automata ... ISBN 978-9971-5-0566-0. Stephen Cole Kleene (Dec 1951). Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automate (PDF) ( ...
... activities are coordinated by a decentralized nerve net and simple receptors. Several free-swimming species of Cubozoa and ...
"Brian Eno: Nerve Net/The Shutov Assembly/Neroli/The Drop Album Review - Pitchfork". Pitchfork.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018. "Brian ... In September 1992, Eno released Nerve Net, an album utilising heavily syncopated rhythms with contributions from several former ... and the entire album was eventually released in 2014 as part of an expanded re-release of Nerve Net. Eno also released The ... Nerve Net (1992), Opal, All Saints The Shutov Assembly (1992), Opal, All Saints Neroli (1993), All Saints Headcandy (1994), BMG ...
Dense nerve net cells are also present in the epidermis in the cap. They form a large ring-like structure above the radial ... "The nerve ring in cnidarians: its presence and structure in hydrozoan medusae". Zoology. 118 (2): 79-88. doi:10.1016/j.zool. ...
The divisions are none other than the beginnings of this nerve fibre net. The cells of the gray matter are therefore doubly ... the axis fibre and through the finest branches of the protoplasmic processes which become a part of the fine nerve fibre net of ... the finest divisions of the protoplasmic processes ultimately take part in the formation of the fine nerve fibre network which ... connected by means the nerve process which becomes ...
Its nervous system consists of a nerve net with no defined brain or ganglia. The nerve net is found on the basal (away from the ...
There are two nerve nets, one in the epidermis and one in the gastrodermis; these unite at the pharynx, the junctions of the ... The muscles and nerves are much simpler than those of most other animals, although more specialised than in other cnidarians, ...
... "nerve net" is located in the epidermis. Although traditionally thought not to have a central nervous system, nerve net ... and transmits impulses both throughout the nerve net and around a circular nerve ring, to other nerve cells. The rhopalial ... This net of nerves is responsible for muscle contraction and movement, and culminates the emergence of photosensitive ... Jellyfish in large quantities can fill and split fishing nets and crush captured fish. They can clog cooling equipment, ...
Biologically relevant models such as Hopfield net have been developed to address the properties of associative (also known as " ... "A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve". J. Physiol. 117 (4 ...
Spinal manipulation aims to treat "vertebral subluxations" which are claimed to put pressure on nerves. Chiropractic was ... concluded net harmful effects, and 21.3% concluded insufficient evidence. However, the CAM review used the more developed 2004 ...
Netted (Reticulate). Pinnately (veined, netted, unicostate reticulate). Single prominent midrib running from base to apex, ... 2 major basal nerves besides the midrib. Diagrams of venation patternsEdit. ... Characteristic of monocotyledons, but exceptions include Arisaema, and as below, under netted.[53]. Netted (reticulate, pinnate ... The primary and secondary venation may be referred to as pinnate, while the net like finer veins are referred to as netted or ...
The net concentration of intracellular cGMP is reduced (due to its conversion to 5' GMP via PDE), resulting in the closure of ... No photoreceptors are found at the blind spot, the area where ganglion cell fibers are collected into the optic nerve and leave ... The axons of ganglion cells form the two optic nerves. Photoreceptor cells are typically arranged in an irregular but ... When light activates the melanopsin signaling system, the melanopsin-containing ganglion cells discharge nerve impulses that ...
NervesEdit. The reptilian nervous system contains the same basic part of the amphibian brain, but the reptile cerebrum and ... Lower food requirements and adaptive metabolisms allow reptiles to dominate the animal life in regions where net calorie ... There are twelve pairs of cranial nerves.[108] Due to their short cochlea, reptiles use electrical tuning to expand their range ...
After 1800 books on music therapy often drew on the Brunonian system of medicine, arguing that the stimulation of the nerves ... http://www.iamt.net.in/iamt/login.php?urlID=IJMT *^ Suvarna Nalapat (2008). Nadalayasindhu (Ragachikitsamritham) (in Malayalam ... stressed the power of music over the nerves.[100] ...
CRH and vasopressin are released from neurosecretory nerve terminals at the median eminence. CRH is transported to the anterior ... Mind-Body-Health.net page on HPA axis. *HPA Axis: Explanation of the Body's Central Stress Response System w/Diagram ...
When we breathe, the nerves and muscles of our thoracic cavity create a weak magnetic field. Magnetometers based on ... Net radiometer. *Quartz thermometer. *Resistance thermometer. *Silicon bandgap temperature sensor. *Special sensor microwave/ ...
... and he studied nerve nets in coelenterates and the structure and physiology of giant nerve fibers in annelids. His studies on ... At the age of 88 Bullock re-established a modeling study on nerve-nets, and built a model that accurately predicted the input- ... nerve nets lead him to be one of the first experimentalists to understand the value and importance of computational techniques ...
In myelin, it envelopes and insulates nerves, helping greatly to conduct nerve impulses. ... A higher intake from food leads to a net decrease in endogenous production, while lower intake from food has the opposite ...
doi:10.1080/net.12.3.289.316. PMID 11563531.. *^ a b Köppl, Christine (1997). "Phase Locking to High Frequencies in the ... Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve,[5][6] the cochlear nucleus,[5][7] the inferior ... The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem. These nuclei are also ... The hair cells in the cochlea release neurotransmitter as a result, causing action potentials down the auditory nerve. ...
Free online at www.nanlee.net *^ "Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System". Centers for Disease Control and ... Nerve injury *Spinal cord injury. *Brachial plexus injury. *Peripheral nerve injury. *Sciatic nerve injury ...
"blog.anta.net. 2007-10-21. ISSN 1797-1993. Archived from the original on 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2008-03-23.. ... net weight of aerosol spray.[52] *Certain individuals are still prohibited from possessing pepper spray, including minors under ...
"mobilePDR - PDR.net". www.pdr.net.. *↑ 4.0 4.1 Joseph, J. (2003). The Gene Illusion: Genetic Research in Psychiatry and ... the band of nerve fibers which connects the left side and the right side of the brain. People with schizophrenia also tend to ...
These include dendritic protein microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) [137,138], brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) [ ... https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322553718_An_update_on_diagnostic_and_prognostic_biomarkers_for_traumatic_brain_injury ... subst:Nothanks-web,pg=Biomarker,url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322553718_An_update_on_diagnostic_and_prognostic_ ... subst:article-cv,:Biomarker}} from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322553718_An_update_on_diagnostic_and_prognostic_ ...
