Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors found in subcutaneous tissue beneath both hairy and glabrous skin. Pacinian corpuscles contain an afferent nerve fiber surrounded by a capsule with multiple concentric layers. They have large receptive fields and are most sensitive to high-frequency stimuli, such as vibration.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.
Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.

Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium. (1/1058)

1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability.  (+info)

Facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic and adrenergic nerve endings of the guinea pig trachea. (2/1058)

Using electrical field stimulation of epithelium-denuded intact guinea pig tracheal tube preparations, we studied the presence and role of prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors by measuring evoked endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) release directly. Analysis of ACh and NE was through two HPLC systems with electrochemical detection. Electrical field stimulation (150 mA, 0.8 ms, 16 Hz, 5 min, biphasic pulses) released 29.1 +/- 2.5 pmol ACh/g tissue and 70.2 +/- 6.2 pmol NE/g tissue. Preincubation for 15 min with the selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol (1 microM) increased both ACh and NE overflow to 178 +/- 28 (P < 0.01) and 165 +/- 12% (P < 0.01), respectively, of control values, increases that were abolished completely by the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118551 (1 microM). Further experiments with increasing fenoterol concentrations (0.1-100 microM) and different preincubation periods (1, 5, and 15 min) showed a strong and concentration-dependent facilitation of NE release, with maximum response levels decreasing (from nearly 5-fold to only 2.5-fold of control value) with increasing agonist contact time. In contrast, sensitivity of facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic nerves to fenoterol gradually increased when the incubation period was prolonged; in addition, a bell-shaped concentration-response relationship was found at 15 min of preincubation. Fenoterol concentration-response relationships (15-min agonist preincubation) in the presence of atropine and yohimbine (1 microM each) were similar in the case of NE release, but in the case of ACh release, the bell shape was lost. The results indicate a differential capacity and response time profile of facilitatory prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors on adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the guinea pig trachea and suggest that the receptors on adrenergic nerves are more susceptible to desensitization.  (+info)

Stimulus-secretion coupling in neurohypophysial nerve endings: a role for intravesicular sodium? (3/1058)

It is generally accepted that Ca is essentially involved in regulated secretion, but the role of this cation, as well as others such as Na, is not well understood. An illustrative example occurs in neurohypophysial secretion, where an experimentally induced increase in the cytosolic concentration of Na+ can induce continuous neuropeptide release. In contrast, an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ will have only a transient stimulatory effect. The secretion-promoting targets for Ca2+ are not known; they may be cytosolic, as is usually assumed, but they may also be intravesicular, especially in view of evidence that Ca-rich secretory vesicles are preferentially secreted. In the present work, we have investigated the movements of these cations into and out of secretory vesicles during stimulus-secretion coupling. Isolated rat neurohypophysial nerve endings were stimulated by potassium (55 mM) depolarization, and at 6 min (peak secretion) and 20 min after the onset of stimulation, the elemental content of individual secretory vesicles was measured by quantitative x-ray microanalysis. A depolarization-induced transient increase in intravesicular Na+ concentration was found to coincide with the onset of secretion. Moreover, only a predicted small fraction of peripheral vesicles-presumably the docked ones-were Na+-loaded. The low sulfur concentration of Na+-rich vesicles most likely resulted from vesicle swelling. The results suggest that high intravesicular Na+ concentrations in docked vesicles, occurring by Na+/Ca2+ exchange or by transient fusion pore opening, is a proximal event in exocytosis.  (+info)

Quantal secretion and nerve-terminal cable properties at neuromuscular junctions in an amphibian (Bufo marinus). (4/1058)

The effect of a conditioning depolarizing current pulse (80-200 micros) on quantal secretion evoked by a similar test pulse at another site was examined in visualized motor-nerve terminal branches of amphibian endplates (Bufo marinus). Tetrodotoxin (200 nM) and cadmium (50 microM) were used to block voltage-dependent sodium and calcium conductances. Quantal release at the test electrode was depressed at different distances (28-135 microm) from the conditioning electrode when the conditioning and test pulses were delivered simultaneously. This depression decreased when the interval between conditioning and test current pulses was increased, until, at an interval of approximately 0.25 ms, it was negligible. At no time during several thousand test-conditioning pairs, for electrodes at different distances apart (28-135 microm) on the same or contiguous terminal branches, did the electrotonic effects of quantal release at one electrode produce quantal release at the other. Analytic and numerical solutions were obtained for the distribution of transmembrane potential at different sites along terminal branches of different lengths for current injection at a point on a terminal branch wrapped in Schwann cell, in the absence of active membrane conductances. Solutions were also obtained for the combined effects of two sites of current injection separated by different time delays. This cable model shows that depolarizing current injections of a few hundred microseconds duration produce hyperpolarizations at approximately 30 microm beyond the site of current injection, with these becoming larger and occurring at shorter distances the shorter the terminal branch. Thus the effect of a conditioning depolarizing pulse at one site on a subsequent test pulse at another more than approximately 30 microm away is to substantially decrease the absolute depolarization produced by the latter, provided the interval between the pulses is less than a few hundred microseconds. It is concluded that the passive cable properties of motor nerve terminal branches are sufficient to explain the effects on quantal secretion by a test electrode depolarization of current injections from a spatially removed conditioning electrode.  (+info)

Synaptic vesicle dynamics in rat fast and slow motor nerve terminals. (5/1058)

We have investigated whether rat motor nerve terminals with different in vivo activity patterns also have different vesicle trafficking characteristics. To do this, we monitored, using combined optical and electrical techniques, the rate of exocytosis (during different frequencies and patterns of activity), the releasable pool size, and the recycle time of synaptic vesicles in terminals on soleus (slow-twitch) and extensor digitorum longus [(EDL); fast-twitch] muscle fibers. EDL terminals had a higher initial quantal content (QC) than soleus, but during tonic or phasic stimulation at 20-80 Hz, EDL QC ran down to a greater extent than soleus QC. By recording loss of fluorescence from exocytosing vesicles labeled with the dye FM1-43, EDL terminals were found to destain faster than those in soleus. Simultaneous intracellular recording of end plate potentials, to count the number of vesicles released, permitted estimation of the total vesicle pool (VP) size and the recycle time by combining the optical and electrophysiological data. Soleus vesicle pool was larger than EDL, but recycle time was not significantly different. These terminals, therefore, are adapted to their in vivo activity patterns by alterations in QC and VP size but not recycle time.  (+info)

Reorganization of cholinergic terminals in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in transgenic mice carrying mutated presenilin-1 and amyloid precursor protein transgenes. (6/1058)

Cholinergic deficits are one of the most consistent neuropathological landmarks in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have examined transgenic mouse models (PS1M146L, APPK670N,M671L) and a doubly transgenic line (APPK670N,M671L + PS1M146L) that overexpress mutated AD-related genes [presenilin-1 (PS1) and the amyloid precursor protein (APP)] to investigate the effect of AD-related gene overexpression and/or amyloidosis on cholinergic parameters. The size of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and the pattern of cholinergic synapses in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were revealed by immunohistochemical staining for choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, respectively. At the time point studied (8 months), no apparent changes in either the size or density of cholinergic synapses were found in the PS1M146L mutant relative to the nontransgenic controls. However, the APPK670N,M671L mutant showed a significant elevation in the density of cholinergic synapses in the frontal and parietal cortices. Most importantly, the double mutant (APPK670N,M671L + PS1M146L), which had extensive amyloidosis, demonstrated a prominent diminution in the density of cholinergic synapses in the frontal cortex and a reduction in the size of these synapses in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Nonetheless, no significant changes in the size of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were observed in these three mutants. This study shows a novel role of APP and a synergistic effect of APP and PS1 that correlates with amyloid load on the reorganization of the cholinergic network in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus at the time point studied.  (+info)

Isolation of pure cholinergic nerve endings from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata. (7/1058)

A rapid method for the preparation of highly purified cholinergic nerve endings from the electric organ of Torpedo is described. The endings retain their cytoplasmic components, as shown by biochemical and morphological observations. The homogeneity of these synaptosomes make them a useful tool for further studies.  (+info)

Specific alteration of spontaneous GABAergic inhibition in cerebellar purkinje cells in mice lacking the potassium channel Kv1. 1. (8/1058)

In the cerebellum, the basket cell innervation on Purkinje cells provides a major GABAergic inhibitory control of the single efferent output from the cerebellum. The Shaker-type K channel Kv1.1 is localized at the axon arborization preceding the terminal of the basket cells and is therefore a potential candidate for regulating the GABAergic inhibition. In this study, we directly assess this role of Kv1.1 by electrophysiological analysis of Kv1.1 null mutant mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) were made from Purkinje cells in thin cerebellar slices from postnatal day (P)10-15 Kv1.1-null mutants using wild-type littermates as controls. The null mutation confers a very specific change in the sIPSC: the frequency increases about twofold, without accompanying changes in the mean and variance of its amplitude distribution. The frequency and amplitude of the miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) are unaffected. Spontaneous firing rate of the basket cells is unaltered. Evoked IPSC does not show multiple activity in the mutants. Motor skills tests show that Kv1.1 null mice display a compromised ability to maintain balance on a thin stationary rod. We conclude that the Kv1.1 null mutation results in a persistent elevation of the tonic inhibitory tone on the cerebellum Purkinje cell efferent and that this is not fully compensated for by residual Shaker-type channels. We further suggest that the increase in inhibitory tone in the mutants might underlie the behavioral deficits. At the cellular level, we propose that Kv1.1 deletion enhances excitability of the basket cells by selectively enhancing the likelihood of action potential propagation past axonal branch points.  (+info)

