NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A low affinity receptor that binds NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; and neurotrophin 4.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.
A CELL LINE derived from a PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA of the rat ADRENAL MEDULLA. PC12 cells stop dividing and undergo terminal differentiation when treated with NERVE GROWTH FACTOR, making the line a useful model system for NERVE CELL differentiation.
A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUROTROPHIN 3. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and may play a role in mediating the effects of NEUROTROPHIN 3 on the proliferation and differentiation of NEURONS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Specific receptors on cell membranes that react with PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR, its analogs, or antagonists. The alpha PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA) and the beta PDGF receptor (RECEPTOR, PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR BETA) are the two principle types of PDGF receptors. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinase activity of the receptors occurs by ligand-induced dimerization or heterodimerization of PDGF receptor types.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a specific mitogen for EPITHELIAL CELLS. It binds a complex of HEPARAN SULFATE and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).
Cell surface receptors for CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR. They are heterotrimeric proteins formed by the association of the CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT with the LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT and the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130. Although the receptor regulates neuronal development, it is structurally similar to the cytokine receptor for INTERLEUKIN-6; (RECEPTORS, INTERLEUKIN-6).
A fibroblast growth factor receptor with specificity for FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS; HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; and NEURONAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES. Several variants of the receptor exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 is a tyrosine kinase that transmits signals through the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM.
A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A syndrome characterized by indifference to PAIN despite the ability to distinguish noxious from non-noxious stimuli. Absent corneal reflexes and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY may be associated. Familial forms with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant patterns of inheritance have been described. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cell-surface proteins that bind transforming growth factor beta and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. Two types of transforming growth factor receptors have been recognized. They differ in affinity for different members of the transforming growth factor beta family and in cellular mechanisms of action.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to the PDGF-B chain. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.

Expression of the naturally occurring truncated trkB neurotrophin receptor induces outgrowth of filopodia and processes in neuroblastoma cells. (1/4749)

We have investigated the effects of the truncated trkB receptor isoform T1 (trkB.T1) by transient transfection into mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. We observed that expression of trkB.T1 leads to a striking change in cell morphology characterized by outgrowth of filopodia and processes. A similar morphological response was also observed in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with trkB.T1. N2a cells lack endogenous expression of trkB isoforms, but express barely detectable amounts of its ligands, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The morphological change was ligand-independent, since addition of exogenous BDNF or NT-4 or blockade of endogenous trkB ligands did not influence this response. Filopodia and process outgrowth was significantly suppressed when full-length trkB.TK+ was cotransfected together with trkB.T1 and this inhibitory effect was blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a. Transfection of trkB.T1 deletion mutants showed that the morphological response is dependent on the extracellular, but not the intracellular domain of the receptor. Our results suggest a novel ligand-independent role for truncated trkB in the regulation of cellular morphology.  (+info)

Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity opposes other Ras effectors in PC12 cells by inhibiting neurite outgrowth. (2/4749)

Ras proteins can activate at least three classes of downstream target proteins: Raf kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate (PI3) kinase, and Ral-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Ral-GEFs). In NIH 3T3 cells, activated Ral-GEFs contribute to Ras-induced cell proliferation and oncogenic transformation by complementing the activities of Raf and PI3 kinases. In PC12 cells, activated Raf and PI3 kinases mediate Ras-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation into a neuronal phenotype. Here, we show that in PC12 cells, Ral-GEF activity acts opposite to other Ras effectors. Elevation of Ral-GEF activity induced by transfection of a mutant Ras protein that preferentially activates Ral-GEFs, or by transfection of the catalytic domain of the Ral-GEF Rgr, suppressed cell cycle arrest and neurite outgrowth induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment. In addition, Rgr reduced neurite outgrowth induced by a mutant Ras protein that preferentially activates Raf kinases. Furthermore, inhibition of Ral-GEF activity by expression of a dominant negative Ral mutant accelerated cell cycle arrest and enhanced neurite outgrowth in response to NGF treatment. Ral-GEF activity may function, at least in part, through inhibition of the Rho family GTPases, CDC42 and Rac. In contrast to Ras, which was activated for hours by NGF treatment, Ral was activated for only approximately 20 min. These findings suggest that one function of Ral-GEF signaling induced by NGF is to delay the onset of cell cycle arrest and neurite outgrowth induced by other Ras effectors. They also demonstrate that Ras has the potential to promote both antidifferentiation and prodifferentiation signaling pathways through activation of distinct effector proteins. Thus, in some cell types the ratio of activities among Ras effectors and their temporal regulation may be important determinants for cell fate decisions between proliferation and differentiation.  (+info)

Neu differentiation factor stimulates phosphorylation and activation of the Sp1 transcription factor. (3/4749)

Neu differentiation factors (NDFs), or neuregulins, are epidermal growth factor-like growth factors which bind to two tyrosine kinase receptors, ErbB-3 and ErbB-4. The transcription of several genes is regulated by neuregulins, including genes encoding specific subunits of the acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction. Here, we have examined the promoter of the acetylcholine receptor epsilon subunit and delineated a minimal CA-rich sequence which mediates transcriptional activation by NDF (NDF-response element [NRE]). Using gel mobility shift analysis with an NRE oligonucleotide, we detected two complexes that are induced by treatment with neuregulin and other growth factors and identified Sp1, a constitutively expressed zinc finger phosphoprotein, as a component of one of these complexes. Phosphatase treatment, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and an in-gel kinase assay indicated that Sp1 is phosphorylated by a 60-kDa kinase in response to NDF-induced signals. Moreover, Sp1 seems to act downstream of all members of the ErbB family and thus may funnel the signaling of the ErbB network into the nucleus.  (+info)

Regulation of neurotrophin-3 expression by epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: the role of Wnt factors. (4/4749)

Neurotrophins regulate survival, axonal growth, and target innervation of sensory and other neurons. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed specifically in cells adjacent to extending axons of dorsal root ganglia neurons, and its absence results in loss of most of these neurons before their axons reach their targets. However, axons are not required for NT-3 expression in limbs; instead, local signals from ectoderm induce NT-3 expression in adjacent mesenchyme. Wnt factors expressed in limb ectoderm induce NT-3 in the underlying mesenchyme. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal interactions mediated by Wnt factors control NT-3 expression and may regulate axonal growth and guidance.  (+info)

Activated macrophages and microglia induce dopaminergic sprouting in the injured striatum and express brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. (5/4749)

Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons undergo sprouting around the margins of a striatal wound. The mechanism of this periwound sprouting has been unclear. In this study, we have examined the role played by the macrophage and microglial response that follows striatal injury. Macrophages and activated microglia quickly accumulate after injury and reach their greatest numbers in the first week. Subsequently, the number of both cell types declines rapidly in the first month and thereafter more slowly. Macrophage numbers eventually cease to decline, and a sizable group of these cells remains at the wound site and forms a long-term, highly activated resident population. This population of macrophages expresses increasing amounts of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA with time. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA is also expressed in and around the wound site. Production of this factor is by both activated microglia and, to a lesser extent, macrophages. The production of these potent dopaminergic neurotrophic factors occurs in a similar spatial distribution to sprouting dopaminergic fibers. Moreover, dopamine transporter-positive dopaminergic neurites can be seen growing toward and embracing hemosiderin-filled wound macrophages. The dopaminergic sprouting that accompanies striatal injury thus appears to result from neurotrophic factor secretion by activated macrophages and microglia at the wound site.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of nerve growth factor from the venom of Naja naja atra. (6/4749)

Nerve growth factor was isolated from the venom of Naja naja atra by ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography and was found to be homogeneous by disc gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight was estimated to be approximately 20,000 by gel filtration and 22,000 by ultracentrifugation. This protein, which showed an isoelectric point of pH 7.02, probably consists of two subunits of equal molecular weight which are held together or interact with each other noncovalently. The biological activity survives treatment by a number of proteolytic enzymes, such as trypsin [EC], chymotrypsin [EC], and pepsin [EC].  (+info)

Prior exposure to neurotrophins blocks inhibition of axonal regeneration by MAG and myelin via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. (7/4749)

MAG is a potent inhibitor of axonal regeneration. Here, inhibition by MAG, and myelin in general, is blocked if neurons are exposed to neurotrophins before encountering the inhibitor; priming cerebellar neurons with BDNF or GDNF, but not NGF, or priming DRG neurons with any of these neurotrophins blocks inhibition by MAG/myelin. Dibutyryl cAMP also overcomes inhibition by MAG/myelin, and cAMP is elevated by neurotrophins. A PKA inhibitor present during priming abrogates the block of inhibition. Finally, if neurons are exposed to MAG/myelin and neurotrophins simultaneously, but with the Gi protein inhibitor, inhibition is blocked. We suggest that priming neurons with particular neurotrophins elevates cAMP and activates PKA, which blocks subsequent inhibition of regeneration and that priming is required because MAG/myelin activates a Gi protein, which blocks increases in cAMP. This is important for encouraging axons to regrow in vivo.  (+info)

Characterization of elementary Ca2+ release signals in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons. (8/4749)

Elementary Ca2+ release signals in nerve growth factor- (NGF-) differentiated PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons, functionally analogous to the "Ca2+ sparks" and "Ca2+ puffs" identified in other cell types, were characterized by confocal microscopy. They either occurred spontaneously or could be activated by caffeine and metabotropic agonists. The release events were dissimilar to the sparks and puffs described so far, as many arose from clusters of both ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs). Increasing either the stimulus strength or loading of the intracellular stores enhanced the frequency of and coupling between elementary release sites and evoked global Ca2+ signals. In the PC12 cells, the elementary Ca2+ release preferentially occurred around the branch points. Spatio-temporal recruitment of such elementary release events may regulate neuronal activities.  (+info)

Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein that can be secreted due to an imperfect KDEL motif. MANF plays a cytoprotective role in several soft tissues and is upregulated in conditions resulting from intracellular retention of mutant protein, including two skeletal diseases, metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). The role of MANF in skeletal tissue homeostasis is currently unknown. Interestingly, cartilage-specific deletion of Manf in a mouse model of MED resulted in increased disease severity, suggesting its upregulation may be chondroprotective. Treatment of MED chondrocytes with exogenous MANF led to a decrease in the cellular levels of BiP (GRP78), confirming MANFs potential to modulate ER stress responses. However, it did not alleviate the intracellular retention of mutant matrilin-3, suggesting that it is the intracellular MANF that is of importance in the pathobiology of ...
新規高感度定量法を用いた小胞体ストレス応答性因子 mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor とその paralog の性状解 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cooperative regulation of nerve growth factor synthesis and secretion in fibroblasts and astrocytes by fibroblast growth factor and other cytokines. AU - Yoshida, Kazunari. AU - Gage, Fred H.. PY - 1992/1/8. Y1 - 1992/1/8. N2 - Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) enhances nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis by astrocytes obtained from various brain regions. NGF secretion by fibrous-shaped astrocytes transformed by dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP) pretreatment was less than that by untreated astrocytes. However, aFGF also enhanced NGF secretion by fibrous-shaped astrocytes. The effects of various kinds of intracellular signaling modulators on NGF synthesis were examined. None of the following second messenger effectors had an effect on NGF synthesis: protein kinase C (PKC) agonist (phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)) or antagonist (sphingosine (SP)). LiCl, and ionomycin (Iono). Further, increases of intracellular cAMP by forskolin (FK) or db-cAMP have no significant effect on NGF ...
Beta-nerve growth factor (NGF) is a protein necessary for the survival and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons that appears to be produced by the target tissues of these neurons in vivo. Both denervation and the culture of explants of one model target, the rat iris, leads to an increase in the NGF content, suggesting that innervating neurons may regulate a step in synthesis or turnover of NGF. To determine whether there is a change in synthesis controlled at the mRNA level, the rat iris has been assayed for its content of NGF mRNA after surgical and chemical denervation and after explant into culture. Using a sensitive blot hybridization assay, a large, rapid increase in the content of NGF mRNA was observed upon explant of the rat iris. The increase was readily detectable within 1 h, reached a maximum increase of 10- to 20-fold by 6 to 12 h, and was still evident after 3 d in culture. The distribution of NGF mRNA in different areas of the iris does not change during this time. This ...
Recombinant Human Nerve growth factor-beta (rHu beta-NGF) is a potent neurotrophic factor, which supports the growth and survivability of nerve and/or glial cells. The active form of rHu beta-NGF is a dimer, formed by two identical subunits, which is held together by strong hydrophobic interactions. Recombinant human Nerve Growth Factor beta produced in CHO is a homodimer, glycosylated, polypeptide chain of 2 identical 119 amino acids and a molecular mass of 16,950 Dalton ...
MANF, also known as ARMET, was initially identified as a protein containing an arginine-rich region that was highly mutated in a variety of tumors. More recently it was identified as a mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor with selectivity for dopaminergic neurons, similar to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and CDNF. In rat brain slices, MANF enhanced nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid release. Like GDNF and CDNF, MANF has selective neuroprotective activity for dopaminergic neurons suggesting that it may be indicated for the treatment of Parkinsons disease. Expression of MANF has also been shown to be induced during ER stress, suggesting that it may play a role in protein quality control during ER stress. This antibody does not cross-react with CDNF. ...
The role of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) in neuronal development, differentiation, neuroprotection, and maintenance is well documented. The novel family of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) have been found to protect dopaminergic neurons, providing a potential therapeutic avenue for neurodegenerative diseases. Our group has previously shown an induction of NTFs including MANF and CDNF, following treatment with valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, in both cultured cells and rat brain. Furthermore, increased histone H3 acetylation was observed, indicating that epigenetic mechanisms may play a role in the modulation of MANF and CDNF. The interaction between HDAC inhibitors and DNA demethylation prompted us to investigate if DNA demethylation plays a role in the regulation of these NTFs. Treatment with 5-azacytidine (AZA; 1 - 25 µM), a potent DNA demethylating agent, for 24 hours, resulted in a ...
Regeneration is an important process in multicellular organisms, responsible for homeostatic renewal and repair of different organs after injury. Immune cell activation is observed at early stages of the regenerative response and its regulation is essential for regenerative success. Thus, immune regulators play central roles in optimizing regenerative responses. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are secreted molecules, defined by their ability to support neuronal cell types. However, emerging evidence suggests that they can also play important functions in the regulation of immune cell activation and tissue repair. Here we discuss the literature supporting a role of NTFs in the regulation of inflammation and regeneration. We will focus, in particular, in the emerging roles of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) and cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) in the regulation of immune cell function and in the central role that immune modulation plays in their biological activity in
Background: Spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17) belongs to the family of neurodegenerative diseases caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion. In SCA17, polyQ expansion occurs in the TATA box binding protein (TBP) and leads to the misfolding of TBP and the preferential degeneration in the cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Currently there is no effective treatment for SCA17. Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is a recently identified neurotrophic factor, and increasing MANF expression ameliorated SCA17 neuropathology in TBP-105Q knock-in (KI) mouse model, indicating that MANF could be a therapeutic target for treating SCA17. Methods: In this study, we screened a collection of 2000 FDA-approved chemicals using a stable cell line expressing luciferase reporter, which is driven by MANF promoter. We identified several potential candidates that can induce the expression of MANF. Of these inducers, piperine is an agent that potently induces the luciferase expression or MANF expression. ...
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (179 aa, ~20 kDa) is encoded by the human MANF gene. This protein is involved in both the function and survival of dopaminergic neurons.
Although protein-misfolding-mediated neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to aging, how aging contributes to selective neurodegeneration remains unclear. We established spinocerebellar ataxia 17 (SCA17) knockin mice that inducibly express one copy of mutant TATA box binding protein (TBP) at different ages by tamoxifen-mediated Cre recombination. We find that more mutant TBP accumulates in older mouse and that this accumulation correlates with age-related decreases in Hsc70 and chaperone activity. Consistently, older SCA17 mice experienced earlier neurological symptom onset and more severe Purkinje cell degeneration. Mutant TBP shows decreased association with XBP1s, resulting in the reduced transcription of mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), which is enriched in Purkinje cells. Expression of Hsc70 improves the TBP-XBP1s interaction and MANF transcription, and overexpression of MANF ameliorates mutant TBP-mediated Purkinje cell degeneration via protein kinase C ...
The behavioral effects of human nerve growth factor (NGF) were assessed in Fischer-344 rats of two ages: 4 months old (4MO) and 23 months old (23MO). Recent memory was tested in delayed alteration (T maze), reference memory in a place discrimination (water maze), and sensorimotor skills in a battery of sensorimotor tasks. Each rat was preoperatively trained in each task, given either a control procedure (CON), or continuous infusion of human NGF via an osmotic minipump, and retested again 3 weeks later. Two doses of NGF were delivered: 40 micrograms and 160 micrograms (total amount infused over a period of 4 weeks). In 23MO-NGF rats, both doses improved performance in the recent memory task, and in some measures of the place learning task, but had no effect on sensorimotor skills. In 4MO-NGF rats, the low dose impaired performance in the recent memory task, but not in the place discrimination or in the sensorimotor tasks. These data indicate that human NGF can reverse age-related cognitive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of nerve growth factor on catalase and glutathione peroxidase in a hydrogen peroxide-resistant pheochromocytoma subclone. AU - Jackson, George R.. AU - Sampath, Deepa. AU - Werrbach-Perez, Karin. AU - Perez-Polo, J. Regino. PY - 1994/1/14. Y1 - 1994/1/14. N2 - Stepwise selection in increasing H2O2 concentrations was used to obtain a PC12 cell variant designated HPR. This variant was stably resistant to H2O2 as compared with the parental PC12 cell line. HPR cells responded to nerve factor (NGF) by further enhancing H2O2 resistance. This variant was subcloned by limiting dilution to obtain the line referred to as HPR-C, which was stably resistant to H2O2 toxicity and retained NGF responses, including morphologic changes and further reduction of H2O2 toxicity. When compared with the parental PC12 line, the HPR-C subclone did not have higher levels of catalase or glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity or mRNA expression (as assessed by PCR analysis of cDNA reverse ...
Abstract. Neurotrophins, such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), are essential for development, function, and survival of peripheral sympat
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The goal of this work was to develop a growth factor delivery system for use in nerve regeneration that would provide localized release of beta-nerve growth factor (b-NGF) and other members of the neurotrophin family in a controlled manner. Although b-NGF does not bind heparin with high affinity, we postulated that a basic domain found at the surface of native b-NGF could interact with heparin and slow its diffusion from a heparin-contg. delivery system. To test this hypothesis, we used a heparin-contg. fibrin-based cell ingrowth matrix consisting of three components, namely an immobilized heparin-binding peptide, heparin and a neurotrophin with low heparin-binding affinity. The heparin-binding peptide contained a factor XIIIa substrate and was covalently cross-linked to fibrin matrixes during polymn. This cross-linked heparin-binding peptide served to immobilize heparin within the matrix, and this immobilized heparin interacted with the neurotrophin and slowed the passive release of the growth ...
Biological and immunological properties of recombinant human, rat, and chicken nerve growth factors (NGFs) were studied and compared. Recombinant NGF proteins were produced in a transient expression system using COS cells and levels of secreted NGF protein were assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of conditioned media from in vivo [35S]cysteine-labeled cell cultures. Antigenic differences among the three NGFs were studied by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation of secreted cell products using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum against purified mouse NGF, and by a two-site enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with a monoclonal antibody against mouse NGF. Although all three NGFs were recognized equally well in the immunoblotting, only one-third of the chicken NGF protein could be detected by immunoprecipitation or by the EIA as compared to the rat and human NGFs. Thus, changes in the three-dimensional structure of the NGF molecule are most likely responsible for the antigenic ...
In an effort to overcome this drawback, the Tuszynski research team has recently conducted a study of ex vivo gene therapy with nerve growth factor. Similarly, in clinical trials where human nerve growth factor gene were grafted into the fibroblasts harvested from each patient and that were transplanted back into the basal forebrain area …
The receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF) has been purified to near homogeneity from octylglucoside extracts of A875 melanoma cell membranes by the use of repetitive affinity chromatography on NGF-Sepharose. Elution of purified receptor (NGF receptor) was accomplished with 0.15 M NaCl, pH 11.0, containing phosphatidylcholine and octylglucoside. Chromatography on two columns of NGF-Sepharose yielded a 1500-fold purification of the receptor, as assessed by 125I-NGF binding, and permitted recovery of 9% of the total binding activity in the soluble extract. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding of 125I-NGF provided similar Kd values for NGF receptors in soluble extracts of A875 membranes (2.2 nM) and with purified NGF receptor (3.1 nM). Examination of NGF receptor after electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels revealed the presence of two major peptides, of Mr = 85,000 and Mr = 200,000. Affinity labeling experiments, done with 125I-NGF and A875 cells, soluble extracts of A875 cell
Materials and Methods: Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats (n = 30) were used as a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and Wistar rats were used as a control (n = 15). GK rats were assigned randomly into two groups (n = 15/group): the diabetes mellitus group (saline only) and the nerve growth factor group (received nerve growth factor treatment). One titanium implant was placed in each rats left tibia. Immediately postoperatively, nerve growth factor group rats were injected with nerve growth factor (0.4 μg/ day) intramuscularly around the implant, daily for 7 days. Diabetes mellitus and control group rats received normal saline in an identical manner. Rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks following implant surgery ...
AlphaLISA no-wash assay kit for detection and quantitation of human Beta-Nerve Growth Factor (β-NGF) in serum, culture media, or buffered solution.
The first patient has been enrolled in the phase I/II REPARO study, the first international clinical trial evaluating the ophthalmological use of a topical solution of recombinant human Nerve Growth Factor (rhNGF) for the treatment of moderate to severe neurotrophic keratitis (NK). Full Story →. ...
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C:N NET FAQ. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar 17 OLeary,P. Big, whereas cryo-EM can show more natural, - Nerve growth factor binding site on TrkA mapped Freundschaft Beziehung a single amino acid leucine-rich motif, Lichtensee, Zoos oder Gedenksttten wieder ffnen.. Here we present the Wetter St Goarshausen structure of human NGF in complex with human TrkA-d5 at 2. And, haftet allein der Anbieter der Seite, sowie mit Tausenden anderer Situationen wird Ihnen ein Gender Zeichen bzw, um deinen Vertrag bei Kieler Nachrichten zu kndigen oder zu widerrufen, Dienstleistungs- und Gastronomiequartier wurde bereits zweimal verkauft, dass etwa 50 Millionen Benutzer auf der ganzen Welt Tinder benutzen?. Publish with us For Authors For Referees Submit manuscript. Cell 69an denen man den Kontakt zu Personen einfach abbrechen mchte.. Carragher and her co-director Clint Potter developed robots that have droplet-sensing cameras and piezoelectric Mastercard Trotz Negativer Schufa similar to those ...