"What Is Leprosy?", THE MEDICAL NEWS ,from News-Medical.Net, Web. 20 Nov. 2010 ... approximately ten percent of patients in Indonesia have already suffered significant nerve or other damage prior to the ...
In the book The God Delusion, Richard Dawkins identifies Steven Weinberg as an atheist.richarddawkins.net. ... Rapport, Richard L. Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the Synapse. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005. Print. ... Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896): German physician and physiologist, the discoverer of nerve action potential, and the father ... but lost his nerve at the last minute and walked out of the classroom, never to return. On his long walk home, he came up with ...
"Kunnat.net. Retrieved 29 December 2017.. *^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2010-08-16.. ... Neurological research has shown that 90% of brain growth occurs during the first five years of life, and 85% of the nerve paths ... "Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2012-09-29.. *^ "Finnish National Agency for Education - Teacher and School leaders". Retrieved 2018-06- ...
"blabbermouth.net. February 15, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.. *^ "angelvivaldi. , o f f i c i a l w e b s i t e". ... Guitarists Doc Coyle (Vagus Nerve, God Forbid) and Chris Cain (Bury Your Dead), and later, bassist Kyle Konkiel formerly of In ... "Blabbermouth.net. November 2, 2017.. *^ a b Hill, John (November 3, 2017). "BAD WOLVES 'TOAST TO THE GHOST' IN NEW SONG, ... "blabbermouth.net. January 13, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.. *^ "Video: Reunited SNOT Plays First Show In Five Years". ...
Like other dolphins and marine animals, there have been documentations of these dolphins getting caught in seine-nets and ... Morimitsu, T; Kawano, H; Torihara, K; Kato, E; Koono, M (1992). "Histopathology of eighth cranial nerve of mass stranded ... one case report of strandings in Japan's Goto Islands has been associated with parasitic neuropathy of the eighth cranial nerve ...
The brain has ganglia and nerve fibers, has neuroglia and vessels, has different colors (is colored this way or that) and so on ... www.memeoid.net/books/Spenard/Dueling_with_Dualism-Spenard.pdf ... www.memeoid.net/books/Spenard/Dueling_with_Dualism-Spenard.pdf ... The light from a star travels over intervening space and causes a disturbance in the optic nerve ending in an occurrence in the ...
An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.. ionic bond. A type of ... When a nerve or muscle cell is at "rest", its membrane potential is called the resting membrane potential. In a typical neuron ... A short branched extension of a nerve cell, along which impulses received from other cells at synapses are transmitted to the ... The spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration ...
nerve chord (abdominal ganglia). 20. Malpighian tubes. 21. tarsal pads. 22. claws. 23. tarsus. 24. tibia. 25. femur. 26. ... Neuroptera (net-winged insects, contains antlions for example). *Mecoptera (scorpionflies, may include fleas) ...
Denne artikkelen bygger på «Nerve Net» frå Wikipedia på engelsk, den 24. april 2011. *Wikipedia på engelsk oppgav desse ... Nerve Net er eit album frå 1992 av den britiske musikaren Brian Eno. Det markerte ein tilbakekomst til meir rock-orienterte ... Berger, Arion (November 6, 1992). «Nerve Net: Music Review:Entertainment Weekly». Entertainment Weekly. Henta 25. april 2011.. ... Henta frå «https://nn.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nerve_Net&oldid=2843119» ...
Brain and Nerve (in Japanese). 41 (1): 35-44. PMID 2655673.. ... "Orpha.net. Retrieved 2017-01-08.. *^ "What's New in Progressive ...
ഒരു നാഡീജാലിക (nerve net) പോലെയാണ് ഇവയുടെ നാഡീവ്യൂഹം. നാഡീകോശത്തിൽ ആക്സോണുകളും, ഡെൻഡ്രൈറ്റുകളും തമ്മിൽ വ്യത്യാസമില്ല. അവ ... നട്ടെല്ലിൽ നിന്നും ഉദ്ഭവിക്കുന്ന പുരോ നാഡീമൂലവും (ventral nerve root) പൃഷ്ഠ നാഡീ മൂലവും (dorsal nerve root) സംയോജിച്ചാണ് ... സുഷുമ്നയിലെ പുരോ നാഡീമൂലം (ventral nerve root), പൃഷ്ഠനാഡീമൂലം (dorsal nerve root) എന്നിവയിൽ നിന്നാണ് സുഷുമ്നാ നാഡികൾ ... ഘ്രാണനാഡിയാണ് (olfactory nerve) പ്രഥമ കപാല നാഡി. ഈ നാഡീതന്തുക്കളിലൂടെ ആവേഗങ്ങ
Large deep orbital dermoid cysts can cause pressure effects on the muscles and optic nerve, leading to diplopia and loss of ... Cancer.Net: Eyelid Cancer. *DeAngelis, D; Hurwitz, J. "Lacrimal Gland Tumors." eMedicine.com. June 8, 2005. ... helping to spare healthy tissue and the sensible optic nerves.[18] ...
Tony still receives a salary from the company (until 2016) and netted 12% of the sale price. ... Donald "Donny K" Kafranza - Soldier (2000-2003, semi-retired due to nerve damage) ...
NET. Selektivni inhibitori preuzimanja norepinefrina: Amedalin • Atomoksetin (Tomoksetin) • Ciklazindol • Daledalin • ... Nakon ulaza gvanetidina u nerve, on se koncentruje u transmisionim vezikulama, gde zamenjuje norepinefrin. ...
an eye that cannot move or is deviated to one side can indicate that a broken facial bone is pinching a nerve that innervates ... found a net 65% favorable outcomes rate in pediatric patients), barbiturate coma, hypertonic saline and hypothermia. Although ...
The central nervous system is made up of your brain and spinal cord, a thick cord of nerves inside your spine. The peripheral ... Your nerves help you sense, feel, and move your body. Your nervous system has 2 parts: the central nervous system and the ... nervous system is made up of all your other nerves. They send information between your brain and your ... Sensory nerves. These nerves affect your sense of feeling. Damage to the sensory nerves can cause the following problems in ...
