Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Hearing Loss, Bilateral: Partial hearing loss in both ears.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Hearing Loss, Conductive: Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.Hearing Loss, High-Frequency: Hearing loss in frequencies above 1000 hertz.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Hearing Loss, Sudden: Sensorineural hearing loss which develops suddenly over a period of hours or a few days. It varies in severity from mild to total deafness. Sudden deafness can be due to head trauma, vascular diseases, infections, or can appear without obvious cause or warning.Hearing Loss, Unilateral: Partial or complete hearing loss in one ear.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Ear Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Presbycusis: Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Hearing Loss, Functional: Hearing loss without a physical basis. Often observed in patients with psychological or behavioral disorders.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Audiometry, Speech: Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Accessory Nerve: The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Facial Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Speech Reception Threshold Test: A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve: Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.Lingual Nerve: A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Olfactory Nerve: The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.Hearing Loss, Mixed Conductive-Sensorineural: Hearing loss due to damage or impairment of both the conductive elements (HEARING LOSS, CONDUCTIVE) and the sensorineural elements (HEARING LOSS, SENSORINEURAL) of the ear.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Labyrinth Diseases: Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Nerve Tissue ProteinsOtoscopy: Examination of the EAR CANAL and eardrum with an OTOSCOPE.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Hyperacusis: An abnormally disproportionate increase in the sensation of loudness in response to auditory stimuli of normal volume. COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; STAPES SURGERY; and other disorders may be associated with this condition.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Maxillary Nerve: The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Nerve Sheath Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Cochlear Diseases: Pathological processes of the snail-like structure (COCHLEA) of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which can involve its nervous tissue, blood vessels, or fluid (ENDOLYMPH).Vestibular Aqueduct: A small bony canal linking the vestibule of the inner ear to the posterior part of the internal surface of the petrous TEMPORAL BONE. It transmits the endolymphatic duct and two small blood vessels.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Chorda Tympani Nerve: A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Round Window, Ear: Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Meniere Disease: A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.MP3-Player: Portable electronics device for storing and playing audio and or media files. MP3 for MPEG-1 audio layer 3, is a digital coding format.Stria Vascularis: A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Ear Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor: A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Auditory Fatigue: Loss of sensitivity to sounds as a result of auditory stimulation, manifesting as a temporary shift in auditory threshold. The temporary threshold shift, TTS, is expressed in decibels.Tympanoplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Laryngeal Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the LARYNGEAL NERVE.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Obturator Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to the lower extremity. The obturator nerve provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and cutaneous sensory innervation of the inner thigh.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).Ear Ossicles: A mobile chain of three small bones (INCUS; MALLEUS; STAPES) in the TYMPANIC CAVITY between the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and the oval window on the wall of INNER EAR. Sound waves are converted to vibration by the tympanic membrane then transmitted via these ear ossicles to the inner ear.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Stapes: One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Brachial Plexus: The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Neuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Cerumen: The yellow or brown waxy secretions produced by vestigial apocrine sweat glands in the external ear canal.Optic Disk: The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Vertigo: An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Optic Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from the optic nerve or its sheath. OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA is the most common histologic type. Optic nerve neoplasms tend to cause unilateral visual loss and an afferent pupillary defect and may spread via neural pathways to the brain.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Labyrinthitis: Inflammation of the inner ear (LABYRINTH).Axotomy: Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Biological neuron model
Johnson, Don H.; Swami, Ananthram (1983-08-01). "The transmission of signals by auditory‐nerve fiber discharge patterns". The ... Hearing Research. 55 (1): 50-56. doi:10.1016/0378-5955(91)90091-M.. ... Taberner, Annette M.; Liberman, M. Charles (2005-01-01). "Response Properties of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in the Mouse". ... Müller, Marcus; Robertson, Donald; Yates, Graeme K. (1991-09-01). "Rate-versus-level functions of primary auditory nerve fibres ...
Excess or impacted cerumen can press against the eardrum and/or occlude the external auditory canal and impair hearing, causing ... Lateral head anatomy detail.Facial nerve dissection. List of specialized glands within the human integumentary system hednk-022 ... Anatomy and physiology of hearing for audiologists (pp. 93-108). Thomson Delmar Learning. Veterans Health Administration web ... conductive hearing loss. Base of skull. Inferior surface. Left infratemporal fossa. External and middle ear, opened from the ...
Sensorineural hearing loss may also be present. Death in infancy is not uncommon and is usually due to cardiac complications or ... Optic nerve hypoplasia, nystagmus and photophobia may occur. Facial dysmorphism (cleft lip/palate and micrognathia) and ... Hearing aids and cataract surgery may be of use. Control of seizures, heart failure and treatment of infection is important. ... 2010) Vici syndrome associated with sensorineural hearing loss and evidence of neuromuscular involvement on muscle biopsy. Am J ...
D. Kent Morest
Hossain WA, Antic SD, Yang Y, Rasband MN, Morest DK (July 2005). "Where is the spike generator of the cochlear nerve? Voltage- ... Other notable research interests include developmental neurobiology, and the processes related to hearing loss induced by ... Hearing Research. 169 (1-2): 1-12. doi:10.1016/S0378-5955(02)00461-6. PMID 12121735. Bilak MM, Hossain WA, Morest DK (March ... Hearing Research. 216-217: 116-26. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2006.01.012. PMID 16530363. ...
Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2
... hearing loss, and vertigo. Involvement of the trigeminal nerve can cause numbness of the face. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2 ... a nerve cell bundle of the facial nerve. Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 2 typically presents with inability to move many facial ... Since the vestibulocochlear nerve is in proximity to the geniculate ganglion, it may also be affected, and patients may also ... After initial infection, varicella zoster virus lies dormant in nerve cells in the body, where it is kept in check by the ...
The symptoms for males are: Profound sensorineural hearing loss i.e, a complete or almost complete loss of hearing caused by ... Vision loss caused by optic nerve atrophy in early childhood. Peripheral neuropathy. Recurrent infections, especially in the ... Sensorineural hearing loss has been treated with cochlear implantation with good results. Ataxia and visual impairment from ... Symptoms for females: Very rarely seen hearing loss that begins in adulthood (age > 20 years) combined with ataxia and ...
"CTV Building hearing: Architectural and structural drawings of the office building at 249 Madras Street". Canterbury. ... Wright, Michael (9 July 2012). "Fears over CTV may have been 'nerves'". Stuff. Retrieved 15 July 2012. King's Education - ... "CTV Building Hearing - Overview". Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission. Retrieved 15 July 2012. Wright, Matthew (15 August ... "About Us", Relationships Aotearoa "Hearing told of survival after CTV plunge". The Timaru Herald. Retrieved 15 July 2012. ...
Since hearing loss is frequently associated with SCS, it is recommended that audiology screening persist throughout childhood. ... Decreased space may also lead to abnormal or missing tear ducts and nerve damage. Reconstructive surgery is usually required in ... as well as having hearing loss, short stature, and mild mental retardation. Hence, the name Saethre-Chotzen Syndrome was ...
Hearing impairment. An individual satisfies the definition of hearing disabled when hearing loss is about 30 dB for a ... There can be many different causes, such as nerve degeneration, muscle degeneration, stroke, and vocal cord injury. The modern ... Mild to moderate hearing loss may be accommodated with a hearing aid that amplifies ambient sounds. Portable devices with speed ... "Hearing Disorders and Deafness". National Library of Medicine.. *^ "Visual Impairment and Blindness". National Library of ...
Hearing organ evolution and specialization: Early and later mammals. In: GA Manley, AN Popper, RR Fay (Eds). Evolution of the ... Camhi, J. Neuroethology: nerve cells and the natural behavior of animals. Sinauer Associates, 1984. Manoussaki D, Chadwick RS, ... The cochlea is the part of the inner ear involved in hearing. It is a spiral-shaped cavity in the bony labyrinth, in humans ... This is a common cause of partial hearing loss and is the reason why users of firearms or heavy machinery often wear earmuffs ...