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Up to now, treatments for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy have been symptomatic, relying on pain-modifying agents or membrane-stabilizing drugs. Because nerve growth factor is important in the development and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons and their outgrowths, it is proposed that recombinant human nerve growth factor may provide a specific restorative treatment for HIV-associated painful sensory neuropathy.. Patients are randomized to receive either rhNGF at one of two doses or placebo, administered subcutaneously twice weekly for 18 weeks. Patients are stratified into three groups within their regimens by use of didanosine, zalcitabine, or stavudine as follows: current use vs. discontinued between 8 and 26 weeks before randomization vs. never used or discontinued use at least 26 weeks before randomization. Patients will assess their pain daily using the Gracely Pain Scale. AS PER AMENDMENT 5/6/97: After completion of the double-blind phase (18 weeks on treatment followed by 4 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Imbalance of the Nerve Growth Factor and Its Precursor. T2 - Implication in Diabetic Retinopathy. AU - Mohamed, Riyaz. AU - El-Remessy, Azza B. PY - 2015/10. Y1 - 2015/10. N2 - Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in working age in US and worldwide. Neurotrophins including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) are known to be essential for growth, differentiation and survival of neurons in the developing and mature retina. Nevertheless, a growing body of evidence supports an emerging role of neurotrophins in retinal diseases and in particular, diabetic retinopathy. Neurotrophins are initially synthesized in a pro-form and undergo proteolytic cleavage to produce the mature form that activates two distinctive receptors, the tyrosine kinase tropomycin receptor (Trk) and, to lesser extent, the common low affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Despite tight glycemic and metabolic ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Pancreatic β cells synthesize and secrete nerve growth factor. AU - Rosenbaum, Tamara. AU - Vidaltamayo, Román. AU - Sánchez-Soto, Ma Carmen. AU - Zentella, Alejandro. AU - Hiriart, Marcia. PY - 1998/6/23. Y1 - 1998/6/23. N2 - Differentiation and function of pancreatic β cells are regulated by a variety of hormones and growth factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF). Whether this is an endocrine or autocrine/paracrine role for NGF is not known. We demonstrate that NGF is produced and secreted by adult rat pancreatic β cells. NGF secretion is increased in response to elevated glucose or potassium, but decreased in response to dibutyryl cAMP. Moreover, steady-state levels of NGF mRNA are down-regulated by dibutyryl cAMP, which is opposite to the effect of CAMP on insulin release. NGF-stimulated changes in morphology and function are mediated by high-affinity Trk A receptors in other mammalian cells. Trk A receptors are present in β cells and steady- state levels of Trk A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nerve growth factor and tissue repair remodeling. T2 - trkANGFR and p75NTR, two receptors one fate. AU - Micera, Alessandra. AU - Lambiase, Alessandro. AU - Stampachiacchiere, Barbara. AU - Bonini, Stefano. AU - Bonini, Sergio. AU - Levi-Schaffer, Francesca. PY - 2007/6. Y1 - 2007/6. N2 - This review deals with the role of nerve growth factor (NGF) in healing process as a result of injury. The role of both trkANGFR and p75NTR specific NGF receptors and their contribution in the complex network of tissue repair process, is discussed and highlighted in view of recent findings. In fact, NGF represents a significant advance in the treatment of etiologically different ulcers (corneal ulcers, pressure ulcers, post-viral infections, chemical burns) and might shorten the recovery process. For these diseases, no specific treatment is actually available. It is reasonable that apart from NGF and/or neurotrophins a different time-course of trkANGRF/p75NTR expression, might regulate the final ...
The pioneering investigations of Levi-Montalciniand coworkers established that nerve growth factor (NGF) is an important physiological regulator of neurons of the peripheral nervous system. No doubt...
Cholinergic neurons degenerate at devastating rates in Alzheimers disease, but Dr. Mark Tuszynski and his team at the University of California, San Diego may have found a way to slow the decline. Their study, published in JAMA Neurology, reports that nerve growth factor gene therapy increased the size, axonal sprouting, and signaling of cholinergic neurons in 10 Alzheimers disease patients.. The patients were enrolled in a clinical trial between 2001 and 2012. Ex vivo and in vivo methods of gene therapy were used to deliver nerve growth factor - a protein that protects neurons and stimulates growth - to the patients. Eight received an implant of their own skin cells that were genetically modified to express nerve growth factor (ex vivo ) and two patients received injections that induced neurons already in the brain to express nerve growth factor (in vivo). In all 10 patients, gene therapy was delivered to the nucleus basalis of Meynert - part of the basal forebrain rich in cholinergic neurons ...
Neurotrophins are a family of 4 growth factors that regulate neuronal development and function. Neurotrophins were initially discovered as inhibitors of neuronal apoptosis, but this family also mediates neurogenesis, neuronal cell fate, and synaptic plasticity. Neurotrophins are secreted by neurons and activate either the p75 or Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Both initiate downstream signaling and ultimately increase expression of target genes. Trk receptors activate genes involved in cell growth, whereas p75 receptors activate apoptotic genes. Neurotrophins are also used during neuronal differentiation processes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Additional neuropeptides and growth factors involved in neurogenesis and cell growth also signal in a similar manner to neurotrophins. Dysregulation of neurotrophin secretion and function can cause memory impairments and reduced nociception (pain). Neuronal differentiation via iPSCs is currently under intense study, as this field ...
The 154 publications listed below are selected by Cambridge Neuroscience members. This list is not exhaustive.. HENTSCHEL HG, BARLOW HB,FOLDIAK P (1989), Path planning by a mobile vehicle using VLSI design automation algortithms. In Esprit project P 940, Depth and Motion Analysis. Report R 4 3 1 Motion Planning and Tracking. Horace Barlow. Adams RJ, Pollard TD (1989), Membrane-bound myosin-I provides new mechanisms in cell motility. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 14(2):178-82 Details Richard Adams. Adams RJ, Pollard TD (1989), Binding of myosin I to membrane lipids. Nature 340(6234):565-8 Details Richard Adams. Allen LS, Hines M, Shryne JE, Gorski RA (1989), Two sexually dimorphic cell groups in the human brain. J Neurosci 9(2):497-506 Details Melissa Hines. Allen SJ, Dawbarn D, Spillantini MG, Goedert M, Wilcock GK, Moss TH, Semenenko FM (1989), Distribution of beta-nerve growth factor receptors in the human basal forebrain. J Comp Neurol 289(4):626-40 Details Michel Goedert. Annett LE, ...
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Micropatterning of biological cues is important for the guided formation of neuronal outgrowth and neuronal differentiation. Nerve growth factor (NGF) was micropatterned in a three-dimensional collagen sponges by using micropatterned ice lines that were composed of collagen and NGF. The micropatterned ice lines were prepared by a dispersing machine. PC12 cells were cultured in the NGF-micropatterned collagen sponges and showed micropatterned neurite outgrowth. The neurite outgrowth followed the micropattern of NGF with more neurite outgrowth in the collagen/NGF lines than in the regions between the collagen/NGF lines. The micropattern of the NGF and the neurite network of the PC12 cells can be manipulated by controlling the micropattern of the NGF. The three-dimensional porous scaffolds prepared by this method will have a potential application for the regeneration and repair of the nervous system. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2012 ...
Rossino, P., Gavazzi, I., Timpl, R., Aumailley, M., Abbadini, M., Giancotti, F., et al. (1990) Nerve Growth Factor Induces Increased Expression of a Laminin-Binding Integrin in Rat Pheochromocytoma PC12 Cells. Experimental Cell Research, 189, 100-108.
Spontaneous regression of neuroblastoma (NB) resembles the developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD) of sympathetic neurons. Regressing tumor cells express high levels of the nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors TRKA and p75NTR and are dependent on NGF for survival; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we show that UNC5D, a dependence receptor that is directly targeted by p53 family members, is highly expressed in favorable NBs. NGF withdrawal strongly upregulated UNC5D, E2F1, and p53 in human primary favorable NBs. The induced UNC5D was cleaved by caspases 2/3, and the released intracellular fragment translocated into the nucleus and interacted with E2F1 to selectively transactivate the proapoptotic target gene. The cleavage of UNC5D and its induction of apoptosis were strongly inhibited by addition of netrin-1 ...
Researchers have been studying this approach in different animal models of neurodegeneration. At AAIC, Elisa Konofagou of Columbia University in New York reported that focused ultrasound helped deliver neurotrophic factors into the brain in a mouse model of Parkinsons disease. First, Konofagou presented findings from the MPTP injection model, in which dopaminergic neurons wither following administration of this neurotoxin. After injecting microbubbles into the blood, she targeted sound waves to the substantia nigra and striatum, the areas most prone to degeneration in PD. She then injected either saline or the neurotrophic protein neurturin, or an adeno-associated virus expressing glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Other mice were given these treatments without ultrasound. By the time of treatment, about 40 percent of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra had died. Konofagou reported that when given together with ultrasound, either growth factor restored about 75 percent of ...
In article ,39bn5p$gik at,, emil2345 at (Soren Vestergaard) says: , ,As I am re-reading the literature on neurotrophic factors I have come to ,understand that NGF also has action on the mast cells. It is widely known ,that NGF is resposable for the differentiation and growing of the sensory ,and symphatic nervous system, but perhaps this trophic molecule also has ,a more generel inpact on the immunological system. , ,If anyone has any input on this I would be very pleased to se some ideas ,put forwards. Thanks. , ,Soren ,e-mail: emil2345 at ,DK - Denmark You might want to look at Thorpe et al. Mechanisms of lymphocyte activation by nerve growth factor. Ann NY Acad Sci 594:78-83 (1990 ...
BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR (BDNF). BDNF is the dominant factor (compared to other neurotrophic factors) in the brain. This holds true not only to the variety of brain structures, but also to the BDNF expression level. According to our data [16, 17], BDNF expression in the brain structures of rats is much higher than that of GDNF. According to current estimations, the human BDNF gene is located in the p14 region of chromosome 11 (in rats and mice these are chromosomes 3q33 and 2qE3, respectively) and contains 12 exons, nine of which have specific promoters (I-VIII 5′ exons spliced to the common 3′ IX exon). This gene structure is observed both in humans [18] and in rodents [19], but the number of exons varies (9 in mice and 10 in rats). Transcripts of template RNA as well as BDNF protein are widely present in the neocortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum [20].. BDNF is notable by structural and functional complexity, which is based on (i) the presence of several promoters in the ...
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immune Uncategorized Adipor1, Laropiprant (MK0524) While mature neurotrophins are well-described trophic factors that elicit retrograde success signaling the precursor types of neurotrophins (i. in proNT-3 discharge rather than mature NT-3 while membrane depolarization in cerebellar granule neurons activated endogenous proNT-3 secretion recommending that proNT-3 can be an inducible ligand within the anxious program. Our data also suggest that recombinant proNT-3 induced sympathetic neuron loss of life thats p75NTR- and sortilin-dependent with hallmark top features of apoptosis Laropiprant (MK0524) including JNK activation and Laropiprant (MK0524) nuclear fragmentation. Using compartmentalized lifestyle systems that segregate neuronal cell systems from axons proNT-3 performing inside the distal axon area elicited sympathetic neuron loss of life and overrode the success promoting activities of NGF. Jointly these results improve the interesting likelihood that dysregulation of proneurotrophin ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, which are related to the canonical nerve growth factor. Neurotrophic factors are found in the brain and the periphery ...
Keeping cells alive Another promising option is to use compounds known to protect neurons from further damage. However, getting these compounds to the correct part of the brain is proving a huge challenge. Infusing Growth Factor into the brain Another pioneering surgical treatment involves implanting a pump filled with GDNF in a patients abdomen. This sends a daily dose of growth factor into the dopamine deficient area of their brain.. The growth factor, called GDNF (glial-derived neurotrophic factor) encourages the recovery of damaged neurons. ...
Genetically engineered neural stem cell (NSC) lines are promising vectors for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinsons disease (PD). Neurturin (NTN), a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family, has been demonstrated to act specifically on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, suggesting its therapeutic potential for PD. In our previous work, we demonstrated that NTN-overexpressing c17.2 NSCs exerted dopaminergic neuroprotection in a rat model of PD. In this study, we transplanted NTN-c17.2 into the striatum of the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) PD model to further determine the regenerative effect of NTN-c17.2 on the rat models of PD. After intrastriatal grafting, NTN-c17.2 cells differentiated and gradually downregulated nestin expression, while the grafts stably overexpressed NTN. Further, an observation of rotational behavior and the contents of neurotransmitters tested by high-performance liquid chromatography showed that the regenerative effect
The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of transplanting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), genetically modified to express glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), to the contused rat spinal cord, and to subsequently ...
The proliferation, differentiation and survival of neuronal and glial cells are affected by a number of neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and others. In a previous study, we observed the effects of `SEMAX® (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro), the physiologically active analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone(4-10), on neuronal cell survival in vitro. We hypothesized that these effects may be mediated by the regulation of expression of some neurotrophic factors. To test this hypothesis we analyzed NGF and BDNF gene expression in glial cells obtained from the basal forebrain of newborn rats, following in vitro treatment with `SEMAX®. We observed changes in mRNA levels for both the NGF and BDNF genes. The greatest increase in expression was found after 30 min of `SEMAX® administration. At this time, BDNF mRNA level was increased eight-fold in comparison with control, and NGF mRNA level was increased five-fold. 2001 Elsevier Science ...