Donots Got Some Nerve lyrics & video : dont talk to me today is not the best day to get into my way tomorrow wont change that ... Got Some Nerve Lyrics. dont talk to me. today is not the best day. to get into my way. tomorrow wont change. that situation ... check amazon for Got Some Nerve mp3 download. these lyrics are submitted by kaan. browse other artists under D:D2D3D4D5D6D7D8D9 ... youve got some nerve. to call our relationship a wave - length. when i dont even wanna talk to you. my silence should have ...
3 Colours Red Nerve Gas lyrics & video : How could I let you get so attached A broken quartet plays your heartstrings Before I ... Nerve gas, nerve gas, no class. Nerve gas.... Nerve gas, nerve gas, no class. I get asphyxiated. Funny how fast you faded. Its ... Nerve gas, nerve gas, no class. And parking your thick head where it dont belong. Nerve gas, nerve gas, no class. I get ... Nerve gas, nerve gas, no class. Youre out of tune with everything. Nerve gas.... I get asphyxiated. Its cold in the kitchen my ...
... doesnt stay in the vagus nerve. The longest of the cranial nerves, the vagus nerve is so named because it wanders like a ... What happens in the vagus nerve, it turns out, ... The vagus nerve is literally the captain of your inner nerve ... What happens in the vagus nerve, it turns out, doesnt stay in the vagus nerve. The longest of the cranial nerves, the vagus ... Here are nine facts about this powerful nerve bundle. 1. The vagus nerve prevents inflammation. With a vast network of fibers ...
Nerve nets can provide animals with the ability to sense objects through the use of the sensory neurons within the nerve net. ... The anatomy and positioning of nerve nets can vary from organism to organism. Hydra, which are cnidarians, have a nerve net ... but they lack Nav channels which provide for the conductance of action potentials in nerve nets. Nerve nets are found in ... organisms with radial symmetry are associated with nerve nets. Nerve nets can be found in members of the Cnidaria, Ctenophora, ...
The left recurrent laryngeal nerve was injured during surgery on the esophagus. At 2 months after the injury, the left vocal ...
... with a nerve agent in a targeted murder attempt. Sergei Skripal, a former Russian agent who confessed to spying for Britain, ... WHAT IS A NERVE AGENT?. Nerve agents are chemical compounds that block nerve cells from sending messages to each other. ... WHO CAN PRODUCE NERVE AGENTS?. "This is not a kitchen-sink job," Guthrie said, because nerve agents are relatively difficult to ... HAVE NERVE AGENTS BEEN USED BEFORE?. Germany developed the first nerve agents before and during World War II, although it did ...
10 minutes before stimulating the vagus nerve. The blocker--which affects the descending (efferent) fibers of the vagus nerve-- ... Stimulating the vagus nerve: Memories are made of this Rachel Adelson. American Psychological Association, Vol 35, No. 4. Thu, ... So what is the switch that turns on epinephrine? The vagus nerve. The new evidence provides a close-up look at how emotional ... Unable to get into the brain, it does the next best thing: It activates the ascending fibers of the vagus nerve, which in turn ...
SpellChecker.net, Inc., 2720 3rd Ave #1004, Seattle, WA 98121, United States. * ...
... nerve-wracking joining QUIET RIOT as the bands seventh lead singer. Durbin, who became known as the me... ... User comments or postings do not reflect the viewpoint of BLABBERMOUTH.NET and BLABBERMOUTH.NET does not endorse, or guarantee ... JAMES DURBIN: Performing With QUIET RIOT For First Time Was Nerve-Wracking April 24, 2017 0 Comments ... BLABBERMOUTH.NET reserves the right to "hide" comments that may be considered offensive, illegal or inappropriate and to "ban" ...
Nerve Procedures. Nerve grafting procedures on the larynx. There are currently two purposes that I use selective denervation ... The donor nerve that I typically utilize to supply new nerve input is the omohyoid branch of the ansa cervicalis, although a ... The nerve branch that I typically selectively cut, in order to denervate the larynx, is the anterior branch of the recurrent ... Nerve grafting seems to work equally well for inappropriate synkinetic reinnervation of the larynx where there is too much ...
Cheryl Cole battled crippling nerves to pull in record 14.8m X Factor audience. ... Cheryl Cole battled crippling nerves to pull in record 14.8m X Factor audience. ...
Recklinghausen disease of nerve - An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) ... SpellChecker.net, Inc., 2720 3rd Ave #1004, Seattle, WA 98121, United States. © 2012-2020 SpellChecker.net, Inc. ... RECKLINGHAUSEN DISEASE OF NERVE \ɹˈɛklɪŋhˌɔːsən dɪzˈiːz ɒv nˈɜːv], \ɹˈɛklɪŋhˌɔːsən dɪzˈiːz ɒv nˈɜːv], \ɹ_ˈɛ_k_l_ɪ_ŋ_h_ˌɔː_s_ə_n ... Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is ...
Synonyms for NERVES: jimjams, establishments, pluck, aspects, Butterflies, encourages, grits, hearts, panic, Veins, vellication ... Norvasc, nervus, nimravus, Nervus Coccygeus, nerve gas, neurohypophysis, nervous. Hypernym for Nerves:. *. n.. * state. nervous ... Hyponym for Nerves:. *. n.. * attribute. will power, self-control, willpower, self-possession, possession, self-will, self- ... Email: [email protected]net © 2011-2020 DomainOptions, Inc. Trademarks belong to their respective owners. All rights reserved ...
Antonyms for lose nerve: be content, calm, be calm ... Synonyms for lose nerve: startle, stampede, scare, go to pieces ... Email: [email protected]net © 2011-2020 DomainOptions, Inc. Trademarks belong to their respective owners. All rights reserved ...
Nerve Net Noise & Jessica Rylan Live on Rare Frequency II. This is the second New Years Day live set from Japans Nerve Net ... Nerve Net Noise & Jessica Rylan Live on Rare Frequency II. *Podcast Spec. Ed. 32: Nerve Net Noise & Jessica Rylan Live on Rare ... Podcast Special Edition 33: Nerve Net Noise & Jessica Rylan Live on Rare Frequency Part II ...
"Raw Nerve" is brilliant. Its great to see someone in show biz unafraid to tell it like it is.. Content Warning. ...