The auditory nerve, also called the cochlear nerve, then transmits action potentials to the central auditory nervous system. In ... including the degradation of hearing, both unilateral and bilateral. Individuals with autism who experience hearing loss ... The cochlear nerve spans from the cochlea of the inner ear to the ventral cochlear nuclei located in the pons of the brainstem ... At the cochlea, this information is converted into electrical impulses that travel by means of the cochlear nerve, which spans ...
Michael I. Miller
"Representation of voice pitch in discharge patterns of auditory-nerve fibers". Hearing Research. 14 (3): 257-279. doi:10.1016/ ... Sachs, M.B.; Young, E.D.; Miller, M.I. (June 1983). "Speech Encoding in the Auditory Nerve: Implications for Cochlear Implants ... Miller, M.I.; Sachs, M.B. (1983). "Representation of stop consonants in the discharge patterns of auditory-nerve fibers". JASA ... speech including voice-pitch and consonant-vowel syllables encoded in the discharge patterns across the primary auditory nerve ...
Occasionally, the cranial nerves V and VIII are affected. If cranial nerve VIII is affected, the person experiences hearing ... The VI cranial nerve controls lateral eye movement, and the VII cranial nerve controls facial expression. The causes of Möbius ... Certain symptoms associated with Möbius syndrome may be caused by incomplete development of facial nerves, other cranial nerves ... Meyerson MD, Foushee DR (June 1978). "Speech, language and hearing in Moebius syndrome: a study of 22 patients". Dev Med Child ...
These nerves are responsible for providing necessary sensory information for things such as smell, taste, hearing, and sight. ... The cranial cavity has a variety of spinal and cranial nerves residing in it. The cranial nerves are responsible for storing ... The spinal nerves allow for the sensory and motor signals to be received, which provide a normal feeling and function for the ... It helps supply some of the cranial nerves from the face to the feet and also to help get the body performing critical bodily ...
John Tracy Clinic
Louise and Spencer Tracy's son, John, was diagnosed with nerve deafness in 1925. They were initially told that nothing could be ... John Tracy Clinic is a private, nonprofit education center for infants and preschool children with hearing loss in Los Angeles ... The Clinic offers worldwide family services, local family services, professional education, preschool, hearing testing, and ...
This nerve is involved in hearing and patients with vestibular schwannomas experience hearing loss. However, bilateral ... Damaged nerves and scar tissue can be a result of surgery and pain can be an ongoing problem. Sometimes, a tumor will reappear ... Schwannomas on sensory nerve axons cause chronic severe pain. Treatment options for schwannomas are to surgically remove them, ... 45 and ≥2 nonintradermal schwannomas, at least one with histologic confirmation and no symptoms of 8th nerve dysfunction and no ...
Auditory brainstem implant
... due to retrocochlear hearing impairment (due to illness or injury damaging the cochlea or auditory nerve, and so precluding the ... "Hearing habilitation with auditory brainstem implantation in two children with cochlear nerve aplasia". Int J Pediatr ... The loss of hearing and speech recognition in most NF2 patients may be due to the tumor interfering with the blood supply to ... Prior to surgery, some NF2 patients have normal hearing and speech recognition in the tumor ear even with a large tumor, ...
... of the auditory nerve).[jargon] These indicate a best hearing range near 1000 Hz. Earlier reports that their hearing ... Their hearing can be measured at the round window as cochlear microphonics and summating potential (of the cochlea), and ... Single unit recordings from the auditory nerve show both spontaneous and nonspontaneous responses. Tuning curves show peak ... Johnstone, J. R. & Johnstone, B. M. (1969). "Unit responses from the lizard auditory nerve". Experimental Neurology. 24 (4): ...
In terms of hearing, patients are more prone to ear infections, sound blockage, or nerve abnormalities. Several cardiac defects ... In terms of internal organ systems, tetrasomy X patients may have abnormal vision, hearing, circulatory systems, kidneys, or ... Disorders of the eye include myopia, nystagmus, coloboma, microphthalmus, or optic nerve hypoplasia. ...
Alexander John Scott
Biological neuron model
"The transmission of signals by auditory‐nerve fiber discharge patterns". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 74 ... "Hearing Research. 55 (1): 50-56. doi:10.1016/0378-5955(91)90091-M.. ... "Response Properties of Single Auditory Nerve Fibers in the Mouse". Journal of Neurophysiology. 93 (1): 557-569. doi:10.1152/jn ... "A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve". The Journal of ...
Head and neck anatomy
... and the phrenic nerve, C-3 to C-5, the segmental nerve branches, C-1 to C-5. These nerve groups transmit efferent nerve (motor ... and some special organs such as hearing of parts of the head and neck. Movements of the neck includes: flexion, extension, ( ... The spinal nerves arise from the spinal column. The top section of the spine is the cervical section, which contains nerves ... cranial nerves and spinal nerves. The CNS is located within the dorsal cavity, and the PNS extends through the ventral cavity. ...
... although hearing is always completely lost in the affected ear with this operation. The surgeon can also cut the nerve to ... Audiograms illustrating normal hearing (left) and unilateral low-pitch hearing loss associated with Ménière's disease (right) ... Loudness discomfort levels (LDLs): data of people with hyperacusis without hearing loss. Upper line: average hearing thresholds ... The hearing is often mostly preserved; however, the surgery involves cutting open into the lining of the brain, and a hospital ...
Michael Anderson (swimmer)
Hearing is all about vibration. Mechanoreceptors turn motion into electrical nerve pulses, which are located in the inner ear. ... Hearing at high frequencies declines with an increase in age. Inability to hear is called deafness or hearing impairment. Sound ... The vestibular nerve also conducts information from the utricle and the saccule, which contain hair-like sensory receptors that ... The vestibular nerve conducts information from sensory receptors in three ampulla that sense motion of fluid in three ...
Type 2 diabetes
Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, vision, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) ... hearing, touch, and sometimes smell (e.g., in infection, uremia, diabetic ketoacidosis). Four actions are the basis of physical ... Subspecialties include electroencephalography, electromyography, evoked potential, nerve conduction study and polysomnography. ...
"Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two classes, afferent and efferent. Impressions are made on the ... He claimed that he had severely reduced hearing for 17 years, which started soon following a "pop" in his spine. A few days ... Thus, nerves carry impulses outward and sensations inward. The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become ... Efferent nerve-fibers carry impulses out from the center to their endings. Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called ...
... auditory nerve and/or central nervous system). If an audiologist determines that a hearing loss or vestibular abnormality is ... newborn hearing screening programs, school hearing screening programs, and provide special fitting ear plugs and other hearing ... Audiologists have broad responsibilities and expertise in all non-medical areas of hearing services including complex hearing ... Audiology (from Latin audīre, "to hear"; and from Greek -λογία, -logia) is a branch of science that studies hearing, balance, ...
Temporal lobe: Tumors in this lobe may contribute to poor memory, loss of hearing, difficulty in language comprehension ( ... Optic nerve sheath meningioma, Pediatric ependymoma, Pilocytic astrocytoma, Pinealoblastoma, Pineocytoma, Pleomorphic ... impaired hearing, facial paralysis, double vision, or more severe symptoms such as tremors, paralysis on one side of the body ...
Gouk P (2004). Erlmann (ed.). Hearing Cultures: Essays on Sound, Listening and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. ... After 1800 books on music therapy often drew on the Brunonian system of medicine, arguing that the stimulation of the nerves ... Erlmann, Veit (ed.) Hearing Cultures. Essays on Sound, Listening, and Modernity, New York: Berg Publishers, 2004. Cf. ... Early Modern Medical Explanations for Music's Effects », in Veit Erlmann (dir.), Hearing Cultures. Essays on Sound, Listening ...