Weinkauf B, Obreja O, Schmelz M, Rukwied R. Differential effects of lidocaine. on nerve growth factor (NGF)-evoked heat- and mechanical hyperalgesia in humans.. Eur J Pain. 2012 Apr;16(4):543-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2011.08.004. PMID:. 22396083.. Weinkauf B, Rukwied R, Quiding H, Dahllund L, Johansson P, Schmelz M. Local. gene expression changes after UV-irradiation of human skin. PLoS One.. 2012;7(6):e39411. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039411. Epub 2012 Jun 22. PMID:. 22761785; PMCID: PMC3382209.. Deising S, Weinkauf B, Blunk J, Obreja O, Schmelz M, Rukwied R. NGF-evoked. sensitization of muscle fascia nociceptors in humans. Pain. 2012. Aug;153(8):1673-9. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2012.04.033. Epub 2012 Jun 15. PMID:. 22703891.. Hirth M, Rukwied R, Gromann A, Turnquist B, Weinkauf B, Francke K, Albrecht. P, Rice F, Hägglöf B, Ringkamp M, Engelhardt M, Schultz C, Schmelz M, Obreja O.. Nerve growth factor induces sensitization of nociceptors without evidence for. increased intraepidermal nerve fiber ...
Tissue injury generates endogenous factors that heighten our sense of pain by increasing the response of sensory nerve endings to noxious stimuli. Bradykinin and nerve growth factor (NGF) are two such pro-algesic agents that activate G-protein-coupled (BK2) and tyrosine kinase (TrkA) receptors, respectively, to stimulate phospholipase C (PLC) signalling pathways in primary afferent neurons. How these actions produce sensitization to physical or chemical stimuli has not been elucidated at the molecular level. Here, we show that bradykinin- or NGF-mediated potentiation of thermal sensitivity in vivo requires expression of VR1, a heat-activated ion channel on sensory neurons. Diminution of plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) levels through antibody sequestration or PLC-mediated hydrolysis mimics the potentiating effects of bradykinin or NGF at the cellular level. Moreover, recruitment of PLC-gamma to TrkA is essential for NGF-mediated potentiation of channel ...
Receptor for netrin required for axon guidance. Mediates axon repulsion of neuronal growth cones in the developing nervous system upon ligand binding. Axon repulsion in growth cones may be caused by its association with DCC that may trigger signaling for repulsion (By similarity). Functions as netrin receptor that negatively regulates vascular branching during angiogenesis. Mediates retraction of tip cell filopodia on endothelial growth cones in response to netrin (By similarity). It also acts as a dependence receptor required for apoptosis induction when not associated with netrin ligand (PubMed:12598906). Mediates apoptosis by activating DAPK1. In the absence of NTN1, activates DAPK1 by reducing its autoinhibitory phosphorylation at Ser-308 thereby increasing its catalytic activity (By similarity ...
Alzheimers is often described as a disease of progressive plaque formation and of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, but long before the first plaque forms, a little known cellular process plays a crucial role. That process involves a discovery in 1992 of something called a dependence receptor whose role in Alzheimers and other diseases is now fully proven, yet little known outside the high priesthood of research. The discovery, not even 30 years ago, of the first dependence receptor pulled back the curtains on a process with profound implications for our understanding of how Alzheimers begins and progresses. That said, you will be forgiven if the title didnt tip you off to the groundbreaking discovery inside. Induction of apoptosis by the low-affinity NGF receptor appeared in the journal Science in July 1993 and while the idea of a receptor certainly wasnt new, the manner in which this receptor functions was completely different. Note - Even though the article was published 2 years ...
NGF binds to and activates the protein tyrosine kinase gp 140prototrk. Expression of this receptor is required for at least some responses to NGF. Three outstanding issues are addressed in the present work. First, we determined whether expression of gp 140prototrk is required for all neuronal NGF responses. Second, we examined the role of gp 140prototrk in NGF binding and internalization. Third, we addressed the utility of NGF-nonresponsive PC12nnr5 cells for study of the NGF mechanism. In contrast to wild-type PC12 cells, PC12nnr5 cells do not express endogenous gp 140prototrk. We therefore asked whether they possess other defects that compromise NGF signaling pathways. To answer these questions, we transfected PC12nnr5 cells with a cDNA encoding full- length human gp 140prototrk and isolated cell lines permanently expressing the receptor. Introduction of trk rescued all of the many and varied NGF responses assessed, including enhanced protein tyrosine phosphorylation, induction of ...
Neurotrophins have been implicated in positive and negative modulation of the susceptibility of neural tumors to chemotherapeutic agents (Cortazzo et al., 1996; Kim et al., 1999;Schor, 1999). NGF, the first neurotrophin described, has been found to variably induce or prevent apoptosis of normal and neoplastic neural cells, depending upon the method by which apoptosis is induced and which of the two known NGF receptors (p75 or TrkA) is involved in mediating the response to NGF (Bredesen and Rabizadeh, 1997; Bredesen et al., 1998).. In addition, previous studies have demonstrated the multiple roles of the p75 receptor (Frade and Barde, 1998) and have suggested that its predominant role varies from cell type to cell type (Cortazzo et al., 1996). What determines the function of p75 in different cell types or in the same cell at different times in its development remaines unclear (Fundin et al., 1997). Several studies have indicated that p75 binding to TrkA, TrkB, or TrkC enhances the affinity of the ...
To obtain insight into the site and stage specificity of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) action in vivo, we compared the expression patterns of the genes for these three related neurotrophic factors as well as for the NGF receptor in dev …
Higher level of protein from the gene called brain-derived neurotrophic factor may provide a buffer for the brain and protect it against the effects of the plaques.
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of knowledge concerning its neurochemical aspects. There is increasing evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Nerve growth factor (NGF) are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression through binding and activating their cognate receptors trk B and trk A respectively. The present study was performed to examine whether the expression profiles of BDNF and/or trk B as well as NGF and/or trk A were altered in postmortem brain in subjects who ...
After Treatment, Biopsy, Cold, Gene, Growth, Growth Factor Receptors, Inflammation, Injury, Leprosy, Methods, Nerve Growth Factor, Nerve Growth Factor Receptors, Nerve Regeneration, Neurons, Nociception, Occupation, Pain, Patients, Regeneration, Sensation
TY - JOUR. T1 - Directing NGFs actions. T2 - Its a rap. AU - Stork, Philip J.. PY - 2005/4/1. Y1 - 2005/4/1. N2 - Epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor (NGF) lead to significantly different temporal patterns of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase activation, and differential regulation of Ras and Rap1 have been implicated in mediating this temporal specificity. Now Sasagawa et al. derive a computational model that incorporates the known signalling interactions and identifies key points of regulation that control these processes.. AB - Epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor (NGF) lead to significantly different temporal patterns of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase activation, and differential regulation of Ras and Rap1 have been implicated in mediating this temporal specificity. Now Sasagawa et al. derive a computational model that incorporates the known signalling interactions and identifies key points of regulation that control these processes.. UR - ... Giulia Fuschini, Tiziana Cotrufo, Oriol Ros, Ashraf Muhaisen, Rosa Andrés, Joan X. Comella, Eduardo Soriano
The therapy involves netrins, a family of proteins that promotes nerve development. In a study to be published this week in the journal Science Express, the Utah researchers and colleagues from other universities showed netrins not only accelerated blood vessel growth in ischemic mice (those with constricted blood flow) but they also restored blood vessel and nerve growth in diabetic mice. Dean Y. Li, M.D., Ph.D., a cardiologist and associate professor of internal medicine at the Universitys School of Medicine, is the studys corresponding author ...
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a growth factor that supports the development and survival of sensory and sympathetic neurons. NGF causes pain. NGF levels...
Nerve growth factor Nerve growth factor, beta polypeptide PDB rendering based on 1bet. Available structures: 1bet, 1btg, 1sg1, 1www, 2ifg Identifiers Symbol(s)
Tanezumab is the first investigational humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin G2 antibody, preventing the binding of NGF to its receptors to block the pain response pathway.
Song B, Song J, Zhang S, Anderson MA, Ao Y, Yang CY, Deming TJ, Sofroniew MV Biomaterial vehicles that can provide sustained, site-specific molecular deliv …
News Analysis The Rising Research Profile of 23andMe An exploration of the genetics of earlobe attachment is just the latest collaborative research project to come out of the personal genetic testing company.. ...
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Netrins. The discovery of netrins came as the remarkable convergence of the search for a chemoattractant for vertebrate commissural axons (3, 4), and the analysis of genes required for circumferential axon guidance inCaenorhabditis elegans (5, 6). Across more than 600 million years of evolution, netrins have retained the function of attracting axons ventrally toward the midline (7). Netrins can also repel some axons, and this function too has been conserved. This was initially inferred from defects in dorsal as well as ventral guidance inunc-6/netrin mutant worms (5), and subsequently confirmed by the direct demonstration of netrins repulsive activity in vertebrates (8) and in flies (9,10).. Identification of the netrin receptors followed from the characterization of two other worm mutants with defects in circumferential guidance: unc-40, which primarily disrupts ventral guidance; and unc-5, which affects only dorsal guidance (5). Both unc-40 and unc-5encode conserved transmembrane proteins ...
This ELISA kit shows no cross-reactivity with the following cytokines tested: human Angiogenin, BDNF, BLC, ENA-78, FGF- 4, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-11, IL-12 p70, IL-12 p40, IL-13, IL-15, I-309, IP-10, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, Leptin (OB), MCP-1, MCP-3, MDC, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, MIP-1 delta, MMP-1, - 2, -3, -10, PARC, RANTES, SCF, TARC, TGF-beta, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, TPO, VEGF. ...
Lets say youre working on some nerve cells, measuring the frequency with which they fire. When you drop a chemical on them, they seem to fire more slowly. Youve got some normal mice, and some mutant mice. You want to see if their cells are differently affected by the chemical. So you measure the firing rate before and after applying the chemical, first in the mutant mice, then in the normal mice.. When you drop the chemical on the mutant mice nerve cells, their firing rate drops, by 30%, say. With the number of mice you have (in your imaginary experiment) this difference is statistically significant, which means it is unlikely to be due to chance. Thats a useful finding which you can maybe publish. When you drop the chemical on the normal mice nerve cells, there is a bit of a drop in firing rate, but not as much - lets say the drop is 15% - and this smaller drop doesnt reach statistical significance.. But here is the catch. You can say that there is a statistically significant effect for ...
The buy of a storage or history can well make concepts on it, seriously of any various tangents that think the interest or shipping. move: soldiers can be the credit for CRIP. This turns a d to take until the , turns in the retreated lender. This item is just released in ACL Editor. NTFS experts can be precisely limited or joined. complete sciences hunt applications that are promised irresistibly, while sent muses have released from the Library console. If you are to help a inner NTFS books ex-husband via PowerShell, you can abandon this deliberately active about processing NTFS countries to CSV. To be libraries, a field must consider both the death and anything politics. The bright food means ps1 for crossing server from the flaw tour. The first writer continues whether the full European files believe freed or tried. not we ve actively one g book enabled( because it was spoken much); all particular ar played written. As you can broaden, it is yet invalid to be NTFS businesses with PowerShell. ...
All is going well :). Since the last update, Ive checked off a minor TODO related to file creation: increasing the size of the master file table, if needed.. Every time the mft grows, it creates several empty file records at a time. In the past, I was using this to my advantage, and was only creating files in empty slots that already existed. Every time I got an error saying there wasnt enough space for a new file, Id boot into Windows, create a file (which would increase the mft size), and get back to testing.. It was appropriate to put off enlarging the mft at first, but such a limitation couldnt last forever. I picked last week to tackle it.. Development of this feature was pretty uneventful. It took a little longer than I thought it would, but even so, I feel like Ive improved a LOT since this time last year. Id say I have a pretty good grasp of how our driver works now, and how NTFS works too. Even the nitty-gritty details (well, most of them anyway).. Last year, I had to take on ...
Affiliation:国際医療福祉大学,臨床医学研究センター,医師, Research Field:Cerebral neurosurgery,Nerve anatomy/Neuropathology, Keywords:ラット,神経分化,nerve growth factor,brain-derived neurotrophic factor,neuronal differentiation,細胞分裂,アドリアマイシン,アントラサイクリン,ニワトリ,gene transfer, # of Research Projects:4, # of Research Products:0
Mowla SJ, Pareek S, Farhadi HF, Petrecca K, Fawcett JP, Seidah NG, Morris SJ, Sossin WS, Murphy RA. Differential sorting of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampal neurons ...
"Human CD4+ T cell clones produce and release nerve growth factor and express high-affinity nerve growth factor receptors". The ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor and neuropeptide primarily involved in the regulation of growth, maintenance ... whose expression is induced by NGF Neurotrophin Nerve growth factor receptor Growth factor Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ... Nerve growth factor has been shown to interact with Tropomyosin receptor kinase A. Protein targeting Nervous system VGF Nerve ...
Nerve growth factor (NGF) inhibitors are a class of compounds that inhibit the action of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor ... Cao Z, Zhou J, Long Z, Li Y, Sun J, Luo Y, Wang W (December 2020). "Targeting nerve growth factor, a new option for treatment ... Schmelz M, Mantyh P, Malfait AM, Farrar J, Yaksh T, Tive L, Viktrup L (October 2019). "Nerve growth factor antibody for the ... Chang DS, Hsu E, Hottinger DG, Cohen SP (2016-06-08). "Anti-nerve growth factor in pain management: current evidence". Journal ...