We used the perforated-patch technique to examine the relationship between Ca2+ entry and exocytosis of large dense-cored vesicles in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Exocytosis evoked by single-step depolarizations was monitored by capacitance detection. Ca2+ entry was varied by changing external calcium concentration, stepping to different test potentials, depolarizing for different durations, or applying blockers of specific calcium channel subtypes. Regardless of protocol, the amount of exocytosis was strictly related to the integral of the voltage-clamped calcium current, raised to a power of approximately 1.5. Thus, despite the complexities of transient and nonuniform changes in submembrane calcium concentration produced by voltage-gated calcium entry, the calcium dependence of large dense-cored vesicle fusion under conditions of minimal stimulation is well approximated by a simple transfer function of summed calcium entry.
Enlarged nerve endings on the penis, Penetrex male enhancement Titan 14 gel memory foam mattress by alwyn home Titan gel ml Is male enhancement safe
This study is designed to use PET scans in order to measure activity of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is the portion of the nervous system that maintains a normal supply of blood and fuel to organs during stressful situations.. PET scan or Positron Emission Tomography is an advanced form of an X-ray. It is used to detect radioactive substances in the body. During this study researchers plan to inject small amounts of the radioactive drug fluorodopamine into patients. Fluorodopamine is very similar to the chemicals found in the sympathetic nervous system. It can attach to sympathetic nerve endings and allow researchers to view them with the aid of a PET scan. One area of the body with many sympathetic nerve endings is the heart. After giving a dose of fluorodopamine, researchers will be able to visualize all of the sympathetic nerve endings involved in the activity of the heart. In addition, this diagnostic test will help researchers detect abnormalities of the ...
Synonyms for touching a nerve ending at with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
The Nervous System is a collection of systems involved in coordination, perception, sensation, movement, and feeling, as well as the coordination and perception of physical sensations.. It is responsible for many functions including pain perception, coordination, sensation and movement, memory and emotion.. It also acts as the central nervous system controlling and regulating bodily functions, including breathing and heartbeat.. There are many different types of nerves, including blood vessels, nerve endings, sensory nerves, and muscle nerves.. Nerve endings are the projections from the nerve fibers that form the ends of nerves.. There is a lot of information going on within a single nerve, called a synapse.. These are the connections that allow a nerve to send or receive information.. Some nerves also have a lot more than one type of fiber.. The more nerve endings a nerve has, the more information is possible, but this information is only partially reliable.. Another important aspect of the ...
Tempo de leitura: menos de 1 minuto. Laudare to praise docere to teach ducere to lead audire to hear 4. Learn participles and infinitives latin with free interactive flashcards. Examples: paras (you prepare) -> pararis (you are being prepared) tenes (you are holding) -> … Our services are 9 AM each Sunday. At an early point in the history of Latin, the abstract verbal noun had case endings, just like other nouns. Id like you not to sing so loudly. In a way, the ending on Latin verbs are a type of pronoun. 48) It suits me to consider. categorized into four large conjugation groups depending on the ending in the infinitive mood, and this is the verb classification that is currently taught in. iubeo te = I order you. 1. Latin: Verb Endings, Declension Endings. It differs from the imperfect in that the imperfect relates ongoing, repeated, or continuous action. in Sanskrit where there is an infinitive in -tum, cognate with the Latin supine in its accusative form).. 3. In Latin there are also three ...
Hi to all, I am new to this site and I was wondering if anyone could give me info on nerve endings. My husband had radical prostate removel without nerve spari...
I am making up for four years of lost time tonight. Here is the first full length from Bristol TN/VAs own Nerve Endings. Comparisons can be made to such bands as Black Flag, The Jesus Lizard, etc, but that would be missing the point. The point is is that these guys fucking rule. They put on great live shows, this cd kills, and they are terrific guys to boot. I love this cd, and i hope that you all enjoy it too. Check out their facebook page and grab a copy of this for yourself, and if they play around where you live, make sure you go see them. They MIGHT play some Black Flag covers if youre lucky, and even if they dont, youll still be lucky that you got to see such a damn good band ...
A few years ago, I was at a cookout at Rich Danskys house. Rich is the head Tom Clancy writer for Red Storm Entertainment; hes also a novelist, among many other accomplishments. Another friend of ours was asking about some project I had in the works, and I said that it would probably come out in another six or eight months. When asked how I could stand waiting that long, I shrugged and said it was something Id gotten used to. Rich said, Yeah--after you do this kind of thing for a while, your nerve endings just get sort of worn off ...
What animal has the most nerve endings Click here to find answers. It`s Free & Simple, 100`s of community experts will answer your questions.
Backstreetmerch - Tool, Nerve Ending. Officially licensed merchandise, T shirts, hoodies, and much more. The largest range available on the net.
Backstreetmerch - Tool, Nerve Ending. Offiziell lizensiertes Merchandise, T-Shirts, Kapuzenpullis und noch viel mehr. Die größte Auswahl im Netz.
C)Special rules for built-in gains and losses attributable to property received in liquidations and reorganizations. Built-in losses attributable to property received in a transaction described in sections 332 or 361 (during the two-year period ending on the date of the distribution in liquidation covered by this section) shall not offset gain from property not received in the same transaction. Built-in gains attributable to property received in a transaction described in sections 332 or 361 (during the two-year period ending on the date of the distribution in liquidation covered by this section) shall not be offset by a loss from property not received in the same transaction. Built-in gain or loss is that amount of gain or loss on property that existed at the time the domestic liquidating corporation acquired such property. See sections 336(d) and 382 for additional limitations on the recognition of losses. (iii)Distribution of partnership interest - (A)General rule. If a domestic corporation ...
The CJR model began on April 1, 2016. The CJR model is currently in the second performance year, which includes episodes ending on or after January 1, 2017 and on or before December 31, 2017. The third performance year, which includes all CJR episodes ending on or after January 1, 2018 and on or before December 31, 2018, would necessarily incorporate episodes beginning before January 2018. The fifth, and last, performance year would end on December 31, 2020. Currently, with limited exceptions, hospitals located in the 67 geographic areas selected for participation in the CJR model must participate in the model through December 31, 2020; that is, their participation in the CJR model is mandatory unless the hospital is an episode initiator for a lower-extremity joint replacement (LEJR) episode in the risk-bearing period of Models 2 or 4 of the BPCI initiative. Hospitals with a CCN primary address in the 67 selected geographic areas that participated in Model 1 of the BPCI initiative, which ended ...
Nationally, levels of influenza-like illness (ILI) declined again this week. They have been below the national baseline for two weeks but remain elevated in the northeastern and northwestern part of the country.
LEMS is caused by the bodys natural defences (the immune system) mistakenly attacking and damaging the nerves.. Normally, nerve signals travel down the nerves and stimulate the nerve endings to release a chemical called acetylcholine. This chemical then helps activate the muscles.. If the nerve endings are damaged, the amount of acetylcholine they produce decreases, which means nerve signals do not reach the muscles properly.. Its not known what triggers the immune system to attack the nerves. Its often associated with lung cancer, but can occur in people without cancer. LEMS is not inherited.. ...
Computer assisted image analysis (IA) was used to measure the extent of nerve terminal arborization (terminal density) in three different parts of the nervous system. Model experiments, using mouse irides, showed that IA and biochemical analysis techniques gave very similar results. It was also shown that IA had very good reproducibility, but that results should be interpreted in relation to an adequate control rather than in absolute terms. Studies of 5-HT nerve terminals in cerebral cortex and substance P containing terminals in spinal cord showed that important information could be made available through IA where biochemical analysis was not feasible. IA can thus be an important tool in studies of regenerating nerve terminals in regions where biochemical methods do not have sufficient morphological resolution. ...
As always, you can get various endings in the game. The game contains 5 different endings depending on the few key choices you decide through the game. Like killing Alexs mom, forgiving his fat and saving Wheeler at one point. These main actions will decide wether Alex will reunite with Elle or be killed for the Cult for example! Theres one pretty strange ending where hes turned into a Pyramid Head thing/Bogeyman, and another one which is a direct throwback to Jacobs Ladder. Strangely enough, much to the annoyance of a lot of Silent Hill fans you can even attain the traditional UFO ending on a first playthrough for the first time in a SH game!! Finally theres also a super secret finale ending which will get Josh back if you find all of his drawings through the playthrough in a post-credit scene. ...
Synonyms for nerve impulse in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for nerve impulse. 3 synonyms for nerve impulse: nervous impulse, neural impulse, impulse. What are synonyms for nerve impulse?
It is the rare neurotransmitter that has remained unscathed by the innuendo that its release is inhibitable by adenosine derivatives. At the motor nerve ending, acetylcholine (ACh) release is...
Pain plays an important in the survival of all animals. It acts as a signal, alerting us to potential tissue damage, and leads to a wide range of actions to prevent or limit further damage.Physiologically, pain occurs when sensory nerve endings called nociceptors (also referred to as pain receptors) come into contact with a painful or noxious stimulus. The resulting nerve
This drawing is the amalgam of two memories; I shaved a blue-haired girls head with a pair of scissors in the dark when I was 19 years old and my fathers death from Glioblastoma. They have no correlation. Its a workaround to process one memory by padding it with another. Im sure its a bad idea, but at least its an idea ...
It seems that long running manga are starting to become an endangered species as yet another manga is about to reach its end. It has been revealed in the 19th issue of Weekly Shōnen Magazine that Air Gear is going to be ending in only five more chapters.. The series has had a very long run as it has been published since 2002 which means it will be ending a decade long run that saw a few anime series released in both Japan and North America as well. Does the ending of Air Gear strike you as something odd or does it seem fitting that the manga end now? ...
Eventbrite - Happy Endings Comedy Club - Kings Cross presents 6.30pm Sat Nights - Happy Endings - Same show as 8.30pm, just earlier! - Saturday, 31 July 2021 at Happy Endings Comedy Club, Potts Point, NSW. Find event and ticket information.
Ras vsebuje 6 beta listov in 5 alfa listov: • G domene (166 aminokislin) • C terminal membrane ciljanja (CAAX-COOH, znan tudi kot polje CAAX) Domena GG vsebuje pet motivov, ki se vežejo neposredno GDP / GTP • G1 -P-loop veže fosfat beta BDP in GTP • G2 -treonin-35 tudi stikalo 1 • G3 -DXXG motiv, aspartat-57 je značilno za gvanin namesto adenine • G4 • G5 -SAK soglasja zaporedju, alanin-146 je značilen za gvanin namesto adenine ...
