Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Hypoglossal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Trauma, Nervous System: Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Schwann Cells: Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.Neuroma: A tumor made up of nerve cells and nerve fibers. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Trigeminal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Lingual Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.Wallerian Degeneration: Degeneration of distal aspects of a nerve axon following injury to the cell body or proximal portion of the axon. The process is characterized by fragmentation of the axon and its MYELIN SHEATH.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Nerve Sheath Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Tibial Neuropathy: Disease of the TIBIAL NERVE (also referred to as the posterior tibial nerve). The most commonly associated condition is the TARSAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. However, LEG INJURIES; ISCHEMIA; and inflammatory conditions (e.g., COLLAGEN DISEASES) may also affect the nerve. Clinical features include PARALYSIS of plantar flexion, ankle inversion and toe flexion as well as loss of sensation over the sole of the foot. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p32)Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Hand Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the hand.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Accessory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the ACCESSORY NERVE. Damage to the nerve may produce weakness in head rotation and shoulder elevation.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE that may result in vocal cord dysfunction.Wounds, Penetrating: Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neuritis: A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Receptors, Purinergic P2X4: A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Mice, Inbred C57BLRhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsNerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Vagus Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the VAGUS NERVE. Because the vagus nerve innervates multiple organs, injuries in the nerve fibers may result in any gastrointestinal organ dysfunction downstream of the injury site.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Peroneal Neuropathies: Disease involving the common PERONEAL NERVE or its branches, the deep and superficial peroneal nerves. Lesions of the deep peroneal nerve are associated with PARALYSIS of dorsiflexion of the ankle and toes and loss of sensation from the web space between the first and second toe. Lesions of the superficial peroneal nerve result in weakness or paralysis of the peroneal muscles (which evert the foot) and loss of sensation over the dorsal and lateral surface of the leg. Traumatic injury to the common peroneal nerve near the head of the FIBULA is a relatively common cause of this condition. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p31)Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Nerve Tissue ProteinsNerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Neurofibroma: A moderately firm, benign, encapsulated tumor resulting from proliferation of SCHWANN CELLS and FIBROBLASTS that includes portions of nerve fibers. The tumors usually develop along peripheral or cranial nerves and are a central feature of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, where they may occur intracranially or involve spinal roots. Pathologic features include fusiform enlargement of the involved nerve. Microscopic examination reveals a disorganized and loose cellular pattern with elongated nuclei intermixed with fibrous strands. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1016)Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Oculomotor Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. This may result in various eye movement dysfunction.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Constriction: The act of constricting.Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Immunogenetic Phenomena: GENETIC PHENOMENA characterizing IMMUNITY and the immune response.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Neurofibromatosis 1: An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).Neurites: In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Neurilemmoma: A neoplasm that arises from SCHWANN CELLS of the cranial, peripheral, and autonomic nerves. Clinically, these tumors may present as a cranial neuropathy, abdominal or soft tissue mass, intracranial lesion, or with spinal cord compression. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, highly vascular, and composed of a homogenous pattern of biphasic fusiform-shaped cells that may have a palisaded appearance. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp964-5)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Forearm Injuries: Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Abbreviated Injury Scale: Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Myelin P0 Protein: A protein that accounts for more than half of the peripheral nervous system myelin protein. The extracellular domain of this protein is believed to engage in adhesive interactions and thus hold the myelin membrane compact. It can behave as a homophilic adhesion molecule through interactions with its extracellular domains. (From J Cell Biol 1994;126(4):1089-97)Vascular System Injuries: Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Facial Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Retrograde Degeneration: Pathologic changes that occur in the axon and cell body of a neuron proximal to an axonal lesion. The process is characterized by central chromatolysis which features flattening and displacement of the nucleus, loss of Nissl bodies, and cellular edema. Central chromatolysis primarily occurs in lower motor neurons.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Finger Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the fingers.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rats, Inbred LewMyocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Soft Tissue Injuries: Injuries of tissue other than bone. The concept is usually general and does not customarily refer to internal organs or viscera. It is meaningful with reference to regions or organs where soft tissue (muscle, fat, skin) should be differentiated from bones or bone tissue, as "soft tissue injuries of the hand".Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Back Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the posterior part of the trunk. It includes injuries to the muscles of the back.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Injuries associated with malpositioning commonly affect the brachial plexus nerves, rather than other peripheral nerve groups. ... Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury. Retrieved 12/2/15. Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Cunnane, ... the axillary nerve, the radial nerve, the median nerve, and the ulnar nerve. Due to both emerging from the lateral cord the ... Brachial plexus injuries are injuries that affect the nerves that carry signals from the spine to the shoulder. This can be ...
ISBN 978-0-387-76599-0. Russell, Stephen M. (2006). "Radial Tunnel Syndrome". Examination of peripheral nerve injuries: an ... since the posterior interosseous nerve mainly affects motor function. This problem is often caused by: bone tumors, injury ( ... The term "radial tunnel syndrome" is used for compression of the posterior interosseous nerve, a division of the radial nerve, ... Nerve and Vascular Injuries in Sports Medicine. Berlin: Springer. pp. 79-80. ...
Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury. 9 (1). doi:10.1186/1749-7221-9-1. [permanent dead link] Atlas image: ... lumbar plexus sacral plexus pudendal plexus Injuries to the lumbosacral plexus are predominantly witnessed as bone injuries. ... The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves, sacral nerves, and coccygeal nerve form the lumbosacral plexus, the first lumbar ... Lumbosacral trunk and sacral plexus palsies are common injury patterns. This article incorporates text in the public domain ...
Krivickas, Lisa S.; Wilbourn, Asa J. (2000). "Peripheral Nerve Injuries in Athletes: A Case Series of Over 200 Injuries". ... "Biceps Tendon Injuries". Cleveland Clinic. Retrieved 2020-02-28.. *^ "Torn Bicep Injury: Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment ... There are other injuries caused by biceps curls, such as the Ulnar neuropathies, which lead to ulnar nerve conduction slowing ... Injuries could have occurred due to incorrect form, careless mistakes and ego lifting. The most common injury caused by biceps ...
... response after neurological trauma also points to initial stimulation of nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. ... Epo has a favorable response in brain and spinal cord injuries like mechanical trauma or subarachnoid hemorrhages. Research ... and at increased levels in Schwann cells after peripheral nerve injury. The distribution of EpoR was different from Epo, ... it is apparent that erythropoietin has anti-apoptotic action after central and peripheral nerve injury. Cross-talk between JAK2 ...
... of all peripheral nerve injury cases. Of these cases, the ulnar nerve was most often injured. Peripheral nerves are structured ... With Seddon's classification of nerve injuries, it is often tough to identify whether a particular nerve injury is neurotmesis ... Neurapraxia Axonotmesis Nerve injury Peripheral nerve injury Neuroregeneration Wallerian degeneration Seddon's classification ... It is the most serious nerve injury in the scheme. In this type of injury, both the nerve and the nerve sheath are disrupted. ...
In H.-J. Seddon (Ed.), Peripheral Nerve Injuries (pp. 354-388). London, England: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Medical ... In 1981, he published his first Textbook about the testing after nerve injury and repair and was the first to propose a re- ... In other words, after a peripheral nerve lesion, aberrant sprouting occurs in the dorsal horn which can explain that a non- ... This hypersensitivity to touch is induced by the peripheral nerve lesion of the large myelinated A-beta fibers. ...
... weakness on the opposite side as the injury). Injuries at the lower medulla, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves result in ... Other causes of hemiplegia include spinal cord injury, specifically Brown-Séquard syndrome, traumatic brain injury, or disease ... Radiological studies like a CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain should be used to confirm injury in the brain ... Once the injury has occurred, the symptoms should not worsen. However, because of lack of mobility, other complications can ...
McLachlan, E.M. and Hu, P. (2014) Inflammation in Dorsal Root Ganglia After Peripheral Nerve Injury: Effects Of The Sympathetic ... particularly injuries to peripheral nerves and the spinal cord. McLachlan was born in Bowral, New South Wales, Australia. ... McLachlan, EM; Jänig, W; Devor, M; Michaelis, M. "Peripheral nerve injury triggers noradrenergic sprouting within dorsal root ... Peripheral nerve injury triggers noradrenergic sprouting within dorsal root ganglia. Nature, Lond. 363, 543-546 Jänig, W. and ...
A Promising Product for Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration After Nerve Injury". Int J Neurosci. 121 (4): 176-180. doi: ... PRP has received attention in the popular media as a result of its use in treating sports injuries in professional athletes. ... Injury. 40 (2): 158-62. doi:10.1016/j.injury.2008.06.025. PMID 19084836. Esposito M (Spring 2010). "Effectiveness of sinus lift ... Platelet-rich plasma is used in horses for treatment of equine lameness due to tendon and ligament injury, wounds, fractures, ...
Under Fedorov's supervision, Stradiņš completed a doctoral thesis on the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. It included data ... from 862 patients on trophic, secretory and vasomotor disturbances after injuries to the extremities, and on surgical and ... At the end of the 1920s, Stradiņš turned his attention from peripheral neurosurgery to abdominal surgery and cancer treatment. ... and his works on the spontaneous gangrene and operations on nerves as indubitably excellent".[citation needed] Stradiņš ...
Connective tissue in the peripheral nervous system Wallerian degeneration Peripheral nerve injury Nerve injury Saidoff, David C ... Goubier, Jean-Noel (2015). Nerve and Nerve Injuries, 1st Edition. Vol 2: Pain, Treatment, Injury, Disease and Future Directions ... Axonotmesis is an injury to the peripheral nerve of one of the extremities of the body. The axons and their myelin sheath are ... These stretch injuries can either dislocate joins or fracture a limb, due to which peripheral nerves are severed. If the sharp ...
Treatment of peripheral nerve injury and spinal cord injury is another important clinical target for NFB. The peripheral nerve ... and injuries to nearby organs, nerves or blood vessels. Other complications of hernia repair can occur with or without the mesh ... However, the limited supply of autografts in severe injuries and in degenerative conditions restricts their use. The use of ... Wound repair results from a complex and highly orchestrated cellular and biochemical response to tissue injury. Given that the ...
Brain, 1905, 28, 362.) With J. Sherren: The consequences of injury to the peripheral nerves in man. (Brain, 1905, 28, 116-338 ... During the First World War, Head treated patients with brain injuries in London. The war prompted Head to write poetry which ... Beginning by examining patients in whom nerves had been divided, Head and his co-worker J. Sherren soon realised the folly in ... The regeneration of these nerves was charted over the next four years. Every Friday, Head would travel to Rivers' rooms in St ...
Burnett (2004). "Pathophysiology of peripheral nerve injury: a brief review". Neurosurgical Focus. 16 (5): E1. doi:10.3171/foc. ... Sunderland (1951). "A classification of peripheral nerve injuries producing loss of function". Brain. 74 (4): 491-516. doi: ... "Three Types of Nerve Injury". Brain. 66 (4): 238-288. doi:10.1093/brain/66.4.237. Savastano (2014). "Sciatic nerve injury: A ... Sunderland (1968). Nerves and Nerve Injuries. Edinburgh & London: Livingstone. p. 180. Zhou (2003). "Cryoanalgesia: ...
Similar behavior has been observed in laboratory rats in experiments looking at spinal cord and peripheral nerve injuries. The ... Local autoimmune reaction and behavioral abnormalities after repeated nerve injury: anexperimental study. Autoimmunity 1:171- ... Frost FS, Mukkamala S, Covington E (2008). "Self-inflicted finger injury in individuals with spinal cord injury: an analysis of ... After testing this mixture on 24 rats with spinal cord injuries, only one rat had chewed its toes after a 2-3 week period. Self ...
Type I (also called reflex sympathetic dystrophy) refers to CRPS without evidence of a specific peripheral nerve injury. Type ... Mitchell, S.W. (1872). Injuries of Nerves and their Consequences. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott. [page needed] Richards RL ( ... Investigators estimate that 2-5% of those with peripheral nerve injury, and 13-70 percent of those with hemiplegia (paralysis ... or hyperalgesia after a nerve injury, not necessarily limited to the distribution of the injured nerve Evidence at some time of ...
BB14 was shown to reduce reactive astrogliosis following peripheral nerve injuries in rats by acting on DRG and PC12 cell ... CNS injury responses have favored mechanisms that keep small injuries uninfected. Inhibition of the migration of inflammatory ... This is usually found after a rapid, locally triggered inflammatory response to acute traumatic injury in the spinal cord and ... One specific drug candidate is BB14, which is a nerve growth factor-like peptide that acts as a TrkA agonist. ...
van Lint's block : In van Lint's block, the peripheral branches of facial nerve are blocked. This technique causes akinesia of ... The complications of retrobulbar block are globe perforation, optic nerve injury, retrobulbar haemorrhage and extraocular ... It is also indicated in perforating ocular injuries and major surgeries like exenteration. During the surgery, it has to be ... The ciliary nerves, ciliary ganglion, oculomotor nerve and abducens nerve are anesthetized in retrobulbar block. As a result, ...
... she was best known for her work on peripheral nerve injuries and leprosy. Bowden was born in 1915 to Frank Harold and Louise ... at the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital before moving to Oxford in 1942 to join Herbert Seddon's peripheral nerve injury ... her most significant contributions were to striated muscle tissue disease and healing of peripheral nerve injuries in leprosy. ... She visited India multiple times throughout her life to train local surgeons to repair nerve injuries caused by leprosy. Bowden ...
... and peripheral nerve injuries. The Medical Center also is home to an NIH Alzheimer's Disease Center and is a Network of ... Research at UTSW's Texas Institute for Brain Injury and Repair focuses on various types of brain injuries and conditions, ... including traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. The Institute also promotes brain injury education and ... The 822-bed system has a Spinal Cord Injury Center, Domiciliary Care Program, and Community Living Center with a dedicated ...
Other major causes are stroke, trauma with nerve injury, poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, peripheral neuropathy, Parkinson's ... Most paralyses caused by nervous-system damage (e.g., spinal cord injuries) are constant in nature; however, some forms of ... Nerves served by the artery will die when deprived of blood. The German Shepherd Dog is especially prone to developing ... This is a deterioration of nerves in the spinal cord, starting in the posterior part of the cord. Dogs so affected will become ...
Facial nerve disorders may stem from a myriad of contributing factors: Bell's palsy, injury resulting from surgical error, ... Seddon classified facial nerve injuries into three broad categories: neuropraxia, neurotmesis, and axonotmesis. Neuropraxia is ... and it is characterized by paralysis without a degeneration of the peripheral nerve. Electroneuronography would yield a normal ... while the term nerve conduction study is employed for other nerves. It consists of a brief electrical stimulation of the nerve ...
... hand and peripheral nerve injuries. Training and research has played an important part in the hospital's work, resulting in the ... It provides the most comprehensive range of neuro-musculoskeletal health care in the UK, including acute spinal injury, complex ... Surgical Disorders of the Peripheral Nerves' Audrey Smith (1915-1981), cryobiologist List of hospitals in England List of NHS ... Following years of research and treatment into spinal injures, the RNOH opened a spinal injuries unit, one of the first of its ...
The mechanism of injury: Sharp injuries, such as a knife wound, damage only a very short segment of the nerve, availing for ... This is called peripheral nerve reconstruction. The injured nerve is identified and exposed so that normal nerve tissue can be ... like injury to bone, muscle and skin, can make nerve recovery more difficult. The level of injury: After a nerve is repaired, ... Sema 3A (Semaphorin 3A) is present in the scar that forms in both central nervous system and peripheral nerve injuries and ...
Peripheral nerve injuries can be classified in two different ways. Neurotmesis is classified under the Seddon system which is defined by three grades of nerve injury. The mildest grade is referred to as neurapraxia and is characterized by a reduction or complete blockage of conduction across a segment of nerve while axonal continuity is maintained and nerve conduction is preserved.[1] These injuries are almost always reversed and a recovery takes place within days or weeks. The second classification of the Seddon system is referred to as axonotmesis which is a more severe case of peripheral nerve injury. Axonotmesis is classified by an interruption of the axons, but a preservation of the surrounding connective tissues around the axon.[1] ...
... is injury to nervous tissue. There is no single classification system that can describe all the many variations of nerve injury. In 1941, Seddon introduced a classification of nerve injuries based on three main types of nerve fiber injury and whether there is continuity of the nerve. Usually, however, (peripheral) nerve injury is classified in five stages, based on the extent of damage to both the nerve and the surrounding connective tissue, since supporting glial cells may be involved. Unlike in the central nervous system, neuroregeneration in the peripheral nervous system is possible. The processes that occur in peripheral regeneration can be divided into the ...
... is a procedure used in anesthesia that allows real-time imaging of the positions of the targeted nerve, needle, and surrounding vasculature. This improves the ease of performing the procedure, increases the success rate, and may reduce the risk of complications. It may also reduce the amount of local anesthetics requried, while reducing the onset time of blocks. Brull, Richard; Perlas, Anahi; Chan, Vincent W. S. (16 April 2007). "Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade". Current Pain and Headache Reports. 11 (1): 25-32. doi:10.1007/s11916-007-0018-6. Chin, Ki Jinn; Chan, Vincent (October 2008). "Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade". Current Opinion in Anesthesiology. 21 (5): 624-631. doi:10.1097/ACO.0b013e32830815d1. PMID 18784490. Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J.; Dahl, Jörgen B. (April 2012). "Ultrasound-guided peripheral ...
... has a variety of modern applications. The high level of sensitivity that electromyoneurography employs makes it ideal for detecting peripheral nerve damage as well as a variety of myopathies in their early stages. This electrophysiological data obtaining technique has been able to heighten diagnostic capabilities when looking at peripheral neuropathy disorders like radiculopathy, and axonopathy in addition to myopathies such as muscular dystrophy, myotonia, and myasthenia gravis.[8] Electromyoneurography was the main technique used in a study to detect diabetic polyneuropathy, a serious condition that is progressive in nature.[9]. Electromyoneurography can also be used to measure patient recovery from surgical procedures, such as nerve repair. A study conducted on patients with proximal radial nerve injuries used the procedure to indicate the degree of ...
Guanfacin (Teneks, Intuniv) je simpatolitik. On je selektivni agonist α2A receptora. Ti receptori su koncentrisani u prefrontalnom korteksu, te guanfacin potencijalno može da poboljša sposobnost pažnje putem modulisanja postsinaptičkih α2A receptora.[1] Guanfacin snižava sistolni i dijastolni krvni pritisak putem aktivacije α-2a norepinefrinskih autoreceptora centralnog nervnog sistema, što dovodi do redukcije perifernog simpatetičkog odliva i stoga do redukcije perifernog simpatetičkog tona.[2] Njegove nuspojave su zavisne od doze. Pri dozama do 2 mg efekat suvih usta se praktično ne javlja.[3] ...
... is a procedure used in anesthesia that allows real-time imaging of the positions of the targeted nerve, needle, and surrounding vasculature. This improves the ease of performing the procedure, increases the success rate, and may reduce the risk of complications. It may also reduce the amount of local anesthetics requried, while reducing the onset time of blocks. Brull, Richard; Perlas, Anahi; Chan, Vincent W. S. (16 April 2007). "Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade". Current Pain and Headache Reports. 11 (1): 25-32. doi:10.1007/s11916-007-0018-6. Chin, Ki Jinn; Chan, Vincent (October 2008). "Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blockade". Current Opinion in Anesthesiology. 21 (5): 624-631. doi:10.1097/ACO.0b013e32830815d1. PMID 18784490. Koscielniak-Nielsen, Zbigniew J.; Dahl, Jörgen B. (April 2012). "Ultrasound-guided peripheral ...
... has a variety of modern applications. The high level of sensitivity that electromyoneurography employs makes it ideal for detecting peripheral nerve damage as well as a variety of myopathies in their early stages. This electrophysiological data obtaining technique has been able to heighten diagnostic capabilities when looking at peripheral neuropathy disorders like radiculopathy, and axonopathy in addition to myopathies such as muscular dystrophy, myotonia, and myasthenia gravis.[8] Electromyoneurography was the main technique used in a study to detect diabetic polyneuropathy, a serious condition that is progressive in nature.[9]. Electromyoneurography can also be used to measure patient recovery from surgical procedures, such as nerve repair. A study conducted on patients with proximal radial nerve injuries used the procedure to indicate the degree of ...
... or regional nerve blockade is any deliberate interruption of signals traveling along a nerve, often for the purpose of pain relief. Local anesthetic nerve block (sometimes referred to as simply "nerve block") is a short-term block, usually lasting hours or days, involving the injection of an anesthetic, a corticosteroid, and other agents onto or near a nerve. Neurolytic block, the deliberate temporary degeneration of nerve fibers through the application of chemicals, heat, or freezing, produces a block that may persist for weeks, months, or indefinitely. Neurectomy, the cutting through or removal of a nerve or a section of a nerve, usually produces a permanent block. Because neurectomy of a sensory ...
Peripheral nerve injuries can be classified in two different ways. Neurotmesis is classified under the Seddon system which is defined by three grades of nerve injury. The mildest grade is referred to as neurapraxia and is characterized by a reduction or complete blockage of conduction across a segment of nerve while axonal continuity is maintained and nerve conduction is preserved.[1] These injuries are almost always reversed and a recovery takes place within days or weeks. The second classification of the Seddon system is referred to as axonotmesis which is a more severe case of peripheral nerve injury. Axonotmesis is classified by an interruption of the axons, but a preservation of the surrounding connective tissues around the axon.[1] ...
Cryolipolysis is a method to remove fat by freezing.[18][19][20] The method involves controlled application of cooling within the temperature range of -11 to +5 °C for the non-invasive, localized reduction of fat deposits, intending to reshape the contours of the body.[18][19] The degree of exposure to cooling causes cell death of subcutaneous fat tissue, without apparent damage to the overlying skin.[19][21] It appears primarily applicable to limited discrete fat bulges.[18][19][22] Adverse effects include transient local redness, bruising and numbness of the skin are common side effects of the treatment and are expected to subside.[19][22] Typically sensory deficits will subside within a month. The effect on peripheral nerves was investigated and failed to show permanent detrimental results.[21] Based on the premise that fat cells are more easily damaged by cooling than skin cells (such as popsicle panniculitis), cryolipolysis was developed to apply low ...
... may refer to: Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm Posterior cutaneous nerve of ...
Damage to the sensory nerve causes a wide range of symptoms because of the amount of functions performed by the nerve. Traumatic injuries and other damages to the sensory nerves may lead to peripheral neuropathy, with problems such as reduced position sense causing poorer coordination and balance, in addition to reduced sensitivity to temperature change and pain, leading to further problems. The ability to feel pain or changes in temperature can be affected by damage to the fibers in the sensory nerve. This can cause a failure to notice injuries such as a cut or that a wound is becoming infected. There may also be a lack of detection of heart attacks or other serious conditions. The lack of detection of pain and other sensations is a particularly large problem for those with diabetes, which contributes to the rate of lower ...
புற நரம்பு மண்டலம் அல்லது புற நரம்புத் தொகுதி (Peripheral Nervous System - PNS) எனப்படுவது, நரம்புத் தொகுதியின் இரு பெரும் பிரிவுகளில் ஒன்றாகவும், அத் தொகுதியின் மைய நரம்பு மண்டலம் தவிர்ந்த ஏனைய உணர் நரம்புக் கலங்களையும், அவற்றை நரம்பு நாண்கள் (nerve cord), முண்ணாண் (spinal cord), மூளை என்பவற்றுடன் இணைக்கும் நரம்புகளையும் கொண்டது. மையநரம்புத் தொகுதியுடன், கண், காது போன்ற உணர் உறுப்புக்களையும், தசைகள், ...
When one of these nerves suffers injury or trauma, surgical treatment may be needed. ... The peripheral nervous system is a network of 43 pairs of motor and sensory nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to ... Peripheral Nerve Injuries. Types of Peripheral Nerve Damage That May Need Surgery ... What causes peripheral nerve injury?. Injury to the peripheral nerve network can happen through:. * Laceration (a cut or tear ...
Injury to the peripheral nerves can be minor or devastating, and require expert diagnosis and management to restore optimal ... More serious peripheral nerve trauma may require surgery, including operations such as DREZ, brachial plexus injury repair, ... Conditions We Treat: Peripheral Nerve Injuries. The peripheral nerves comprise 43 pairs that branch off from the central nerves ... The Peripheral Nerve Surgery Center was founded to provide the highest quality surgical care for peripheral nerve injuries and ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Peripheral Nerve Injury , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Peripheral Nerve Injury via the Trip Database. ... peripheral nerve injuries Guided tissue regeneration is a new approach in the reconstructive surgery of peripheral nerves. ... Peripheral nerve injury alters the alpha2 adrenoceptor subtype activated by clonidine for analgesia. (PubMed). Peripheral nerve ...
Find out more about injuries affecting the peripheral nerves that link your brain and spinal cord to the rest ... Reduced muscle activity can indicate nerve injury.. *Nerve conduction study. Electrodes placed at two different points in your ... Peripheral nerve graft. Peripheral nerve graft. To repair a damaged nerve, your surgeon removes a small part of the sural nerve ... Nerve transfer. Nerve transfer. Your surgeon can bypass a damaged section of nerve by reconnecting a healthy nerve to restore ...
Find out more about injuries affecting the peripheral nerves that link your brain and spinal cord to the rest ... Peripheral... nerve sheath tumors, Nerve entrapment, Benign peripheral nerve tumors, Peripheral nerve injury, Brachial plexus ... Traumatic injury, Osteoarthritis, Peripheral nerve injury, Dupuytrens contracture, Schwannomatosis, Peripheral nerve t...umors ... Brachial plexus surgery, Peripheral nerve tumor surgery, Peripheral nerve tumors, Peripheral nerve disorder, ...
Facial Nerve Axotomy in Mice: A Model to Study Motoneuron Response to Injury. ... peripheral nerve injuries include Ethanol-Induced Cervical Sympathetic Ganglion Block Applications for Promoting Canine ... Toluidine Blue Staining of Resin-Embedded Sections for Evaluation of Peripheral Nerve Morphology, Genetic Study of Axon ... An In Vitro Co-culture Model to Study Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, ...
... and peripheral nerve (n=57) injuries. The mean time after injury was 38 months (SD, 47). For all SF-36 domains, the mean values ... presenting to a nerve surgeon; 6 months or greater after nerve injury. Patients completed the DASH questionnaire and the Short ... was found in patients after nerve injury that was predicted by higher pain, older age, and brachial plexus injury. Further ... This study evaluated patient-reported outcome and the factors associated with disability after an upper extremity nerve injury ...
Learn more about spinal disorders and nerve conditions. ... Information on peripheral nerve injury in children including ... What are signs of peripheral nerve injuries?. Because every peripheral nerve has a highly specialized function in a specific ... What are the peripheral nerves?. Peripheral nerves carry simple commands from the brain to the legs, arms, hands and feet. They ... Learn about treatment options for peripheral nerve injuries.. For more information or to schedule an appointment, call 314.454. ...
"Peripheral Nerve Injuries". "Seddon classification of nerve injuries". Otto D.Payton & Richard P.Di Fabio et al.Manual of ... Nerve Nerve fiber Peripheral nerve injury (Nerve injury) Connective tissue in the peripheral nervous system Neuroregeneration ... Classification of peripheral nerve injury assists in prognosis and determination of treatment strategy. Classification of nerve ... It is the mildest type of peripheral nerve injury. There are sensory-motor problems distal to the site of injury. The ...
Peripheral Nerve Injuries. Somatosensory Disorders. Sensation Disorders. Neurologic Manifestations. Nervous System Diseases. ... GW406381 In Patients With Peripheral Nerve Injury. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... on pain in patients with peripheral nerve injury. Secondary Outcome Measures : *To investigate the effect of 21 days oral ... dynamic allodynia and static mechanical hyperalgesia in patients with peripheral nerve injury.. ...
A growing collection of anecdotal stories raises the possibility that nerve injury in an arm or a leg can act as a trigger for ... Peripheral nerve injury can trigger the onset and spread of ALS, shows study. *Download PDF Copy ... Now, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago are the first to demonstrate that a peripheral nerve injury can ... Active lifestyle shown to repair spinal cord injuries. Integrator complex proteins are crucial for healthy brain development in ...
Nerve gap injuries are difficult to repair; our data suggest that DRG neurons are superior medium to implant inside conduit ... Macrophage infiltration of the regenerated nerve graft in the DRG group 16 weeks post-surgery was below the level of the empty ... We have previously shown successful regeneration in transected rat sciatic nerves using conduits filled with allogeneic dorsal ... but morphological analyses suggest recovery comparable to the healthy nerves was not achieved. The degree of regeneration was ...
Information on peripheral nerve injuries and treatments available at St. Louis Childrens Hospital. To schedule an appointment ... Nerve injuries *Brachial plexus injuries *Lumbosacral plexus injuries *Any individual nerve injury resulting in numbness or ... What are signs of peripheral nerve injuries?. Because every peripheral nerve has a highly specialized function in a specific ... What are the peripheral nerves?. Peripheral nerves carry simple commands from the brain to the legs, arms, hands and feet. They ...
S. W. Mitchell, Injuries of Nerves and Their Consequences, Lippincott, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1872. ... rats were subjected to unilateral nerve injury. Mechanical allodynia was tested for two weeks after nerve injury. After nerve ... after peripheral nerve injury.. Occasionally, neuropathic pain symptoms can be observed on the opposite side of the nerve ... It has been shown that peripheral nerve injury can cause severe chronic pain in humans [1, 2]. Humans frequently experience ...
... glass and bullets are a frequent cause of nerve injury. ... Peripheral Nerve Injury: Cuts and tearing on an arm or leg ... In injuries associated with extensive crushing and tearing of nerve fibers, repair must be delayed three to four weeks to let ... Thermal Injury * General Information * While not a common cause of peripheral nerve injury, injury by flame, fluid, steam or ... About Peripheral Nerve Injury Laceration and Contusion * General Information * Cuts and tearing on an arm or leg caused by ...
... but not after central injury. Thus, myosin-X was upregulated after injuries that can be followed by axonal regeneration. We ... Neuronal myosin-X is upregulated after peripheral nerve injury and mediates laminin-induced growth of neurites. Plantman, ... expression of myosin-X mRNA is upregulated in adult rat sensory neurons and spinal motoneurons after peripheral nerve injury, ... The successful outcome of peripheral neuronal regeneration is attributed both to the growth permissive milieu and the intrinsic ...
The very expanse of peripheral nerves makes them highly vulnerable to injuries such as blunt-force blows, cuts, and leg and arm ... Post-injury, CCL2 affects the workings of peripheral nerve cell clusters, known as ganglia, and the nerve fibers distal to the ... Powerful protein promotes post-injury regeneration and growth of injured peripheral nerves. January 05, 2016. The peripheral ... After an injury to a region of peripheral nerves, CCL2 signals macrophages to move to the damaged areas of axons and remove ...
3), suggests that synaptic GABAA receptors remain present and functional after both partial nerve injuries. ... or spared nerve injury (SNI). Fast excitatory transmission remains intact after all three types of nerve injury. In contrast, ... Peripheral nerve injury (CCI, SNI, or SNT) does not reduce primary afferent-evoked EPSCs in lamina II neurons. In the L4 ... 2000) Spared nerve injury: an animal model of persistent peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain 87:149-158. ...
... along with a review of best practices to prevent inadvertent nerve injection injuries. CME Credit: 1.00 AMA PRA Category 1 ... risk factors and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with a special emphasis on the use of electro-diagnostic testing and ... and risk factors for peripheral nerve injury after peripheral nerve block. *Discuss evaluation and management of these injuries ... Explain the incidence, causes, and risk factors for peripheral nerve injury after peripheral nerve block. • Discuss evaluation ...
Peripheral Nerve Injuries *. Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Neuropathic Pain: Sensory Nerve Injury or Motor Nerve Injury? Liu XG, Pang RP, Zhou LJ, Wei XH, Zang Y. Liu XG, et al. Adv Exp ... Contralateral Effects of Peripheral Nerve Injury M B Lowrie. Trends Neurosci. Nov 1999 ... Depletion of endogenous noradrenaline does not prevent spinal cord plasticity following peripheral nerve injury. Hayashida K, ...
This was done by comparing the NR2B expression in the DRG derived from two modalities of the spared nerve injury (SNI) model, ... This was done by comparing the NR2B expression in the DRG derived from two modalities of the spared nerve injury (SNI) model, ... study is the first to characterize of cell-specific changes in NR2B expression within the DRG following peripheral nerve injury ... if changes in NR2B expression within the DRG are associated with hypersensitivities that result from peripheral nerve injuries ...
The upper extremity contains numerous nerves that transmit stimulus for functions such as muscle contraction, sensation, and ... Nerves are the conduits of information that run from the brain to the rest of the body, and vice versa. ... Injuries to the upper extremity occasionally involve trauma to nerves, which can interfere with the various functions of the ... Peripheral Nerve Injury in the Upper Extremity. Overview:. Nerves are the conduits of information that run from the brain to ...
By Stephen M Russell Examination of Peripheral Nerve Injuries: An Anatomical Approach Highly Commended in Neurology by the ... Examination of Peripheral Nerve Injuries: An Anatomical Approach 1st Edition Read & Download - ... peripheral nerve helps the reader gain a firm understanding of normal structure essential for recognizing and diagnosing injury ... Examination of Peripheral Nerve Injuries: An Anatomical Approach Pdf Highly Commended in Neurology by the British Medical ...
1. An exploration of the mechanisms behind peripheral nerve injury. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,An exploration ... and Molecular Characterization of the Spinal Cord after Ventral Root Avulsion or Distal Peripheral Nerve Axotomy Injuries in ... Peripheral nerve injury, target organ, spinal motoneurons, primary sensory neurons, degeneration National Category Cell and ... Despite surgical innovation, the sensory and motor outcome after peripheral nerve injury is incomplete. In this thesis, the ...
Known affected family members should be made aware of their predisposition to nerve injury and learn to avoid pressure damage. ... Peripheral nerve injuries in the pediatric population: a review of the literature. Part II: entrapment neuropathies. ... Ouvrier RA, Shield L (1999) Focal lesions of peripheral nerves. In: Ouvrier RA, Mcleod JG, Pollard JD (eds) Peripheral ... any nerve may be affected, including the brachial plexus in 20% of patients [86] and the cranial nerves [32]. Proximal nerves ...
  • Divided into five parts, Parts I, II and III cover screening and assessment, the pathophysiology of sports injuries and healing and the various stages of training during the rehabilitation process. (wiley.com)
  • This book is an anatomically based guide to locating and diagnosing peripheral nerve entrapment and injuries, complete with all the fundamental science concepts and diagnostic techniques the clinician needs to address injuries in the upper and lower extremities of the body. (libribook.com)
  • Synopsis About this title Highly Commended in Neurology by the British Medical Association, This book is an anatomically based guide to locating and diagnosing peripheral nerve entrapment and injuries, complete with all the fundamental science concepts and diagnostic techniques the clinician needs to address injuries in the upper and lower extremities of the body. (udadukudic.cf)
  • The high risk procedures that often result in peripheral nerve damage include: osteosynthesis, arthrodesis, posterior triangle lymph node biopsies, carpal tunnel release, surgery for varicose veins, baker cyst excision and inguinal herniorrhaphy. (parjournal.net)
  • Still others are from nerve compression, like carpal tunnel syndrome or thoracic outlet syndrome. (icdlist.com)
  • A biodegradable NeuraGen® tube was infused with pure DRG neurons or Schwann cells cultured from a rat strain differing from the host rats and used to repair 8 mm gaps in the sciatic nerve. (plos.org)
  • Major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I) molecules were present in significantly increased levels in the DRG and Schwann cell allograft groups compared to the hollow NG conduit and the Sham healthy nerve. (plos.org)
  • It is a total severance or disruption of the entire nerve fiber.A peripheral nerve fiber contains an axon (Or long dendrite), myelin sheath (if existence), their schwann cells, and the endoneurium. (wikipedia.org)
  • By further exploiting the qualities of the topically applied myelin dye Nile red, this technique is capable of visualizing the detailed microenvironment of peripheral nerve demyelination injury and recovery, while allowing us to obtain images of exogenous Schwann cell myelination in a living animal. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Soluble NRG1 isoforms, mainly secreted by Schwann cells, are strongly and transiently up-regulated after acute peripheral nerve injury, thus suggesting that they play a crucial role also in the response to nerve damage. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Denervated Schwann cells respond to injury by shedding myelin, proliferating, phagocytosing debris, and releasing cytokines that recruit blood-borne monocytes/macrophages. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After injury, mature Schwann cells (SCs) convert into repair cells that foster axonal regrowth, and redifferentiate to rebuild myelin. (omicsdi.org)
  • Here, we identify an early response to injury controlled by histone deacetylase (HDAC)2, which coordinates the action of other chromatin-remodeling enzymes to induce the upregulation of Oct6, a key transcription factor for Schwann cell development. (omicsdi.org)
  • Under general anesthesia and by using a microsurgery technique both sciatic nerves were exposed in 2 groups of 9 Wistar rats. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Their findings, published in the journal Neurobiology of Disease , show that rats genetically engineered to develop ALS-like symptoms have an abnormal inflammatory response in the region of the spinal cord associated with an injured peripheral neuron. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers surgically injured a single nerve in the leg of both SOD1 and wild-type rats at 10 weeks of age. (news-medical.net)
  • We have previously reported the crossed-withdrawal reflex in which the rats with nerve injury developed behavioral pain responses of the injured paw to stimuli applied to the contralateral uninjured paw. (hindawi.com)
  • Under pentobarbital anesthesia, rats were subjected to unilateral nerve injury. (hindawi.com)
  • These results suggest that the facilitation of information processing from the uninjured side to the injured side may contribute to the crossed-withdrawal reflex by plastic changes in the spinal cord of nerve-injured rats. (hindawi.com)
  • In our previous study [ 9 ], we observed that the rats with unilateral nerve injury showed withdrawal responses of the injured paw to stimuli applied to the contralateral uninjured paw. (hindawi.com)
  • Using Solexa sequencing, computational analysis and Q-PCR verification, 93 novel miRNAs in rats were discovered and identified, of which 42 novel miRNAs were first reported in proximal sciatic nerve of rat and 51 novel miRNAs were produced at days 1, 4, 7 and 14 after sciatic nerve resection. (omicsdi.org)
  • our data suggest that DRG neurons are superior medium to implant inside conduit tubes due to reduced immunogenicity and represent a potential treatment strategy that could be preferable to the current gold standard of autologous nerve transplant. (plos.org)
  • Currently, the most reliable choice in repair of major defects in peripheral nerves is autologous nerve grafts . (plos.org)
  • 10 patients suffered facial nerve damage (secondary to ear and parotid gland surgery) and 10 suffered trigeminal nerve injury (secondary to maxilary sinus surgery). (parjournal.net)
  • Nerve conduction studies performed during surgery are often able to help indicate outcome and need for simple cleaning of the nerve (neurolysis) or a more extensive repair with grafting. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Partial nerve injury also decreases dorsal horn levels of the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 kDa ipsilateral to the injury and induces neuronal apoptosis, detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling staining in identified neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • CCL2 sends inflammatory immune cells (macrophages) to peripheral nerve cell clusters to promote repair and to trigger gene expression that leads to new growth in nerve cells. (brightsurf.com)
  • In both SNIs, microglia/macrophages showed a transient increase in NR2B protein detected at Day 23 but not at Day 86, which correlates with the initial post-injury induced hypersensitivity in both SNIs. (frontiersin.org)
  • IL-10 mRNA increased over the first 7 d after injury, whereas at the protein level, immunofluorescence labeling showed IL-10(+) cells increased almost 3-fold in the first 3 weeks, with macrophages being the major cell type expressing IL-10. (nih.gov)
  • Increased numbers of macrophages were found in the distal segment of IL-10-null mice at early (3 d) and late (14 and 21 d) time points, suggesting that IL-10 may play a role in controlling the early influx and the later efflux of macrophages out of the nerve. (nih.gov)
  • Macrophages are derived from monocytes, a type of immune cell which can change into one of a number macrophage types, depending on the local signalling environment when they arrive at an injury site. (leafscience.org)
  • By changing the populations of macrophages to favour the M2 type, the researchers here are seeking to repair nerve damage. (leafscience.org)
  • The researchers here demonstrate that injuries even in tissue types not normally repaired reliably, such as nerve tissue, can be encouraged to heal by altering the population of macrophages in the tissue. (leafscience.org)
  • Macrophages take over the bulk of phagocytosis within days of PNI, before exiting the nerve by the circulation once remyelination has occurred. (biomedcentral.com)