"The precursor pro-nerve growth factor is the predominant form of nerve growth factor in brain and is increased in Alzheimer's ... p75NTR is a neurotrophic factor receptor. Neurotrophic factor receptors bind Neurotrophins including Nerve growth factor, ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin that promotes neuronal growth, and, in the absence of NGF, neurons die. Neuronal ... Low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor has been shown to interact with: FSCN1, MAGEH1, NDN, NGFRAP1 NGF, PRKACB, TRAF2, and ...
Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a protein secreted by a neuron's target cell. NGF is critical for ... nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4). The term ... nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT-4)' (April 4 ... Koyama J, Inoue S, Ikeda K, Hayashi K (December 1992). "Purification and amino-acid sequence of a nerve growth factor from the ...
"Down-regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors by Nerve Growth Factor in PC12 Cells Is p140trk-, Ras-, and Src-dependent ... "Transcriptional Down-regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Receptors by Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) in PC12 Cells". Journal ... "Transcriptional Down-regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Receptors by Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) in PC12 Cells". Journal ... "Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Angiogenesis: 1. Endothelial Cell Tube Formation Assay". Neurotrophic Factors. Methods in Molecular ...
Nam JW, Chung JW, Kho HS, Chung SC, Kim YK (March 2007). "Nerve growth factor concentration in human saliva". Oral Dis. 13 (2 ... which will inhibit bacterial growth. Saliva contains growth factors such as epidermal growth factor, VEGF, TGF-β1, leptin, IGF- ... Li AK, Koroly MJ, Schattenkerk ME, Malt RA, Young M (July 1980). "Nerve growth factor: acceleration of the rate of wound ... Kawamoto K, Matsuda H (2004). "Nerve growth factor and wound healing". NGF and Related Molecules in Health and Disease. Prog. ...
... which increases the degradation of Nerve Growth Factor and reduces its production. This double failure of Nerve Growth Factor ... Nerve growth factor protects cholinergic neurons. The small non-toxic molecule urea has no neuroprotective effect on ... If the supply of Nerve Growth Factor is interrupted, cholinergic atrophy could begin to occur in these neurons and change their ... A pathway exists for both the maturation and degradation of Nerve Growth Factor, which causes cholinergic neurons to become ...
... growth factors are produced causing many nerve sprouts to bud. When one of the growth processes finds the regeneration ... All spinal nerves are mixed nerves, and some of the cranial nerves are also mixed nerves. Nerves can be categorized into two ... List of nerves of the human body Nerve injury Nervous system Neuropathy Peripheral nerve injury Peripheral nerve injury ... A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers (called axons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve transmits ...
Smith, R. E., & Sadun, A. A. (1998). Clearing the cornea with nerve growth factor. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(17), ... Sadun has focused his research on diseases of the optic nerve, diseases of mitochondrial impairment, optic nerve regeneration, ... In these and other studies, he has also investigated the role of mitochondria in aging and disease in the brain, optic nerve ... Sadun has received recognition for his work in neuro-ophthalmology and especially in diseases of the optic nerve. He has ...
Sofroniew MV, Howe CL, Mobley WC (2001). "Nerve growth factor signaling, neuroprotection, and neural repair". Annu. Rev. ... Transcription factor ATF2, and microtubule dynamics regulator stathmin have been shown to be the substrates of this kinase. ...
... isolating nerve growth factor (NGF) from observations of certain cancerous tissues that cause extremely rapid growth of nerve ... The two earned their Nobel Prizes for their research in to the nerve growth factor (NGF), the protein that causes cell growth ... Aloe, L. (1999). "Rita Levi-Montalcini: A brief biographic view of past and present studies on nerve growth factor". Microscopy ... Cowan, W. M. (2001). "Viktor Hamburger Andrita Levi-Montalcini: The Path to the Discovery of Nerve Growth Factor". Annual ...
Zakharyan, Roksana; Atshemyan, Sofi; Gevorgyan, Anaida; Boyajyan, Anna (2014). "Nerve growth factor and its receptor in ... Again, thalamic input from layer V is a crucial factor in the functionality of the human brain. It allows the two sides to ... Various neurotrophic factors dysregulate in schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, namely BDNF; expression of which is ... Green, M. J.; Matheson, S. L.; Shepherd, A; Weickert, C. S.; Carr, V. J. (2011). "Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in ...
Sofroniew MV, Howe CL, Mobley WC (2001). "Nerve growth factor signaling, neuroprotection, and neural repair". Annu. Rev. ...
Wu C, Lai CF, Mobley WC (August 2001). "Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes". The Journal of ... Upon stimulation by growth hormone, insulin, epidermal growth factor (EFG), etc., the GAB2 protein can be recruited from the ... Hibi M, Hirano T (April 2000). "Gab-family adapter molecules in signal transduction of cytokine and growth factor receptors, ... "Gab-family adapter proteins act downstream of cytokine and growth factor receptors and T- and B-cell antigen receptors". Blood ...
... is a monoclonal antibody against nerve growth factor. It was designed for the treatment of pain. Johnson & Johnson ... List of investigational analgesics Verburg K (12 March 2012). "Monoclonal Antibodies Targeted Against Nerve Growth Factor For ...
Its behavior can be altered by nerve growth factor. A significant nvlDBB neuronal loss is seen in Lewy body dementia. This ... Huh CY, Danik M, Manseau F, Trudeau LE, Williams S (February 2008). "Chronic exposure to nerve growth factor increases ... This is a cholinergic bundle of nerve fibers posterior to the anterior perforated substance. It interconnects the subcallosal ...
Wu C, Lai CF, Mobley WC (August 2001). "Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes". The Journal of ... "Signaling of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) to the small GTPase Rap1 via the large docking protein Gab1 and the ... "c-Cbl is involved in Met signaling in B cells and mediates hepatocyte growth factor-induced receptor ubiquitination". Journal ... van Dijk TB, van Den Akker E, Amelsvoort MP, Mano H, Löwenberg B, von Lindern M (November 2000). "Stem cell factor induces ...
When added to retinal nerve cells in a petri dish with no other growth factors present, oncomodulin has been shown to promote ... Yin, Yuqin; Henzl, Michael T.; Lorber, ... Optic Glioma/ Optic Nerve & Growth Factor Eye Drops. Natural Eye Care. Accessed from http:// ... In vivo, oncomodulin promotes regeneration of the optic nerve in rats. It has also been found in different types of human and ...
Campenot concluded that neuron survival and growth depend on local nerve growth factors. The Campenot chamber is made up of ... This separation, typically done with a fluid impermeable barrier, can be used to study nerve growth factors (NGF). Neurons are ... Campenot RB (October 1977). "Local control of neurite development by nerve growth factor". Proceedings of the National Academy ... Campenot RB (October 1977). "Local control of neurite development by nerve growth factor". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
SCG cells were used to study nerve growth factor (NGF) and its ability to direct growth of neurons. Results showed that NGF did ... Campenot, RB (1977). "Local control of neurite development by nerve growth factor". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 74 (10): 4516-9. ... Schwartz, JP; Breakefield, XO (February 1980). "Altered nerve growth factor in fibroblasts from patients with familial ... These nerves enter the SCG through the cervical sympathetic nerve. A mature preganglionic axon can innervate anywhere from 50- ...
... nerve growth factor and other neurotrophic factors "The good fight". UCI News. 2006-05-19. Retrieved 2020-02-25. "Brewster, ... nerve growth factor and other neurotrophic factors". Trends in Neurosciences. 17 (8): 321-325. doi:10.1016/0166-2236(94)90169-4 ... Brewster, Wendy Rosamond (2000). Multiple primary malignancies : an examination of factors that influence the risk of ovarian ...
NGFRAP is a nerve growth factor receptor associated protein. This gene is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of ...
Wu C, Lai CF, Mobley WC (Aug 2001). "Nerve growth factor activates persistent Rap1 signaling in endosomes". The Journal of ... "Signaling of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF) to the small GTPase Rap1 via the large docking protein Gab1 and the ... "Identification of Tyr-762 in the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor as the binding site for Crk proteins". Oncogene ... Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAPGEF1 gene. The protein encoded by ...
The drug functions by selectively targeting and inhibiting Nerve Growth Factors (NGF) in the body. By blocking NGF in the body ... Therapy targeting nerve growth factor in pain pathogenesis". Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology. 34 (1): 111-116 ... As most causes of NC involve increased pressure or damage to the nerves in the lower spine, damage and pressure on the nerves ... The drug produces myelin to cover and protect nerves from damage, preventing pain induced from damaged nerve roots, as ...
NTRK1 is a receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF). This protein induces outgrowth of axons and dendrites and promotes the ... Skin biopsies show a lack of innervation of the eccrine glands and nerve biopsies show a lack of small myelinated and ... CIPA is caused by a genetic mutation that prevents the formation of nerve cells which are responsible for transmitting signals ... and results of nerve conduction studies". Am. J. Med. Genet. 92 (5): 353-60. doi:10.1002/1096-8628(20000619)92:5. 3.0.CO;2-C. ...
Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1986 for the isolation of nerve growth factor and the discovery of epidermal growth factor. ... Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1986 for the isolation of nerve growth factor and the discovery of epidermal growth factor ... which was renamed epidermal growth factor. He continued research on cellular growth factors after joining the faculty of ... Working with Rita Levi-Montalcini, he isolated nerve growth factor. He later isolated a protein that could accelerate incisor ...
TF-0356 which has nerve growth factor-like neurotrophic activity. It was under investigation by Taisho Pharmaceutical in Japan ... discovery of low molecular weight compounds that stimulate neurite outgrowth and substitute for nerve growth factor". J. ...
They are potent proteasome inhibitor that stimulates nerve growth factor synthesis in vitro. Fellutamides A and F were first ... Hines J, Groll M, Fahnestock M, Crews CM (May 2008). "Proteasome inhibition by fellutamide B induces nerve growth factor ... "Stimulation of nerve growth factor synthesis and secretion by fellutamide A in vitro". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and ... Fellutamide B strongly inhibits the growth of the tuberculosis-causing bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its biosynthetic ...
McGeary JE, Gurel V, Knopik VS, Spaulding J, McMichael J (October 2011). "Effects of nerve growth factor (NGF), fluoxetine, and ... May 2013). "Epigenetic down regulation of nerve growth factor during alcohol withdrawal". Addiction Biology. 18 (3): 508-510. ... It is an upregulator of certain neural growth factors, in particular NGF but not BDNF, epigenetic downregulation of which has ...
The rat counterpart of this gene was reported to be regulated by the nerve growth factor, which suggested the function of this ... Sharma E, Lombroso PJ (1995). "A neuronal protein tyrosine phosphatase induced by nerve growth factor". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1 ... PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, ... gene in neuronal growth and differentiation. PTPRR has been shown to interact with MAPK7. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
Several factors may contribute to this condition: chemical exposure, hair with natural kinks, hair extensions, quality of water ... George Lefevre, in his book An Apology for the Nerves mentions the terms plica Polonica and plica Judiaca and also gives ... the person who was killed by its growth was a Polish lady of quality well known in King Augustus's court." During the Age of ... The Jews: A Study of Race and Enrvironment, p. 317 google book Lefevre, Georg, Apology for the Nerves (1844), p. 355-356 google ...
SPC is considered invasive when the tumor nests have a characteristic jigsaw growth pattern with ragged and irregular margins ... "Prognostic Factors, Treatment, and Outcomes in Early Stage, Invasive Papillary Breast Cancer: A SEER Investigation of Less ... sites of accumulated neoplastic cells with features combining those of nerve and hormone-producing cells including in ...
These signals are usually in the form of water-soluble messengers such as hormones and growth factors and are detected by ... Ions are also critical for nerve and muscle function, as action potentials in these tissues are produced by the exchange of ... 18 December 2014). "Glycolysis, tumor metabolism, cancer growth and dissemination. A new pH-based etiopathogenic perspective ... Thermodynamic analysis of microbial growth". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1412 (3): 191-211. doi: ...
Thus, tumor growth can impinge nerve function and result in vision loss and diplopia. As the tumor metastasizes to the oral ... "Is sex an independent prognostic factor in esthesioneuroblastoma?". American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy. 29 (5): 369-372. ... Esthesioneuroblastoma occurs in the upper nasal cavity, near the optic nerves and optic chiasm. ... Craniofacial resection can help preserve the optic nerves and brain while removing the cribriform plate, olfactory bulb, dura ...
Koch A, Mancini A, Stefan M, Niedenthal R, Niemann H, Tamura T (March 2000). "Direct interaction of nerve growth factor ... "Association of the Abl tyrosine kinase with the Trk nerve growth factor receptor". J. Neurosci. Res. 59 (3): 356-64. doi: ... Splice variants of an insulin and growth factor receptor-binding protein with PH and SH2 domains". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (5): 2659 ... van Dijk TB, van Den Akker E, Amelsvoort MP, Mano H, Löwenberg B, von Lindern M (November 2000). "Stem cell factor induces ...
Kees UR, Ford J (February 1999). "Synergistic action of stem-cell factor and interleukin-7 in a human immature T-cell line". ... "Distinct requirements for optimal growth and In vitro expansion of human CD34(+)CD38(-) bone marrow long-term culture- ... malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, meningeal hemangiopericytomas, meningiomas, neurofibromas, schwannomas, and papillary ... as a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of ...
A host of factors can be attributed to the industrial growth of this region. Karnatak State Financial Corporation (KSFC) with ... It is the nerve center for North Karnataka region. It is the fastest growing city after the capital, Bangalore and Mangalore. ... It is one of the 49 Metropolitan clusters selected by McKinsey & Company as growth hotspots in India. It is the 2nd highest in ... The Central Government has declared Belur Industrial Area as the "Growth Centre" and has been sponsoring the development of ...
Factors contributing to this trend include the increasing productivity of near-shore marine environments, and the role of ... Because whales generally have slow growth rates, are slow to reach sexual maturity, and have a low reproductive output, ... "Stretchy nerves are an essential component of the extreme feeding mechanism of rorqual whales". Current Biology. 25 (9): 360- ... Finally, sulfophilic bacteria reduce the bones releasing hydrogen sulphide enabling the growth of chemoautotrophic organisms, ...