The band will play seven shows across the UK on the trek, kicking off on November 18th at Manchester Academy and ending on November 27th in Sheffield. The tour also includes dates in Birmingham, Bristol, Glasgow, London and Newcastle.
Wind project post-mortem; doc delivers 13 babies, ending on the 13th; discrimination suit; fewer Target holiday helpers; talking thermostat; and more.
GateToMedicine (G2M) final mock exam is on 3rd January 2018 ending on 4th January 2018. Top 300 MCQs are picked by previous G2M NEET PG toppers. This exam will (...)
Words that end in ectrophoresis, words that end with ectrophoresis, words ending in ectrophoresis, words ending with ectrophoresis
Words that end in arathyroidism, words that end with arathyroidism, words ending in arathyroidism, words ending with arathyroidism
You need to find all english words ending in X ? We have that list and for sure you will find the word you are looking for. All these words ending in X are sorted by the number of points they give at Scrabble.
You need to find all english words ending in Y ? We have that list and for sure you will find the word you are looking for. All these words ending in Y are sorted by the number of points they give at Scrabble.
Best ending for me has to be te origonal diablo (have not played two yet so dont spoil it of me) the worst ending for me was the origonal Quake very disapointing
Benzocaine hydrochloride is a surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along nerve fibers and at nerve endings.
The actual feeling of pain comes from nerve endings in our bodies that send signals to the brain letting us know that there is a trauma.
Scars itch because they are in the process of healthy healing. Itching may occur due to damage to the surrounding nerve endings or dryness of the area, as explained by UK Health Centre....
Collasate spray occludes nerve endings, reduces bleeding, and provides healing benefits of collagen: new tissue growth, preventing or minimizing scarring.
Grieving is our natural response when someone dies. In cultural communities where crying is discouraged and endings are not always properly honored, we have had to rediscover for ourselves how to fully and honestly grieve. The inspiring response of ...
Words Ending with tes. Words which starts with tes of different lengths. Here is a list of all words which start with the word tes
Words Ending with ias. Words which starts with ias of different lengths. Here is a list of all words which start with the word ias
For each letter, is there a Scrabble legal word ending in that letter followed by ion? Test your knowledge on this language quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by CumbrianRachel
A cell of an emf of 2V and internal resistance of .5ohm is s ending current through a tangent galvanometer of resistance 4.5 ohm .If another resistance of 95oh
Ending Punctuation Free Printable Worksheets Practice from free printable punctuation worksheets, image source:
Words ending with e, having 7 letters. List of all words that ends with e. 3426 words found, abalone, abature, abaxile, abollae, abridge, abrooke, abscise, absence, absolve, abthane and more
Free nerve endings are unencapsulated and have no complex sensory structures. They are the most common type of nerve ending, and are most frequently found in the skin. They mostly resemble the fine roots of a plant. They penetrate the epidermis and end in the stratum granulosum. FNE infiltrate the middle layers of the epidermis and surround hair follicles. ...
Free nerve endings are unencapsulated and have no complex sensory structures. They are the most common type of nerve ending, and are most frequently found in the skin. They mostly resemble the fine roots of a plant. They penetrate the dermis and end in the stratum granulosum. FNEs infiltrate the middle layers of the dermis and surround hair follicles.. ...
Free nerve endings are unencapsulated and have no complex sensory structures. They are the most common type of nerve ending, and are most frequently found in the skin. They mostly resemble the fine roots of a plant. They penetrate the dermis and end in the stratum granulosum. FNEs infiltrate the middle layers of the dermis and surround hair follicles. ...
free nerve ending definition: microscopic sensory neurological endings inside skin that arent attached to any certain sensory receptor
TY - JOUR. T1 - A slowly activating voltage-dependent K+ current in rat pituitary nerve terminals. AU - Kilic, Gordan. AU - Stolpe, Andreas. AU - Lindau, Manfred. PY - 1996/12/15. Y1 - 1996/12/15. N2 - 1. A novel slowly activating voltage-dependent K+ current was observed in isolated nerve terminals from rat neurohypophysis using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. 2. The activation kinetics of the slow current could be fitted assuming Hodgkin-Huxley-type kinetics, an exponential, n, of 1.3 and activation time constants decreasing from 4 s at -50 mV to 0.7 s at +40 mV. 3. A positive shift of reversal potential was observed when [K+] was increased in the bath solution. The current is carried mainly but not exclusively by K+ ions. 4. When intracellular free [Mg2+] was low (~60 μM), average current density was 74 pA pF-1 at membrane potentials around 0 mV. In 83% of nerve terminals current amplitude was , 20 pA pF-1. 5. The slow current was never observed when the pipette ...
The reaction of colloidal iron hydroxide (CIH) with acidic groups was applied for an ultra-structural study of the distribution of sulphuric acid monoesters and sialic acid in synaptic vesicles and external nerve ending membranes isolated from rat brain. At pH 1.7 CIH was precipitated as electron-dense granules with a uniform size of 6-7 nm specifically labelling the carboxyl group of sialic acid and the sulphate group of monoesters of sulphuric acid. The differentiation of these 2 groups was achieved by treatment with neuraminidase and methylation followed by saponification. After preincubation with neuraminidase, which released 90-100% of the sialic acid from the membranes of the synaptic vesicles and the nerve endings, the electron-dense deposits marked the reaction sites of sulphate with CIH. The sulphate groups which were present at a concentration of 2.3 and 2.2 µmol/mg protein for the synaptic vesicle and nerve ending membrane preparations, respectively, were rendered soluble as methyl ...
The control of neurotransmitter release at nerve terminals is of profound importance for neurological function and provides a powerful control system in neural networks. We show that the balance of enzymatic activities of the α isoform of the phosphatase calcineurin (CNAα) and the kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) has a dramatic influence over single action potential (AP)-driven exocytosis at nerve terminals. Acute or chronic loss of these enzymatic activities results in a sevenfold impact on single AP-driven exocytosis. We demonstrate that this control is mediated almost entirely through Cav2.2 (N-type) voltage-gated calcium channels as blocking these channels with a peptide toxin eliminates modulation by these enzymes. We found that a fraction of nerve terminals are kept in a presynaptically silent state with no measurable Ca2+ influx driven by single AP stimuli attributable to the balance of CNAα and CDK5 activities because blockade of either CNAα or CDK5 activity changes the ...
We have used pulsed laser imaging to measure the spatial distribution of Ca2+ influx into isolated neuroendocrine axon terminals from the neurohypophysis. The sensitivity and rapidity of the pulsed laser technique has allowed us to image Ca2+ increases after influx of only 0.6 msec during a tail current. Despite efforts to identify localized entry of Ca2+ by imaging influx after brief or extended periods of depolarization, and in the presence of various Ca2+ channel blockers or intracellular Ca2+ chelators, the influx into the neurohypophysial terminals was always homogeneously distributed over the terminal membrane. Localized influx, however, was clearly seen after electroporation of the terminal membrane and when similar experiments were performed on bovine chromaffin cells (Monck et al., 1994; Robinson et al., 1995, 1996). These data support the hypothesis that Ca2+ channels in the terminals do not possess the large clusters of Ca2+channels seen at specialized release sites in the presynaptic ...
Both methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic divalent mercury (Hg++) alter the flux of ions and small molecules across nerve terminal membranes by mechanisms that may involve membrane depolarization. We compared the effects of MeHg and Hg++ on plasma (psi p) and mitochondrial membrane potentials (psi m) in synaptosomes using the potentiometric carbocyanine dye 3,3-diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodide [diS-C2(5)]. Both mercurials (1-20 microM) produced concentration-dependent increases in dye fluorescence after 5 min of exposure which were not altered by removal of Ca++ from the medium. To determine directly effects of mercurials on psi p, predepolarization of psi m using NaN3 and oligomycin was necessary. Under this condition, MeHg- and Hg(++)-induced increases in fluorescence were associated with depolarization of psi p. A second approach was used to assess changes in psi p. In synaptosomes, the magnitude of the increase in fluorescence resulting from depolarization of psi p with a stimulus of constant ...
Previously this Company also published a study in the journal Pain in which they discuss the case of a woman who has been born without special nerve ending. The medical community thought that without nerve ending woman wont be able to feel touch or taste senses as these nerves are necessary for touch senses. The Woman turned out fine and continue her life. Later it is found out that she had the nerve ending near the fine capillary blood vessels in her skin. Dr. Rice Added that previously their team thought that nerve ending is for only blood regulation in our body at a subconscious level. This woman Clearly an example that nerve ends also contribute to our sense of touch and also PAIN.. Currently used drugs, made by Eli Lilly and Forest Labs, are serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) that usually work on the brain. But, these drugs can also work on the nerve endings near blood vessels in the skin. As we already know how these drugs work on molecules in the brain, Dr. Philip J. ...
Fig. 1. An amperometry recording (below) signals three successive stages in exocytosis (above). The SNARE proteins, which play an essential role in exocytosis, are shown in different hypothetical configurations.. We also do experiments on the posterior pituitary, and have used this preparation to investigate presynaptic excitability. We have identified and characterized the ion channels in pituitary nerve terminals and shown how various signaling systems can target these ion channels for modulation. Present efforts focus on the sigma receptor, which modulates several ion channels (in collaboration with Arnold Ruoho of the Pharmacology Department), and the NO/cGMP signaling system, which produces a unique use-dependent enhancement of excitability. We are also imaging intra-terminal Ca2+ with two-photon microscopy in order to characterize the cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffers and explore how the spatial dynamics of Ca2+ controls the time course of release.. To relate what we learn at the molecular and ...
BioAssay record AID 65182 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of high affinity uptake of [3H]dopamine into striatal nerve endings (synaptosomes).
There are more than 8,000 nerve endings in the tip of the clitoris alone. Thats double the number of those in a penis. A clitoris is made up of 18 distinct parts - a mixture of erectile tissue, muscle and nerves.
Investigate Nerve Tissue.VWR supplies microscope slides for cytology, histology, and general microbiology applications. Slides for staining experiments are constructed of high quality sheet glass and soda-lime glass; economical options include disposable clear vinyl or standard sheet glass slides. Choose plain or frosted products with or without coverslips. Clipped or beveled corners are offered as well as color-coded and markable slides for organization. Purchase clean or prepared slides in your choice of dimensions and thickness in packs or larger cases.