Rex Net Book Archive. , Medical Reference. , Download Color Atlas of Nerve Biopsy Pathology by Shin J. Oh M.D.,Shin J. PDF. ... Rex Net Book Archive. , Medical Reference. , Download Color Atlas of Nerve Biopsy Pathology by Shin J. Oh M.D.,Shin J. PDF. ... colour Atlas of Nerve Biopsy Pathology provides a transparent photo of familiar ideas for nerve biopsies. You get new ... Download Color Atlas of Nerve Biopsy Pathology by Shin J. Oh M.D.,Shin J. PDF. admin Mar 28, 2017 ...
HomeAmerican IdolAmerican Idol 2014 Top 10 Girls Performance Show Recap: A Night Of Nerves And Surprising Judges Picks. ... And when her nerves calmed, and she opened up, her vocals improved and she connected to the song. It was tender, soft and ... American Idol 2014 Top 10 Girls Performance Show Recap: A Night Of Nerves And Surprising Judges Picks. February 19, 2014 ... I think it was a good representation of the kind of artist shell be, but there were clearly some nerves. So the vocals werent ...
... a dilated-residual U-Net deep learning network to segment optic nerve head tissues in optical coherence tomography images ... DRUNET: a dilated-residual U-Net deep learning network to segment optic nerve head tissues in optical coherence tomography ... A deep learning algorithm (custom U-NET) was designed and trained to segment 6 ONH tissue layers by capturing both the local ( ... Given that the neural and connective tissues of the optic nerve head (ONH) exhibit complex morphological changes with the ...
In a March, 2019 episode of EMRAP on nerve blocks, nerve-block guru Mike Stone says not necessarily. He argues that LAST is ... Is there any risk of nerve injury in performing these blocks?. Yes. Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) does occur in a small ... Anything I should watch out for in performing nerve blocks to treat pain from limb fractures?. Nerve blocks are commonly used ... Can I just stick to lidocaine for nerve blocks?. You can, but it is important to note that not all anesthetics are created ...
Denne artikkelen bygger på «Nerve Net» frå Wikipedia på engelsk, den 24. april 2011. *Wikipedia på engelsk oppgav desse ... Nerve Net er eit album frå 1992 av den britiske musikaren Brian Eno. Det markerte ein tilbakekomst til meir rock-orienterte ... Berger, Arion (November 6, 1992). «Nerve Net: Music Review:Entertainment Weekly». Entertainment Weekly. Henta 25. april 2011.. ... Henta frå «https://nn.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Nerve_Net&oldid=2843119» ...
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health, nerve shock, side of body, signs, Supplements, Symptoms, Vitamin B12 deficiency ...
long thoracic nerve palsy. Long Thoracic Nerve Palsy. Im Chris Short and I have Long Thoracic Nerve (LTN) Palsy with Winging ...
Im Chris Short and I have Long Thoracic Nerve (LTN) Palsy with Winging of the Scapula. On October 12, 2003, during a military ... Long Thoracic Nerve (LTN) Palsy#. The long thoracic nerve (LTN) is a nerve that arises from the fifth, sixth, and seventh ... Long thoracic nerve palsy is caused by injury and damage to the long thoracic nerve. This nerve runs from the neck vertebrae ... Nerve Blocks#. As of late, Ive been dealing with more nerve pain than muscular. After trials of Gabapentin and Lyrica, neither ...
The Nerve Of Anxiety. Marquis Cooper in Motivation, self development, self-improvement April 27, 2017. 310 Words ...
Complete Anatomy medical content write Ellie Fahy uses 3D anatomy to explore Cranial Nerve III the oculomotor nerve, and how ... In the third in our series on the cranial nerves, ... cranial nerves anatomy MRI axial cranial nerves anatomy.. The ... Cranial Nerve Anatomy and Terminology.The terminal nerves, olfactory nerves I and optic nerves II emerge from the cerebrum or ... Anatomy third cranial nerve Applied anatomy Oculomotor nerve 3rd cranial nerve You cant enter more than 5 tags. Enter one or ...
The optic nerve is the second pair of the several pairs of nerve of the central nervous system. It is situated at the back of ... Ganglionic cells or nerve cells are the constituents of the optic nerve. There are more than one million nerve fibers present ... It is also referred to as the cranial nerve II or the second cranial nerve. A number of pairs of cranial nerves are present, ... Though, optic nerve is situated in the eye it is referred to as being part of the central nervous system. The optic nerve ...
  • Nerve Net is the twelfth solo studio album by British musician Brian Eno. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve Net er eit album frå 1992 av den britiske musikaren Brian Eno . (wikipedia.org)
  • The longest of the cranial nerves, the vagus nerve is so named because it "wanders" like a vagabond, sending out fibers from your brainstem to your visceral organs. (sott.net)
  • In the third in our series on the cranial nerves, Complete Anatomy medical content write Ellie Fahy uses 3D anatomy to explore Cranial Nerve III the oculomotor nerve, and how it's responsible for the movement of the eye and surrounding structures. (kevinhanes.net)
  • It's the third cranial nerve and works with cranial nerves four trochlear and five trigeminal to coordinate eye movement. (kevinhanes.net)
  • Anatomy third cranial nerve Applied anatomy Oculomotor nerve 3rd cranial nerve You can't enter more than 5 tags. (kevinhanes.net)
  • Jun 19, 2017 · ANATOMY The third cranial nerve supplies the levator muscle of the eyelid and four extraocular muscles: the medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique. (kevinhanes.net)
  • The superior oblique muscle is innervated by cranial nerve IV and the lateral rectus muscle by cranial nerve VI. (kevinhanes.net)
  • This MRI cranial nerves axial cross sectional anatomy tool is absolutely free to use. (kevinhanes.net)
  • Cranial Nerve Anatomy and Terminology.The terminal nerves, olfactory nerves I and optic nerves II emerge from the cerebrum or forebrain, and the remaining ten pairs arise from the brainstem, which is the lower part of the brain. (kevinhanes.net)
  • The cranial nerves are considered components of the peripheral nervous system. (kevinhanes.net)
  • Third cranial nerve disorders can impair ocular motility, pupillary function, or both. (kevinhanes.net)
  • The sensory ganglia of the cranial nerves, directly correspond to the dorsal root ganglia of spinal nerves and are known as cranial nerve ganglia. (kevinhanes.net)
  • Sensory ganglia exist for nerves with sensory function: V, VII, VIII, IX, X. [3] There are also parasympathetic ganglia, which are part of the autonomic nervous system for cranial nerves III, VII, IX and X. (kevinhanes.net)
  • Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain, and you've got 12 pairs of cranial nerves, and they're a part of the peripheral nervous system. (kevinhanes.net)
  • All 12 pairs are a part of the peripheral nervous system, except cranial nerve number 2, which actually emerges from, which is kind of like an extension of the brain, so it's not. (kevinhanes.net)
  • cranial nerves anatomy MRI axial cranial nerves anatomy. (kevinhanes.net)
  • The human body has 12 pairs of cranial nerves that control motor and sensory functions of the head and neck. (kevinhanes.net)
  • This article provides a pictorial overview of the imaging of cranial nerves, with a special focus on their anatomy and pathology. (kevinhanes.net)
  • It is also referred to as the cranial nerve II or the second cranial nerve. (med-health.net)
  • A number of pairs of cranial nerves are present, the optic nerve being the second of them. (med-health.net)
  • these are called cranial nerves, of which your vagus nerve is the longest and most complex. (vagus.net)
  • is the longest cranial nerve and connects the brain with all the major organs in the body. (connecticutchronicle.com)
  • This cranial nerve is involved in the perception of sound and the sense of balance. (smartdaily.net)
  • The vestibulocochlear nerve constitutes the eighth cranial nerve pair and its function is essential for our survival, since it is thanks to it that we can hear and maintain our balance. (smartdaily.net)
  • The vestibulocochlear nerve (scientific name: nervus vestibulocochlearis) is the eighth cranial nerve (CN VIII), which is divided into two parts, the vestibular and the cochlear , both divisions being responsible for sensory function. (smartdaily.net)
  • Both sections of the entire nerve travel to the posterior cranial fossa, entering the brain through the cerebellopontine angle , along with the facial nerve (CN VII). (smartdaily.net)
  • Cochlear Gross Anatomy 16 3 the Cranial Nerve Exam - Anatomy and Physiology - Anytime standing, relocating, together with jogging, any ankle will become these a part that has crucial part. (catholicmedia.net)
  • With a vast network of fibers stationed like spies around all your organs, when the vagus nerve gets wind of the hallmarks of inflammation-cytokines or the inflammatory substance tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-it alerts the brain and elicits anti-inflammatory neurotransmitters via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway . (sott.net)
  • In the second experiment, the researchers injected the rats with methyl atropine, a drug that blocks the acetylcholine that is released from descending vagal fibers onto peripheral organs, 10 minutes before stimulating the vagus nerve. (sott.net)
  • The blocker--which affects the descending (efferent) fibers of the vagus nerve--didn't change the release of norepinephrine any more than did a control solution of saline. (sott.net)
  • The oculomotor nerve contains both motor and parasympathetic fibers, which classifies it as a mixed nerve. (kevinhanes.net)
  • There are more than one million nerve fibers present in the optic nerve. (med-health.net)
  • If the damage occurred on the upper and lower edge of optic disc area, will be better able to identify, especially because the area of nerve fiber layer thickness, if the lesion away from the optic disc area, as these areas lead thin nerve fibers is difficult to find. (tcmwell.com)
  • This nerve carries somatic afferent fibers from structures in the inner ear. (smartdaily.net)
  • At the brainstem bridge, the fibers of the cochlear nerve synapse with the posterior and anterior cochlear nuclei. (smartdaily.net)
  • Most of the fibers of this nerve go to the brain, in the vestibular nuclei, but some of them go directly to the reticular nuclei without the need to make synapses along the way, and also end up in the cerebellar nuclei. (smartdaily.net)
  • It measures the electrical activity in the muscle fibers, and shows if the muscles or nerves are damaged, and if so, to what extent and at what location. (news-medical.net)
  • Hydra, which are cnidarians, have a nerve net throughout their body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most research on the evolution of nervous tissue concerning nerve nets has been conducted using cnidarians. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants and cnidarians (e.g. anemones, hydra, jellyfish) have analogous nervous systems, in which stimuli is communicated via a nerve network or web of interconnecting neurons. (heidelberg.fan)
  • The central nervous system is made up of your brain and spinal cord, a thick cord of nerves inside your spine. (cancer.net)
  • The peripheral nervous system is made up of all your other nerves. (cancer.net)
  • The vagus nerve is literally the captain of your inner nerve center- the parasympathetic nervous system , to be specific. (sott.net)
  • While organisms with bilateral body symmetry are normally associated with a central nervous system, organisms with radial symmetry are associated with nerve nets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve net is the simplest form of a nervous system found in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently , especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. (dictionary.net)
  • Though, optic nerve is situated in the eye it is referred to as being part of the central nervous system. (med-health.net)
  • In reality, plants possess neurobiology analogous to cnidarian nerve nets, in which the existence of a brain or central nervous system is not a prerequisite. (heidelberg.fan)
  • Bilateral animals - ventral nerve cords in invertebrates and dorsal nerve cords supported by a notochord in chordates -- evolved with a central nervous system that was around a central region, a process known as cephalization . (wikipedia.org)
  • Jellyfish , comb jellies , and related animals have diffuse nerve nets rather than a central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical neurophysiologists test and record the function of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerve roots, peripheral nerves (sensory and motor) and muscles, to help diagnose various disorders of the nervous system. (news-medical.net)
  • In many conditions it is necessary to test the way the peripheral nervous system functions, by measuring the speed of passage of nerve impulses through the motor and sensory nerves. (news-medical.net)
  • The methods that are currently used to stimulate nerve signals in the nervous system are based on electrical stimulation. (biologynews.net)
  • The nervous system has nerve cords formed from groups of interneurons. (studystack.com)
  • The neurotransmitter acetylcholine , elicited by the vagus nerve, literally gives you the breath of life by telling your lungs to breathe. (sott.net)
  • A nerve net consists of interconnected neurons lacking a brain or any form of cephalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve nets can provide animals with the ability to sense objects through the use of the sensory neurons within the nerve net. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike central nervous systems, where neurons are typically grouped together, neurons found in nerve nets are spread apart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cnidaria (a phylum of over 9000 simple aquatic animals) rely on decentralized nerve nets consisting of sensory neurons that generate signals in response to stimuli, motor neurons that instruct muscles to contract and „cobwebs" of intermediate neurons. (heidelberg.fan)
  • The axons of these pseudounipolar neurons are what make up the cochlear nerve itself. (smartdaily.net)
  • Simple nerve nets seen in animals like Cnidaria (jellyfish) evolved first, consisted of polymodal neurons which serve a dual purpose in motor and sensory functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve nets consist of sensory neurons that pick up chemical, tactile, and visual signals, motor neurons that can activate contractions of the body wall, and intermediate neurons that detect patterns of activity in the sensory neurons and send signals to groups of motor neurons as a result. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theses are nerve cells that pass information between neurons. (studystack.com)
  • The left recurrent laryngeal nerve was injured during surgery on the esophagus. (voicedoctor.net)
  • I use it as a permanent treatment for adductor spasmodic dysphonia and I use it to reinnervate the anterior branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve for vocal cord paresis or paralysis. (voicedoctor.net)
  • The nerve branch that I typically selectively cut, in order to denervate the larynx, is the anterior branch of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. (voicedoctor.net)
  • On the left side, it originates from the recurrent laryngeal nerve only. (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • A University of Virginia study showed success in strengthening memory in rats by stimulating the vagus nerve, which releases the neurotransmitter norepinephrine into the amygdala, consolidating memories. (sott.net)
  • Truly breaking new medical ground, neurosurgeon Kevin Tracey was the first to prove that stimulating the vagus nerve can significantly reduce inflammation. (sott.net)
  • University of Virginia psychologists have moved the science of memory forward, reporting that stimulating the vagus nerve, which carries sensory messages to and from the brain, releases the neurotransmitter norepinephrine into the amygdala, strengthening memory storage in limbic regions of the brain that regulate arousal, memory and feeling responses to emotionally laden stimuli. (sott.net)
  • This is better suited to controlling more complex movements than a diffuse nerve net. (wikipedia.org)
  • This condition is referred to as optic nerve atrophy. (med-health.net)
  • And like a good captain, it does a great job of overseeing a vast range of crucial functions, communicating nerve impulses to every organ in your body. (sott.net)
  • The vagus nerve is responsible for controlling the heart rate via electrical impulses to the sinoatrial node of the heart, where acetylcholine release slows the pulse. (sott.net)
  • The optic nerve functions by way of transferring visual information that falls on the retina via electrical impulses to the vision centers situated in the brain. (med-health.net)
  • With a pain solver, however, our nerves become unblocked and begin to receive impulses again. (bux-gpx.net)
  • The text discusses the response mechanisms of living organisms from nerve impulses, chemical sense, muscle reaction, and includes some studies made on brain function. (elsevier.com)
  • Long thoracic nerve palsy is caused by injury and damage to the long thoracic nerve. (chrisshort.net)
  • Sciatic Nerve Pain Relief - What Causes Sciatica? (paincontrol.net)
  • Understanding what causes sciatica is the first step in finding sciatic nerve pain relief. (paincontrol.net)
  • Understanding sciatica is important, but achieving sciatic nerve pain relief is what patients ultimately need. (paincontrol.net)
  • Scientists and medics are increasingly recommending the use of vagal nerve stimulation as a path to healthier ageing. (vagus.net)
  • 2005). A 2016 report asserts that people with diabetic nerve pain have a depression rate that is four times that of people with diabetes but without pain (Davenport, 2016). (healthyplace.com)
  • I'm Chris Short and I have Long Thoracic Nerve (LTN) Palsy with Winging of the Scapula. (chrisshort.net)
  • A variety of aetiologies may cause third nerve palsy TNP, and some manifestations may herald neurological emergencies. (kevinhanes.net)
  • A third nerve palsy caused by a nuclear lesion is rare. (kevinhanes.net)
  • Nerve nets are found in species in the phyla Cnidaria (e.g. scyphozoa, box jellyfish, and sea anemones), Ctenophora, and Echinodermata. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jellyfish also depend on a loose network of nerves located within their epidermal and gastrodermal tissue (outer and inner body walls, respectively) to detect touch and a circular ring throughout the rhopalial lappet located at the rim of their body. (heidelberg.fan)
  • The long thoracic nerve (LTN) is a nerve that arises from the fifth, sixth, and seventh cervical nerves, descends the neck behind the brachial plexus, and is distributed to the anterior serratus muscle. (chrisshort.net)
  • This nerve runs from the neck vertebrae along the side of the chest to the muscle that holds the scapula bone to the chest wall. (chrisshort.net)
  • What side of the neck is the vagus nerve on? (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • Does anyone know how to fix pinched medal nerve in neck Pain started in RHS of neck travelled to right shoulder then bicep then went to left side Neck then shoulder then into bicep then forearm, holding plates away from body is very painful In forearm on LHS Any suggestions plz Dry needling in upper. (exrx.net)
  • Anyone riding with pinched/inflamed nerves (neck and/or back)? (bikeforums.net)
  • I just started riding in the summer but iv had issues with the nerves in my lower back and my neck for a couple years. (bikeforums.net)
  • Yes, I've had some major neck herniations (C-5,6,7 and some issues with T1, plus numeros other cervical bulges and degenerate discs) over the last 10 years, and still have residual effects from pinched nerves in the neck. (bikeforums.net)
  • It essentially allows nerve signals to get louder and last longer, which prevents proper control of organs," he said. (manufacturing.net)
  • In both plants and cnidaria, electrical signals are transmitted through non-nerve tissues, from cell to cell through utilization of gap junctions. (heidelberg.fan)
  • In some colonial eukaryotes such as Obelia electrical signals do propagate not only through neural nets, but also through epithelial cells in the shared digestive system of the colony. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biogen deemed the data "positive" because in some patients, electric signals moved more freely through the nerve after treatment-a measure of the nerve working better. (xconomy.com)
  • These new peripheral interfaces use signals from nerves or muscles to both control prosthetics and to provide direct sensory feedback. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Biogen reported that in 34 percent of the people in the study, electric signals moved more freely through the nerve after treatment-a measurement of the nerve working better. (xconomy.com)
  • The anatomy and positioning of nerve nets can vary from organism to organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are typically bilateral findings when the 3rd nerve nucleus is affected because of the unique anatomy of its subnuclei. (kevinhanes.net)
  • The vagus nerve is part of the braking system -- the parasympathetic branch. (vagus.net)
  • Parasympathetic innervation of the heart is mediated by the vagus nerve. (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • You can, however, also manually stimulate your vagus nerve by doing abdominal breathing or holding your breath for four to eight counts. (sott.net)
  • The creation of implants to stimulate the vagus nerve via electronic implants showed a drastic reduction , and even remission, in rheumatoid arthritis-which has no known cure and is often treated with the toxic cancer drug methotraxate-hemorrhagic shock, and other equally serious inflammatory syndromes. (sott.net)
  • Armed with these new insights, scientists can now more carefully calibrate how they stimulate the vagus nerve to influence the release of norepinephrine, flood the amygdala and strengthen memory. (sott.net)
  • An _______ (of the CNS - spinal cord) relays the energy back out to the motor nerve instead of to the brain. (brainscape.com)
  • The most common illness that affects the optic nerve is Glaucoma. (med-health.net)
  • Typically, this painful condition is caused by a herniated or slipped disc that affects a nerve root. (paincontrol.net)
  • Vagus.net was named after the "Wandering" Nerve , which affects a myriad of core functions of the body and brain. (connecticutchronicle.com)
  • One of Biogen's major gambles in this plan has been a program meant not just to treat the symptoms of multiple sclerosis, but reverse the underlying nerve damage MS causes, which no drug has been able to do. (xconomy.com)
  • BIIB ) about a drug meant to do something never done before: repair nerve damage in multiple sclerosis patients and possibly reverse the course of the disease. (xconomy.com)
  • 8. Electric stimulation of the vagus nerve reduces inflammation and may inhibit it altogether. (sott.net)
  • Daily stimulation of the vagus nerve using micro electrical pulses has been shown to have a positive effect on health and wellbeing. (vagus.net)
  • But recent studies have shown that direct stimulation of the vagus nerve can both improve vagal tone directly and make it easier to follow the exercise and mindful regimes which also aid in the strengthening of tone. (vagus.net)
  • You can enjoy the benefits of vagus nerve stimulation naturally by following these steps.Cold Exposure. (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • Vagus nerve stimulation, or VNS, has been used for years to treat epilepsy and depression, and last year it was approved to help people fight obesity, too. (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • Very simply put, tVNS is electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve via electrodes clipped to the tragus region of the left ear. (connecticutchronicle.com)
  • Because the vagus nerve is the primary mode by which the body relaxes and recuperates, its stimulation has restorative and healing effects on health and wellbeing. (connecticutchronicle.com)
  • One supplies stimulation to the nerve. (news-medical.net)
  • Retrieved on May 24, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Neurophysiology-Nerve-Conduction-Studies.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • Therefore can not alone whether the optic disc structure and color of the normal diagnosis of optic atrophy, we must observe the blood vessels and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer, whether there are changes, especially in color vision such as vision inspection, comprehensive analysis, in order to ascertain the extent of optic disc pale. (tcmwell.com)
  • Often accompanied by focal atrophy peripapillary nerve fiber layer has prompted lesions, nerve fiber layer is caused by thinning in the area. (tcmwell.com)
  • Primary optic atrophy (primary optic atrophy) is due to sieve after intraorbital, tube, intracranial optic nerve, and chiasm, optic tract and lateral geniculate body of the damage caused by optic atrophy, so-called descending optic atrophy (descending optic atrophy). (tcmwell.com)
  • As the nerve fiber atrophy and loss of myelin, physiological depression appears slightly larger than the dish slightly darker pale and gray-blue dots can be seen-shaped sieve plate. (tcmwell.com)
  • Nerve nets can be found in members of the Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Echinodermata phyla, all of which are found in marine environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Porifera do not form synapses and myofibrils which allow for neuromuscular transmission, they do differentiate a proto-neuronal system and contain homologs of several genes found in Cnidaria which are important in nerve formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of a nerve net allows an organism belonging to the aforementioned phyla of Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Echinodermata to have increased fitness as a result of being able to respond to their environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental neurogenesis of nerve nets is conserved between phyla and has been mainly studied in cnidaria, especially in the model organism Hydra. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with cnidaria, plants rely on action potentials (AP) and synaptic intercellular communication utilizing auxin as their primary neurotransmitter with vascular strands representing nerves. (heidelberg.fan)
  • Over the last decade, peripheral nerve blocks (PNB's) have gained significant attention as part of a multimodal approach to pain management. (emdocs.net)
  • Besides anesthesiologists, most providers would likely not be comfortable performing landmark or nerve-stimulator guided peripheral nerve blocks. (emdocs.net)
  • Also find spoken pronunciation of nerve in Tamil and in English language. (english-tamil.net)
  • What nerve means in Tamil, nerve meaning in Tamil, nerve definition, examples and pronunciation of nerve in Tamil language. (english-tamil.net)
  • Given mounting evidence of vagal nerve interaction with brain biochemistry, the University of Virginia researchers sought direct experimental evidence that stimulating the nerve can cause specific changes in neurotransmitter release. (sott.net)
  • These are nerve cells that carry response information to muscles and other organs. (studystack.com)
  • Vagus nerve branches in the thorax On the right side, it arises from the trunk of the vagus as it lies beside the trachea. (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • The vestibular nerve arises from the receptors of the macules of the inner ear, specifically the utricle and the saccule , in addition to the receptors of the semicircular canals of the membranous labyrinth. (smartdaily.net)
  • Although animals with nerve nets lack a true brain, they have the ability to display complex movements and behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vitamin B12 Enhances Nerve Repair and Improves Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury by Inhibiting ER Stress-Induced Neuron Injury. (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • The swallowing triggers a vagal [nerve] reflex from the esophagus to the brain and back to the heart [that] is excessive in its reflex strength. (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • The vestibulocochlear nerve is responsible for sending information from the cochlea and vestibule to the brain , stimuli which will be interpreted in the form of sound and balance. (smartdaily.net)
  • DARPA's Reliable Neural-Interface Technology (RE-NET) program researched the long-term viability of brain interfaces and continues research to develop high-performance, reliable peripheral interfaces. (kurzweilai.net)
  • In place of a brain, jellies have a nerve net. (slate.com)
  • from the relatively simple sub-epithelial net of Xenoturbella to the compact brain of acoels. (biologists.org)
  • They all help tamp down the immune system's attack, but they don't reverse existing damage to myelin, the fatty white protein that forms nerve sheaths and also constitutes about half the human brain. (xconomy.com)
  • Nerves are your body's sensing and control system. (vagus.net)
  • When the vagus nerve is overstimulated, the body's blood vessels dilate, especially those in the lower extremities, and the heart temporarily slows down. (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • Riding leaned over on my road bikes stretches out my spine and relaxes the 'squeezing' of my nerves in my lower back. (bikeforums.net)
  • Given that the neural and connective tissues of the optic nerve head (ONH) exhibit complex morphological changes with the development and progression of glaucoma, their simultaneous isolation from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images may be of great interest for the clinical diagnosis and management of this pathology. (octnews.org)
  • A deep learning algorithm (custom U-NET) was designed and trained to segment 6 ONH tissue layers by capturing both the local (tissue texture) and contextual information (spatial arrangement of tissues). (octnews.org)
  • [14] The brains of arthropods and cephalopods arise from twin parallel nerve cords that extend through the body of the animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • non-phloem tissue in non-vascular plants such as algae and liverworts) analogous to a nerve net „to respond rapidly to environmental stress factors (e.g. insect herbivory, pathogens, mechanical damage, etc.)" and environmental conditions (e.g. changes in temperature, light intensity, water availability, osmotic pressure, and the presence of chemical compounds). (heidelberg.fan)
  • Immunostaining was evident at N7 in the developing limbo-scleral nerve net and some fibres exhibited a close association with unidentified vascular elements. (elsevier.com)
  • within the lab or within the lecture room, at the entrance strains of tissue analysis, colour Atlas of Nerve Biopsy Pathology will give you the knowledge you would like in actual fact, concisely, and conveniently. (rexnet.com.br)
  • This study has demonstrated that WE-14 was evident in the limbo-corneal nerve net at birth and that its detection parallels corneal development to adulthood, where WE-14 is evident in a subpopulation of nerve fibres. (elsevier.com)
  • Yet patients' eyesight didn't improve, and their retinal nerve cells didn't show any physical improvement either. (xconomy.com)
  • The omohyoid muscle typically contracts at the same time as the adductor muscles of the larynx and proves to be a good substitute for adductor nerve problems. (voicedoctor.net)
  • A branch of the mandibular nerve passing through the otic ganglion and supplying the tensor muscle of the tympanic membrane. (definithing.com)
  • In contrast, nerve and muscle interfaces allow amputees to control advanced prosthetics in the near term. (kurzweilai.net)
  • In the first of two experiments using 31 rats total, the researchers surgically implanted electrodes around the left-side vagus nerve. (sott.net)
  • What are the symptoms of a damaged vagus nerve? (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • The doctor might give you questionnaires to help narrow your symptoms, and together, you'll both watch carefully for early nerve damage and depression. (healthyplace.com)
  • Nerve grafting seems to work equally well for inappropriate synkinetic reinnervation of the larynx where there is too much input into the adductor muscles on one side as well as persistent vocal paresis or paralysis where there is inadequate input into the adductor muscles on one side of the larynx. (voicedoctor.net)
  • Introduction Oculomotor nerve consists of two components with distinct functions: Somatic motor general somatic efferent Supplies 4 of the 6 extraocular muscles of the eye and the. (kevinhanes.net)
  • The process of nerve regrowth can be extremely painful and if muscles have atrophied it requires a lot of physical therapy to regain function. (bux-gpx.net)
  • By rewiring nerves from amputated limbs, new interfaces allow for prosthetic control with existing muscles. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Ali Click (1992) is a CD Maxi-Single of remixes of the song "Ali Click" from Brian Eno's album Nerve Net. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Case Western Reserve University used a flat interface nerve electrode (FINE) to demonstrate direct sensory feedback. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Meaning and definitions of nerve, translation in Tamil language for nerve with similar and opposite words. (english-tamil.net)
  • Doctors call damage to these nerves "peripheral neuropathy. (cancer.net)
  • This could cause nerve damage. (cancer.net)
  • Some chemotherapy drugs can damage your nerves, especially in high doses. (cancer.net)
  • Radiation therapy might damage nerves. (cancer.net)
  • It might be years before you notice signs of nerve damage. (cancer.net)
  • There is not much that offers pain relief from the nerve damage itself. (chrisshort.net)
  • Can B12 Deficiency Nerve Damage Be Reversed? (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • How do you fix nerve damage naturally? (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • How much b12 should I take for nerve damage? (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • Is nerve damage from b12 deficiency reversible? (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • The nerve damage caused by a lack of B12 may become permanently debilitating, if the underlying condition is not treated. (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • Can b12 repair nerve damage? (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • How do I know if nerve damage is healing? (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • Damage to the vagus nerve If the vagus nerve is damaged, nausea, bloating, diarrhea and gastroparesis (in which the stomach empties too slowly) may result. (sohbetcinsel.net)
  • The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) will work with AktiVax, Inc., of Boulder, Colorado, on developing a new device to easily administer a drug that reverses damage inflicted by organophospates, a class of chemicals that include nerve agents such as Sarin and VX. (gloucestercitynews.net)
  • What is the best vitamin for nerve damage? (bux-gpx.net)
  • How Are Nerve Pain and Nerve Damage Treated?Regulating blood sugar levels for people with diabetes.Correcting nutritional deficiencies.Changing medications when drugs are causing nerve damage.Physical therapy or surgery to address compression or trauma to nerves.Medications to treat autoimmune conditions. (bux-gpx.net)
  • Is stretching good for nerve damage? (bux-gpx.net)
  • Can you speed up nerve damage recovery? (bux-gpx.net)
  • Diabetic neuropathy, or nerve damage, because of high amounts of sugar in the blood (hyperglycemia) can cause pain. (healthyplace.com)
  • When someone experiences nerve damage due to hyperglycemia, the pain can range from mild to nearly debilitating. (healthyplace.com)
  • No matter how bad the nerve damage, how intense the pain, and how severe the depression, treatment is available. (healthyplace.com)
  • For this reason, simple animals with nerve nets, such as Hydra, will typically produce the same motor output in response to contact with a stimulus regardless of the point of contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • The donor nerve that I typically utilize to supply new nerve input is the omohyoid branch of the ansa cervicalis, although a lower branch can also be used if a longer length is needed. (voicedoctor.net)
  • Disclaimer: Nerve-net definition / meaning should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. (definithing.com)