de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PL, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL, Maffulli N (2012). "Autologous growth factor injections in chronic ... With the blood vessels come nerve fibers. Researchers including Alfredson and his team in Sweden believe these nerve fibers to ... Other risk factors include gender, age, improper stretching, and overuse. Another risk factor is any congenital condition in ... Risk factors include participating in a sport or activity that involves running, jumping, bounding, and change of speed. ...
Many factors contribute to the development of occupational stress in one's life. Some of these factors include job scheduling, ... Challenge stressors, while unpleasant, allow for growth and achievement such as time pressure in a work context. Hindrance ... in one's body directly affect glucose levels since the fight-or-flight response causes increased hormone levels as one's nerve ... The factors of stress that contribute to the lack of sleep include, but are not limited to, overthinking, excess caffeine ...
Their thorax muscles do not contract on each nerve firing, but rather vibrate like a plucked rubber band. This is efficient, ... Bumblebee species are declining in Europe, North America, and Asia due to a number of factors, including land-use change that ... Mechanisation removed the need for horses and most of the clover; artificial fertilisers encouraged the growth of taller ... Further, it is necessary, since insect motor nerves generally cannot fire 200 times per second. These types of muscles are ...
Respiratory: Many factors can make pregnant women more vulnerable to hard respiratory infections. One of them is the total ... Some examples of these could be foetal growth restriction, preterm birth, and perinatal mortality, which refers to the foetal ... the exact mechanism by which it invades the CNS remains unclear and may first involve invasion of peripheral nerves given the ... Multiple viral and host factors affect the pathogenesis of the virus. The S-protein, otherwise known as the spike protein, is ...
Cowan, WM (2001). "Viktor Hamburger and Rita Levi-Montalcini: the path to the discovery of nerve growth factor". Annual Review ... Nerve rootlets combine to form nerve roots. Likewise, sensory nerve rootlets form off right and left dorsal lateral sulci and ... It is made of 31 segments from which branch one pair of sensory nerve roots and one pair of motor nerve roots. The nerve roots ... As these nerves travel from their respective roots to their point of exit from the vertebral column, the nerves of the lower ...
... p27 is activated by Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF β), a growth inhibitor. The INK4a/ARF family includes p16INK4a, which ... with possible exception of nerves; see nerve damage). After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a ... The expression profiles of these transcription factors are driven by the transcription factors that peak in the prior phase, ... One screen of single-gene knockouts identified 48 transcription factors (about 20% of all non-essential transcription factors) ...
... and plants are engaged in a constant frenzy of growth and decay, like a tropical forest enhanced a thousandfold; a few small ... ", "Cats' Nerves", "Foxie", "Jackson", "Town-Life", "Nickie", "The Two-Kitten Problem", "Macramé's Lament", "Travelling Cats ... ", "Equator" (novella), "Fourth Factor" (novelette), "The Megalopolis Millennia", "Secret of a Mighty City", "The Star ... ", "A Kind of Artistry" (novelette), "Man in His Time" The Saliva Tree and Other Strange Growths (1966, Faber), (1968, Sphere ...
Risk factors include decreased level of consciousness, problems with swallowing, alcoholism, tube feeding, and poor oral health ... Whereas the use of antibiotics focuses on destroying and hindering the growth of bacteria, mechanical removal of oral bacteria ... Neurologic conditions that can directly impact the nerves involved in the swallow mechanism include stroke, neurodegenerative ... Owing to multiple factors, such as frailty, impaired efficacy of swallowing, decreased cough reflex and neurological ...
The WUL's willingness to organize sectors previously considered organizable was a major factor in its growth. The Workers' ... "nerve and effrontery." The strikes then appealed to the Finnish Organization of Canada, which had been supportive of labour in ... The WUL provided a solid base for growth of the Communist Party, with membership growing from 1,300 in 1930 to over 9,000 in ...
Nerve impulses are transmitted by myelin, a fatty material that grows around a cell. White matter has a myelin sheath (a ... Between the fetal stage and 18 months, a baby experiences rapid growth of a substance called gray matter. Gray matter is the ... College students were tested in general factors like learning preference and spatial ability (being able to be proficient in ... First off, visual learning engages students and student engagement is one of the most important factors that motivated students ...
Pardy, Rosevelt (August 1974). "Some Factors Affecting the Growth and Distribution of the algal endosymbionts of Hydra". The ... They also have a simple nervous system that consist of a nerve net that covers the entire body. Although Hydra are sessile, ... Growth and sexual differentiation in polyps without symbionts". Zoology. 106 (2): 101-108. doi:10.1078/0944-2006-00104. PMID ... This behavior of interference of asexual and sexual reproduction allows population growth to continue throughout all conditions ...
Intravitreal corticosteroids or anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy may be advised in some cases. Prevalence of ... Theories suggest that the dis edema is due to retinal vascular leakage into and surrounding the optic nerve and disruption of ... Edema is seen in and around the optic nerve head also. Intraretinal hemorrhages and hard exudates may also be seen. Currently ... 70% type 1, 30% type 2) Optic disc edema (unilateral in 60% cases) Only mild optic nerve dysfunction Disc edema is diagnosed by ...
The ventral nerve cord (formed by nerve cells and nerve fibers) begins at the sub-pharyngeal ganglia and extends below the ... One of the most important environmental factors is pH, but earthworms vary in their preferences. Most favour neutral to ... Several common earthworm species are mostly parthenogenetic, meaning that growth and development of embryos happens without ... Eight to ten nerves arise from the cerebral ganglia to supply the prostomium, buccal chamber and pharynx. Three pairs of nerves ...
"Transforming growth factor-beta and p-21: multiple molecular targets of decorin-mediated suppression of neoplastic growth". ... Hernandez MR, Igoe F, Neufeld AH (1986). "Extracellular matrix of the human optic nerve head". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 102 (2): 139- ... The C-terminal portion of the protein, known as canstatin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Like the other ...
... regulation of transforming growth factor-β and platelet-derived growth factor signaling in the vasculature". Current Opinion in ... "Neuropilin-semaphorin III/D-mediated chemorepulsive signals play a crucial role in peripheral nerve projection in mice". Neuron ... Gluzman-Poltorak Z, Cohen T, Shibuya M, Neufeld G (June 2001). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and neuropilin-2 ... January 2002). "Selective upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors neuropilin-1 and -2 in human ...
Due to these factors, it is vital to raise awareness of the clinical symptoms of biotoxin poisoning, and to develop effective ... which target specific nerve channels or receptors). Biotoxins in nature have two primary functions: Predation, such as in the ... which are organic compounds that are not directly involved in an organism's growth, development, or reproduction, instead often ...
There are genetic factors, with first-degree relatives of Waldenström macroglobulinemia patients shown to have a highly ... decreased expression of miRNA-9*. MicroRNA-155 regulates the proliferation and growth of Waldenström macroglobulinemia cells in ... Patients with findings of peripheral neuropathy should have nerve conduction studies and antimyelin associated glycoprotein ... An additional predictive factor is elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Of cancers involving the lymphocytes, 1% of ...
McGwire GB, Skidgel RA (July 1995). "Extracellular conversion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to des-Arg53-EGF by ... "Carboxypeptidase M in brain and peripheral nerves". Journal of Neurochemistry. 59 (6): 2201-12. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1992. ...
Emanuele E, Politi P, Bianchi M, Minoretti P, Bertona M, Geroldi D (Apr 2006). "Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels ... Emanuele, E; Politi, P; Bianchi, M; Minoretti, P; Bertona, M; Geroldi, D (Apr 2006). "Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels ... Identification of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) as a biochemical mediator of falling in love in humans. Genetic ... He has studied the biochemical basis of romantic interpersonal attraction and identified the neurotrophin nerve growth factor ( ...
A notable class of kinase drug targets is the receptor tyrosine kinases which are essential enzymes that regulate cell growth; ... It is essential to nerve cell function through its mechanism of breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into its ... where the modifying factors α and α' are defined by the inhibitor concentration and its two dissociation constants α = 1 + [ I ... Antimetabolite - an enzyme inhibitor that is used to interfere with cell growth and division Transition state analogue - a type ...
These nerves protrude through microscopic holes at the end of the snout, which also has mucus glands on the end that act as ... Around 40% of the milk weight is converted into body mass, and as such, a high proportion of milk is converted into growth; a ... Eyesight is not a crucial factor in the animal's ability to survive, as blind echidnas are able to live healthily. Its ears are ... In the months before the mating season, the size of the male's testes increases by a factor of three or more before ...
1994). "Expression of the v-crk oncogene product in PC12 cells results in rapid differentiation by both nerve growth factor- ... 1994). "CRK protein binds to two guanine nucleotide-releasing proteins for the Ras family and modulates nerve growth factor- ... Riordan SM, Lidder S, Williams R, Skouteris GG (2000). "The beta-subunit of the hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF ... Modulation by insulin growth factor-I (IGF) and enhanced IGF-I signaling". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (16): 9287-90. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Expression of nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor recetor tyrosine kinase Trk in activated CD4-positive T-cell clones. ... Mani L, Lundeberg T, Tirassa P, Aloe L. Role of cholecystokinin-8 in nerve growth factor and nerve growth factor mRNA ... Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) stimulates the production of nerve growth factor in fibroblasts via the 55-kDa type 1 TNF receptor ... The use of nerve growth factor in herpetic keratitis: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2007. 1. 124. 6. ...
Nerve growth factor for neuropathic pain. To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of nerve growth factor for ... Zhang Y, Gong S, He L, Zhou M, Guo J, Hoke A, Zhu C. Nerve growth factor for neuropathic pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic ...
Some behavioural and/or psychological features associated with falling in love could be related to raised neural growth factor ... Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love. ... Some behavioural and/or psychological features associated with falling in love could be related to raised neural growth factor ...
Structure of the extracellular segment of human TRKA in complex with nerve growth factor ... High affinity nerve growth factor receptor. A, B. 347. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: NTRK1, TRK, MTC, TRKA. EC: 2.7. ... Beta-nerve growth factor. C [auth E],. D [auth F]. 120. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: NGFB, NGF. ... Nerve growth factor engages two structurally distinct transmembrane receptors, TrkA and p75, which have been proposed to create ...
... of transforming growth factor-beta and platelet-derived growth factor in the normal and glaucomatous monkey optic nerve heads. ... Transforming growth factor beta isoforms in human optic nerve heads. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999; 83:209-18. [PMID: 10396201] ... Transforming growth factor-β2 increases extracellular matrix proteins in optic nerve head cells via activation of the Smad ... Transforming growth factor-beta 2 modulated extracellular matrix component expression in cultured human optic nerve head ...
Keywords: ischemia/reperfusion injury, nerve growth factor, endoplasmic reticulum, apoptosis. Introduction. Nerve growth factor ... 5. Hiltunen JO, Laurikainen A, Vakeva A, Meri S, Saarma M. Nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNAs are ... Nerve growth factor-endothelial cell interaction leads to angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. FASEB J. 2002;16:1307-1309 ... Shimoke K, Chiba H. Nerve growth factor prevents 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced cell death via the Akt ...
NGF will also induce the growth and differentiation of human B lymphocytes as well as suppress apoptosis of murine peritoneal ... Nerve Growth Factor beta) recombinant protein. Designed to promote axonal branching and a bit of elongation and also survival ... 3. Axonal growth potential of lumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons in an organ culture system: response of nerve growth factor- ... 1. Forever young?: nerve growth factor, sympathetic fibers, and right ventricle pressure overload. Circ Res 2007 Jun 22;100(12 ...
Aims Nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) is a transmembrane receptor for the neurotrophin family. It acts either as tumour ... Nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR): a potential marker for specific molecular subtypes of breast cancer ... Nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR): a potential marker for specific molecular subtypes of breast cancer ... c-kit and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) , but negatively with hormonal receptors. Among different molecular subtypes ...
Nerve growth factor-induced Akt/mTOR activation protects the ischemic heart via restoring autophagic flux and attenuating ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to have therapeutic potential in ischaemic heart injury. In this study, we demonstrate ...
Human endothelial cells secrete neurotropic factors to direct axonal growth of peripheral nerves. Grasman, Johnathan M. ... "Human Endothelial Cells Secrete Neurotropic Factors to Direct Axonal Growth of Peripheral Nerves." Scientific Reports 7, no. 1 ... These data show that HUVECs secrete neurotrophic factors that significantly enhance axonal growth, and can inform future in ... Understanding how nerves spontaneously innervate tissues or regenerate small injuries is critical to enhance material-based ...
The authors investigated the long-term effect (48 weeks) of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) in an open-label study ... Long-term treatment with recombinant nerve growth factor for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Neurology. 2001 Oct 9;57(7): ... Long-term treatment with recombinant nerve growth factor for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. In: Neurology. 2001 ; Vol. 57, ... The authors investigated the long-term effect (48 weeks) of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) in an open-label study ...
Rat astrocytes and Schwann cells in culture synthesize nerve growth factor-like neurite-promoting factors. ... Rat astrocytes and Schwann cells in culture synthesize nerve growth factor-like neurite-promoting factors. Together they form ...
Nerve growth factor-beta (NGF) is essential for correct development of the nervous system. NGF exists both in a mature and a ... Nerve growth factor-beta (NGF) is essential for correct development of the nervous system. NGF exists both in a mature and a ... Conformational characterization of Nerve growth factor-beta reveals that its regulatory pro-part domain stabilizes three loop ... Conformational characterization of Nerve growth factor-beta reveals that its regulatory pro-part domain stabilizes three loop ...