title: The synaptic microcircuitry associated with primary afferent terminals in the interpolaris and caualis of trigeminal sensory nuclear complex, doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.08.042, category: Article
Decision 92/588/EEC is amended as follows: 1. In Article 2 in the first paragraph capacity is replaced by effort. 2. In Article 4, the sentence At the latest by 15 February and 31 July of each year for the previous six-month period ending on 31 December and 30 June respectively . . . is replaced by At the latest by 31 March of each year for the previous year ending on 31 December . . . 3. In the Annex: - In point 1 Segmentation the following paragraphs are added: Identification of segments For each segment of the fleet a corresponding list of vessels and their characteristics are transmitted to the Commission by the Member State before 31 December 1994, in accordance with the procedures described in the framework of Commission Regulation (EC) No 109/94 of 19 January 1994 concerning the fishing vessel register of the Community (*), and in particular Annex I thereof and the categories of programmes defined therein. Grouping of segments Subject to the agreement of the Commission, the ...
From: the period of adjustment…shall be reduced by the lesser of: (i) the number of days, if any, beginning on the date the amendment under §1.312 or other paper was filed and ending on the mailing date of the Office Action or notice in response to the amendment under §1.312 or such other paper; or (ii) four months.. To: the number of days, if any, beginning on the day after the date of mailing of the Notice of Allowance under 35 U.S.C. 151 and ending on the date the amendment under §1.312 or other paper was filed.. Countries without PTE or PTA laws:. Countries such as India, Brazil, Mexico, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Hong Kong etc. have a lack of a system of patent term extension or patent term adjustment. In these countries patent term is provided only for 20 years even if the regulatory authorities delay in the patent prosecution process.. Countries with PTE or PTA laws other than US:. Countries like EP, AU, JP, TW, Israel, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Columbia etc. have a sound ...
We operate on a 52- or 53-week fiscal year ending on the last Saturday in December in each calendar year. Unless the context requires otherwise, references to years and quarters contained herein pertain to our fiscal years and fiscal quarters. Our 2020 fiscal year is scheduled to be a 52-week period ending on December 26, 2020, and the 2019 fiscal year was a 52-week period that ended on December 28, 2019. ...
Noxious stimuli are transduced into electrical signals in free unencapsulated nerve endings that have branched from the main axon and terminate in the wall of arterioles and surrounding connective tissue, and may innervate distinct regions in the dermis and epidermis (17, 30). The endings are ensheathed by Schwann cells except at the end bulb and at mitochondria- and vesicle-rich varicosities (17). A-fibers lose their myelin sheath and the unmyelinated A-fiber branches cluster in separated small spots within a small area, the anatomical substrate for their receptive field (17). C-fiber branches are generally more broadly distributed, precluding precise localization of the stimulus (17). In contrast, specialized nonneuronal structures conferring high sensitivity to light touch, stretch, vibration, and hair movement are innervated by low threshold A-fibers (11). Nociceptive endings are in the vicinity of keratinocytes, mast cells, and Langerhans cells, indicating the capacity of peripheral ...
The researchers also looked at another measurement called the pulse pressure, which is the change in blood pressure when the heart contracts. Pulse pressure is calculated by subtracting the bottom number (diastolic reading) from the top number (systolic reading). Those with higher pulse pressure had up to 50 percent fewer headaches. The researchers think that the higher the pulse pressure, the stiffer the blood vessels. The stiffer the blood vessel, the less likely the nerve endings are working properly. If the nerve endings arent functioning correctly, the less likely a person will feel pain ...
Dr. Robert Kwok answered: No sensory nerves...: If there are no sensory nerve endings in that part of the body, then no sensations are detected, so thus the...
Pain is part of your survival mechanism. Its your bodys way of saying, Ah, hey… something is wrong here. Pay attention please and help me out. Hopefully you then consciously do something to help your body out and fix the issue.. The question remains though, why does pain sometimes come and stay even when there is no life-threatening situation?. Ah, so heres where things get more intriguing and where I believe more research and science is needed. When nociceptors react and start sending the message, danger, danger… something is wrong here, sometimes they keep sending the same message yet the danger isnt really there. Why? Heres my theory and why I believe MELT helps so many people so fast. You have to get the nociceptors to sense something different. When an injury occurs, the connective tissue is frequently what gets damaged. (This is why doctors sometimes cant find anything wrong with you even when you have an MRI and X-rays.) When the environment around your sensory nerve endings ...
Soft tissue injuries are painful because the connective tissue is where the sensory nerve endings live. In this video, fitness expert Sue Hitzmann, MS/CST/NMT, shares her tips for restoring the fluid in your connective tissue using the MELT Method.
Baroreceptors are sensory nerve endings in human blood vessels that detect blood pressure. There are two types of barorecptors...
Ive hurt myself. Not a cut or bruise; thats usual. Ive seriously hurt myself for the first time ever. Someone who has never broken a bone or had any sort of surgery in her life. I fell. HARD. And x-rays show that while I havent broken anything, Ive suffered a contusion. On my tailbone. And…
This rare wonderful time of openness may pass, as we heal, as we move on, as one distraction of life and another take us forward, through the passage of time, causing the rawness to diminish and eventually to fade. A key for all of us during the special time of Kairos--of man-ing or woman-ing up and feeling our pain, facing it and eventually transitioning, learning to let go of the pain, so learning to live again--a key is to keep sacred the openness we learn, so that we can continue as much as possible to experience things like nature, art, the faces of our beloveds, the touch of their hands, the embrace of the world, from the place where great grace and the purification of suffering have rendered our hearts open, our minds clear and honest, and our souls more alive than they might have been if we had never voyaged so deeply ...
One of the endings that really stayed with me was the one in SAM AND DAVE DIG A HOLE. It was such a unique (and subtle) twist that brought everything back full circle but everything had changed. THAT IS NOT A GOOD IDEA is also great b/c it is so unpredictable. As for endings, something that makes them really enjoyable is when an ending ties back to the first line somehow, creating a sort of book end with the story in between ...
Why are my feet ticklish The KGB Agent answer: Nerve endings are what makes us feel ticklish. Our feet have the most so theyre the most ticklish of all.
I have no complaints these days. Im in IOP but Im ending on Tuesday. Think I got all the resources out of it that I could. I dont work now for 2 1/2 months but thats fine. Ill work again when I can. Ive been readi…
While the weekdays tend to move quite rapidly at, the weekends are characteristically slower. To help you get caught up on the week that was, you can check out the below list of the most viewed stories that ran over the past seven days. While youre at it, feel free to engage in whatever discussion you see fit on this very post.. The Ten Most-Viewed Stories On For The Week Ending On January 10th, 2021: ...
In the case of the Gospels, lets assume for the sake of argument that Jesus died about 33 A.D. If the Gospels were all written around 70 A.D. (as the member of the Irrational Rescue Squad admits in his post), and assuming the fact that the apostles were all in their mid 20s at the time that Jesus lived (making them middle-aged by the authors reckoning), then they would have been around 65 at the time that the Gospels were written. This is certainly not impossible. Credible evidence exists that John the Apostle died in the early 2nd Century -- approximately 70 years after the crucifixion. There is no question that Peter, another apostle, lived until he was executed around 65 A.D. If you want the evidence see the New Advent Encylopedias article on Saint Peter the Apostle. If John lived to 100 A.D. (making him no less than 85) and if the Apostle Peter lived to 65 A.D. (his life ending on that date only because he was executed), then in what way is it possibly unreasonable that the other apostles ...
The Bacon Bacon Truck sustained a fire, but the Bacon Bacon storefront is still open. Theres a happy ending on the truck front, too, as owner Jim Angelus expects to get a new Bacon Bacon Truck in the next several months. less ...
The Bacon Bacon Truck sustained a fire, but the Bacon Bacon storefront is still open. Theres a happy ending on the truck front, too, as owner Jim Angelus expects to get a new Bacon Bacon Truck in the next several months. less ...
Random inspections of germplasm consignments are resuming from 1 August 2020. Inspections had initially started in March 2020, but were suspended due to restrictions relating to COVID-19.. The inspections will be carried out for a 12 month trial period ending on 1 August 2021.. The following germplasm will be randomly selected for inspection:. ...
Notes: For the fourth Fathers Day in a row, Brother was performed and featured all of the bands children on stage and subsequent introductions (which included a Charge! from Page). After Timber, Trey sang the ending notes to Brother. Trey then said he had a trivia question for the crowd and asked how many songs end like this? and the band sang the ending of Brother again. He answered the question by saying the songs were My Friend, My Friend, Rift, and Brother (all of which had their endings sung). Trey added that tonight was special because from now on, Timber would also end with the Brother ending (which was sung again). Trey said Page could also end Lawn Boy that way from now on, prompting a Lawn Boy quote from Page. Mike then teased Ha Ha Ha. Trey went on to say that Metallica would be playing at Bader Field soon after Phish and that he didnt think they ended a single song like the ending of Brother (Trey sang the ending). Trey said if everyone wrote Metallica a note saying Dear ...
Olive Garden announced the return of its Never Ending Pasta Pass for a sixth year and also introduced a first-of-its-kind $500 Lifetime Pasta Pass. According to the casual dining restaurant chain, 24,000 Never Ending Pasta Passes are available this year, priced at $100 plus tax.
Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory
ANSWER: An action potential is transmitted to the muscle via a motor nerve; the electrical signal is transmitted to the muscle chemically (acetyl choline) across the gap between the nerve and the muscle; an action potential is generated in the muscle; the acetyl choline is broken down and/or taken back up into the nerve ending ...
The other bit of me-related news that came out of San Diego Comic Con was that SCALPED is ending with issue #60. Still feels weird to see it finally spelled out so definitely, but this has actually been the plan for quite a while now. This was my choice. We were not canceled or forced into an ending. The series will be ending just the way Ive always imagined it ending. There are a couple of smaller stories I always thought I might get to which I ultimately wont, but those were set aside in the interest of giving the series as solid a finish as possible. There wont be any more stand-alone issues. Instead well have two final big arcs to bring everything home, with Guera drawing every issue. Expect a death or two and hopefully at least a couple of surprises. And expect everyone to get the ending theyve got coming to them, good or bad. In many ways, the entire story of SCALPED will ultimately be about what happens in these last ten issues. Thanks again to everybody whos stuck with us this ...