Injuries and cataracts affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia affect the nerve bundle that ... hearing impairments, and epilepsy. Blindness in combination with hearing loss is known as deafblindness. ... The blind or visually impaired rely largely on their other senses such as hearing, touch, and smell in order to understand ... who can see via his super-human hearing acuity, or Star Trek's Geordi La Forge, who can see with the aid of a VISOR, a ...
Theodore Holmes Bullock
... and he studied nerve nets in coelenterates and the structure and physiology of giant nerve fibers in annelids. His studies on ... Frog hearing and communication. *Infrared sensing in snakes. *Caridoid escape reaction. *Vocal learning ... At the age of 88 Bullock re-established a modeling study on nerve-nets, and built a model that accurately predicted the input- ... nerve nets lead him to be one of the first experimentalists to understand the value and importance of computational techniques ...
Death of Caylee Anthony
... soon after hearing the verdict. "Me and my wife talked about it, and I decided to do it," said Montgomery. He sent an MP3 ... "struck such a nerve" with the public. "I think when people see someone that they believe has so gone away from [a mother's love ... after a bond hearing, the judge set bail at $500,000. On August 21, 2008, after one month of incarceration, she was ... which the defense objected to hearing. Judge Perry, after a short recess to review, ruled that the video could be shown to the ...
Neuroscience of music
Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve, the cochlear nucleus, the inferior ... "Ear and Hearing. 31 (3): 302-24. doi:10.1097/AUD.0b013e3181cdb272. PMC 2868335. PMID 20084007.. ... The auditory nerve then leads to several layers of synapses at numerous nuclei in the auditory brainstem. These nuclei are also ... 2002). "Hearing sounds, understanding actions: action representation in mirror neurons". Science. 297: 846-848. Bibcode:2002Sci ...
The Merkel nerve endings (also known as Merkel discs) detect sustained pressure. The lamellar corpuscles (also known as ... Auditory system (sense of hearing). *Vestibular system (sense of balance). *Olfactory system (sense of smell) ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch ... They are all innervated by Aβ fibers, except the mechanorecepting free nerve endings, which are innervated by Aδ fibers. ...
Schizophrenia - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Positive symptoms are thoughts, behaviors, or anything experienced by the senses that are not shared by others - like hearing ... the band of nerve fibers which connects the left side and the right side of the brain. People with schizophrenia also tend to ... Hallucinations are usually experiences of hearing voices that don't exist. These voices often say unpleasant things to the ... hearing, seeing, smelling, or tasting things that do not exist (hallucinations). Positive symptoms often respond to drug ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
nerve development. • nerve growth factor signaling pathway. • regulation of neuron differentiation. • neuron projection ... Other traits include sensory neuron losses that affect coordination, balance, hearing, taste, and breathing. Knockout mice also ... for low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor, also known as p75). It may also modulate the activity of various ... which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor. Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery. BDNF was ...
Hearing problems, such as otitis media with effusion, and listening problems, auditory processing disorders, can lead to ... Articulatory problems, such as slurred speech, stuttering, lisping, cleft palate, ataxia, or nerve damage leading to problems ... Those who are Hard of Hearing or deaf may be considered to fall into this category. ... nerve transmission, phonological processing or perception of the message (as opposed to the actual sound) leads to poor speech ...
Any problems with the development of the olfactory nerve fibres will prevent the progression of the GnRH releasing neurons ... Checking for hearing impairment.. *Checking for missing teeth or presence of cleft lip and/or cleft palate. ... along with the fibres of the olfactory nerves, and into the rostral forebrain. From there they migrate to what will become the ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
"Muscle & Nerve. 44 (1): 20-24. doi:10.1002/mus.22114. PMC 4441750. PMID 21607987. Lay summary - Massachusetts General Hospital ... "American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Rockville, MD. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 30 November ... Sensory nerves and the autonomic nervous system are generally unaffected, meaning the majority of people with ALS maintain ... Pain is a symptom experienced by most people with ALS and can take the form of neuropathic pain (pain caused by nerve damage), ...
Nerve. Trigeminal nerve, Great auricular nerve, Lesser occipital nerve. Lymph. To pre- and post-auricular nodes, nodes of ... pressure ulcer, often from a poorly fitting hearing aid. *anotia, absent pinna ... Cutaneous sensation to these areas is via the trigeminal nerve, the attendant nerve of the 1st branchial arch. The final three ... These portions of the ear are supplied by the cervical plexus and a small portion by the facial nerve. This explains why ...
The Hound of Death
He talks to his friend Seldon about it, to which the nerve-specialist replies he should talk to the piper and ask about the ... Romaine Heilger does indeed appear as a witness for the prosecution at the committal hearing, and Vole is sent for trial. In ... When questioned, she denies hearing the call for help and seems surprised at Jack's story, referring to him as "Monsieur". ... Also, once more the girl outside the cottage denies hearing any such sound, and sympathetically enquires if Jack has suffered ...
Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) ... of sensory neurons can cause degeneration of sensory neurons involved in transmitting sensory information such as hearing and ... a brain-derived neurotrophic factor that function in nerve growth and maintenance within the brain.. *Vorinostat (SAHA) ...
Wikipedia:WikiProject Academic Journals
Non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement methods
... functional integrity of the cochlear and facial nerves, degree of eventual sensory hearing loss). In addition, the assumption ... 1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.. The use of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) for the assessment of ICP dates back to ... 8.1 1.Optic nerve sheath diameter.. *8.2 2. Ophthalmodynamometry or the measurement of the retinal venous outflow pressure (VOP ... While the ONSD can at any given point along the optic nerve be measured with a precision of ,1mm, reliability of derived ICP ...
Yoga is a great example of an activity that calms your entire body and nerves. According to a study on well-being by Richards, ... it is necessary for professionals to have cultural competency of deaf and hard of hearing people and to understand how to ... Psychiatrist Walter Freeman believed that "an overload of emotions led to mental illness and "that cutting certain nerves in ...
"Bell's Palsy (Facial Nerve Problems): Symptoms, Treatment & Contagious".. *^ "Cerebral Palsy: a Guide for Care". Archived from ... hearing, swallowing, and speaking. Often, babies with cerebral palsy do not roll over, sit, crawl or walk as early as other ... This damage impairs the ability of some nerve receptors in the spine to receive gamma-Aminobutyric acid properly, leading to ... which eliminates the spasticity by reducing the excitatory neural response in the nerves causing it). ...
Diagnosis can take many forms. It might be a matter of naming the disease, lesion, dysfunction or disability. It might be a management-naming or prognosis-naming exercise. It may indicate either degree of abnormality on a continuum or kind of abnormality in a classification. It's influenced by non-medical factors such as power, ethics and financial incentives for patient or doctor. It can be a brief summation or an extensive formulation, even taking the form of a story or metaphor. It might be a means of communication such as a computer code through which it triggers payment, prescription, notification, information or advice. It might be pathogenic or salutogenic. It's generally uncertain and provisional. Once a diagnostic opinion has been reached, the provider is able to propose a management plan, which will include treatment as well as plans for follow-up. From this point on, in addition to treating the patient's condition, the provider can educate the patient about the etiology, ...
Evolution of mammals
Acute senses of hearing and smell became vital. *This accelerated the development of the mammalian middle ear. ... of cynodonts as channels that supplied blood vessels and nerves to vibrissae (whiskers) and suggested that this was evidence of ... mammals use two bones for hearing that all other amniotes use for eating. The earliest amniotes had a jaw joint composed of the ... A study of cranial openings for facial nerves connected whiskers in extant mammals indicate the Prozostrodontia, small ...
an eye that cannot move or is deviated to one side can indicate that a broken facial bone is pinching a nerve that innervates ... In addition to this hearing, vision, balance, and reflexes may also be assessed as an indicator of the severity of the injury.[ ... The patient experienced neither speech nor hearing impairments, but suffered from a few brain deficits. These deficits included ...
This skin membrane consists of connective tissue, elastic fibres, nerves, muscles, and blood vessels. The muscles keep the ... "In Hoy, R. R.; Fay, R. R.; Popper, A. N. (eds.). Comparative Hearing: Insects. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. Springer ... Many moth species have a hearing organ called a tympanum, which responds to an incoming bat signal by causing the moth's flight ... Strauß, J.; Lakes-Harlan, R. (2014). "Evolutionary and Phylogenetic Origins of Tympanal Hearing Organs in Insects". In Hedwig, ...
Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Nerve Deafness | HealthGuidance
This trauma can cause damage to either the cochlea (as in sensory hearing loss) or the acoustic nerve (as in neural hearing ... neither is total hearing loss. Those who experience sensorineural hearing loss or nerve deafness will most likely be referred ... Also known as nerve deafness, sensorineural hearing loss is a term used to refer to trauma in the inner ear. ... If these are damaged then complete hearing loss can be instant, although for some people its gradual but permanent. Nerves ...
Hearing experts break sound barrier for children born without hearing nerve | EurekAlert! Science News
... of Medicine of the University of Southern California is breaking sound barriers for children born without a hearing nerve in a ... A multi-institutional team of hearing and communication experts led by the Keck School ... Hearing experts break sound barrier for children born without hearing nerve Los Angeles research team studies brain plasticity ... Hearing experts break sound barrier for children born without hearing nerve. University of Southern California - Health ...
Deafness - Nerve, Hearing, Ear, and Eardrum - JRank Articles
Nerve (perceptive) deafness, on the other hand, stems from damage to the hearing nerve itself, which prevents the nerve from ... Hearing loss is of 2 basic types. In conductive deafness, the eardrum cannot make the bones of the inner ear vibrate. The nerve ... The most common cause is atherosclerosis of the blood vessels supplying the nerve or injury due to excessive noise. This form ... This form of deafness can usually be corrected by surgery, antibiotics, hearing aids, or other techniques. ...
Cranial Nerve, Visual and Hearing Dysfunction in Disorders of the CNS
Hearing aids and visual compensation can address hearing loss. No effective treatments are available for cranial nerve injury- ... Injury of the nerves that affect the eyes and ears can cause dysfunction in vision and hearing. ... Background: The 12 pairs of cranial nerves that emerge from the brain provide motor and sensory nerves to the head and neck. ... Condition: Cranial nerve injuries are common complications of traumatic brain injury due to trauma or other conditions. ...
Adding Insult to Injury: Cochlear Nerve Degeneration after "Temporary" Noise-Induced Hearing Loss | Journal of Neuroscience
1953) Hearing losses following partial section of the cochlear nerve. Laryngoscope 63:441-465. ... Adding Insult to Injury: Cochlear Nerve Degeneration after "Temporary" Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. Sharon G. Kujawa and M. ... Maturation of Spontaneous Firing Properties after Hearing Onset in Rat Auditory Nerve Fibers: Spontaneous Rates, Refractoriness ... Adding Insult to Injury: Cochlear Nerve Degeneration after "Temporary" Noise-Induced Hearing Loss ...
How hearing loss can change the way nerve cells are wired - University at Buffalo
A study shows that short-term hearing loss can cause auditory nerve cells to alter their behavior and even their shape. ... A microscope image shows the location in the brain of a mouse where nerve cells from the ear enter the brain and form cup-like ... A new study shows that these connections change their behavior and structure when the animals hearing is blocked. Credit: Hua ... If the nerve cells dont go back completely to the way they were, it could have a permanent influence on the way you perceive ...
Hearing the Telltale Sounds of Dangerous Chemicals: New Photoacoustic Technique Detects Multiple Nerve Agents Simultaneously |...
... its vital to quickly determine if even trace levels of potentially deadly chemicals-such as the nerve gas sarin and other ... Hearing the Telltale Sounds of Dangerous Chemicals: New Photoacoustic Technique Detects Multiple Nerve Agents Simultaneously. ... As the vapor of five nerve agent mimics was flowed in, three laser beams, each modulated at a different frequency in the ... Hearing the Telltale Sounds of Dangerous Chemicals: New Photoacoustic Technique Detects Multiple Ner ...
Surgery for Vertigo in the Nonserviceable Hearing Ear: Transmastoid Labyrinthectomy or Translabyrinthine Vestibular Nerve...
Surgery for Vertigo in the Nonserviceable Hearing Ear: Transmastoid Labyrinthectomy or Translabyrinthine Vestibular Nerve ... It has been inferred that a TLVNS should be the procedure of choice if hearing is not to be spared, because a TL results in an ... The clinical outcome of 68 patients who had either TL or TLVNS for disabling vertigo arising from a nonserviceable hearing ear ... Two of the surgical options that exist for the treatment of disabling vertigo arising from an ear with nonserviceable hearing ...
Facial Nerve Disorders - Shohet Ear Associates | Audiologist, Hearing Aids in Orange County
Hearing Test. Determines if the cause of damage to the facial nerve also involves the middle and/or inner ear. ... Hearing, facial nerve and balance problems can have a major impact on relationships, professional aspirations and quality of ... Stimulates the facial nerve to assess how badly the nerve is damaged. This test may have to be repeated at frequent intervals ... What are facial nerve disorders?. Twitching, weakness or paralysis of the face are the most common symptoms of facial nerve ...
African Health OER Network: CNS Examination of Facial Nerve and Hearing | Open Michigan
CNS Examination of Facial Nerve and Hearing. African Health OER Network: CNS Examination of Facial Nerve and Hearing. *Overview ... This module explores the examination of the central nervous system, particularly facial nerve and hearing, in children. ... CNS Examination of Facial Nerve and Hearing - Link to YouTube Video on OER Africa Channel ...
Some nerves: How loud noise may change hearing - UB Now: News and views for UB faculty and staff - University at Buffalo
That essential component is located at the connections between nerve cells, which are called synapses. In hearing, synapses are ... But when these episodes would occur, we never actually tested my daughters hearing to know the extent or duration of hearing ... At the end of the week, we looked at changes in synapses formed by the auditory nerve, which carries signals from the ear into ... Now I know that her auditory nerve synapses were likely changing. Did any of these changes become permanent? I dont think she ...
tinnitus and hearing loss cure tinnitus injection cure | simple tinnitus cure tinnitus nerve fat cure
Hearing loss: Probably the most common cause for tinnitus is hearing loss. As we age, or because of trauma to the ear (through ... The tumors grow on the nerve that supplies hearing and can cause tinnitus. This type of the condition usually are only noticed ... This can sometimes cause permanent damage to nerves that affect hearing. In some cases when a pregnant women uses drugs during ... Subjective tinnitus is often accompanied by hearing loss due to hair cell nerve damage. The severity of symptoms varies from ...
Understanding how nerve cells in the inner ear respond to noise exposure | Action on Hearing Loss
Dr Mark Rutherford looks at how high levels of glutamate damage nerve cells in the inner ear and try to understand why it ... Action on Hearing Loss is the trading name of the Royal National Institute for Deaf People (RNID). Company limited by guarantee ... The nerves carrying information about loud sounds are thought to be important for picking out specific sounds, such as speech, ... We want to find out more about how high levels of glutamate damage nerve cells in the inner ear. Dr Rutherford and his team are ...
Facial Nerve Disorders | Hearing Loss Care | UCHealth
UCHealth providers are specially trained to identify and treat facial nerve disorders. ... When facial nerve signals are interrupted, paralysis can occur. ... Home , Services , Hearing loss care (audiology) , Facial nerve ... Electrical nerve stimulation tests to check for facial muscle responsiveness. *Hearing and balance tests to measure the ... Facial nerve disorders. Treatment for Bells palsy and more.. See providers for facial nerve disorders See locations for facial ...
Ear ringing and stopped up, hearing loss nerve damage hearing aid youtube, earrings that curve up the ear opiniones
... hearing loss and mitochondrial disease uk, ear gauges new york city 03, vitamins to relieve tinnitus zumbido ... in ears after flying Tinnitus tmj symptoms yahoo What do it mean when you hear ringing in your ear inalambrico Sudden hearing ... like kyle richards er Home remedy ears ringing jokes Vintage junk jewelry lot uk Tinus cronje zimbabwe Loud noises hearing ...
A quantitative analysis of the nerve fibers in the VIIIth nerve of Belgian Waterslager canaries with a hereditary sensorineural...
... analysis of the nerve fibers in the VIIIth nerve of Belgian Waterslager canaries with a hereditary sensorineural hearing loss. ... This small reduction in the number of auditory nerve fibers, as compared to the larger reduction in hair cell number, might be ... The mean number of auditory nerve fibers was 6076 in non-BWS and 5363 in BWS canaries, representing a 12% reduction in BWS. ... Counts were obtained from semithin cross sections of the Durcupan-embedded auditory nerve at the level of the internal auditory ...
Nerve Deafness - A Culprit Behind Sudden Hearing Loss?
Nerve deafness is a part of sensorineural hearing loss meaning the cause for it is the damage to the auditory nerve or a ... Nerve Deafness - A Culprit Behind Sudden Hearing Loss?. Home » Otolaryngology » Hearing Impairment » ... Nerve deafness is a medical condition that causes a complete temporary or permanent hearing loss usually in one ear due to ... The hearing aids are not prescribed for nerve deafness because the sounds entering the ear can not be properly recognized by ...
Hearing loss and Infant symptoms and Mental retardation and Nerve deafness - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at...
List of causes of Hearing loss and Infant symptoms and Mental retardation and Nerve deafness, alternative diagnoses, rare ... Hearing loss:*237 causes: Hearing loss *Introduction: Hearing loss *Hearing loss: Add a 5th symptom *Hearing loss: Remove a ... Nerve deafness:*83 causes: Nerve deafness *Introduction: Nerve deafness *Nerve deafness: Add a 5th symptom *Nerve deafness: ... Hearing *Hearing symptoms (1100 causes) *Hearing disease *Hearing disorder *Loss *more symptoms...» Broaden Your Search: Remove ...
Autonomic nerve symptoms and Conductive hearing loss and Failure to thrive - Symptom Checker - check medical symptoms at...
List of causes of Autonomic nerve symptoms and Conductive hearing loss and Failure to thrive, alternative diagnoses, rare ... Nerve *Nerve disease *Nerve disorder *Nerve problem (9132 causes) *Nerve pain *more symptoms...» Broaden Your Search: Remove a ... Autonomic nerve symptoms and Conductive hearing loss and Failure to thrive. *Autonomic nerve symptoms AND Conductive hearing ... Conductive hearing loss:*62 causes: Conductive hearing loss *Introduction: Conductive hearing loss *Conductive hearing loss: ...
Arthritis, Physical Therapy, Nerve Damage Technology
National Hearing Test. Members can take a free confidential hearing test by phone. ... AARP Members Enjoy Health and Wellness Discounts: You can save on eye exams, prescription drugs, hearing aids and more ... Aging, diabetes and nerve damage dull sensors on the feet that keep you oriented. People in a Harvard study who used vibrating ... Addressing arthritis, muscle weakness, nerve damage and more through technology. AARP The Magazine, October 6, 2017 , Comments: ...
Cranial nerves - Wikipedia
Hearing and balance (VIII). The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) splits into the vestibular and cochlear nerve. The ... Cranial nerve mnemonics. References. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII), glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI), and hypoglossal nerve ...
Hearing Loss Caused By Nerve Damage
... - Examine how a person is able to, naturally, simply cure HPV infections and problems, like ... Hearing Loss Caused By Nerve Damage, Acquired Hearing Loss Causes, Acupuncture Treatment For Hearing Loss, Acute Hearing Loss ... Hearing Loss Caused By Nerve Damage, and Hearing Loss Causes. High Volume Can Cause Hearing Loss - Home Remedies For Hearing ... Improving Hearing Loss Naturally. What is Hearing Loss Caused By Nerve Damage? *Can Sinus Cause Hearing Loss. ...
Permanent Childhood Hearing Loss
... is the loss of hearing ability at a young age. It may be congenital, delayed-onset, ... Assessment of VIIIth Nerve Integrity. ABR. Stimuli: Click stimuli at a high level (e.g., 80-90 dB nHL) is adequate in most ... Hearing Aids. Attempts should be made to fit hearing aids within 1 month of diagnosis. Loaner hearing aids can be provided ... Congenital hearing loss refers to hearing loss that is present at birth and is often identified through a newborn hearing ...
The Vestibulocochlear Nerve (CN VIII) - Balance - Hearing - TeachMeAnatomy
The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth paired cranial nerve. It is comprised of two components - vestibular fibres and ... It is responsible for the special senses of hearing (via the cochlear nerve), and balance (via the vestibular nerve). ... It is responsible for the special senses of hearing (via the cochlear nerve), and balance (via the vestibular nerve). ... forming the vestibular nerve and the cochlear nerve. The vestibular nerve innervates the vestibular system of the inner ear, ...
cranial nerves hearing - Structural Anthropology
63 Pretty Pics Of Cranial Nerves Structure and Function. cranial nerve definition & function cranial nerve cranial nerve in ... cranial nerve definition & function cranial nerve cranial nerve in vertebrates any of the paired peripheral nerves connecting ... 12 Cranial Nerves Anatomy Diagram from cranial nerves structure and function , source:www.nursereview.org. 12 cranial nerves ... what is your brain cranial nerves 1000 ideas about cranial nerves function on pinterest cranial nerves google search nursing ...
Dan Jagger's Lab | UCL Ear Institute - UCL - University College London
More recently I have worked on the roles of primary cilia in hearing, and have returned to the auditory nerve to investigate ... Signalling in the auditory nerve. Spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) are the first nerve cells in the auditory pathway. ... Normal hearing relies on the maintenance of a constant chemical environment within the tissues of the inner ear. ... The roles of primary cilia in hearing. Cilia are antenna-like membrane-associated structures which play essential roles during ...
8th Cranial nerve - Webber's test - Vestibulocochlear test for hearing
This may be interpreted as: sound appears louder on the side with conductive hearing loss, or if an ear suffers from a sensory- ... neural loss in hearing, the sound will appear louder on the opposite ear. Considerations: Â If a conductive hearing loss is ... the Rinne test enables the practitioner to discriminate between a sensory-neural or a conductive loss in hearing. ... often before the Rinne test to determine whether a hearing loss is of a sensory neural or conductive origin. Test procedure: ...
Dog Hearing Loss - Hearling Loss Symptoms in Dogs | PetMD
Learn more about Dog Hearing Loss and ask a vet today at Petmd.com. ... Tumors or cancer involving the nerves used for hearing. *Inflammatory and infectious diseases - inflammation of the inner ear; ... Nerve *Degenerative nerve changes in elderly dogs. *Anatomic disorders - poor development (or lack of development) in the part ... Bacterial cultures and hearing tests, as well as sensitivity testing of the ear canal, may also used to diagnose the underlying ...
Hearing Restoration Through Synaptic Plasticity Directed by Vagus Nerve Stimulation
The development of this therapy to improve hearing function would yield clear benefits for patients with hearing loss, most ... The goal of this study is to produce a novel therapy to improve speech intelligibility for people with noise-induced hearing ... This project will provide the critical proof-of-concept demonstration that vagus nerve stimulation VNS paired with auditory ... Individuals with hearing loss lack any consistently effective interventions to restore normal hearing, especially in noisy ...
Old Age Hearing Nerve Deafness Quizlet | Improve Hearing With THIS!
Old Age Hearing Nerve Deafness Quizlet , Improve Hearing With THIS!. January 24, 2020. by Admin ... Hearing Aid Benefits For Seniors In Alberta , Improve Hearing With THIS! * Support Pages Of Families Of Elderly With Hearing ... Hearing loss is the most common hearing disorder. Many elderly people with other hearing loss problems are currently taking ... Radiation Induced Hearing Loss Treatment , Improve Hearing With THIS! * Troubleshooting Hearing Aids Phone Problem , Improve ...
Sensorineural hearBrainstemLossHypoglossalMotor nerveAbnormalDeafnessPairs of cranial nervesSensorineuralInner earImpulsesDamageConductionDisordersNervous systemDisorderTransmitsMusclesHead and neckOlfactory nerveOculomotorFunctionalCongenitalTrigeminalSignalsOccursSensory nervesCranial nerve lesionsAcoustic neuromaPatientsSkullCellsNumbnessDiagnosis
- Case of recurrent, reversible, sudden sensorineural hearing loss in a child. (nebraska.edu)
- This paper describes audiologic, electrophysiologic, and medical test results for a now 10-year-old girl who has had 45 episodes of reversible, sudden sensorineural hearing loss over the last 8 years. (nebraska.edu)
- Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Case of recurrent, reversible, sudden sensorineural hearing loss in a child. (nebraska.edu)
- Also known as 'nerve deafness', sensorineural hearing loss is a term used to refer to trauma in the inner ear. (healthguidance.org)
- Those who experience sensorineural hearing loss or nerve deafness will most likely be referred to a speech therapist or a teacher of ASL (American Sign Language) so that they have a new avenue of communication. (healthguidance.org)
- Deafness , partial or total impairment of the sense of hearing . (jrank.org)
- This form of deafness can usually be corrected by surgery , antibiotics, hearing aids , or other techniques. (jrank.org)
- Nerve (perceptive) deafness, on the other hand, stems from damage to the hearing nerve itself, which prevents the nerve from transmitting to the brain the message it receives from the vibrating eardrum and bones. (jrank.org)
- If you or someone you love have deafness, a hearing loss or tinnitus, we have the ideal products to help you stay connected and enjoy life. (actiononhearingloss.org.uk)
- Find out how the wonderful generosity of supporters is helping people with deafness, tinnitus or hearing loss. (actiononhearingloss.org.uk)
- Nerve deafness is a medical condition that causes a complete temporary or permanent hearing loss usually in one ear due to auditory nerve damage. (healtharticles101.com)
- Nerve deafness etiology or causes leading up to this specific type of hearing loss are very hard to investigate. (healtharticles101.com)
- Nerve deafness can strike suddenly within minutes or overnight, or it can develop and progress overtime, at first being accompanied by high frequency hearing loss or inability to hear higher musical notes, a voice of a woman or a small child. (healtharticles101.com)
- A lot of patients seeking tinnitus treatment , simply ringing in one ear, or cases of industrial deafness might develop nerve deafness later on. (healtharticles101.com)
- Nerve deafness is a part of sensorineural hearing loss meaning the cause for it is the damage to the auditory nerve or a cochlea, a tiny snail like structure in the inner ear. (healtharticles101.com)
- The hearing aids are not prescribed for nerve deafness because the sounds entering the ear can not be properly recognized by the brain due to the cochlear nerve damage. (healtharticles101.com)
- Recovery with sudden hearing loss does happen but only to a very small group of people and only in the first 3-4 weeks following the onset of nerve deafness. (healtharticles101.com)
- If you experienced unfortunate nerve deafness in one ear, it's vital for you to employ measures that will allow you to conserve hearing in a healthy ear by avoiding noisy environments, wearing hearing protection gear if exposed to high levels of noise, staying away from medications that might adversely affect your hearing unless absolutely necessary. (healtharticles101.com)
- Which is the Best Hearing aid for Nerve Deafness or Hearing Loss? (hearingsol.com)
- Nerve Deafness is also known as the sensorineural hearing loss which can be temporary or permanent. (hearingsol.com)
- In order to listen normally in sensorineural hearing loss, you need the best hearing aid for nerve deafness. (hearingsol.com)
- Hearing disorders range from a temporary, partial loss of hearing to the permanent loss of hearing known as deafness. (encyclopedia.com)
- Current therapy for patients with hereditary absence of cochlear hair cells, who have severe or profound deafness, is restricted to cochlear implantation, a procedure that requires survival of the auditory nerve. (nih.gov)
- This enhanced nerve survival and regenerative sprouting may improve the outcome of cochlear implant therapy in patients with hereditary deafness. (nih.gov)
Pairs of cranial nerves3
- The 12 pairs of cranial nerves that emerge from the brain provide motor and sensory nerves to the head and neck. (aapmr.org)
- There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves emerging from the brain and radiating from its surface. (aapmr.org)
- Most typically, humans are considered to have twelve pairs of cranial nerves (I-XII). (wikipedia.org)
- The sensorineural nerves are not so much functional nerves, but messenger ones instead, constantly relaying information to the brain about what they are hearing. (healthguidance.org)
- Unfortunately for patients suffering with sensorineural hearing loss, the condition is usually incurable, meaning that patients will never recover hearing in the ear affected again. (healthguidance.org)
- However, patients are often lucky that sensorineural hearing loss is very rare in both ears. (healthguidance.org)
- If you are experiencing sensorineural hearing loss symptoms then you should visit a medical professional for their opinion immediately. (healthguidance.org)
- This helps enhance hearing by increasing the number of sensorineural cells (nerve cells) in the inner ear. (madetopraisehim.com)
- Sensorineural hearing loss, commonly referred to as nerve hearing loss, accounts for 90% of hearing loss and refers to problems within the inner ear. (centralparkent.net)
- The main causes of sensorineural hearing loss are related to prematurity, genetics, exposure to loud noise, tumors, high dosage of medication, etc. (hearingsol.com)
- If the sensorineural hearing loss is permanent, and the doctor fails to treat it as it may become unresponsive for the treatment methods, then wearing specific hearing aids is the ultimate option. (hearingsol.com)
- Let's discuss which type of hearing aids will help you to listen better in sensorineural hearing loss. (hearingsol.com)
- Presbycusis (or sensorineural hearing loss) is the loss of hearing that occurs with age. (encyclopedia.com)
- Three members of a family with pili torti and sensorineural hearing loss: the Bjornstad syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is characterized by facial nerve paralysis and sensorineural hearing loss, with bullous myringitis and a vesicular eruption of the concha of the pinna and the external auditory canal (EAC). (medscape.com)
- As you probably know already, the inner ear is incredible delicate, with thousands of hair-like nerves playing an important role in the function of hearing. (healthguidance.org)
- Here, we show, using cochlear functional assays and confocal imaging of the inner ear in mouse, that acoustic overexposures causing moderate, but completely reversible, threshold elevation leave cochlear sensory cells intact, but cause acute loss of afferent nerve terminals and delayed degeneration of the cochlear nerve. (jneurosci.org)
- This primary neurodegeneration should add to difficulties hearing in noisy environments, and could contribute to tinnitus, hyperacusis, and other perceptual anomalies commonly associated with inner ear damage. (jneurosci.org)
- If this has ever happened to you, you may have experienced conductive hearing loss, which occurs when sound can't travel freely from the outer and middle ear to the inner ear. (buffalo.edu)
- The major difference between the two operations is a section of the vestibular nerves with the TLVNS which removes all preganglionic vestibular tissue from the diseased inner ear. (ovid.com)
- Determines if the cause of damage to the facial nerve also involves the middle and/or inner ear. (eardoctor.org)
- The causes for temporary hearing loss are usually obstructions in the ear canal caused by ear wax build up or inner ear fluid retention due to a bad case of cold or flu. (healtharticles101.com)
- The vestibular nerve innervates the vestibular system of the inner ear, which is responsible for detecting balance. (teachmeanatomy.info)
- The cochlear nerve travels to cochlea of the inner ear, forming the spiral ganglia which serve the sense of hearing. (teachmeanatomy.info)
- Normal hearing relies on the maintenance of a constant chemical environment within the tissues of the inner ear. (ucl.ac.uk)
- Taking antioxidants, which are known as carotenoids, can help neutralize free radicals which can damage the inner ear and cause hearing loss. (madetopraisehim.com)
- Individuals who are experiencing nerve hearing loss most likely have sustained some type of damage to the cochlea or auditory nerve, which are both located in the inner ear. (centralparkent.net)
- As we age, the inner ear nerves and sensory cells gradually die, causing hearing loss of varying levels. (centralparkent.net)
- The auditory nerve carries the electrical signals from the inner ear to the brain. (cdc.gov)
- If the intracranial pressure is abruptly transferred to the inner ear, perilymph can be leak, that called perilymphatic fistula, dizziness and hearing loss can occur suddenly. (e-rvs.org)
- Hence cochlear implants are used to bypass the damaged portion of the inner ear and deliver impulses directly to the auditory nerve. (hearingsol.com)
- The cochlear nerve carries auditory sensory information from the cochlea of the inner ear directly to the brain . (wikipedia.org)
- Hearing loss occurs because of the fluid accumulation and the resulting suppression of sound waves moving to the inner ear. (encyclopedia.com)
- Most permanent hearing loss is due to damage/malfunction of the nerve that transmits sound from the inner ear to the brain (auditory nerve). (medicinenet.com)
- He diagnosis and manages the range of disorders involving the middle and inner ear such as, cholesteatoma, otosclerosis and all types of hearing loss. (mayoclinic.org)
- A condition in which the body's immune system attacks the mechanisms of the inner ear, affecting hearing and balance. (medic8.com)
- A form of hearing loss in which sounds are prevented from travelling through the outer ear to the middle ear and into the inner ear. (medic8.com)
- and the cochlear duct, which is the only part of the inner ear involved in hearing. (britannica.com)
- The cochlea is a coiled sensory structure in the inner ear that plays a fundamental role in hearing. (britannica.com)
- Indeed, we found that after noise exposure, nerve impulses increased their success of being transmitted across the synapse, when normally they often fail to do so. (buffalo.edu)
- These photoreceptors carry signal impulses along nerve cells to form the optic nerve. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- An older type of hearing aid which detects sounds, via a microphone and changes these into electrical impulses. (medic8.com)
- Your personalized treatment plan depends on the results of your tests, and is designed to eliminate the source of the nerve damage. (uchealth.org)
- These nuclei are important relative to cranial nerve dysfunction because damage to these nuclei such as from a stroke or trauma can mimic damage to one or more branches of a cranial nerve. (wikipedia.org)
- The development of a new way to grow cells vital for nerve repair could be a vital step for use in patients with severe nerve damage, including spinal injury. (medindia.net)
- Early damage may not show up on your hearing test. (cdc.gov)
- Damage to the ear nerve is one of many causes of tinnitus. (livestrong.com)
- What Are the Causes of Nerve Damage in the Ear? (livestrong.com)
- However, peak level is not the sole factor for hearing damage. (cdc.gov)
- The measured volume levels were used to calculate the potential risk to hearing according to damage risk criteria laid out by industrial health and safety regulations. (healthcanal.com)
- Damage to the nerves of the peripheral nervous system is called peripheral neuropathy. (cancer.ca)
- Peripheral nerve damage may be temporary but it may take a few months or even years before it goes away. (cancer.ca)
- Sometimes, peripheral nerve damage may be permanent. (cancer.ca)
- If you are taking a drug or treatment that is known to cause peripheral neuropathy, your doctor will monitor you for signs of nerve damage before each treatment. (cancer.ca)
- Suffering from serious nerve damage? (jrlawfirm.com)
- Nerve damage can be caused by a variety of issues, but if you feel that someone's negligence played a role in you suffering from permanent nerve damage, call us today to discuss your legal options moving forward. (jrlawfirm.com)
- Many people suffer nerve damage due to a physical injury caused by events such as car accidents , botched medical procedures , sports injuries, slip and falls , or even the birth of a child . (jrlawfirm.com)
- Nerve damage caused by compression/pressure can often be alleviated (such as in the case of a pinched nerve or a tumor pressing up against a nerve fiber). (jrlawfirm.com)
- If you've suffered any kind of injury that likely resulted in nerve damage, it is important to have a doctor carry out a full panel of diagnostic tests to check the integrity of your nervous system. (jrlawfirm.com)
- Nerve damage can be difficult to quantify, and can affect people differently. (jrlawfirm.com)
- If you've suffered nerve damage due to the actions or negligence of another, call us today for a free consultation at 1-877-405-4313 . (jrlawfirm.com)
- Facial nerve disorders can be caused by traumatic injury, or result from medical conditions such as Bell's Palsy or herpes zoster oticus (shingles in the ear). (eardoctor.org)
- Dr. Shohet is sensitive to the many issues related to facial nerve disorders. (eardoctor.org)
- Facial nerve disorders affect the muscles of the face. (medicinenet.com)
- There are many causes of facial nerve disorders. (medicinenet.com)
- Hearing disorders occur worldwide in all races. (encyclopedia.com)
- This module explores the examination of the central nervous system, particularly facial nerve and hearing, in children. (umich.edu)
- The cranial nerves, however, emerge from the central nervous system above this level. (wikipedia.org)
- The cranial nerves are considered components of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), although on a structural level the olfactory, optic and terminal nerves are more accurately considered part of the central nervous system (CNS). (wikipedia.org)
- Sensory ganglia exist for nerves with sensory function: V, VII, VIII, IX, X. There are also parasympathetic ganglia, which are part of the autonomic nervous system for cranial nerves III, VII, IX and X. The trigeminal ganglia of the trigeminal nerve (V) occupies a space in the dura mater called Trigeminal cave. (wikipedia.org)
- You may be referred to a hearing specialist to see if there are any hearing aids or implants that would help your condition and you may require nerve tests on other areas of your body to check you are not suffering from a specific nerve disorder. (healthguidance.org)
- A number of tests can be helpful to diagnose the cause of a facial nerve disorder. (medicinenet.com)
- The treatment of a facial nerve disorder depends on the cause and severity. (medicinenet.com)
- Björnstad syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal hair and hearing problems. (medlineplus.gov)
- To study the nerve disorder, Dr. Tyler Sharp of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Dengue Branch in San Juan and colleagues in Puerto Rico examined the rare case of a 78-year-old man from San Juan who had been infected with Zika in 2016, developed Guillain-Barre and subsequently died. (stabroeknews.com)
- Although it was just a single case, Sharp said it suggested the mechanism that causes Guillain-Barre after a Zika infection was the same as in other cases of the nerve disorder. (stabroeknews.com)
- Trigeminal neuralgia is a common disorder of the trigeminal nerve that can cause intense pain and facial tics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The facial nerve is a nerve that controls the muscles on the side of the face. (medicinenet.com)
- In 2016, University of California, Berkeley, engineers demonstrated the first implanted, ultrasonic neural dust sensors, bringing closer the day when a Fitbit-like device could monitor internal nerves, muscles or organs in real time. (phys.org)