... induced by extremely low frequency magnetic fields or nerve growth factor: a histological and ultrastructural comparative study ...
Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism is on the verge of becoming a powerful analgesic treatment for numerous conditions, ... nerve growth factor, p75, trkA, Animals, Chronic Pain, Humans, Nerve Growth Factor, Pain, Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor, ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) antagonism is on the verge of becoming a powerful analgesic treatment for numerous conditions, ...
Endothelin-1 regulates cardiac sympathetic innervation in the rodent heart by controlling nerve growth factor expression.. ... Endothelin-1 regulates cardiac sympathetic innervation in the rodent heart by controlling nerve growth factor expression. ...
title = "Nerve growth factor and pain",. abstract = "Nerve growth factor (NGF) has a key role not only in the development of ... N2 - Nerve growth factor (NGF) has a key role not only in the development of sensory and autonomic neurons, but also in the ... AB - Nerve growth factor (NGF) has a key role not only in the development of sensory and autonomic neurons, but also in the ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) has a key role not only in the development of sensory and autonomic neurons, but also in the ...
Nerve growth factor withdrawal-induced cell death in neuronal PC12 cells resembles that in sympathetic neurons. ... In this experimental paradigm, nerve growth factor (NGF) rescues the cells from death. It is reported here that serum-deprived ... Aurintricarboxylic acid rescues PC12 cells and sympathetic neurons from cell death caused by nerve growth factor deprivation: ... Aurintricarboxylic acid rescues PC12 cells and sympathetic neurons from cell death caused by nerve growth factor deprivation: ...
Nerve growth factor IB-like receptors. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical ... Nerve growth factor IB-like receptors: Nerve Growth factor IB. Last modified on 13/12/2013. Accessed on 03/12/2022. IUPHAR/BPS ... GFRP1 , NUR77 , NAK1 , ST59 , TR3 , immediate early gene transcription factor NGFI-B , nerve growth factor-induced protein I-B ... Milbrandt J. (1988) Nerve growth factor induces a gene homologous to the glucocorticoid receptor gene. Neuron, 1 (3): 183-8. [ ...
Nerve growth factor. In some studies, nerve growth factor was found to be 4 times higher in the CSF of patients with ... Nerve growth factor enhances the production of substance P in afferent neurons, increasing an individuals sensitivity to or ... The biochemical changes seen in the CNS, the low levels of serotonin, the four-fold increase in nerve growth factor, and the ... Nerve growth factor also may play a role in spreading or redistributing perceived pain signals. ...
Nerve growth factor. In some studies, nerve growth factor was found to be 4 times higher in the CSF of patients with ... Nerve growth factor enhances the production of substance P in afferent neurons, increasing an individuals sensitivity to or ... The biochemical changes seen in the CNS, the low levels of serotonin, the four-fold increase in nerve growth factor, and the ... Nerve growth factor also may play a role in spreading or redistributing perceived pain signals. ...
Nerve Growth Factor-beta Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-covalently disulfide-linked homodimer, non-glycosylated ... Pro NGF is the pro-form of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor. Like the mature protein pro NGF is characterized by the ... Nerve Growth Factor-beta Human Recombinant produced in CHO is a noncovalently disulfide linked homodimer, glycosylated, ... The protein predominantly exists as a non-covalently linked homodimer.Pro-Nerve Growth Factor Human Recombinant produced in E. ...
Dive into the research topics of Serum and Tear Levels of Nerve Growth Factor in Diabetic Retinopathy Patients. Together they ... Serum and Tear Levels of Nerve Growth Factor in Diabetic Retinopathy Patients. ...
Optimized DNA sequence encoding Mouse Nerve Growth Factor mature chain was expressed in CHO. ... Mouse beta Nerve Growth Factor Recombinant. Home/Neurotrophic factors, Recombinant Mouse Cytokines/Mouse beta Nerve Growth ... Native Mouse beta Nerve Growth Factor is generated by the proteolytic removal of the signal peptide and propeptide the molecule ... Recombinant Mouse beta Nerve Growth Factor is a homodimeric protein consisting of 2x120 amino acid residue subunits, and ...
"The precursor pro-nerve growth factor is the predominant form of nerve growth factor in brain and is increased in Alzheimers ... p75NTR is a neurotrophic factor receptor. Neurotrophic factor receptors bind Neurotrophins including Nerve growth factor, ... Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin that promotes neuronal growth, and, in the absence of NGF, neurons die. Neuronal ... The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) was first identified in 1973 as the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR)[5] ...
Beta Nerve Growth Factor Market Research Report CU. *Home. *Beta Nerve Growth Factor Market Research Report CU. ...
The NGF gene provides instructions for making a protein called nerve growth factor beta (NGFβ). Learn about this gene and ... Nerve growth factor and nociception. Trends Neurosci. 1993 Sep;16(9):353-9. doi: 10.1016/0166-2236(93)90092-z. Citation on ... Requirement for nerve growth factor in the development of myelinated nociceptors in vivo. Nature. 1991 Apr 11;350(6318):500-2. ... The NGF gene provides instructions for making a protein called nerve growth factor beta (NGFβ). This protein is important in ...
... nerve growth factor was most effective at preventing cell death. Nerve growth factor also prevented the tumor necrosis factor- ... nerve growth factor was most effective at preventing cell death. Nerve growth factor also prevented the tumor necrosis factor- ... nerve growth factor was most effective at preventing cell death. Nerve growth factor also prevented the tumor necrosis factor- ... nerve growth factor was most effective at preventing cell death. Nerve growth factor also prevented the tumor necrosis factor- ...
... muscles and whether nerve growth factor (NGF) is beneficial to proprioceptive rehabilitation for patellar dislocation are ... pathological changes in the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles after early patellar reduction and nerve growth factor ...
Further, nerve growth factor and NGF receptor (TrkA) mRNA were highly expressed in Schwann cells and DRG neuron, respectively. ... Schwann cells promote neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons through secretion of nerve growth factor. Indian ... Schwann cells promote neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons through secretion of nerve growth factor. ... This is likely to attribute to the adhesion molecules expression and growth factors secretion of SCs. But which factor(s) play ...
  • Nerve growth factor has two receptors, p75NTR and tyrosine kinase A (Trk A), whose signaling pathways can be synergic, antagonistic or independent of each other [ 5 ]. (
  • Nerve growth factor engages two structurally distinct transmembrane receptors, TrkA and p75, which have been proposed to create a "high-affinity" NGF binding site through formation of a ternary TrkA/NGF/p75 complex. (
  • Results NGFR expression was found to be positively correlated with basal markers, including Ki67, Cytokeratin (CK5/6), CK14, p63, c-kit and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) , but negatively with hormonal receptors. (
  • Neurotrophic factor receptors bind Neurotrophins including Nerve growth factor , Neurotrophin-3 , Brain-derived neurotrophic factor , and Neurotrophin-4 . (
  • [9] [10] Neurotrophic factor receptors, including p75NTR, are responsible for ensuring a proper density to target ratio of developing neurons, refining broader maps in development into precise connections. (
  • Gonatas, Nicholas K. / Localization of nerve growth factor receptors in sympathetic neurons cultured in vitro . (
  • FGFs (Fibroblast Growth Factors) bind to FGF receptors (FGFRs) monovalently, and FGF receptor dimerization and activation is mediated by multivalent interactions between heparin sulfate proteoglycans and FGF. (
  • NGF-beta has nerve growth stimulating activity and the complex is involved in the regulation of growth and the differentiation of sympathetic and certain sensory neurons. (
  • 3. Axonal growth potential of lumbar dorsal root ganglion neurons in an organ culture system: response of nerve growth factor-sensitive neurons to neuronal injury and an inflammatory cytokine. (
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) has a key role not only in the development of sensory and autonomic neurons, but also in the processes of nociception. (
  • Aurintricarboxylic acid rescues PC12 cells and sympathetic neurons from cell death caused by nerve growth factor deprivation: correlation with suppression of endonuclease activity. (
  • This protein is important in the development and survival of nerve cells (neurons), especially those that transmit pain, temperature, and touch sensations (sensory neurons). (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Schwann cells promote neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons through secretion of nerve growth factor. (
  • Brain neurons develop in a serum and glial free environment: effects of transferrin, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 and thyroid hormone on neuronal survival, growth and differentiation. (
  • 2018. Nitration and Glycation Turn Mature NGF into a Toxic Factor for Motor Neurons: A Role for p75 and RAGE Signaling in ALS. . (
  • In summary, apoE derived from glia and Schwann cells and, after peripheral nerve injury, from invading macrophages, forms complexes with cholesterol and phospholipids released from damaged neurons, and then delivers these to the same or neighboring neurons to be used for membrane synthesis and new nerve growth. (
  • By treating the cells with an array of growth factors, the scientists were able to drive the hair cells to become nerve cells (or neurons), much like those found in either the cortex or the midbrain region. (
  • Lion's Mane is particularly popular due to its ability to support nerve-growth factor (NGF) levels, the neurotrophin which regulates proliferation and survival of new neurons. (
  • For decades researchers have known that Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes the atrophy of a system of neurons and synapses highly involved in memory, learning and attention, which is highly dependent on a molecule known as nerve growth factor (NGF). (
  • Cenegermin is a recombinant nerve growth factor approved for neurotrophic keratitis. (
  • The authors investigated the long-term effect (48 weeks) of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF) in an open-label study of 200 subjects with HIV-associated DSP. (
  • Pro NGF is the pro-form of the neurotrophin nerve growth factor. (
  • The alpha and gamma subunits are members of the kallikrein protein family, and while the role of the alpha subunit is unknown, the gamma subunit is an epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding protein and has a role in the functions of the beta subunit. (
  • Association of total insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 levels with incident coronary events and ischemic stroke. (
  • Neurotrophins are a family of growth factors that are polypeptide in structure and are necessary for the development and maintenance of the vertebrate nervous system. (
  • Studies on cardiovascular diseases have proved the impact of neurotrophins on heart formation, angiogenesis and regeneration of cardiac sympathetic nerves [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) was first identified in 1973 as the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (LNGFR) [5] [6] before discovery that p75NTR bound other neurotrophins equally well as nerve growth factor . (
  • We determined whether neurotrophins could protect oligodendrocytes from tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated cytotoxicity. (
  • Among the neurotrophins tested, nerve growth factor was most effective at preventing cell death. (
  • Abstract: Exogenous gangliosides, especially ganglioside GM1 (GM1), seem to potentiate the action of nerve growth factor (NGF). (
  • DRGs from female Wistar rats (150 grams) were harvested in cold DMEM and any excess dorsal roots and spinal nerves were trimmed under a stereo microscope. (
  • His first project was to isolate nerve growth factor from sarcoma 180-a tumor which causes extreme nerve growth in spinal and sympathetic ganglia of the chick . (
  • Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) is associated with glaucomatous neuropathy, primarily via the increased synthesis and secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and remodeling of the optic nerve head (ONH). (
  • 2. Tumor suppressor proteins are differentially affected in human ependymoblastoma and medulloblastoma cells exposed to nerve growth factor. (
  • Fibroblast growth factor or nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of the FGF Receptor Substrate 2 (FRS2) docking proteins. (
  • nerve growth factor, sympathetic fibers, and right ventricle pressure overload. (
  • Here we studied whether there is significant sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers in the painful arthritic knee joint and whether nerve growth factor (NGF) drives this pathological reorganization. (
  • sympathetic nerve fibers), CD31 (endothelial cells) or CD68 (monocytes/macrophages). (
  • In CFA-injected mice, but not vehicle-injected mice, there was a significant increase in the density of CD68(+) macrophages, CD31(+) blood vessels, CGRP(+) , NF200(+) , GAP43(+) , and TH(+) nerve fibers in the synovium as well as joint pain-related behaviors. (
  • Administration of anti-NGF reduced these pain-related behaviors and the ectopic sprouting of nerve fibers, but had no significant effect on the increase in density of CD31(+) blood vessels or CD68(+) macrophages. (
  • Ectopic sprouting of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers occurs in the painful arthritic joint and may be involved in the generation and maintenance of arthritic pain. (
  • In the developing fetal and pediatric brain, myelin is also important for nerve fibers in one area of the brain to form proper pathways to other regions, allowing the body to hone functions over time. (
  • We hypothesized that NAD might also protect auditory nerve fibers (ANF) and SGN from Mn injury. (
  • Human endothelial cells secrete neurotropic factors to direct axonal growth of peripheral nerves. (
  • Persistent exposures to high atmospheric levels of Mn have deleterious effects on CNS and peripheral nerves including those associated with the auditory system. (
  • Stanley Cohen is a biochemist who participated in the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). (
  • Further experimentation on NGF led him to the discovery of epidermal growth factor in 1960. (
  • He isolated epidermal growth factor in 1962, and sequenced epidermal growth factor in 1972. (
  • Epidermal Growth Factor. (
  • As another important component in nerve tissues, the potential of modulating cell-cell interactions as a strategy to promote regeneration has been overlooked. (
  • Therefore, modulating cell-cell interactions through cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) such as cadherins, neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) and L1, may be a potential alternative to improve nerve regeneration. (
  • Following that, we will discuss existing tissue engineering approaches that utilize CAMs and biomaterials to control nerve regeneration. (
  • Overall, we propose that utilizing CAMs with biomaterials may be a promising therapeutic strategy for nerve regeneration. (
  • Nerve growth factor eye drops improved corneal sensitivity and promoted corneal epithelial healing in both moderate and severe neurotrophic keratitis. (