The other bit of me-related news that came out of San Diego Comic Con was that SCALPED is ending with issue #60. Still feels weird to see it finally spelled out so definitely, but this has actually been the plan for quite a while now. This was my choice. We were not canceled or forced into an ending. The series will be ending just the way Ive always imagined it ending. There are a couple of smaller stories I always thought I might get to which I ultimately wont, but those were set aside in the interest of giving the series as solid a finish as possible. There wont be any more stand-alone issues. Instead well have two final big arcs to bring everything home, with Guera drawing every issue. Expect a death or two and hopefully at least a couple of surprises. And expect everyone to get the ending theyve got coming to them, good or bad. In many ways, the entire story of SCALPED will ultimately be about what happens in these last ten issues. Thanks again to everybody whos stuck with us this ...
Bradford HF, Foley P, Docherty M, Fillit H, Luine VN, McEwen B, Bucht G, Winbald B, Hardy J. Antibodies in serum of patients with Alzheimers disease cause immunolysis of cholinergic nerve terminals from the rat cerebral cortex ...
The deal with neuros saying they can usually spot a true ALS case the minute it walks through the door is becaue most people with ALS dont even notice the twitches. An ALS twitch is very fine compared to BFS twitches. A true fasciculation is a very fine, low impulse, momentary twitch that barely has enough power to move the surface of the skin and you have to figure that if the twitch is caused by dying nerves and muscle tissue, you most likely wouldnt feel the twitches happening in the first place... after all, if your muscle is dying and the nerves are disconnecting, then what is sending the signals of feeling the ALS twitch up to the brain? Not much, thats for sure... its pretty hard to send signals of feeling through dead or disconnected nerve endings ...
There the electrical sign alterations right into a chemical 1, along with the nerve ending sprays a molecular transmitter, acetylcholine, onto the muscle mass. During the milliseconds just before enzymes have an opportunity to chew it up, a lot of the acetylcholine binds with receptors, known as gated-ion channels, within the surface on the muscle mobile. When acetylcholine sticks to them, they open up, making it possible for the sodium ions from the encompassing salty fluid to hurry in ...
Reflexology is a part of medicine that pain pressing on specific points on the body. It is particularly suitable methods for application to the ear, because there are many nerve endings. With the help of clothespin, which puts pressure on specific nerve, can be solved discomfort or pain.. Through these 6 points, the ear is connected with all parts of the body. The pain in certain areas can be healed with pressure on certain points. ...
The skin is a human beings largest sensory organ, helping to distinguish between a pleasant contact, like a caress, and a negative sensation, like a pinch or a burn. Previous studies have shown that these sensations are carried to the brain by different types of sensory neurons that have nerve endings in the skin. Now biologists at Caltech have identified in mice a specific class of skin sensory neurons that reacts to an apparently pleasurable stimulus.
A feeling of distress, suffering, or agony caused by stimulation of specialized nerve endings. The sensation we feel as pain is produced through a number of complex biochemical interactions. These interactions can be likened to a battle between the
Hi! , Unfortunately theres been a spate of mono cases in our are this , past week and my 16 y/o pumper Liz was one of those diagnosed. Thank , goodness for the pump because it certainly makes life easier when , her fever spikes and causes a corresponding bg increase. Does anyone , have mono with diabetes experience they can share with me? (ie: , length of illness, problems to look out for, etc.) FWIW, this , morning at 2am she did a supplemental bolus with a syringe instead , of the pump since her bgs jumped to 320. She was quite surprised , that the syringe caused her more discomfort than inserting a sil! Tell her to give her injections the SAME way she inserts the Sil ..... sideways under the skin. The abdomen is a great spot for this, lots of skin the really has very few nerve endings. I demonstrated this to Lily (on me, of course) as a prelude to pumping 7 years ago. She finally tried it and hasnt done an injection in an arm or leg since then. Michael email @ redacted ...
Revising may be boring, but how you revise is only one part of getting a good grade. What you eat is vital to how your brain works. Snacking on crisps and sweets may sound like the best idea but really isnt, sorry. Junk food has been found to block the passage of messages between the nerve endings in your brain, so all those hours studying could be for nothing if Doritos are all youre munching on. Instead try a handful of nuts or berries, both contain Omega3 and will keep you active and focused. ...
Greetings- , My Blood Sugars at night have been all over the place- lots of lows , followed by highs- a mess. My endo is talking about being tested for , gastro-paresis. I know it has to do withe nerve endings in the tummy , not responding like they did in days of yore (been diabetic over 33 , years) - and that theres medication available to help the stomach empty , faster but what about that test - swallowing Radio-Active material in a , sandwich somes very nasty indeed - I dont want that in my body. Any , other options? Write soon- the test is set for Friday, the 30th. , Also what are the other symptoms? Are there any FAQs available - , somewhere? Thanks. Several, do a search of Medline (see the SEARCH page) and take a look at the material under Other Diabetes Links on the LINKS page. You want the Center for Disease Control doctor and patient guides. email @ redacted Insulin-Pumpers website ...
A free nerve ending (FNE) or bare nerve ending, is an unspecialized, afferent nerve fiber sending its signal to a sensory ... Free nerve endings are unencapsulated and have no complex sensory structures. They are the most common type of nerve ending, ... Hada R (1990). "[Difference in responses of free nerve endings and Ruffini-type endings innervating the cat mandibular ... Free nerve endings have different rates of adaptation, stimulus modalities, and fiber types. Different types of FNE can be ...
A single afferent nerve fibre branches to innervate up to 90 such endings. In mammals, Merkel nerve endings have a wide ... In mammals, electrical recordings from single afferent nerve fibres have shown that the responses of Merkel nerve endings are ... Each ending consists of a Merkel cell in close apposition with an enlarged nerve terminal. This is sometimes referred to as a ... Merkel nerve endings are mechanoreceptors, a type of sensory receptor, that are found in the basal epidermis and hair follicles ...
"Bloody Mary (Nerve Endings)", often referred to as just "Bloody Mary", is an indie rock song performed by American alternative ... Retrieved January 5, 2013.[permanent dead link] "Bloody Mary (Nerve Endings)" Official music video on YouTube v t e (All ... NERVE ENDINGS)" (in Dutch). Ultratip. Retrieved 2012-08-18. "Silversun Pickups Rock Songs Chart History". Billboard. Prometheus ...
"Marc Sloan Discography". Trees of Nerve Endings. Archived from the original on 2012-03-13. "Related Artists". Blind Melon (Blog ...
Woollard, H. H. (July 1937). "Intra-Epidermal Nerve Endings". The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. 86 (1): 54-60.5. doi: ...
Requiem was covered by the British post-punk band Eagulls in 2013 as the B-side to their "Nerve Endings" single, which received ... "Eagulls - Nerve Endings (Vinyl)". Discogs. Retrieved 29 April 2018. La Playlist de l'UA, retrieved 8 July 2019 "Killing Joke > ...
Nerve Endings: Selected Lyrics. Unbound, 2018. ISBN 978-1783525638. Seeing Sideways: A Memoir of Music and Motherhood. ... "Nerves Exposed, Hersh Sings One for the Oddballs". NPR. Retrieved October 24, 2016. Strauss, Neil (March 9, 1995). "My So- ...
Blood pressure and temperature have gone down; nerve endings have healed over. The new tone could be described in a word: ... On July 27, 1953, the United States, North Korea, and China agreed to the Korean Armistice Agreement, ending the Korean War. ...
Fatt, P.; Katz, B. (1952). "Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings". J Physiol. 117 (1): 109-128. doi:10.1113 ...
... chemical transmission at dorsal root nerve endings. He was appointed to a Chair of Zoology at the University of Melbourne in ... Between 1922 and 1934 Oscar Tiegs was almost entirely concerned with the physiology of nerve and muscle, apparently influenced ...
Rapport, Richard L. (2005). Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the Synapse. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 1-37. ISBN 978-0-393-06019 ... I felt the need of some name to call the junction between nerve-cell and nerve-cell... I suggested using "syndesm"... He [ Sir ... The release of a neurotransmitter is triggered by the arrival of a nerve impulse (or action potential) and occurs through an ... Pereda AE, Rash JE, Nagy JI, Bennett MV (December 2004). "Dynamics of electrical transmission at club endings on the Mauthner ...
"Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings". The Journal of Physiology. 117 (1): 109-28. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ... The neuromuscular junction of the sciatic nerve fibers of the sartorius muscle of this frog has been the source of initial data ... Hille, B (1967). "The selective inhibition of delayed potassium currents in nerve by tetraethylammonium ion". The Journal of ...
However, this is not its only function, as it has been shown to contain nerve endings, which may cause pain if damaged. The ... The most common nerve to be injured is the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh. This nerve supplies feeling to the upper, ... Kim, Y.; Azuma, H. (1995). "The nerve endings of the acetabular labrum". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (320): 176- ... and pudendal nerves. The pudendal nerves supply feeling to the reproductive organs. Persistent inflammation to the soft tissue ...
Epinephrine (adrenaline) a "neurotransmitter" at sympathetic nerve endings. And a hormone which has effects throughout the body ... Mononeuropathy A form of diabetic neuropathy affecting a single nerve. The eye is a common site for this form of nerve damage. ... Nerve conduction studies Tests to determine nerve function; can detect early neuropathy. Neurologist a physician specializing ... Electromyography EMG Test used to diagnose neuropathy and check for nerve damage. It uses electrodes to measure speed of nerve ...
Whenever these afferent nerve endings are stimulated (for example, by dust, cold air or fumes) impulses travel to the brain- ... The parasympathetic reflex loop consists of afferent nerve endings which originate under the inner lining of the bronchus. ... Acetylcholine is released from the efferent nerve endings. This acetylcholine results in the excessive formation of inositol 1, ...
Vogt coauthored a paper with Dale and Wilhelm Feldberg: 'Release of Acetylcholine at Voluntary Motor Nerve Endings' in 1936. ... Dale, H.H.; Feldberg, W.; Vogt, M. (1936). "Release of Acetylcholine at Voluntary Motor Nerve Endings". Journal of Physiology. ... Dale, H.H.; Feldberg, W.; Vogt, M. (1936). "Release of Acetylcholine at Voluntary Motor Nerve Endings". Journal of Physiology. ... "Sir Henry Dale - Nobel Lecture: Some Recent Extensions of the Chemical Transmission of the Effects of Nerve Impulses". www. ...
With the advent of the electron microscope in the early 1950s, nerve endings were found to contain a large number of electron- ... Gray EG, Whittaker VP (1962). "The isolation of nerve endings from brain: an electron microscopic study of cell fragments ... Fatt, P.; Katz, B. (May 28, 1952). "Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings" (PDF). The Journal of Physiology ... Whittaker VP, Michaelson IA, Kirkland RJ (1964). "The separation of synaptic vesicles from nerve ending particles (' ...
On August 13, 2019, Rhame underwent ulnar nerve transposition surgery, ending his season. On July 8, 2020, Rhame was claimed ... "Jacob Rhame undergoes season-ending ulnar nerve surgery". 13 August 2019. "Minor MLB Transactions: 12/14/20". "Pacific Coast ...
... and some free nerve endings. Also, tactile corpuscles do not detect noxious stimuli; this is signaled exclusively by free nerve ... This corpuscle is a type of nerve ending in the skin that is responsible for sensitivity to pressure. In particular, they have ... Tactile corpuscles are encapsulated myelinated nerve endings, surrounded by Schwann cells. The encapsulation consists of ... A single nerve fiber meanders between the lamellae and throughout the corpuscle.[citation needed] They are distributed on ...
Kress M, Kuner R (Jun 2009). "Mode of action of cannabinoids on nociceptive nerve endings". Experimental Brain Research. 196 (1 ...
... numerous nerve endings throughout the skin. Acorn worms have a Y-shaped nuchal skeleton that starts their proboscis and collar ... A plexus of nerves lies underneath the skin, and is concentrated into both dorsal and ventral nerve cords. While the ventral ... This part of the dorsal nerve cord is often hollow, and may well be homologous with the brain of vertebrates. In acorn worms, ...
Free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch sensations are caused by ... They are all innervated by Aβ fibers, except the mechanorecepting free nerve endings, which are innervated by Aδ fibers. ... Each muscle spindle consists of sensory nerve endings wrapped around special muscle fibers called intrafusal muscle fibers. ... Slowly adapting: Slowly adapting mechanoreceptors include Merkel and Ruffini corpuscle end-organs, and some free nerve endings ...
Close relations exist between epithelial cells and nerve endings. Histochemically, the parenchyma displays a characteristic ... embedded in connective tissue particularly rich in nerve fibers and sensory receptors. ...
This stretching causes the nerve endings to become dull. The child may not feel when they need to eliminate the feces or if the ...
Adrian ED, Zotterman Y (April 1926). "The impulses produced by sensory nerve-endings: Part II. The response of a Single End- ... Auditory nerve fibers take this slightly-processed sensory information to the cochlear nucleus where information either ... E.D. Adrian, Barlow's advisor, was the discoverer of the frequency code-the observation that sensory nerves convey signal ...
... l tissues are frequently innervated by sensory nerve endings. These include myelinated as well as unmyelinated nerves. ... It serves as a storage medium of fat and water; as a passageway for lymph, nerve and blood vessels; and as a protective padding ... A fascial compartment is a section within the body that contains muscles and nerves and is surrounded by fascia. In the human ... In doing so, fasciae provide a supportive and movable wrapping for nerves and blood vessels as they pass through and between ...
The membrane has many nerve endings packed with mitochondria. Succinic dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, adenosine ...
α-LTX affects motor nerve endings and endocrine cells. No major enzymatic activities are associated. Instead, the toxin can ... The N-terminus of the α-LTX precursor molecule is preceded by short hydrophilic sequences ending with a cluster of basic amino ... This causes nerve terminal swelling. Further membrane potential disturbances occur due to permeability of small molecules, such ...
"Opening Nerve Endings Concert Launches into Deep Space Fine." The Oregonian, Sep. 24, 1998. Anderson, Rick. "Terry Robb, ...
Halsted A (July 5, 2014). "Garcia to have season-ending surgery for nerve issue". Archived from the original on July ... a similar compressive pathology involving the long thoracic nerve, or adjacent brachial plexus nerves "NINDS Thoracic Outlet ... In cases where the first rib (or a fibrous band extending from the first rib) is compressing a vein, artery, or the nerve ... Initially, it was believed that 95 percent of patients with TOS had nerve compression in the scalene area, but in the twenty- ...
So it's quite nerve-wracking and scary, and of course she wants to help David, but she's got a lot on her mind." When David's ... However, they are at very different stages of their lives." "I hope that they have a happy ending, I really do, because I love ... She was also glad they got their happy ending, saying "Quite often, you don't see couples just being happy and positive. But ... Their departures had been planned and scripted before it was announced Neighbours would be ending later that year. Kyle and ...
Seon-joo is something of a diva, and constantly gets on Dal-ja's nerves. She is a master at the dating game, and with her ... 2007 South Korean television series endings, Korean-language television shows, South Korean romantic comedy television series, ...
... via hormonal treatments which he activates by pressing a nerve on the back of his neck. A recurring joke after such ... 1986 American television series endings, American superhero comedy television series, English-language television shows, NBC ...
He is portrayed by Bissinger as a boy who is mostly level-headed, but prone to nerves. His play is unspectacular but effective ... was devastated at the prospect of the season ending so early. Permian, Midland High and Midland Lee are all tied with one ...
... effectively ending the band. Richard Branson started the Virgin Group with discounted mail-order sales of popular records. The ... "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release ...
They also play a role in neurotransmitter release in pre-synaptic nerve endings. In most cells, Ca2+ channels regulate a wide ...
"Slaying Suspect's Nerves Give Way". The Evening Star. May 16, 1937. "Quick Trial Faced by Brockelhurst". The Evening Star. May ... Before being strapped to the chair, he gave a 12-minute statement, ending it with a rant about his affair with Bernice. His ...
On the R&B charts, it debuted at number 39 on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart for the week ending May 18, 2013, due to strong ... We're dealing right now with a dislocated shoulder, fractured rib, nerve injury...But MC's a navy seal, like I told her, she's ... On the R&B Songs chart, "#Beautiful" debuted at number 16 for the week ending May 18, 2013, and rose to number two the ... "ARIA Urban Singles Chart Week ending on 10 June". Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved June ...
It was also his first goal since April 2017, ending a barren run of 22 matches in all competitions without scoring. He ... "Luftëtari zbraz nervat e gjithë sezonit dhe turpëron Partizanin" [Luftëtari empties the whole season nerves and humiliates ...
His main weapon is his right bionic arm, which can change into a claw or a laser gun, presumably by nerve signals. In ... Supervising Director After the official ending of the original series, due to the success of the action figure in Latin America ... 2002 American television series endings, 2000s Canadian animated television series, 2000 Canadian television series debuts, ... 2002 Canadian television series endings, American computer-animated television series, Canadian computer-animated television ...
This relationship leads to a never-ending cycle of being too stressed to sleep and then being unable to control one's anxieties ... in one's body directly affect glucose levels since the fight-or-flight response causes increased hormone levels as one's nerve ... body's release of adrenaline and cortisol into the bloodstream causes an inability to process the glucose released by the nerve ...
Involvement of the deltoid is more variable, as it is innervated by the axillary nerve. Diagnosis often takes three to nine ... Occasionally, there will be no pain and just paralysis, and sometimes just pain, not ending in paralysis.[citation needed] MRI ... Parsonage-Turner involves neuropathy of the suprascapular nerve in 97% of cases, and variably involves the axillary and ... and suprascapular nerve impingement at the spinoglenoid notch, which predominantly involves the infraspinatus. Despite its ...
... is effective for ending or relieving the intensity of migraine and cluster headaches. It is most effective when ... Sumatriptan is also shown to decrease the activity of the trigeminal nerve, which presumably accounts for sumatriptan's ...
This time, he came through to win, ending Nadal's 21-match and record 50-set winning streak on clay. Thiem had been the last ... However the dynamic changed, Thiem overcame his nerves to win the match in a fifth set tiebreak. At the 2021 Madrid Open, ... He returned to the top 100 on 31 October 2022, ending his 2022 season. Thiem and Rafael Nadal have met 15 times; Thiem trails 6 ... Cambers, Simon (8 June 2019). "Thiem tasked with facing Nadal in final after ending Djokovic's slam streak". The Observer. ISSN ...
Furthermore, those affected may develop kernicterus (deposits of pigment in the brain) that can cause nerve degeneration. In ... and from ending up increasing glomerular filtration. Nevertheless, there is still a little portion of indirect bilirubins stays ...
It is worth noting that Mr Bennet refers to her nerves as his 'old friends, stating: "You mistake me, my dear. I have a high ... preferring instead to withdraw from the never-ending marriage concerns of the women around him rather than offer help (not ... Bennet has a closer relationship with Mrs Bennet's "poor nerves" than Mrs Bennet herself. ... "poor nerves")), since it clouded his future and that of his daughters, given that she and her husband were unable to have a boy ...
Ending a passage that describes the condition of chained, emaciated slaves, the novelist remarks: "After all, I also was a part ... nerve-wracked man, who did not ask from his wife high intelligence, only an assuagement of life's vibrations.... He made me ... including their endings. Comparative-literature scholar Yves Hervouet has demonstrated in the text of Victory a whole mosaic of ... but the moment after he was talking again wisely and soberly as if he were an average Englishman with not an irritable nerve in ...
... mediates the histamine H3-receptor-induced attenuation of norepinephrine exocytosis from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings". ...
Jolie is fierce in her portrayal-filling the part with nerve, charm, and desperation-and her role in this film is quite ... Her Q Score remained above average even when, in 2005, she was accused of ending Brad Pitt's marriage to Jennifer Aniston, at ...
In a nerve-wracking fourth quarter, Minnesota increased its lead with Favre finding Shiancoe again on a 1-yard touchdown run. ... Game Book This victory allowed the dethroning of the defending world champion Pittsburgh Steelers and ending the latter team's ...
The procedures were "effectively painless because there aren't nerve endings in the surface of the eye," says the article's ...
Level/area: Ending cutscene. Doctor Neo Cortex: You know, Crash, for all these years I've been wrong about you. Your creation ... "ended up wearing on my nerves after a while". Soboleski praised the voice-acting as "well done, with the right amount of ...
The Roger Rabbit comic book line lasted 18 issues, ending at the time of the Disney Comics implosion. However, new stories ... "13 Things You Never Knew About 'Who Framed Roger Rabbit'". NERVE. Retrieved 5 May 2017. Rovin, Jeff (1991). The Illustrated ...
Visconti described the ending result as a guitar that "was never meant to sound so good". Like previous releases, bass, ... On 23 June, Bowie was forced to end the show early due to what medical personnel deemed a pinched shoulder nerve. Although he ... "Top 75 Artist Album, Week Ending 18 September 2003". Irish Recorded Music Association. Chart-Track. Archived from the original ...
"XIIX Perform New Ending Theme for Dragon Quest: Adventure of Dai Anime". Anime News Network. March 19, 2021. Retrieved June 27 ... nerves if the tempo isn't right." He believes players should be able to control the game unconsciously, which is not easy to ... the reader determines the next course of action and the stories have multiple endings. Other printed titles released in 1989 ...
Finnish melodic death metal band Children of Bodom used the film's ending monologue "My pain is constant and sharp and I do not ... the horrific and hilarious American Psycho can still strike a raw nerve". In a somewhat positive review for Slate magazine, ...
American nerve gas weapons were accidentally released from their containers by a crew of U.S. Air Force members at Kadena Air ... Nixon made "a secrecy-cloaked one day trip to Vietnam", ending speculation of whether Nixon would make an unscheduled side trip ... Despite attempts by the military to keep the incident secret (including plans to dump the damaged nerve gas containers into the ... The mishap, which injured 23 troops and a civilian, involved either VX or Sarin, both nerve agents. Henry Kissinger, the ...
2018 - Sanctions on Russia following the poisoning of Sergei Skripal using a nerve agent in Salisbury, England included the ... 1946-1949 - involved in Greek Civil War 1945-1948 - administration of the Mandate for Palestine, ending with the establishment ...
Even with a somewhat fictionalized ending, there is a documentary flavor about it which is absorbing. Plenty of-news footage ... James having last-minute nerves, James getting up on stage and worrying about blowing it." Stephen Watts, who was involved in ...
MIBG is taken up by sympathetic nerve endings, such as those that innervate the heart, and is labeled for scintigraphy with ... Autonomic dysfunction resulting from damage to nerves in the heart in patients with DLB is associated with lower cardiac uptake ... "Degeneration of the cardiac sympathetic nerves is a neuropathological feature" of the Lewy body dementias, according to Yamada ... They are most frequently due to primary neurodegenerative disease, resulting in the loss of dopaminergic nerve terminals along ...
Scientists produce the most detailed images of nerve endings ever made ... Youve Never Seen Nerve Endings Like These Scientists produce the most detailed images of nerve endings ever made ... Nerve endings (red) form "baskets" at the base of individual hair follicles (blue). Photo: EMBL/L. Castaldi ... Complexly branching nerve endings (red) under the skin. Photo: EMBL/S. Morley ...
Green AR Studies on the role of dopamine in the degeneration of 5-HT nerve endings in the brain of Dark Agouti rats following 3 ... "Studies on the role of dopamine in the degeneration of 5-HT nerve endings in the brain of Dark Agouti rats following 3,4- ... 1. We investigated whether dopamine plays a role in the neurodegeneration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) nerve endings occurring ... "Studies on the role of dopamine in the degeneration of 5-HT nerve endings in the brain of Dark Agouti rats following 3,4- ...
RESOLUTION OF THREE DISTINCT POPULATIONS OF NERVE ENDINGS FROM RAT BRAIN HOMOGENATES BY ZONAL ISOPYCNIC CENTRIFUGATION Ursula ... The three types of nerve endings differ in their apparent specific gravity, their biochemical properties, and their ability ... Ursula Bretz, Marco Baggiolini, Rolf Hauser, Christian Hodel; RESOLUTION OF THREE DISTINCT POPULATIONS OF NERVE ENDINGS FROM ... cholinergic nerve endings, characterized by their high content of acetylcholine, (b) γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-containing ...
A previous study had demonstrated that the TRPM8-IR nerve terminals of putative cold thermoreceptors form complex endings that ... and their nerve terminal endings in guinea pigs and mice. In addition, the thesis has investigated the effects of metabolic ... showing that CGRP expressing TRPV1-IR nerve terminals in the guinea pig cornea had simple endings that terminated in the basal ... whereas the TRPV1-IR nerve terminals that did not express CGRP had ramifying endings that terminated in squamous cell layer. ...
In the submucosal region of the juxtavesical ureter encapsulated nerve endings and diffuse nerve endings were observed to be ... Afferent nerve endings in the ureter of man and dog. Burma Medical Journal. 1983; 29(3): 255-261. ... These endings are regarded to serve as anatomical basis for pain apart from other modalities. ...
wrath-filled new single Nerve Endings is to be released on May 12th, via Partisan Records. The track, taken from their self- ...
Clitoris has about 2,000 more nerve endings than previously known. Explorer Clitoris has about 2,000 more nerve endings than ... Number of nerves in the clitoris. The clitoris contains two dorsal nerves, which have nerve fibers responsible for sending ... Peters, who is a plastic surgeon and specializes in gender-affirming surgery, discovered the number of nerve endings in the ... The dagger nerve has 18,000 nerve fibers which, compared to the 10,000 found in the clitoris, demonstrates the high sensitivity ...
When your skin is touched, the nerve endings underneath send electrical signals to the brain. We laugh when were tickled ...
Nerve Endings - Unsettled, Dissonant, Flighty - Drama & Film Scores. Free Tempo. Mystery & Suspense Music. Edward Grenga (ASCAP ...
The latter further stimulates the nerve endings. On the other end of the nerve, painful messages are transmitted toward central ... The trigeminal nerve fibers around basal cerebral and meningeal vessels are triggered (various stimuli are possible), and a ... vicious cycle starts in which the nerve terminals release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, vasoinhibitory ...
Nerve Endings. 64.99 RON. Fugazis In on the Kill Taker. 64.99 RON ...
Seal nerve endings after surgery to reduce pain. *Seal lymph vessels after surgery to reduce swelling and keep tumor cells from ...
Nerve Endings / drug effects * Nerve Endings / physiology * Neurons / physiology * Neuropeptides / metabolism* * Potassium / ... Both electrical stimulation of projection nerves and depolarization with high K+ saline were used to evoke release. Releasates ... We have identified neuropeptides released by electrical stimulation of nerves that contain the axons of the modulatory ...
And these organs are full of nerve endings too.. Each Chakra is linked to a higher level of mental state - be it your rooting ... Nerves and Brains. To the right is the classic diagram of a nerve. Nerves can run from the brain to the finger tip, or to the ... This, for example, is the basis of reflexology, where problems in organs can be detected by touching the relevant nerve endings ... Nerves operate in channels up and down the body via the spinal column and when a current runs there is a magnetic field ...
Free trigeminal nerve endings, which are stimulated by aversive or pungent stimuli (eg, ammonia, menthol), exist in the nasal ... the chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve, the glossopharyngeal nerve, the vagus nerve) or their ganglia may cause a ... Free trigeminal nerve endings exist on the tongue; these detect strong, often displeasing or irritating sensations in the oral ... The cholinergic mechanism is probably related to taste transduction via free nerve endings because these patients have no taste ...
5. Nerve Endings. The nerve endings in their eyes are very close to the surface of their skin. That is why when they have a ...
In essence, our nerve endings are oversensitive in response to one another. I have been through this before and I have some ... flapping their wings against her inflamed nerve endings. The sensation was agonizing, creating a need so great that it flashed ...
Each is a direct line to nerve endings. I ran my hand along his scrub-brushy face, the lids drooped on his pink eyes. ...
Anzemet blocks these nerve endings in the intestine and prevents signals to the central nervous system. Anzemet is available in ...
Categories: Nerve Endings Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 5 ...
Do you think animals dont have nerve endings or pain receptors? Have you ever talked to an amputee about their phantom pain?. ... Local nerve blocks, multimodal and lengthy at home post-surgical pain control are required and laser declawing is still an ...
Endogenous Noradrenaline Activates α2‐Adrenoceptors on Serotonergic Nerve Endings in Human and Rat Neocortex. *T. Feuerstein, A ...
The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the 12 cranial nerves (CNs). It supplies sensations to the face, mucous ... Sensory nerve endings that respond to stimuli and convert them to nervous energy toward the central nervous system are called ... Lingual nerve - This nerve runs parallel to the inferior alveolar nerve, is joined by the chorda tympani nerve of the facial ... The mandibular nerve has the following 9 branches:. * Recurrent meningeal nerve - This nerve enters the skull via the foramen ...
Natural colour cotton : For fresh moms Filled with spelt husks : Calms nerve endings healthy product : Makes easier to sit ... The silica in the pillow calms the nerve endings, so the unpleasant pain they feel during sitting is somewhat relieved during ...
It destoryes the nerve endings. But, most doctors today will not do it. So try to talk your doctor to see if he or she agrees ... yes I have the same thing in my hip and legs, I also had meningitis and this herpes went to the nerves on the base of my neck, ... Yes, Ive heard a number of times that the herpes viri are partial to specific nerves but, in my case, I can tell when an ... it now has damaged my vestibuler nerve I have a hard time walking because Im so dizzie, it comes and goes about every month. ...
... with some synapses being induced by nerve contact while others involve the incorporation of prepatterned postsynaptic ... Dale, H.H.; Feldberg, W.; Vogt, M. Release of acetylcholine at voluntary motor nerve endings. J. Physiol. 1936, 86, 353-380. [ ... Langley, J.N. On the reaction of cells and of nerve-endings to certain poisons, chiefly as regards the reaction of striated ... A,B) After several days of nerve-muscle co-culture, staining with an antibody to agrin is marked in upper nerve-muscle contact ...
1926) The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings. 3. Impulses set up by touch and pressure. J Physiol 61:465-483. ... 1992) Auditory-nerve action potentials form a nonrenewal point process over short as well as long time scales. J Acoust Soc Am ... 1952) A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. J Physiol 117: ... 1996) The periodogram and allan variance reveal fractal exponents greater than unity in auditory-nerve spike trains. J Acoust ...
  • Considered unheard of in the medical field, the researchers counted all the nerve fibers present in the clitoris. (
  • The clitoris contains two dorsal nerves, which have nerve fibers responsible for sending signals to the brain. (
  • The dagger nerve has 18,000 nerve fibers which, compared to the 10,000 found in the clitoris, demonstrates the high sensitivity present in the genital organ. (
  • So that the constructed penis can generate pleasure, tissue is removed from areas such as the forearm and thigh, which have a large amount of nerve fibers. (
  • It is the motor nerve for the muscles of mastication and contains proprioceptive fibers. (
  • Burkett et al successfully visualized trigeminal fibers entering the pons at the nerve root entry zone (NREZ) and descending through the spinal trigeminal tract using robust diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI). (
  • Shrager P (1993) Axonal coding of action potentials in demyelinated nerve fibers. (
  • The pain involved in vulvodynia is neuropathic, which means it stems from abnormal signals from the nerve fibers in the vulval area. (
  • Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS , sensory or motor NEURONS. (
  • 1. The presence of nerve fibers in contact with touch, the "emotional touch", which is vital for the the skin surface skin cells (keratinocytes) survival and maintenance of our species. (
  • Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM . (
  • The trigeminal nerve is the largest and most complex of the 12 cranial nerves (CNs). (
  • Schematic representation of the trigeminal nerve with its central connections. (
  • The semilunar (gasserian or trigeminal) ganglion is the great sensory ganglion of CN V. It contains the sensory cell bodies of the 3 branches of the trigeminal nerve (the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary divisions). (
  • Practitioners believe that mudras stimulate these nerves, which in turn communicate with the brain. (
  • Massaging nodules relax away stress and stimulate key nerve endings for health and wellness. (
  • it works by temporarily deadening nerve endings to reduce pain sensations. (
  • 1. We investigated whether dopamine plays a role in the neurodegeneration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) nerve endings occurring in Dark Agouti rat brain after 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy') administration. (
  • 7. The increased extracellular dopamine concentration following MDMA may result from effects of MDMA on dopamine re-uptake, monoamine oxidase and 5-HT release rather than an 'amphetamine-like' action on dopamine release, thus explaining why the drug does not induce degeneration of dopamine nerve endings. (
  • These three particle populations are likely to represent, in order of increasing modal equilibrium density, ( a ) cholinergic nerve endings, characterized by their high content of acetylcholine, ( b ) γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-containing nerve endings with high glutamate decarboxylase activity and the ability to accumulate exogenous GABA, ( c ) adrenergic nerve endings that accumulate exogenous dopamine and noradrenaline and exhibit high monoamine oxidase activity. (
  • Basically you are distracting the nerve endings that transmit pain). (
  • A nerve block is an anesthetic drug that is injected into the nerves that transmit pain signals, in this case, from the vulva to the spine. (
  • Menthol initially stimulates the nerve endings, but continued exposure desensitizes the nerve endings and decreases pain sensitivity. (
  • P. The needles stimulates specific R. Martin's neighbour told him that Q. And whatever the gloomy politi- nerves that transmit electrical he must buy a parrot. (
  • To make them, the team turned to technique called SNAP-tagging, which allowed them to assign fluorescent color to individual structures in mice nerves, touch receptors and hair follicles. (
  • Do you think animals don't have nerve endings or pain receptors? (
  • A burn, cut, or other painful stimuli like spicy food activates receptors on the skin's nerve endings. (
  • The nerves quickly send this message to the brain or spinal cord, which then immediately commands the muscles to take your hand away. (
  • A spinal infusion pump is an implanted device that can deliver low-dose medication to the spinal cord and nerve roots. (
  • The fluid inside herniated discs is an irritant to the delicate soft tissues of the spinal cord, none the least being the nerves. (
  • People with neurologic and neurodevelopment conditions (including disorders of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve, and muscle such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy [seizure disorders], stroke, intellectual disability, moderate to severe developmental delay, muscular dystrophy, or spinal cord injury). (
  • This hypersensitivity matched observed degradation of nerve endings in palmar skin. (
  • Vulval pain can happen for a number of reasons, but vulvodynia and vestibulodynia are specifically linked to a hypersensitivity of the nerve endings in the skin. (
  • Spread of the virus to and from the nerve ganglia groups demonstrated a similar disease progression in rabbits occurs by axonal transport, which has been demonstrated for B inoculated with nerve tissue from patient W.B. and character- virus in experimentally infected mice (7). (
  • Neither group was able to pro- lishes latency in the nerve ganglia. (
  • This decompression promotes increased blood flow and lymphatic flow, which decreases inflammation and relieves pressure from free nerve endings. (
  • Complexly branching nerve endings (red) under the skin. (
  • Bundles of nerves that relay information collected by touch sensors on the skin to the mouse's spinal chord and brain. (
  • When your skin is touched, the nerve endings underneath send electrical signals to the brain. (
  • The nerve endings in their eyes are very close to the surface of their skin. (
  • Menthol reduces pain by counterirritation of nerve endings under the skin. (
  • Sometimes the tingling nerve pain is so bad, I can't walk, or I don't want anything touching my skin. (
  • Nociceptors for pain also appear to be "free nerve" endings in skin and muscle. (
  • For example, almost a third of people with diabetes have a skin problem due to damaged nerve endings and blood vessels. (
  • Sea salt dispersed in the air is especially beneficial for nerve endings in the skin. (
  • Like the feet, the skin on your hands is generally thin, and there are a lot of nerve endings in this area. (
  • The inner elbow is another location on the body with thin skin and many nerve endings. (
  • In addition to possible advances in the surgical field, the discovery may also help in the diagnosis and treatment of different complications that cause nerve damage. (
  • I had extensive nerve damage in my foot, which made it very painful to put on or remove my socks. (
  • We found that the HRLF task produced upper extremity musculoskeletal and nerve tissue damage, inflammation and sensorimotor declines, but that the LFLF task did not. (
  • The damage to bone and nerve was more pronounced in aged than in young rats and did not show recovery. (
  • Nerve damage, pain, neuropathy are all caused by enzymes that attack the nerve endings. (
  • Used for sciatica nerve damage, best relief without the drug side effects. (
  • The reason is suggested to be damage to the nerve during the operation that supplies to the sexual organs. (
  • European scientists just released the most detailed images of nerves ever produced, the Verge reports . (
  • NIDCR scientists used fluorescence microscopy to visualize pain signaling in mice's facial nerves. (
  • The silica in the pillow calms the nerve endings, so the unpleasant pain they feel during sitting is somewhat relieved during use. (
  • The venom acts on nerve endings causing the very unpleasant symptoms of latrodectism . (
  • A local and systemic inflammatory response appears to induce nerve fibrosis and significant declines in bone formation with continued task performance. (
  • We have identified neuropeptides released by electrical stimulation of nerves that contain the axons of the modulatory projection neurons to the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab, Cancer borealis. (
  • They start out small, initially causing few or no symptoms, but as they built up in the axons, they begin to destroy the cytoskeleton, the internal framework of the cells, increasingly interfering with the transmission of signals from the nerve cells. (
  • Eventually the affected axons die, followed by the death of the nerve cell itself. (
  • Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. (
  • The concentration of nerve endings in and around the rim of the anus mean that it's. (
  • When she contracted transverse myelitis as a baby, it damaged her spine and nerve endings, and left her paralysed from the waist down. (
  • This incredible potion gets to the root cause of Nerve and Inflammation issues. (
  • Menthol works by stimulating transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) receptor, a protein on nerve cells (neurons) that detects the sensation of cold. (
  • 1 These nerve cells play a significant role in whether physical activity is done easily and well or, instead, results in an injury. (
  • The technique they used―called "fluorescence microscopy"―allowed the research team to watch this happen in real time as the individual cells in the mice's facial nerves responded to each of the stimuli. (
  • The nerve cells responded the same way to light brushing as they did to heat and chili extract. (
  • The infected cells are lysed, releasing virus to spread to on the hand by an apparently healthy rhesus macaque ( Macaca other cells and sensory nerve endings, although direct entry mulatta ) and died of progressive encephalomyelitis 15 days into neurons without replication can occur (3). (
  • Researchers at the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research used an innovative technique to visualize pain signals in mice's facial nerves in real time. (
  • I'd rather have muscle pain over Nerve pain. (
  • ‌Both migraines and tension-related headaches can be caused by the incorrect alignment of the nerves or muscle tension in the neck. (
  • Sensory nerve ending structures after 5 weeks of vibration exposure. (
  • The reason is exposure to sunlight for long hours stresses the nerves and tissues of your head. (
  • This tissue is connected with the nerves of the genital region, allowing the transmission of sensory signals about sexual pleasure can be sent to the brain. (
  • The nerve endings inside the pulp send messages to the brain about what's going on ("That ice cream is too cold! (
  • and vitamin C, which is "highly concentrated in brain nerve endings. (
  • There are so many nerve endings in our soles that can produce the reflex effect from the ovaries to the brain. (
  • For example, touching an exact point of the heel achieves a reflex in the ovaries or testes, while nerve connections with the brain are found in the fingers. (
  • Both groups demonstrated a similar disease progression in rabbits inoculated with nerve tissue from patient W.B. and characterized the agent as a herpesvirus. (
  • The mental nerve is a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve which emerges through the mental foramen, and supplies sensory innervation for the lower lip, buccal surface and gingival tissue as far as the mesial region of the 1st lower molar. (
  • The long terminal axon is elliptical in section, is provided with juxtaposed filopod pro- cesses, and has a bulbous ultraterminal ending from whose entire surface filopod processes emanate in a hydra-like array. (
  • In place of a unitary mechanism for neuromuscular synapse formation, studies in both mice and zebrafish have led to the proposal that two mechanisms mediate synaptogenesis, with some synapses being induced by nerve contact while others involve the incorporation of prepatterned postsynaptic structures. (
  • Sometimes what you feel is dangerous, so the nerve endings work with your muscles to keep you from getting hurt. (
  • Your nerve system and your musculoskeletal system do all the calculations required to enable you to work safely from the top step of your ladder. (
  • One pump heightens awareness, stirs the nerve endings, and increases pleasure. (
  • These endings are regarded to serve as anatomical basis for pain apart from other modalities. (
  • Starting from postnuclear supernates of forebrain homogenates, it has been possible to resolve three distinct populations of nerve endings from one another, as well as from free mitochondria and myelin fragments. (
  • With continued performance or the HRLF task for 3 months, significant declines in median nerve conduction velocity was present bilaterally in aged rats. (
  • Both electrical stimulation of projection nerves and depolarization with high K+ saline were used to evoke release. (
  • Neurostimulation involves delivering low-voltage electrical stimulation to a specific nerve. (
  • Their findings, reported in the current issue of the Journal of Neuroscience , show how neurodegenerative disease starts, initiating in the nerve ending and inducing gradual changes, like a chain reaction over a long time. (
  • Additionally, the feet have many nerve endings, which can make the tattooing process more sensitive. (
  • I should check with my sleep specialist, and see if they could check with the drug manufacturer and answer the questions concerning FDA approval for nerve pain patients. (
  • The pulp is where each tooth's nerve endings and blood supply are found. (
  • Because they have no blood supply and few nerve endings, discs are unable to repair themselves. (
  • Peters, who is a plastic surgeon and specializes in gender-affirming surgery, discovered the number of nerve endings in the clitoris while studying the possibilities of surgically constructing a penis in transgender men. (
  • During surgery, doctors preserved nerve endings. (
  • When a lumbar herniated disc presses on a nerve root, it can cause radiating pain, numbness and weakness in other areas of the body, including the buttocks, leg, ankles and toes. (
  • Releasing the pain they cause, healing the nerve endings, and creating a vital impact on the bodies ability to heal once again. (
  • The leg has 7,200 nerve endings connected to all areas and organs of our body. (
  • Our hands have a network of nerves and nerve endings. (
  • According to Huber, it's best to start by rubbing the fronts and backs of the hands together to heat them up and activate the nerve endings. (
  • The reason we should take care of our nails and ensure that they are healthy and strong has to do with their primary purpose" to protect the nerve endings in our hands and feet. (
  • In the submucosal region of the juxtavesical ureter encapsulated nerve endings and diffuse nerve endings were observed to be darkly stained by the silver impregnation method. (
  • The mental foramen is located in the lower premolar region through which nerve endings and blood vessels pass. (
  • Also, supporting your exercise and physical work is a specialized system of nerve endings known as proprioceptors. (
  • The nerve endings in your dermis tell you how things feel when you touch them. (
  • If you touch something hot, the nerve endings in your dermis respond right away: "Ouch! (