- The oculomotor nerve provides movement to most of the muscles that move the eyeball and upper eyelid, known as extraocular muscles. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Head and neck1
- For example, the olfactory nerve (I) supplies smell, and the facial nerve (VII) supplies motor innervation to the face. (wikipedia.org)
- CN I: Shearing of olfactory nerve filaments, fracture of the cribiform plate or a frontal lobe lesion causing compression of the olfactory bulb/tract can result in anosmia or altered sense of smell and taste. (aapmr.org)
- 1 These cranial nerves have one or more types of functional components, which provide motor and sensory innervation to head, neck, glands, vasculature and viscera. (aapmr.org)
- 50% speech discrimination) was preserved in 10 of 15 patients (75%) with SVN tumors, while only 7 of 25 patients (28%) with IVN tumors retained functional hearing. (elsevier.com)
- There may be a thirteenth cranial nerve, the terminal nerve (nerve O or N), which is very small and may or may not be functional in humans) Cranial nerves are generally named according to their structure or function. (wikipedia.org)
- 3,5 The trigeminal (CN V) and lower cranial nerves (CN IX-XII) are rarely injured. (aapmr.org)
- The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve and has both motor and sensory functions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The trigeminal nerve (V) is named in accordance with its three components (Latin: tri-geminus meaning triplets), and the vagus nerve (X) is named for its wandering course (Latin: vagus). (wikipedia.org)
Cranial nerve lesions2
- To qualify for participation, patients aged 2 to 5 years old must show that standard treatment such as hearing aids and cochlear implants have been ineffective. (eurekalert.org)
- Patients and families should be educated regarding safety considerations due to impaired vision or hearing, and support for family members may be available to aid in coping with changes in roles due to newfound disabilities. (aapmr.org)
- Having the device installed in particularly young patients with a missing auditory nerve should help them learn to hear and to speak as early as possible. (medgadget.com)
- The clinical outcome of 68 patients who had either TL or TLVNS for disabling vertigo arising from a nonserviceable hearing ear was investigated with respect to the control of vertigo and the development of postoperative balance dysfunction. (ovid.com)
- The ability of Schwann cells to boost nerve growth was proved many years ago in animals, but if you want to use this technique with patients, the problem is: where do you get enough cells from? (medindia.net)
- The hearing , "FDA Medical Device Regulation: Impact on American Patients, Innovation and Jobs," held before the House Committee on Energy & Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, highlighted the sense of urgency needed to accelerate the development and availability of emerging technologies for people with type 1 diabetes. (healthcanal.com)
- Patients with specific patterns of referred pain (trigger points), indication of blood vessel, lymph, nerve entrapment or proprioceptive disturbances (balance) should be evaluated for MPS. (tripod.com)
- To compare the mean change in hearing thresholds for key frequencies in these patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Since the Zika virus attacks nerve cells, scientists were not sure whether the Guillain-Barre cases they had seen in Zika patients were caused by an autoimmune response to the Zika infection or a direct attack by the virus on nerve cells. (stabroeknews.com)
- OBJECTIVE: To determine nerve of origin, tumor size, hearing preservation rates, and facial nerve outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing translabyrinthine (TL), middle cranial fossa (MCF), and retrosigmoid/suboccipital (SO) approaches to vestibular schwannomas (VS). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. (elsevier.com)
- Forty patients undergoing hearing preservation surgery had hearing results and nerve of origin data available for review. (elsevier.com)
- Facial nerve outcomes and nerve of origin were recorded simultaneously in 109 patients. (elsevier.com)
- Each year across our clinics, we see approximately 18,000 patients, fit more than 1,000 hearing aids and provide intraoperative nerve monitoring for over 700 surgeries in the operating room. (uofmhealth.org)
- Our hearing aid dispensing program provides excellent, comprehensive services and competitive prices for patients with hearing aids. (uofmhealth.org)
- Patients receive their hearing aids at this appointment. (uofmhealth.org)
- Patients have 30 days to determine if the hearing aids are optimal and have the opportunity to return the hearing aids and receive a refund for the cost of the hearing aids. (uofmhealth.org)
- Right Juxtaposed skull base with foramina in which many nerves exit the skull. (wikipedia.org)
- Cranial nerves have paths within and outside the skull. (wikipedia.org)
- There are many holes in the skull called "foramina" by which the nerves can exit the skull. (wikipedia.org)
- Cranial nerves are injured before, during or after their passage through the skull as a result of compression from increased intracranial pressure, traction or transection, ischemic event from an infarct, or vascular occlusion. (aapmr.org)
- However, peripheral CN VII lesions may present as immediate paralysis (usually due to a complete laceration of the nerve via skull fracture), or delayed, where a bone fragment compresses the nerve. (aapmr.org)
- Evaluation and management of tumors involving the ear/skull base including, vestibular schwannoma, glomus tumors and facial nerve tumors. (mayoclinic.org)
- A new study shows that these cells alter their behavior and structure when the animals' hearing is blocked. (buffalo.edu)
- When it's quiet, the demands on the auditory nerve cells are not as great," Xu-Friedman says. (buffalo.edu)
- In that project - faced with an unusually high level of noise - the mice's auditory nerve cells started to economize their resources, conserving supplies of neurotransmitter while increasing the storage capacity for the chemicals. (buffalo.edu)
- It looks like these effects are two sides of the same coin, and they might be the first hints of a general rule that nerve cells regulate their connections based on how active they are," Xu-Friedman says. (buffalo.edu)
- That essential component is located at the connections between nerve cells, which are called synapses. (buffalo.edu)
- New artificial neural networks developed by the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology and Google AI can now even recognize and classify nerve cells independently based on their appearance. (mpg.de)
- In addition, there are about 100 trillion connections between the nerve cells alone. (mpg.de)
- By means of improved image analysis using " Flood Filling Networks ", entire nerve cells with all their components and connections were automatically extracted from an image stack in 2018 - with virtually no errors. (mpg.de)
- The CMNs can now assign the nerve cells extracted from an image stack to a nerve cell type or a glial cell depending on their appearance. (mpg.de)
- Schwann cells are known to boost and amplify nerve growth in animal models, but their clinical use has been held back because they are difficult, time-consuming and costly to culture. (medindia.net)
- Fatty acids can also boost hair cells (which can improve hearing by reducing noise) and improve the hearing of people who are suffering from circulatory problems like high blood pressure. (madetopraisehim.com)
- Up to 30% to 50% of hair cells can be damaged or destroyed before changes in your hearing can be measured by a hearing test. (cdc.gov)
- As such, this critical organ and its accompanying nerve cells require an appropriate intake of healthy fats to maintain the membranes around these cells. (nfpt.com)
- If the nerve cells don't go back completely to the way they were, it could have a permanent influence on the way you perceive sound. (scienmag.com)
- Childhood cancer affecting specialised nerve cells, most commonly originating in the adrenal glands (neuroblastoma). (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The tiny hairs can bend or even break, and the attached nerve cells can degenerate. (encyclopedia.com)
- An autopsy showed inflammation and erosion of the protective sheath known as myelin in two nerves, but no evidence of the Zika virus in nerve cells. (stabroeknews.com)
- If the hair cells have become injured or died then hearing is impaired: but this device bypasses this by using a set of electrodes to stimulate the auditory nerve and enable hearing. (medic8.com)
- human ear: Ascending pathways: …of nerve cells called the cochlear nucleus. (britannica.com)