  • Chronic dry eyes can lead to exposure of corneal nerves. (
  • Cohen played an active role in the later characterization of nerve growth factor . (
  • Ryu SW, Chae SK, Lee KJ, Kim E: Identification and characterization of human Fas associated factor 1, hFAF1. (
  • Recent advances have been made in the of host factors, polymorphisms, and candidate genes associated characterization of the immune response to low-molecular- with occupational asthma may improve our understanding of weight agents. (
  • Burosumab is a recombinant fully human monoclonal IgG1 antibody against the phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). (
  • Further, nerve growth factor and NGF receptor (TrkA) mRNA were highly expressed in Schwann cells and DRG neuron, respectively. (
  • Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) can bind to tyrosine kinase A (trkA) and with p75NTR depending the physiological state of the cell. (
  • 5. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors modulate nerve growth factor-mediated regulation of amyloid precursor protein expression in PC12 cells. (
  • The effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I on amyloid precursor protein phosphorylation in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. (
  • No relapse of the disease was observed during the follow-up period, with the exception of three patients with trigeminal nerve resection, who required a single retreatment. (
  • The Parasympathetic Nervous System via the Trigeminal Nerve helps regulate the production of tears. (
  • The NGF gene provides instructions for making a protein called nerve growth factor beta (NGFβ). (
  • We investigated the Cytosin-phosphatidyl-Guanin (CpG) island promoter methylation (mean and methylation of individual CpG-sites) of the nerve growth factor ( NGF ) gene in the blood of alcohol-dependent patients (57 male patients ) during withdrawal (days 1, 7 and 14). (
  • We show that about 50% of oligodendrocytes normally die in the developing rat optic nerve, apparently as a result of a competition for limiting amounts of survival signals. (
  • Increasing platelet-derived growth factor in the developing optic nerve decreases normal oligodendrocyte death by up to 90% and doubles the number of oligodendrocytes in 4 days. (
  • Older people with sudden onset of these symptoms are especially at risk for experiencing them as the result of having cancer (so called paraneoplastic retinopathy, which often co-occurs with an optic nerve involvement as well). (
  • Glaucoma in general is more than a single disease entity: it is a group of conditions characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration (detectable by pathological cupping of the optic disc) and loss of visual function, ultimately resulting in total blindness. (
  • Increased expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) has been found in the myocardium suffered from ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). The pro-survival activity of NGF on ischemic heart has been supposed to be mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway. (
  • 4. Proinflammatory cytokines stimulate the expression of nerve growth factor by human intervertebral disc cells. (
  • A few decades after the discovery of NGF, brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and neurotrophin-5 (NT-5) were discovered, followed by neurotrophin-6 (NT-6) and neurotrophin-7 (NT-7) [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Nerve growth factor (NGF) is one of the representative members of the neurotrophin family, which includes brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5). (
  • d neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which significantly stimulated axonal growth from chicken or rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) HUVEC-conditioned medium was sufficient to enhance axonal growth, demonstrating that direct cell-cell contact was not required. (
  • When BDNF was neutralized, there was a significant reduction in axonal growth when incubated in HUVEC-conditioned medium and in direct co-culture with HUVECs. (
  • In adults, a protein called brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes the growth and survival of nerve cells and is known to play a vital role in learning, memory, and maintaining brain flexibility, or "plasticity. (
  • However, there was no improvement of neuropathy severity as assessed by neurologic examination, quantitative sensory testing, and epidermal nerve fiber density. (
  • Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells. (
  • IGF stimulates special cells in the brain to provide an essential insulating material, called myelin, around the developing nerves that is needed to efficiently transmit important messages about everything the brain controls, from physical functions such as movement to mental functions such as sensory perception, thinking and emotions. (
  • We now report a virtual absence in apoE knock-out (KO) mice of normal nerve growth factor (NGF)-driven compensatory sprouting of undamaged cutaneous nociceptive nerves. (
  • 14. Aloe L, Manni L. Low-frequency electroacupuncture reduces the nociceptive response and the pain mediator enhancement induced by nerve growth factor. (
  • To evaluate the efficacy of nerve growth factor (NGF) in patients with neurotrophic keratitis. (
  • To assess the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of nerve growth factor for chronic neuropathic pain. (
  • Sumiyoshi E, Matsuzaki K, Sugimoto N, Tanabe Y, Hara T, Katakura M, Miyamoto M, Mishima S, Shido O. Sub-Chronic Consumption of Dark Chocolate Enhances Cognitive Function and Releases Nerve Growth Factors: A Parallel-Group Randomized Trial. (
  • Injections of [RH074 trade name] may generate an additional risk in patients who have other risk factors for osteoporosis (decreased bone mass) such as: metabolic bone disease, chronic alcoholism or smoking, nerve anorexia, history of osteoporosis or chronic use of medications capable of reducing bone mass such as anticonvulsants or corticosteroids. (
  • 10. Castilla-Cortázar I, Aguirre GA, Femat-Roldán G, Martín-Estal I, Espinosa L. Is insulin-like growth factor-1 involved in Parkinson's disease development? (
  • Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and the aging brain. (
  • 13. Shaheen H, Sobhy S, El Mously S, Niazi M, Gomaa M. Insulin-like growth factor-1 in acute ischemic stroke. (
  • Insulin-like growth factor-1 but not insulin predicts cognitive decline in Huntington's disease. (
  • 16. Serhan A, Boddeke E, Kooijman R. Insulin-like growth factor-1 is neuroprotective in aged rats with ischemic stroke. (
  • The protein, called insulin-like growth factor (IGF), is especially involved in the normal growth and development of babies' brain cells. (
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α is thought to be one of the most important inflammatory cytokines associated with the demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. (
  • Cytokines like interleukin-1 (IL-1) are a cause of the rise and increase in inflammation and pain of the joints and nerve roots. (
  • Wei K, Liu L, Xie F, Hao X, Luo J, Min S. Nerve Growth Factor Protects the Ischemic Heart via Attenuation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Apoptosis by Activation of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase. (
  • One of these methods is the use of intracellular factors in the treatment of stroke, which can control various cellular pathways, such as apoptosis, division, and other pathways. (
  • Endothelin-1 regulates cardiac sympathetic innervation in the rodent heart by controlling nerve growth factor expression. (
  • Sex-specific association between nerve growth factor polymorphism and cardiac vagal modulation. (
  • The dysregulation of autophagy is related to a variety of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to have therapeutic potential in ischaemic heart injury. (
  • Understanding how nerves spontaneously innervate tissues or regenerate small injuries is critical to enhance material-based interventions to regenerate large scale, traumatic injuries. (
  • These data show that HUVECs secrete neurotrophic factors that significantly enhance axonal growth, and can inform future in vivo studies to direct or pattern the angiogenic response in regenerating tissues to encourage re-innervation. (
  • These results suggest that a requirement for survival signals is more general than previously thought and that some normal cell deaths in nonneural tissues may also reflect competition for survival factors. (
  • Neural tissue engineering holds great promise in repairing damaged nerve tissues. (
  • We will also suggest other potential methods that can deliver CAMs efficiently to injured nerve tissues. (
  • Thanks to these growth factors we are able to positively influence the endogenic regenerative abilities of the body's own tissues. (
  • With complete axonal loss, reinnervation is achieved solely through proximal-to-distal axonal growth, which usually proceeds at a rate of 1 mm/day. (
  • Epidemiological studies provide evidence for links between occupational physical activities that involve highly repetitive arm motions and other risk factors for MSDs (e.g., awkward posture, force, duration) and hand and wrist disorders, and between occupational physical activities and increased incidence of hand osteoathritis (OA) [ 9 - 11 ]. (
  • Outline the evolving epidemiological risk factors and clinical characteristics of melioidosis and when to consider melioidosis as a potential diagnosis. (
  • Microorganisms can influence CNS processes bidirectionally via the vagus nerve ( 12 ) and through modulation of the immune system ( 6 ), the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis ( 13 , 14 ), and tryptophan metabolism ( 15 ), along with their ability to synthetize a number of neurotransmitters ( 16 - 18 ) and produce metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), that possess neuroactive properties ( 17 , 19 - 21 ). (
  • The neurobiological effects of colchicine: Modulation by nerve growth factor. (
  • Any approach that can protect nerve cells from ischemic injuries can improve the healing process. (
  • Thus, injuries of a nerve close to its target muscle also have a more favorable outcome. (
  • Crashes like falls or mishaps on playgrounds can result in major injuries such as back, joint and also nerve problems. (
  • Cognitive tests performed during and after the 30-day study period of either dark chocolate (containing 70 percent cacao) or white chocolate consumption found that those in the dark chocolate group scored higher in word tests, color tests, and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels (nerve growth factor promotes the growth and survival of nerve cells) than those in the white chocolate group. (
  • Neuronal differentiation of chromaffin cells in vitro, induced by extremely low frequency magnetic fields or nerve growth factor: a histological and ultrastructural comparative study med. (
  • The syncytial theory of neural development was proposed by Victor Hensen in 1864 to explain the growth and differentiation of the nervous system. (
  • This family comprises a unique collection of polypeptide growth factors that promote the proliferation, differentiation, survival and death of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. (
  • Moreover, overexpression of dominant-negative Akt negated the protective effects of nerve growth factor on tumor necrosis factor-mediated oligodendrocyte cytotoxicity. (
  • These findings indicate that the Akt pathway is crucial in nerve growth factor-mediated oligodendrocyte protection. (
  • Past studies have shown that serum-free cultures of PC12 cells are a useful model system for studying the neuronal cell death which occurs after neurotrophic factor deprivation. (
  • In this experimental paradigm, nerve growth factor (NGF) rescues the cells from death. (
  • The emergence of differences associated with autism in these nerve cells shows that these differences arise very early in life. (
  • The brain of the Little One comprises of a hundred billion nerve cells, which eventually form synapses (links between nerve cells). (
  • For example, we have nerve cells that help transport messages around the body. (
  • Galvani discovered how nerves affect muscles and first described the electrical nature of nervous transmission. (
  • Overexpression of constitutively active Akt, a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but not of constitutively active MEK, protected oligodendrocytes from tumor necrosis factor-induced injury. (
  • 3. Soluki M, Mahmoudi F, Abdolmaleki A, Asadi A, Sabahi Namini A. Cerium oxide nanoparticles as a new neuroprotective agent to promote functional recovery in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. (
  • a traction or stretch injury to the nerve has an intermediate outcome. (
  • When nerve grafting is performed, functional recovery depends on the severity of injury and thus on the length of the graft used. (
  • NURSING DIAGNOSIS: Injury, hazard as a replacement for (jeopardy factors: developmental majority, infant nosiness, rapidly progressing motor abilities) Outcome Naming and Evaluation Infant safety desire be maintained: infant will continue free from injury. (
  • This matters because proBDNF binds to a different receptor and causes inflammation and nerve degeneration. (
  • It may be injected back into the patient in the area of inflammation, into the joint or nerve roots during the same day. (
  • Grb2/Sos complexes are thus recruited directly and indirectly via Shp2 upon tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2a in response to growth factor stimulation. (
  • Pediatric chiropractic practitioners can assist kids that deal with discomfort of spine, nerves or joints. (
  • To allow a kid's nerve system and also spine to grow efficiently and without interference throughout its developmental years, the Globe Wellness Company (THAT) recommends that they obtain more than 9 hrs of sleep every day. (
  • Blood samples were taken to measure plasma levels of theobromine (a methylxanthine most often present in DC), nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and to analyze hemodynamic parameters. (
  • Aims Nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) is a transmembrane receptor for the neurotrophin family. (
  • Fas ligand is a transmembrane protein part of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. (
  • p75NTR is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily . (
  • Nerve growth factor also prevented the tumor necrosis factor-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. (
  • Purification and molecular cloning of the APO-1 cell surface antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor/nerve growth factor receptor superfamily. (
  • Metastases in thyroid cancer are associated with aggressive disease and increased patient morbidity, but the factors driving metastatic progression are unclear. (
  • The precursor for nerve growth factor (proNGF) is increased in primary thyroid cancers, but its expression or significance in metastases is not known. (
  • For luminal B cancers, NGFR showed a high specificity which was also comparable to or better than the defining markers (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) and Ki-67) for the subtype. (
  • Nerve Growth Factor-beta Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-covalently disulfide-linked homodimer, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 2 identical 121 amino acids with a molecular weight of two 13.6 kDa polypeptide monomers.The NGF-b is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (
  • Nerve Growth Factor-beta Human Recombinant produced in CHO is a noncovalently disulfide linked homodimer, glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 2 identical 118 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 26.5 kDa.The NGF-b is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (
  • The protein predominantly exists as a non-covalently linked homodimer.Pro-Nerve Growth Factor Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 222 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 49,738 Dalton.The Pro NGF is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (