A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.

The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities. (1/6550)

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

GABAergic excitatory synapses and electrical coupling sustain prolonged discharges in the prey capture neural network of Clione limacina. (2/6550)

Afterdischarges represent a prominent characteristic of the neural network that controls prey capture reactions in the carnivorous mollusc Clione limacina. Their main functional implication is transformation of a brief sensory input from a prey into a lasting prey capture response. The present study, which focuses on the neuronal mechanisms of afterdischarges, demonstrates that a single pair of interneurons [cerebral A interneuron (Cr-Aint)] is responsible for afterdischarge generation in the network. Cr-Aint neurons are electrically coupled to all other neurons in the network and produce slow excitatory synaptic inputs to them. This excitatory transmission is found to be GABAergic, which is demonstrated by the use of GABA antagonists, uptake inhibitors, and double-labeling experiments showing that Cr-Aint neurons are GABA-immunoreactive. The Cr-Aint neurons organize three different pathways in the prey capture network, which provide positive feedback necessary for sustaining prolonged spike activity. The first pathway includes electrical coupling and slow chemical transmission from the Cr-Aint neurons to all other neurons in the network. The second feedback is based on excitatory reciprocal connections between contralateral interneurons. Recurrent excitation via the contralateral cell can sustain prolonged interneuron firing, which then drives the activity of all other cells in the network. The third positive feedback is represented by prominent afterdepolarizing potentials after individual spikes in the Cr-Aint neurons. Afterdepolarizations apparently represent recurrent GABAergic excitatory inputs. It is suggested here that these afterdepolarizing potentials are produced by GABAergic excitatory autapses.  (+info)

Spontaneous network activity transiently depresses synaptic transmission in the embryonic chick spinal cord. (3/6550)

We examined the effects of spontaneous or evoked episodes of rhythmic activity on synaptic transmission in several spinal pathways of embryonic day 9-12 chick embryos. We compared the amplitude of synaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF), the dorsal or ventral roots, before and after episodes of activity. With the exception of the short-latency responses evoked by dorsal root stimulation, the potentials were briefly potentiated and then reduced for several minutes after an episode of rhythmic activity. Their amplitude progressively recovered in the interval between successive episodes. The lack of post-episode depression in the short-latency component of the dorsal root evoked responses is probably attributable to the absence of firing in cut muscle afferents during an episode of activity. The post-episode depression of VLF-evoked potentials was mimicked by prolonged stimulation of the VLF, subthreshold for an episode of activity. By contrast, antidromically induced motoneuron firing and the accompanying calcium entry did not depress VLF-evoked potentials recorded from the stimulated ventral root. In addition, post-episode depression of VLF-evoked synaptic currents was observed in voltage-clamped spinal neurons. Collectively, these findings suggest that somatic postsynaptic activity and calcium entry are not required for the depression. We propose instead that the mechanism may involve a form of long-lasting activity-induced synaptic depression, possibly a combination of transmitter depletion and ligand-induced changes in the postsynaptic current accompanying transmitter release. This activity-dependent depression appears to be an important mechanism underlying the occurrence of spontaneous activity in developing spinal networks.  (+info)

Adult subventricular zone neuronal precursors continue to proliferate and migrate in the absence of the olfactory bulb. (4/6550)

Neurons continue to be born in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles of adult mice. These cells migrate as a network of chains through the SVZ and the rostral migratory stream (RMS) into the olfactory bulb (OB), where they differentiate into mature neurons. The OB is the only known target for these neuronal precursors. Here, we show that, after elimination of the OB, the SVZ and RMS persist and become dramatically larger. The proportion of dividing [bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled] or dying (pyknotic or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end-labeled) cells in the RMS was not significantly affected at 3 d or 3 weeks after bulbectomy (OBX). However, by 3 months after OBX, the percentage of BrdU-labeled cells in the RMS decreased by half and that of dying cells doubled. Surprisingly, the rostral migration of precursors continued along the RMS after OBX. This was demonstrated by focal microinjections of BrdU and grafts of SVZ cells carrying LacZ under the control of a neuron-specific promoter gene. Results indicate that the OB is not essential for proliferation and the directional migration of SVZ precursors.  (+info)

Cellular mechanisms contributing to response variability of cortical neurons in vivo. (5/6550)

Cortical neurons recorded in vivo exhibit highly variable responses to the repeated presentation of the same stimulus. To further understand the cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we performed intracellular recordings from neurons in cat striate cortex in vivo and examined the relationships between spontaneous activity and visually evoked responses. Activity was assessed on a trial-by-trial basis by measuring the membrane potential (Vm) fluctuations and spike activity during brief epochs immediately before and after the onset of an evoked response. We found that the response magnitude, expressed as a change in Vm relative to baseline, was linearly correlated with the preceding spontaneous Vm. This correlation was enhanced when the cells were hyperpolarized to reduce the activation of voltage-gated conductances. The output of the cells, expressed as spike counts and latencies, was only moderately correlated with fluctuations in the preceding spontaneous Vm. Spike-triggered averaging of Vm revealed that visually evoked action potentials arise from transient depolarizations having a rise time of approximately 10 msec. Consistent with this, evoked spike count was found to be linearly correlated with the magnitude of Vm fluctuations in the gamma (20-70 Hz) frequency band. We also found that the threshold of visually evoked action potentials varied over a range of approximately 10 mV. Examination of simultaneously recorded intracellular and extracellular activity revealed a correlation between Vm depolarization and spike discharges in adjacent cells. Together these results demonstrate that response variability is attributable largely to coherent fluctuations in cortical activity preceding the onset of a stimulus, but also to variations in action potential threshold and the magnitude of high-frequency fluctuations evoked by the stimulus.  (+info)

A genetic approach to trace neural circuits. (6/6550)

Mammalian nervous system function involves billions of neurons which are interconnected in a multitude of neural circuits. Here we describe a genetic approach to chart neural circuits. By using an olfactory-specific promoter, we selectively expressed barley lectin in sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ of transgenic mice. The lectin was transported through the axons of those neurons to the olfactory bulb, transferred to the bulb neurons with which they synapse, and transported through the axons of bulb neurons to the olfactory cortex. The lectin also was retrogradely transported from the bulb to neuromodulatory brain areas. No evidence could be obtained for adverse effects of the lectin on odorant receptor gene expression, sensory axon targeting in the bulb, or the generation or transmission of signals by olfactory sensory neurons. Transneuronal transfer was detected prenatally in the odor-sensing pathway, but only postnatally in the pheromone-sensing pathway, suggesting that odors, but not pheromones, may be sensed in utero. Our studies demonstrate that a plant lectin can serve as a transneuronal tracer when its expression is genetically targeted to a subset of neurons. This technology can potentially be applied to a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate neural systems and may be particularly valuable for mapping connections formed by small subsets of neurons and for studying the development of connectivity as it occurs in utero.  (+info)

Plaque-independent disruption of neural circuits in Alzheimer's disease mouse models. (7/6550)

Autosomal dominant forms of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) are associated with increased production of the amyloid beta peptide, Abeta42, which is derived from the amyloid protein precursor (APP). In FAD, as well as in sporadic forms of the illness, Abeta peptides accumulate abnormally in the brain in the form of amyloid plaques. Here, we show that overexpression of FAD(717V-->F)-mutant human APP in neurons of transgenic mice decreases the density of presynaptic terminals and neurons well before these mice develop amyloid plaques. Electrophysiological recordings from the hippocampus revealed prominent deficits in synaptic transmission, which also preceded amyloid deposition by several months. Although in young mice, functional and structural neuronal deficits were of similar magnitude, functional deficits became predominant with advancing age. Increased Abeta production in the context of decreased overall APP expression, achieved by addition of the Swedish FAD mutation to the APP transgene in a second line of mice, further increased synaptic transmission deficits in young APP mice without plaques. These results suggest a neurotoxic effect of Abeta that is independent of plaque formation.  (+info)

Measures of degeneracy and redundancy in biological networks. (8/6550)

Degeneracy, the ability of elements that are structurally different to perform the same function, is a prominent property of many biological systems ranging from genes to neural networks to evolution itself. Because structurally different elements may produce different outputs in different contexts, degeneracy should be distinguished from redundancy, which occurs when the same function is performed by identical elements. However, because of ambiguities in the distinction between structure and function and because of the lack of a theoretical treatment, these two notions often are conflated. By using information theoretical concepts, we develop here functional measures of the degeneracy and redundancy of a system with respect to a set of outputs. These measures help to distinguish the concept of degeneracy from that of redundancy and make it operationally useful. Through computer simulations of neural systems differing in connectivity, we show that degeneracy is low both for systems in which each element affects the output independently and for redundant systems in which many elements can affect the output in a similar way but do not have independent effects. By contrast, degeneracy is high for systems in which many different elements can affect the output in a similar way and at the same time can have independent effects. We demonstrate that networks that have been selected for degeneracy have high values of complexity, a measure of the average mutual information between the subsets of a system. These measures promise to be useful in characterizing and understanding the functional robustness and adaptability of biological networks.  (+info)

Cnidaria is a phylum of aquatic animals that includes jellyfish, sea anemones, hydra, and corals. They are characterized by the presence of specialized stinging cells called cnidocytes, which they use for defense and capturing prey. Cnidarians have a simple body organization with two basic forms: polyps, which are typically cylindrical and attached to a substrate; and medusae, which are free-swimming and bell-shaped. Some species can exist in both forms during their life cycle.

Cnidarians have no true organs or organ systems, but they do have a unique tissue arrangement with two main layers: an outer epidermis and an inner gastrodermis, separated by a jelly-like mesoglea. They have a digestive cavity called the coelenteron, where they absorb nutrients after capturing and digesting prey. Cnidarians reproduce both sexually and asexually, with some species exhibiting complex life cycles involving multiple forms and reproductive strategies.

A nerve net, also known as a neural net or neuronal network, is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept in neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI). It refers to a complex network of interconnected neurons that process and transmit information. In the context of the human body, the nervous system can be thought of as a type of nerve net, with the brain and spinal cord serving as the central processing unit and peripheral nerves carrying signals to and from various parts of the body.

In the field of AI, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological nerve nets. These models consist of interconnected nodes or "neurons" that process information and learn patterns through a process of training and adaptation. They have been used in a variety of applications, including image recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

The optic nerve, also known as the second cranial nerve, is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. It is composed of approximately one million nerve fibers that carry signals related to vision, such as light intensity and color, from the eye's photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) to the visual cortex in the brain. The optic nerve is responsible for carrying this visual information so that it can be processed and interpreted by the brain, allowing us to see and perceive our surroundings. Damage to the optic nerve can result in vision loss or impairment.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

Nerve regeneration is the process of regrowth and restoration of functional nerve connections following damage or injury to the nervous system. This complex process involves various cellular and molecular events, such as the activation of support cells called glia, the sprouting of surviving nerve fibers (axons), and the reformation of neural circuits. The goal of nerve regeneration is to enable the restoration of normal sensory, motor, and autonomic functions impaired due to nerve damage or injury.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

Nerve endings, also known as terminal branches or sensory receptors, are the specialized structures present at the termination point of nerve fibers (axons) that transmit electrical signals to and from the central nervous system (CNS). They primarily function in detecting changes in the external environment or internal body conditions and converting them into electrical impulses.

There are several types of nerve endings, including:

1. Free Nerve Endings: These are unencapsulated nerve endings that respond to various stimuli like temperature, pain, and touch. They are widely distributed throughout the body, especially in the skin, mucous membranes, and visceral organs.

2. Encapsulated Nerve Endings: These are wrapped by specialized connective tissue sheaths, which can modify their sensitivity to specific stimuli. Examples include Pacinian corpuscles (responsible for detecting deep pressure and vibration), Meissner's corpuscles (for light touch), Ruffini endings (for stretch and pressure), and Merkel cells (for sustained touch).

3. Specialised Nerve Endings: These are nerve endings that respond to specific stimuli, such as auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, and vestibular information. They include hair cells in the inner ear, photoreceptors in the retina, taste buds in the tongue, and olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity.

Nerve endings play a crucial role in relaying sensory information to the CNS for processing and initiating appropriate responses, such as reflex actions or conscious perception of the environment.

The sural nerve is a purely sensory peripheral nerve in the lower leg and foot. It provides sensation to the outer ( lateral) aspect of the little toe and the adjacent side of the fourth toe, as well as a small portion of the skin on the back of the leg between the ankle and knee joints.

The sural nerve is formed by the union of branches from the tibial and common fibular nerves (branches of the sciatic nerve) in the lower leg. It runs down the calf, behind the lateral malleolus (the bony prominence on the outside of the ankle), and into the foot.

The sural nerve is often used as a donor nerve during nerve grafting procedures due to its consistent anatomy and relatively low risk for morbidity at the donor site.

The median nerve is one of the major nerves in the human body, providing sensation and motor function to parts of the arm and hand. It originates from the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that arise from the spinal cord in the neck. The median nerve travels down the arm, passing through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues into the forearm and hand.

In the hand, the median nerve supplies sensation to the palm side of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. It also provides motor function to some of the muscles that control finger movements, allowing for flexion of the fingers and opposition of the thumb.

Damage to the median nerve can result in a condition called carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

A nerve crush injury is a type of peripheral nerve injury that occurs when there is excessive pressure or compression applied to a nerve, causing it to become damaged or dysfunctional. This can happen due to various reasons such as trauma from accidents, surgical errors, or prolonged pressure on the nerve from tight casts, clothing, or positions.

The compression disrupts the normal functioning of the nerve, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the affected area. In severe cases, a nerve crush injury can cause permanent damage to the nerve, leading to long-term disability or loss of function. Treatment for nerve crush injuries typically involves relieving the pressure on the nerve, providing supportive care, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair the damaged nerve.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

The Tibial nerve is a major branch of the sciatic nerve that originates in the lower back and runs through the buttock and leg. It provides motor (nerve impulses that control muscle movement) and sensory (nerve impulses that convey information about touch, temperature, and pain) innervation to several muscles and skin regions in the lower limb.

More specifically, the Tibial nerve supplies the following structures:

1. Motor Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles in the back of the leg (posterior compartment), including the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) and the small muscles in the foot (intrinsic muscles). These muscles are responsible for plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward) and inversion (turning the foot inward) of the foot.
2. Sensory Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides sensory innervation to the skin on the sole of the foot, as well as the heel and some parts of the lower leg.

The Tibial nerve travels down the leg, passing behind the knee and through the calf, where it eventually joins with the common fibular (peroneal) nerve to form the tibial-fibular trunk. This trunk then divides into several smaller nerves that innervate the foot's intrinsic muscles and skin.

Damage or injury to the Tibial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the calf and foot muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the sole of the foot, and difficulty walking or standing on tiptoes.

The Ulnar nerve is one of the major nerves in the forearm and hand, which provides motor function to the majority of the intrinsic muscles of the hand (except for those innervated by the median nerve) and sensory innervation to the little finger and half of the ring finger. It originates from the brachial plexus, passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues down the forearm, where it runs close to the ulna bone. The ulnar nerve then passes through the Guyon's canal in the wrist before branching out to innervate the hand muscles and provide sensation to the skin on the little finger and half of the ring finger.

The femoral nerve is a major nerve in the thigh region of the human body. It originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves (L2-L4). The femoral nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and areas in the lower limb.

Motor Innervation:
The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to several muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, including:

1. Iliacus muscle
2. Psoas major muscle
3. Quadriceps femoris muscle (consisting of four heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius)

These muscles are involved in hip flexion, knee extension, and stabilization of the hip joint.

Sensory Innervation:
The sensory distribution of the femoral nerve includes:

1. Anterior and medial aspects of the thigh
2. Skin over the anterior aspect of the knee and lower leg (via the saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve)

The saphenous nerve provides sensation to the skin on the inner side of the leg and foot, as well as the medial malleolus (the bony bump on the inside of the ankle).

In summary, the femoral nerve is a crucial component of the lumbar plexus that controls motor functions in the anterior thigh muscles and provides sensory innervation to the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh and lower leg.

Spinal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that transmit signals between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body, which can be divided into five regions: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each spinal nerve carries both sensory information (such as touch, temperature, and pain) from the periphery to the spinal cord, and motor information (such as muscle control) from the spinal cord to the muscles and other structures in the body. Spinal nerves also contain autonomic fibers that regulate involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure.

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a small secreted protein that is involved in the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain neurons (nerve cells). It was the first neurotrophin to be discovered and is essential for the development and function of the nervous system. NGF binds to specific receptors on the surface of nerve cells and helps to promote their differentiation, axonal growth, and synaptic plasticity. Additionally, NGF has been implicated in various physiological processes such as inflammation, immune response, and wound healing. Deficiencies or excesses of NGF have been linked to several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and pain conditions.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Nerve Growth Factors (NGFs) are a family of proteins that play an essential role in the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain neurons (nerve cells). They were first discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen in 1956. NGF is particularly crucial for the development and function of the peripheral nervous system, which connects the central nervous system to various organs and tissues throughout the body.

NGF supports the differentiation and survival of sympathetic and sensory neurons during embryonic development. In adults, NGF continues to regulate the maintenance and repair of these neurons, contributing to neuroplasticity – the brain's ability to adapt and change over time. Additionally, NGF has been implicated in pain transmission and modulation, as well as inflammatory responses.

Abnormal levels or dysfunctional NGF signaling have been associated with various medical conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), chronic pain disorders, and certain cancers (e.g., small cell lung cancer). Therefore, understanding the role of NGF in physiological and pathological processes may provide valuable insights into developing novel therapeutic strategies for these conditions.

The phrenic nerve is a motor nerve that originates from the cervical spine (C3-C5) and descends through the neck to reach the diaphragm, which is the primary muscle used for breathing. The main function of the phrenic nerve is to innervate the diaphragm and control its contraction and relaxation, thereby enabling respiration.

Damage or injury to the phrenic nerve can result in paralysis of the diaphragm, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially causing respiratory failure. Certain medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, spinal cord injuries, and tumors, can affect the phrenic nerve and impair its function.

The Radial nerve is a major peripheral nerve in the human body that originates from the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves formed by the union of the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of spinal nerves C5-T1. The radial nerve provides motor function to extensor muscles of the upper limb and sensation to parts of the skin on the back of the arm, forearm, and hand.

More specifically, the radial nerve supplies motor innervation to:

* Extensor muscles of the shoulder (e.g., teres minor, infraspinatus)
* Rotator cuff muscles
* Elbow joint stabilizers (e.g., lateral head of the triceps)
* Extensors of the wrist, fingers, and thumb

The radial nerve also provides sensory innervation to:

* Posterior aspect of the upper arm (from the lower third of the humerus to the elbow)
* Lateral forearm (from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the wrist)
* Dorsum of the hand (skin over the radial side of the dorsum, including the first web space)

Damage or injury to the radial nerve may result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the extensor muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the affected areas, and difficulty with extension movements of the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Common causes of radial nerve injuries include fractures of the humerus bone, compression during sleep or prolonged pressure on the nerve (e.g., from crutches), and entrapment syndromes like radial tunnel syndrome.

Cranial nerves are a set of twelve pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and skull, rather than the spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste) to the brain, as well as controlling various muscles in the head and neck (including those involved in chewing, swallowing, and eye movement). Each cranial nerve has a specific function and is named accordingly. For example, the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, while the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) controls parasympathetic functions in the body such as heart rate and digestion.

Spinal nerve roots are the initial parts of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen, which are small openings between each vertebra in the spine. These nerve roots carry motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers to and from specific regions of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerve roots in total, with 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal pair. Each root has a dorsal (posterior) and ventral (anterior) ramus that branch off to form the peripheral nervous system. Irritation or compression of these nerve roots can result in pain, numbness, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

The ophthalmic nerve, also known as the first cranial nerve or CN I, is a sensory nerve that primarily transmits information about vision, including light intensity and color, and sensation in the eye and surrounding areas. It is responsible for the sensory innervation of the upper eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, and nasal cavity. The ophthalmic nerve has three major branches: the lacrimal nerve, frontal nerve, and nasociliary nerve. Damage to this nerve can result in various visual disturbances and loss of sensation in the affected areas.

Nerve tissue, also known as neural tissue, is a type of specialized tissue that is responsible for the transmission of electrical signals and the processing of information in the body. It is a key component of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Nerve tissue is composed of two main types of cells: neurons and glial cells.

Neurons are the primary functional units of nerve tissue. They are specialized cells that are capable of generating and transmitting electrical signals, known as action potentials. Neurons have a unique structure, with a cell body (also called the soma) that contains the nucleus and other organelles, and processes (dendrites and axons) that extend from the cell body and are used to receive and transmit signals.

Glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons. There are several different types of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and Schwann cells. These cells play a variety of roles in the nervous system, such as providing structural support, maintaining the proper environment for neurons, and helping to repair and regenerate nerve tissue after injury.

Nerve tissue is found throughout the body, but it is most highly concentrated in the brain and spinal cord, which make up the central nervous system (CNS). The peripheral nerves, which are the nerves that extend from the CNS to the rest of the body, also contain nerve tissue. Nerve tissue is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain, controlling muscle movements, and regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

The mandibular nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The mandibular nerve provides both sensory and motor innervation to the lower third of the face, below the eye and nose down to the chin.

More specifically, it carries sensory information from the lower teeth, lower lip, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as the skin over the jaw and chin. It also provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication (chewing), which include the masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid muscles.

Damage to the mandibular nerve can result in numbness or loss of sensation in the lower face and mouth, as well as weakness or difficulty with chewing and biting.

A mosquito net is not so much a medical definition but rather a description of a device used to prevent insect bites, particularly from mosquitoes. However, I can provide you with a general description and the role it plays in medical and public health contexts:

Mosquito nets are specially designed nets that are draped over beds or other sleeping areas to create a protective barrier against mosquitoes and other insects. They are often made of lightweight, breathable material such as polyester or cotton. In many cases, they are treated with insecticides to enhance their ability to repel or kill insects that come into contact with the netting.

In medical and public health contexts, mosquito nets are frequently used in areas where mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, and Zika virus are prevalent. By creating a barrier between people and mosquitoes, mosquito nets can help prevent the transmission of these diseases, particularly during sleeping hours when people are most vulnerable to mosquito bites.

Mosquito nets can be used by themselves or in combination with other mosquito-borne disease prevention strategies such as insect repellents, long-sleeved clothing, and indoor residual spraying of insecticides. They are a simple, cost-effective intervention that has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in many settings.

The cochlear nerve, also known as the auditory nerve, is the sensory nerve that transmits sound signals from the inner ear to the brain. It consists of two parts: the outer spiral ganglion and the inner vestibular portion. The spiral ganglion contains the cell bodies of the bipolar neurons that receive input from hair cells in the cochlea, which is the snail-shaped organ in the inner ear responsible for hearing. These neurons then send their axons to form the cochlear nerve, which travels through the internal auditory meatus and synapses with neurons in the cochlear nuclei located in the brainstem.

Damage to the cochlear nerve can result in hearing loss or deafness, depending on the severity of the injury. Common causes of cochlear nerve damage include acoustic trauma, such as exposure to loud noises, viral infections, meningitis, and tumors affecting the nerve or surrounding structures. In some cases, cochlear nerve damage may be treated with hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive devices to help restore or improve hearing function.

The splanchnic nerves are a set of nerve fibers that originate from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord and innervate various internal organs. They are responsible for carrying both sensory information, such as pain and temperature, from the organs to the brain, and motor signals, which control the function of the organs, from the brain to the organs.

There are several splanchnic nerves, including the greater, lesser, and least splanchnic nerves, as well as the lumbar splanchnic nerves. These nerves primarily innervate the autonomic nervous system, which controls the involuntary functions of the body, such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

The greater splanchnic nerve arises from the fifth to the ninth thoracic ganglia and passes through the diaphragm to reach the abdomen. It innervates the stomach, esophagus, liver, pancreas, and adrenal glands.

The lesser splanchnic nerve arises from the tenth and eleventh thoracic ganglia and innervates the upper part of the small intestine, the pancreas, and the adrenal glands.

The least splanchnic nerve arises from the twelfth thoracic ganglion and innervates the lower part of the small intestine and the colon.

The lumbar splanchnic nerves arise from the first three or four lumbar ganglia and innervate the lower parts of the colon, the rectum, and the reproductive organs.

The glossopharyngeal nerve, also known as the ninth cranial nerve (IX), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. It originates from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem and has several functions:

1. Sensory function: The glossopharyngeal nerve provides general sensation to the posterior third of the tongue, the tonsils, the back of the throat (pharynx), and the middle ear. It also carries taste sensations from the back one-third of the tongue.
2. Special visceral afferent function: The nerve transmits information about the stretch of the carotid artery and blood pressure to the brainstem.
3. Motor function: The glossopharyngeal nerve innervates the stylopharyngeus muscle, which helps elevate the pharynx during swallowing. It also provides parasympathetic fibers to the parotid gland, stimulating saliva production.
4. Visceral afferent function: The glossopharyngeal nerve carries information about the condition of the internal organs in the thorax and abdomen to the brainstem.

Overall, the glossopharyngeal nerve plays a crucial role in swallowing, taste, saliva production, and monitoring blood pressure and heart rate.

Neural conduction is the process by which electrical signals, known as action potentials, are transmitted along the axon of a neuron (nerve cell) to transmit information between different parts of the nervous system. This electrical impulse is generated by the movement of ions across the neuronal membrane, and it propagates down the length of the axon until it reaches the synapse, where it can then stimulate the release of neurotransmitters to communicate with other neurons or target cells. The speed of neural conduction can vary depending on factors such as the diameter of the axon, the presence of myelin sheaths (which act as insulation and allow for faster conduction), and the temperature of the environment.

Optic nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma inflicted on the optic nerve, which is a crucial component of the visual system. The optic nerve transmits visual information from the retina to the brain, enabling us to see. Injuries to the optic nerve can result in various visual impairments, including partial or complete vision loss, decreased visual acuity, changes in color perception, and reduced field of view.

These injuries may occur due to several reasons, such as:

1. Direct trauma to the eye or head
2. Increased pressure inside the eye (glaucoma)
3. Optic neuritis, an inflammation of the optic nerve
4. Ischemia, or insufficient blood supply to the optic nerve
5. Compression from tumors or other space-occupying lesions
6. Intrinsic degenerative conditions affecting the optic nerve
7. Toxic exposure to certain chemicals or medications

Optic nerve injuries are diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination, including visual acuity testing, slit-lamp examination, dilated fundus exam, and additional diagnostic tests like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual field testing. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the injury but may include medications, surgery, or vision rehabilitation.

Optic nerve diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the optic nerve, which transmits visual information from the eye to the brain. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as vision loss, decreased visual acuity, changes in color vision, and visual field defects. Examples of optic nerve diseases include optic neuritis (inflammation of the optic nerve), glaucoma (damage to the optic nerve due to high eye pressure), optic nerve damage from trauma or injury, ischemic optic neuropathy (lack of blood flow to the optic nerve), and optic nerve tumors. Treatment for optic nerve diseases varies depending on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

Thoracic nerves are the 12 paired nerves that originate from the thoracic segment (T1-T12) of the spinal cord. These nerves provide motor and sensory innervation to the trunk and abdomen, specifically to the muscles of the chest wall, the skin over the back and chest, and some parts of the abdomen. They also contribute to the formation of the sympathetic trunk, which is a part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates unconscious bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. Each thoracic nerve emerges from the intervertebral foramen, a small opening between each vertebra, and splits into anterior and posterior branches to innervate the corresponding dermatomes and myotomes.

Myelinated nerve fibers are neuronal processes that are surrounded by a myelin sheath, a fatty insulating substance that is produced by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. This myelin sheath helps to increase the speed of electrical impulse transmission, also known as action potentials, along the nerve fiber. The myelin sheath has gaps called nodes of Ranvier where the electrical impulses can jump from one node to the next, which also contributes to the rapid conduction of signals. Myelinated nerve fibers are typically found in the peripheral nerves and the optic nerve, but not in the central nervous system (CNS) tracts that are located within the brain and spinal cord.

The accessory nerve, also known as the eleventh cranial nerve (XI), has both a cranial and spinal component. It primarily controls the function of certain muscles in the back of the neck and shoulder.

The cranial part arises from nuclei in the brainstem and innervates some of the muscles that help with head rotation, including the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The spinal root originates from nerve roots in the upper spinal cord (C1-C5), exits the spine, and joins the cranial part to form a single trunk. This trunk then innervates the trapezius muscle, which helps with shoulder movement and stability.

Damage to the accessory nerve can result in weakness or paralysis of the affected muscles, causing symptoms such as difficulty turning the head, weak shoulder shrugging, or winged scapula (a condition where the shoulder blade protrudes from the back).

Facial nerve injuries refer to damages or trauma inflicted on the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII). This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, eyelid movement, and taste sensation in the front two-thirds of the tongue.

There are two main types of facial nerve injuries:

1. Peripheral facial nerve injury: This type of injury occurs when damage affects the facial nerve outside the skull base, usually due to trauma from cuts, blunt force, or surgical procedures in the parotid gland or neck region. The injury may result in weakness or paralysis on one side of the face, known as Bell's palsy, and may also impact taste sensation and salivary function.

2. Central facial nerve injury: This type of injury occurs when damage affects the facial nerve within the skull base, often due to stroke, brain tumors, or traumatic brain injuries. Central facial nerve injuries typically result in weakness or paralysis only on the lower half of the face, as the upper motor neurons responsible for controlling the upper face receive innervation from both sides of the brain.

Treatment for facial nerve injuries depends on the severity and location of the damage. For mild to moderate injuries, physical therapy, protective eyewear, and medications like corticosteroids and antivirals may be prescribed. Severe cases might require surgical intervention, such as nerve grafts or muscle transfers, to restore function. In some instances, facial nerve injuries may heal on their own over time, particularly when the injury is mild and there is no ongoing compression or tension on the nerve.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve (CN VI), is a motor nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. This muscle is responsible for moving the eye away from the midline (towards the temple) and enables the eyes to look towards the side while keeping them aligned. Any damage or dysfunction of the abducens nerve can result in strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions, specifically an adduction deficit, also known as abducens palsy or sixth nerve palsy.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is a motor nerve that originates from the midbrain. It controls the majority of the eye muscles, including the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that raises the upper eyelid, and the extraocular muscles that enable various movements of the eye such as looking upward, downward, inward, and outward. Additionally, it carries parasympathetic fibers responsible for pupillary constriction and accommodation (focusing on near objects). Damage to this nerve can result in various ocular motor disorders, including strabismus, ptosis, and pupillary abnormalities.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is a part of the autonomic nervous system that operates largely below the level of consciousness, and it functions to produce appropriate physiological responses to perceived danger. It's often associated with the "fight or flight" response. The SNS uses nerve impulses to stimulate target organs, causing them to speed up (e.g., increased heart rate), prepare for action, or otherwise respond to stressful situations.

The sympathetic nervous system is activated due to stressful emotional or physical situations and it prepares the body for immediate actions. It dilates the pupils, increases heart rate and blood pressure, accelerates breathing, and slows down digestion. The primary neurotransmitter involved in this system is norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline).

An axon is a long, slender extension of a neuron (a type of nerve cell) that conducts electrical impulses (nerve impulses) away from the cell body to target cells, such as other neurons or muscle cells. Axons can vary in length from a few micrometers to over a meter long and are typically surrounded by a myelin sheath, which helps to insulate and protect the axon and allows for faster transmission of nerve impulses.

Axons play a critical role in the functioning of the nervous system, as they provide the means by which neurons communicate with one another and with other cells in the body. Damage to axons can result in serious neurological problems, such as those seen in spinal cord injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.

Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop within or near the cranial nerves. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory and motor information between the brain and various parts of the head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, each with a specific function and location in the skull.

Cranial nerve neoplasms can be benign or malignant and may arise from the nerve itself (schwannoma, neurofibroma) or from surrounding tissues that invade the nerve (meningioma, epidermoid cyst). The growth of these tumors can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or numbness
* Double vision or other visual disturbances
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Loss of smell or taste
* Uncontrollable eye movements or drooping eyelids

Treatment for cranial nerve neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or complications.

Facial nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function of the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression, and it also carries sensory information from the taste buds in the front two-thirds of the tongue, and regulates saliva flow and tear production.

Facial nerve diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific location and extent of the nerve damage. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or paralysis on one or both sides of the face
* Drooping of the eyelid and corner of the mouth
* Difficulty closing the eye or keeping it closed
* Changes in taste sensation or dryness of the mouth and eyes
* Abnormal sensitivity to sound (hyperacusis)
* Twitching or spasms of the facial muscles

Facial nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as Bell's palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and Lyme disease
* Trauma or injury to the face or skull
* Tumors that compress or invade the facial nerve
* Neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barre syndrome
* Genetic disorders such as Moebius syndrome or hemifacial microsomia

Treatment for facial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication, physical therapy, or surgery may be necessary to restore function and relieve symptoms.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

The Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) is a branch of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X), which is a mixed sensory, motor, and autonomic nerve. The RLN has important functions in providing motor innervation to the intrinsic muscles of the larynx, except for the cricothyroid muscle, which is supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.

The recurrent laryngeal nerve supplies all the muscles that are responsible for adduction (bringing together) of the vocal cords, including the vocalis muscle, lateral cricoarytenoid, thyroarytenoid, and interarytenoid muscles. These muscles play a crucial role in voice production, coughing, and swallowing.

The right recurrent laryngeal nerve has a longer course than the left one. It loops around the subclavian artery in the chest before ascending to the larynx, while the left RLN hooks around the arch of the aorta. This anatomical course makes them vulnerable to injury during various surgical procedures, such as thyroidectomy and neck dissection, leading to potential voice impairment or vocal cord paralysis.

The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). It provides general sensory innervation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, including taste sensation from the same region. It also supplies sensory innervation to the floor of the mouth and the lingual gingiva (gum tissue). The lingual nerve is closely associated with the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands and their ducts.

The olfactory nerve, also known as the first cranial nerve (I), is a specialized sensory nerve that is responsible for the sense of smell. It consists of thin, delicate fibers called olfactory neurons that are located in the upper part of the nasal cavity. These neurons have hair-like structures called cilia that detect and transmit information about odors to the brain.

The olfactory nerve has two main parts: the peripheral process and the central process. The peripheral process extends from the olfactory neuron to the nasal cavity, where it picks up odor molecules. These molecules bind to receptors on the cilia, which triggers an electrical signal that travels along the nerve fiber to the brain.

The central process of the olfactory nerve extends from the olfactory bulb, a structure at the base of the brain, to several areas in the brain involved in smell and memory, including the amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus. Damage to the olfactory nerve can result in a loss of smell (anosmia) or distorted smells (parosmia).

The hypoglossal nerve, also known as the 12th cranial nerve (CN XII), is primarily responsible for innervating the muscles of the tongue, allowing for its movement and function. These muscles include the intrinsic muscles that alter the shape of the tongue and the extrinsic muscles that position it in the oral cavity. The hypoglossal nerve also has some minor contributions to the innervation of two muscles in the neck: the sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius. These functions are related to head turning and maintaining head position. Any damage to this nerve can lead to weakness or paralysis of the tongue, causing difficulty with speech, swallowing, and tongue movements.

Nerve degeneration, also known as neurodegeneration, is the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, which can lead to cognitive decline, motor impairment, and various other symptoms. This process occurs due to a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental influences, and aging. It is a key feature in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The degeneration can affect any part of the nervous system, leading to different symptoms depending on the location and extent of the damage.

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In organisms of radial symmetry, nerve nets serve for the nervous system. There is no brain or centralised head region, and ... All spinal nerves are mixed nerves, and some of the cranial nerves are also mixed nerves. Nerves can be categorized into two ... List of nerves of the human body Nerve injury Neuropathy Peripheral nerve injury Peripheral nerve injury classification Purves ... Nerves that exit from the cranium are called cranial nerves while those exiting from the spinal cord are called spinal nerves. ...
Nerve net Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K. (June 2009). "Development of the rhopalial nervous system ...
... with motor nerve cells, which lie mostly between the bases of the muscle cells. Some form a simple nerve net. Interstitial ... intermediate neurons in the nerve net can also form ganglia that act as local coordination centers. Communication between nerve ... Medusa usually have several of them around the margin of the bell that work together to control the motor nerve net, that ... In scyphozoans, this takes the form of a diffuse nerve net, which has modulatory effects on the nervous system. As well as ...
From nerve nets to neuron doctrine". Minds behind the brain: A history of the pioneers and their discoveries. New York: Oxford ... He was a proponent of polarization of nerve cell function and his student, Rafael Lorente de Nó, would continue this study of ... Structure of the Chiasma opticum and general theory of the crossing of nerve tracks)" [Die Structur des Chiasma opticum nebst ... Even before Ramón y Cajal's work, Norwegian scientist Fridtjof Nansen established the contiguous nature of nerve cells in his ...
Nerve nets connect sensory photoreceptors and touch-sensitive nerve cells located in the body wall and tentacles. The structure ... The nervous system of Hydra is a nerve net, which is structurally simple compared to more derived animal nervous systems. Hydra ... Ji N, Flavell SW (April 2017). "Hydra: Imaging Nerve Nets in Action". Current Biology. 27 (8): R294-R295. doi:10.1016/j.cub. ... and this may be due to the simplicity of the nerve nets. Hydra are generally sedentary or sessile, but do occasionally move ...
... with branches of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, forming a plexiform net-work, the plexus patellae. The infrapatellar ... The infrapatellar branch of saphenous nerve is a nerve of the lower limb. The saphenous nerve, located about the middle of the ... This nerve communicates above the knee with the anterior cutaneous branches of the femoral nerve; below the knee, with other ... Nerves of the lower limb and lower torso, All stub articles, Neuroanatomy stubs). ...
"Could Overactive Nerves Cause Tinnitus?". advancedhearingservices.net. Retrieved 2022-02-04. "'Ringing In The Ears' May Be ... Caused By Overactive Nerves; Acupuncture May Help, Study Suggests". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2022-02-04. "Specially timed ...
Kleene, S. C. (1956). "Representation of events in nerve nets and finite automata". In C. E. Shannon and J. McCarthy (ed.). ...
Kleene, S.C. (1956). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata". Annals of Mathematics Studies. No. 34. ... The outputs of the final output neurons of the neural net accomplish the task, such as recognizing an object in an image. To ... Artificial neural networks (ANNs, also shortened to neural networks (NNs) or neural nets) are a branch of machine learning ... Siegelmann, H.T.; Sontag, E.D. (1991). "Turing computability with neural nets" (PDF). Appl. Math. Lett. 4 (6): 77-80. doi: ...
The nerve system most resembles a round nerve net. Chiton body fluid is isosmotic with sea water, implying no osmotic ...
Kleene, S.C. (1956). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata". Annals of Mathematics Studies. No. 34. ... Kleene, S.C. (1956). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata". Annals of Mathematics Studies. No. 34. ... This work led to work on nerve networks and their link to finite automata. In the early 1940s, D. O. Hebb created a learning ... Hinton, G. E.; Osindero, S.; Teh, Y. (2006). "A fast learning algorithm for deep belief nets" (PDF). Neural Computation. 18 (7 ...
Kleene, Stephen Cole (15 December 1951). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata" (PDF). U. S. Air Force ... Kleene, Stephen Cole (1956). Shannon, Claude; McCarthy, John (eds.). Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata ...
"Op Redfold: MOD Activates No-Deal Brexit Nerve Centre". forces.net. Forces Network. Retrieved 23 March 2019. Ripley, Tim; Urwin ...
Kleene, Stephen C. (1951). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata". In Shannon, Claude E.; McCarthy, John ... "PHP: PCRE - Manual". www.php.net. Retrieved 2023-02-04. "re - Regular expression operations". docs.python.org. Retrieved 2023- ... Liger, François; McQueen, Craig; Wilton, Paul (2002). Visual Basic .NET Text Manipulation Handbook. Wrox Press. ISBN 978-1- ... NET Framework, and XML Schema. Some languages and tools such as Boost and PHP support multiple regex flavors. Perl-derivative ...
Blabbermouth.net. August 5, 2022. "Drowning Pool Shares New Single 'Choke' from 'Strike A Nerve' Album". Blabbermouth.net. ... "Drowning Pool Shares New Single "A Devil More Damned" from Strike a Nerve Album". Blabbermouth.net. September 24, 2022. ... Strike a Nerve is the seventh studio album by American rock band Drowning Pool. The album was released on September 30, 2022, ... Strike a Nerve is the first studio album from Drowning Pool since Hellelujah (2016), making it the longest gap between two ...
They carry a nerve net with no brain or ganglia. A gastrovascular cavity is present where the digestion starts and later ...
"Muscle and nerve net organization in stalked jellyfish (Medusozoa: Staurozoa)". Journal of Morphology. 278 (1): 29-49. doi: ...
"Brian Eno: Nerve Net/The Shutov Assembly/Neroli/The Drop". Pitchfork. "188472-brian-eno-nerve-net-shutov-assembly-neroli-the- ... Neroli at AllMusic "Album Review: Brian Eno - the Shutov Assembly, Nerve Net, Neroli, the Drop (Expanded editions) / Releases ...
Nerve Net/The Shutov Assembly/Neroli/The Drop Album Review - Pitchfork". Retrieved 20 August 2016. "Brian Eno: Nerve Net / ... Nerve Net, Neroli, The Drop (expanded editions)". Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2016. ...
"Brian Eno: Nerve Net/The Shutov Assembly/Neroli/The Drop". Pitchfork. "188472-brian-eno-nerve-net-shutov-assembly-neroli-the- ... It is considered the follow-up to Nerve Net, which was released that same year. The album is dedicated to Russian artist Sergei ... Nerve Net, Neroli, the Drop (Expanded editions) / Releases / Releases // Drowned in Sound". Archived from the original on 10 ...
ISBN 1-58488-090-2. Here: sect.2.1, remark R13 on p.65 Kleene, Stephen C. (1956). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and ...
Kozen (1990), sect.2.1.2, p.5 S.C. Kleene (Dec 1951). Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata (PDF) ( ... Here: sect.7.2, p.52 Kleene, Stephen C. (1956). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata" (PDF). Automata ...
A sensory nerve-net in the polcald flatworm Notoplana acticola". Biological Bulletin. 145 (2): 352-359. doi:10.2307/1540045. ... The brains of arthropods and cephalopods arise from twin parallel nerve cords that extend through the body of the animal. ... Nociceptors are sensory receptors that respond to potentially damaging stimuli by sending nerve signals to the brain. Although ... Extracellular recordings of antennal nerves in the Louisiana red swamp crayfish revealed continual spontaneous activity, but no ...
... that is called malis nerve hook. Younis, Zubair (28 October 2018). "Basic Surgical Orthopedic Instruments". Slideshare.net. ... Nerve hook is a surgical instrument that allows surgeon to inspect areas around nerves, especially in the spine. Three main ... instruments exist, dandy blunt nerve hook (short and blunt), cushing gasserian blunt nerve hook (long) and weary black nerve ... Duraisamy, Ranganathan (29 July 2019). "Nerve Hook in Vascular Surgery". Surgicaltechie.com. Retrieved 4 August 2021. v t e ( ...
A plexus refers to a net-like arrangement of a nerve. The term anatomical variation is used to refer to a difference in ...
... s have a nerve net and longitudinal nerves, but no brain. Some species biomineralize in calcium carbonate. ... Hejnol, Andreas; Rentzsch, Fabian (2015). "Neural nets". Current Biology. 25 (18): R782-R786. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.001. ...
There are two current theories on the emergence of nerve nets. One theory is that nerve nets may have developed independently ... Before the evolutionary development of the brain, nerve nets, the simplest form of a nervous system developed. These nerve nets ... They are able to rudimentarily detect food and other chemicals but these nerve nets do not allow them to detect the source of ... The other theory states that a common ancestor may have developed nerve nets, but they were lost in Porifera. While comparing ...
Kleene, S.C.: Representation of events in nerve nets and finite automata. In: Shannon, C.E., McCarthy, J. (eds.) Automata ... ISBN 978-9971-5-0566-0. Stephen Cole Kleene (Dec 1951). Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automate (PDF) ( ...
Nerve nets can provide animals with the ability to sense objects through the use of the sensory neurons within the nerve net. ... The anatomy and positioning of nerve nets can vary from organism to organism. Hydra, which are cnidarians, have a nerve net ... but they lack Nav channels which provide for the conductance of action potentials in nerve nets. Nerve nets are found in ... On the other hand, sea stars, which are echinoderms, have a nerve net in each arm, connected by a central radial nerve ring at ...
Posts about median nerve written by Dr Jacob Teitelbaum MD ...
Tag: nerve. We made 10 Reasons the Recession Will Rock Your Love Life!. Posted on 05Mar08. by jessamyn ... Posted in librariesTagged library, librarysex, nerve, recession, sex3 Comments on We made 10 Reasons the Recession Will Rock ...
... pulled a bill that was supposed to enforce the concept of Net neutrality from consideration Wednesday, citing a lack of ... Network traffic management is the central issue in the Net Neutrality debate. Those favoring immediate regulatory action argue ... Given those circumstances, some public interest groups - arguing that Net neutrality is essential to ensuring that consumers ... pulled a bill that was supposed to enforce the concept of Net neutrality from consideration Wednesday, citing a lack of ...
Phalens Test for Nerve Compression in the Wrist. September 18, 2023. Phalens test, Phalen maneuver or wrist flexion test, is ... It is often used in conjunction with other clinical assessments, such as the Tinels sign (tapping on the median nerve) and ... Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common condition that occurs when the median nerve in the wrist becomes compressed. Symptoms ... Mike is creator & CEO of Sportsinjuryclinic.net. A qualified Sports Injury Therapist with a degree in Physical Education, ...
According to a press release, VAGUS NERVE is focused solely on artistic integrity, devoid of any commercial ulterior motives. ... VAGUS NERVE is a brand new hard rock band featuring Doc Coyle, formerly of GOD FORBID. This is his first creative output since ... The comments reside on Facebook servers and are not stored on BLABBERMOUTH.NET. To comment on a BLABBERMOUTH.NET story or ... User comments or postings do not reflect the viewpoint of BLABBERMOUTH.NET and BLABBERMOUTH.NET does not endorse, or guarantee ...
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Brooklyn Nets guard Ben Simmons was diagnosed with a nerve impingement in his back on Friday, and the team provided no ... NBA: 76ers shake Nets, spoil Ben Simmons return. NBA: No training wheels for Nets Ben Simmons this season. Your subscription ... NBA: Nets Ben Simmons diagnosed with nerve impingement in back. Reuters / 11:23 AM March 25, 2023 ... Brooklyn Nets guard Ben Simmons was diagnosed with a nerve impingement in his back on Friday, and the team provided no ...
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ... ... SpellChecker.net, Inc., 2720 3rd Ave #1004, Seattle, WA 98121, United States. © 2012-2023 SpellChecker.net, Inc. ... VAGUS NERVE DISEASE \vˈaɡəs nˈɜːv dɪzˈiːz], \vˈaɡəs nˈɜːv dɪzˈiːz], \v_ˈa_ɡ_ə_s n_ˈɜː_v d_ɪ_z_ˈiː_z]\ ... Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), ...
Whats all this got to do with the race to net zero? Well, if you can recall the summer of 1994 then, like me, you probably ... Just this week the G7 nations have been accused of backsliding on net zero commitments, as pledges to halt fossil fuel ... Yet as our colleague Andrew Adie argues, business must holds its nerve in the face of this onslaught, because commitments to ... This means property has an opportunity to play a leading role in debates around the transition to net zero, which will be ...
Q2: What are common symptoms and signs of nerve agents?. Nerve agent exposure is a generalized whole-body exposure. Similar to ... Q3: What is the drug management of nerve gases?. In addition to management of ABCs, exposure to nerve gases requires antidotes ... Nerve agents are inactivated by alkaline solutions. As an alternative to soap and water, a neutralizing agent such as 0.5% ... Nerve agents are a class of phosphorous-containing organic chemicals and are considered the most toxic agents of chemical ...
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The vagus nerve is one of 12 (or 13, depending on how they are defined) cranial nerves that emerge directly from the brain to ... The vagus nerve, however, which is the longest nerve of the automatic nervous system, provides sensory and autonomic ( ... this is the love nerve in your body; it is the caretaking nerve in your body." (YouTube) ... "The vagus nerve wanders through your body, starting right up at the top of your spinal cord. It goes to muscles in your neck ...
Dynamic and static reconstruction procedures are employed for facial reanimation in patients suffering from facial nerve ... Electrodiagnostic tests of facial nerve function include nerve excitability tests (NET), electroneuronography (ENog), and ... Donor nerves for facial nerve grafting. The great auricular nerve and sural nerve are the most commonly selected nerves for ... Evaluation of nerve condition. The condition of the nerve at the time of injury dictates whether nerve repair is indicated and ...
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... nerve cells) comprise the nervous system, which acts as a communication network for your body. You have hundreds of nerves and ... 1. The electrical impulses of nerves can be measured. In fact, during a nerve impulse a net change of about 110 millivolts. ... The motor portions of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves divide into smaller nerves that divide into even smaller nerves. So ... Spinal nerves. Spinal nerves are also part of your PNS. They branch off of your spinal cord. You have 31 pairs of spinal nerves ...
Nerve net. DR MILES LAMARE They dont have a central nervous system. They have something called a nerve net, which is basically ... just all their nerves are spread over their whole body. But they can still move in a co-ordinated directional manner. So ...
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Brain signaling dynamics after vagus nerve stimulation. NeuroImage 245, 118679 (2021) ...
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Pain is carried by which nerve fibers? a) Act, A13 b) Act, Ay c) AS, C d) Ay, C Correct Answer - A:C Ans. A. Act, A13 & C. ... www.MedicalTalk.Net the Best Medical Forum for Medical Students and Doctors Worldwide. Pain is carried by which nerve fibers? ... Pain is carried by which nerve fibers?. a) Act, A13. b) Act, Ay. c) AS, C. d) Ay, C. Correct Answer - A:C. Ans. A. Act, A13 & C ...
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  • The vagus nerve is one of 12 (or 13, depending on how they are defined) cranial nerves that emerge directly from the brain to relay information between it and other parts of the body-primarily in the head and neck. (phathoc.net)
  • Cranial nerves are a part of your PNS. (healthline.com)
  • You have 12 pairs of cranial nerves. (healthline.com)
  • The cranial nerves can have sensory functions, motor functions, or both. (healthline.com)
  • The cranial nerves originate in the brain and travel outward to your head, face, and neck. (healthline.com)
  • The motor portions of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves divide into smaller nerves that divide into even smaller nerves. (healthline.com)
  • A nerve net consists of interconnected neurons lacking a brain or any form of cephalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • While organisms with bilateral body symmetry are normally associated with a condensation of neurons or, in more advanced forms, a central nervous system, organisms with radial symmetry are associated with nerve nets, and are found in members of the Ctenophora, Cnidaria, and Echinodermata phyla, all of which are found in marine environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve nets can provide animals with the ability to sense objects through the use of the sensory neurons within the nerve net. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike central nervous systems, where neurons are typically grouped together, neurons found in nerve nets are spread apart. (wikipedia.org)
  • The messages are sent by chemical and electrical changes in the cells, technically called neurons , that make up the nerves. (healthline.com)
  • While no one knows exactly, it's safe to say humans have hundreds of nerves - and billions of neurons! (healthline.com)
  • Read on to learn more about the numbered and named cranial and spinal nerves, as well as what neurons are composed of, and some fun facts about your nervous system. (healthline.com)
  • Your neurons work to conduct nerve impulses. (healthline.com)
  • The brain holds many mysteries, but an important insight is that much of the brain works not by fixed point-to-point connections, like the telephone system, but by means of swarms of neurons interconnected, like a spiderweb, into nerve nets. (hachettebookgroup.com)
  • Instead of a brain, hydra have the most basic nervous system in nature, a nerve net in which neurons spread throughout its body. (newscientist.com)
  • VAGUS NERVE is a brand new hard rock band featuring Doc Coyle , formerly of GOD FORBID . (blabbermouth.net)
  • According to a press release, VAGUS NERVE is "focused solely on artistic integrity, devoid of any commercial ulterior motives. (blabbermouth.net)
  • Doc began writing the material that would become VAGUS NERVE with vocalist Ravi Orr in 2011. (blabbermouth.net)
  • VAGUS NERVE has launched a Kickstarter campaign to fund the mixing and mastering of its forthcoming "Visceral" EP by Forrester Savell ( KARNIVOOL , DEAD LETTER CIRCUS ). (blabbermouth.net)
  • A VAGUS NERVE song called "Do You Know Who I Am" , featuring a test mix by Forrester Savell , can be streamed below. (blabbermouth.net)
  • What is the definition of Vagus nerve disease? (dictionary.net)
  • The reasons are only lately being recognized by science, but largely center around our understanding of the vagus nerve, which is central to a multitude of physiological functions that underpin everything from mental and physical well-being to maintaining relationships and general happiness. (phathoc.net)
  • Dutch psychiatrist Bessel van der Kolk, who has studied posttraumatic stress since the 1970s, emphasizes the importance of the vagus as "the critical nerve in the expression and management of emotions in both humans and animals. (phathoc.net)
  • The vagus nerve, however, which is the longest nerve of the automatic nervous system, provides sensory and autonomic (parasympathetic) motor innervation to most of the organs in the chest and abdomen as well as to the neck, including the digestive system, liver, spleen, pancreas, heart, and lungs. (phathoc.net)
  • The functioning of the vagus nerve, which is unique to mammals, is closely tied to immune system response, and recent evidence suggests that the nerve also regulates the body's inflammation response to disease, according to University of California, Berkeley psychologist and faculty director of the Greater Good Science Center Dacher Keltner, who describes the vagus as "one of the great mind-body nexuses in the human nervous system. (phathoc.net)
  • The vagus nerve wanders through your body, starting right up at the top of your spinal cord. (phathoc.net)
  • Given the core role of the vagus nerve, it should come as no surprise that impaired functioning can lead to a host of conditions and problems, physical, emotional, and mental-indeed, some neurological diseases actually originate in the digestive system, spreading to the brain via the vagus nerve. (phathoc.net)
  • One study* in particular found that stimulating the vagus nerve dramatically reduced the severity of depression, while another** concluded that mindfulness meditation optimized the functional connectivity of the nerve, lowering inflammation and improving the brain's ability to manage stress and anxiety. (phathoc.net)
  • The exception to this is the vagus nerve , which is the longest cranial nerve. (healthline.com)
  • Brain signaling dynamics after vagus nerve stimulation. (mpg.de)
  • The vagus nerve is the longest cranial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The vagus nerve exits from the medulla oblongata in the groove between the olive and the inferior cerebellar peduncle. (medscape.com)
  • The vagus nerve is joined by the cranial root of the accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI), just below the inferior ganglion. (medscape.com)
  • Connections of the vagus to the glossopharyngeal and accessory nerves. (medscape.com)
  • Course of the vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The vagus nerve descends vertically within the carotid sheath posterolateral to the internal and common carotid arteries and medial to the internal jugular vein (IJV) at the root of the neck. (medscape.com)
  • It then inclines behind the hilum of the right lung and courses medially toward the esophagus to form the esophageal plexus with the left vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Diagram of the vagus nerve demonstrating the different branches. (medscape.com)
  • It courses behind the root of the left lung and then deviates medially and downwards to reach the esophagus and form the esophageal plexus by joining the opposite (right) vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Similarly, the posterior gastric nerve is formed mainly from the right vagus but contains fibers from the left vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The precentral gyrus emits the voluntary motor portion of the facial nerve, where most of these nerve fibers cross in the pontine region to approach the facial nerve nucleus in the contralateral pons. (medscape.com)
  • The chorda tympani nerve emerges proximal to the stylomastoid foramen and carries parasympathetic secretory fibers to the submandibular and sublingual glands, as well taste fibers to the anterior two thirds of the tongue. (medscape.com)
  • A nerve is a bundle of fibers that receives and sends messages between the body and the brain. (healthline.com)
  • Pain is carried by which nerve fibers? (medicaltalk.net)
  • The nerve net is the simplest form of a nervous system found in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your nervous system is composed of a network of nerves and nerve cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body. (healthline.com)
  • When the Philadelphia 76ers traded Simmons to the Nets in February 2022, a back issue prevented him from making his team debut for the remainder of the season. (inquirer.net)
  • Specifically, the median nerve related to Carpal Tunnel syndrome . (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common condition that occurs when the median nerve in the wrist becomes compressed. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • These symptoms are often referred to as a "median nerve distribution" pattern. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • It is often used in conjunction with other clinical assessments, such as the Tinel's sign (tapping on the median nerve) and nerve conduction studies, to help confirm the diagnosis of Carpal tunnel syndrome. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • CTS case definition required both characteristic symptoms and abnormal median nerve conduction. (cdc.gov)
  • The olfactory nerve has sensory function. (healthline.com)
  • translocate along the olfactory nerve into the olfactory bulb. (cdc.gov)
  • bulbs are consistent with earlier studies in nonhuman primates and rodents that demonstrated that intranasally instilled solid UFP translocate along axons of the olfactory nerve into the CNS. (cdc.gov)
  • We conclude from our study that the CNS can be targeted by airborne solid ultrafine particles and that the most likely mechanism is from deposits on the olfactory mucosa of the nasopha- ryngeal region of the respiratory tract and subsequent translocation via the olfactory nerve. (cdc.gov)
  • The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (bvsalud.org)
  • The anatomy and positioning of nerve nets can vary from organism to organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding facial nerve anatomy with precise assessment of the patient's paralysis and health status dictates the potential for recovery and the most appropriate reconstructive scheme. (medscape.com)
  • FILE - Ben Simmons #10 of the Brooklyn Nets looks on during the first half at United Center on February 24, 2023 in Chicago, Illinois. (inquirer.net)
  • Positive Topline Results for Cannabinoid-Based Med for Nerve Pain - Medscape - May 31, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • The many sensory nerves that bring sensation from the skin and internal organs merge together to form the sensory branches of the cranial and spinal nerves. (healthline.com)
  • The gastric nerves supply all abdominal organs and the gastrointestinal tract ending just before the left colonic (splenic) flexure (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • The facial nerve has both sensory and motor function. (healthline.com)
  • Spinal nerves have both sensory and motor function. (healthline.com)
  • All but one of your spinal nerves transmits sensory information from this area back to the CNS. (healthline.com)
  • It leaves the skull through the middle compartment of the jugular foramen, where it has upper and lower ganglionic swellings, which are the sensory ganglia of the nerve. (medscape.com)
  • There are several hundred peripheral nerves throughout your body. (healthline.com)
  • So one spinal or cranial nerve may divide into anywhere from 2 to 30 peripheral nerves. (healthline.com)
  • Brooklyn Nets guard Ben Simmons was diagnosed with a nerve impingement in his back on Friday, and the team provided no timetable for his return. (inquirer.net)
  • Specialised cells that could carry messages using electrical impulses and chemical signals - the first nerve cells - arose very early on. (newscientist.com)
  • The facial nerve innervates a total of 23 paired muscles and the orbicular oris, but only 18 of these muscles, working in a delicate balance, produce facial animation and expression. (medscape.com)
  • Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve , including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei ( solitary , ambiguus, and dorsal motor ), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course . (dictionary.net)
  • Covering everything from what happens when light hits your retina, to the increasingly sophisticated nerve nets that turn that light into knowledge, to what a computer algorithm must be able to do before it can be called truly "intelligent," We Know It When We See It is a profound yet approachable investigation into how our bodies make sense of the world. (hachettebookgroup.com)
  • Clinical picture of the retina, showing a pair of dilated and tortuous feeder vessels coursing on the surface of the retina from the optic nerve head toward the angioma (which is not seen in this image because it is in the extreme periphery). (medscape.com)
  • Nerves are bundles of axons that work together to transmit signals. (healthline.com)
  • Dynamic and static reconstruction procedures are employed for facial reanimation in patients suffering from facial nerve paralysis . (medscape.com)
  • Facial nerve denervation and paralysis imposes significant psychological and functional impairment. (medscape.com)
  • At the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), the facial nerve is near the nervus intermedius and the eighth cranial nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The first branch of the facial nerve is the greater petrosal nerve, which departs from the geniculate ganglion and is responsible for parasympathetic secretion of the nose, mouth, and lacrimal gland. (medscape.com)
  • The extratemporal branching of the facial nerve has myriad patterns and variations. (medscape.com)
  • This is better suited to controlling more complex movements than a diffuse nerve net. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerve to the stapedius is the next branch and arises from the proximal mastoid segment. (medscape.com)
  • The PNS is made up of nerves that branch off from your CNS. (healthline.com)
  • In the Xenacoelomorpha, a phylum of bilaterally symmetrical animals, members of the subphylum Xenoturbellida also possess a nerve net. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 317 career games (308 starts) with the 76ers and Nets, he has averages of 14.7 points, 7.8 rebounds and 7.5 assists. (inquirer.net)
  • Research suggests that lion's mane extract may encourage nerve cells to repair and grow more quickly in a laboratory. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For this reason, simple animals with nerve nets, such as Hydra, will typically produce the same motor output in response to contact with a stimulus regardless of the point of contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oculomotor nerve has motor function. (healthline.com)
  • Impulse transmission is chemical, caused by release of specific neurotransmitters from the nerve ending (terminal). (msdmanuals.com)
  • calcium inflow releases neurotransmitter molecules from many vesicles by fusing the vesicle membranes to the nerve terminal membrane. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Other disorders that are associated with a damaged nerve system include Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Hydra, which are cnidarians, have a nerve net throughout their body. (wikipedia.org)
  • it is the caretaking nerve in your body. (phathoc.net)
  • They have something called a nerve net, which is basically just all their nerves are spread over their whole body. (sciencelearn.org.nz)
  • How Many Nerves Are in The Human Body? (healthline.com)
  • So, how many of these nerves are in your body? (healthline.com)
  • The immune system of a person with MS attacks the protective layer which surrounds the nerves. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is often used to help diagnose multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a chronic (long-lasting) autoimmune disorder that attacks the outside covering of your nerves. (medlineplus.gov)
  • His sergeant arrives to the ED confirming your suspicions for nerve gas exposure. (emdocs.net)
  • We assigned a Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) code to each job held and extracted physical work exposure variables from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). (cdc.gov)
  • Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing Carpal tunnel syndrome effectively and preventing further nerve damage. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • Using job-title-based physical exposures From O*NET in an epidemiological study of carpal tunnel syndrome. (cdc.gov)
  • BLABBERMOUTH.NET uses the Facebook Comments plugin to let people comment on content on the site using their Facebook account. (blabbermouth.net)
  • Although Porifera do not form synapses and myofibrils which allow for neuromuscular transmission, they do differentiate a proto-neuronal system and contain homologs of several genes found in Cnidaria which are important in nerve formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, sea stars, which are echinoderms, have a nerve net in each arm, connected by a central radial nerve ring at the center. (wikipedia.org)
  • Network traffic management is the central issue in the Net Neutrality debate. (ecommercetimes.com)
  • The anterior and posterior gastric nerves are then formed from the esophageal plexus. (medscape.com)
  • Phalen's test, Phalen maneuver or wrist flexion test, is a simple clinical test which helps diagnose nerve compression in the wrist. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • Repair my nerve connections. (als.net)
  • ALS Forum » ALS Topics » ALS Research & Treatments » Repair my nerve connections. (als.net)
  • Nerve nets are found in species in the phyla Cnidaria (e.g. scyphozoa, box jellyfish, and sea anemones), Ctenophora, and Echinodermata. (wikipedia.org)
  • One older 2011 study found that rats who received lion's mane extract daily experienced faster nerve regeneration. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Yet as our colleague Andrew Adie argues, business must holds its nerve in the face of this onslaught , because commitments to sustainability, social impact - or more broadly 'purpose' - are not about 'woke' window dressing, but are an investment in all our futures. (secnewgate.co.uk)
  • As an industry, property can't really afford to waver in its net zero commitments in the face of economic headwinds and geopolitical instability. (secnewgate.co.uk)
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  • Comments do not represent the views of INQUIRER.net. (inquirer.net)
  • For extreme cases of players with restless nerves or bad ball tosses under pressure, I advise sound-focused breathing, which involves silently repeating a word or phrase to regain focus and a sense of mental calmness. (netnewsmag.com)
  • A dermatome is a specific area of skin that's served by a single spinal nerve. (healthline.com)