Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Neural tissue of the pituitary gland, also known as the neurohypophysis. It consists of the distal AXONS of neurons that produce VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN in the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS and the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS. These axons travel down through the MEDIAN EMINENCE, the hypothalamic infundibulum of the PITUITARY STALK, to the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.
Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Rapidly adapting mechanoreceptors found in subcutaneous tissue beneath both hairy and glabrous skin. Pacinian corpuscles contain an afferent nerve fiber surrounded by a capsule with multiple concentric layers. They have large receptive fields and are most sensitive to high-frequency stimuli, such as vibration.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.
Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
A thioester hydrolase which acts on esters formed between thiols such as DITHIOTHREITOL or GLUTATHIONE and the C-terminal glycine residue of UBIQUITIN.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
The most abundant member of the RAB3 GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS and is localized to neurons and neuroendocrine cells. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
2-Chloroadenosine. A metabolically stable analog of adenosine which acts as an adenosine receptor agonist. The compound has a potent effect on the peripheral and central nervous system.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Involuntary contraction of the muscle fibers innervated by a motor unit. Fasciculations can often by visualized and take the form of a muscle twitch or dimpling under the skin, but usually do not generate sufficient force to move a limb. They may represent a benign condition or occur as a manifestation of MOTOR NEURON DISEASE or PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1294)
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC
Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.
Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Motor neurons which activate the contractile regions of intrafusal SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, thus adjusting the sensitivity of the MUSCLE SPINDLES to stretch. Gamma motor neurons may be "static" or "dynamic" according to which aspect of responsiveness (or which fiber types) they regulate. The alpha and gamma motor neurons are often activated together (alpha gamma coactivation) which allows the spindles to contribute to the control of movement trajectories despite changes in muscle length.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The 1st cranial nerve. The olfactory nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A norepinephrine derivative used as a vasoconstrictor agent.
A calcium-binding protein that mediates calcium HOMEOSTASIS in KIDNEYS, BRAIN, and other tissues. It is found in well-defined populations of NEURONS and is involved in CALCIUM SIGNALING and NEURONAL PLASTICITY. It is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Neoplasms which arise from nerve sheaths formed by SCHWANN CELLS in the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM or by OLIGODENDROCYTES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, NEUROFIBROMA, and NEURILEMMOMA are relatively common tumors in this category.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antihypertensive properties.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.
A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system which form the insulating myelin sheaths of peripheral axons.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.

Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium. (1/1058)

1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability.  (+info)

Facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic and adrenergic nerve endings of the guinea pig trachea. (2/1058)

Using electrical field stimulation of epithelium-denuded intact guinea pig tracheal tube preparations, we studied the presence and role of prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors by measuring evoked endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE) release directly. Analysis of ACh and NE was through two HPLC systems with electrochemical detection. Electrical field stimulation (150 mA, 0.8 ms, 16 Hz, 5 min, biphasic pulses) released 29.1 +/- 2.5 pmol ACh/g tissue and 70.2 +/- 6.2 pmol NE/g tissue. Preincubation for 15 min with the selective beta2-adrenoceptor agonist fenoterol (1 microM) increased both ACh and NE overflow to 178 +/- 28 (P < 0.01) and 165 +/- 12% (P < 0.01), respectively, of control values, increases that were abolished completely by the selective beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118551 (1 microM). Further experiments with increasing fenoterol concentrations (0.1-100 microM) and different preincubation periods (1, 5, and 15 min) showed a strong and concentration-dependent facilitation of NE release, with maximum response levels decreasing (from nearly 5-fold to only 2.5-fold of control value) with increasing agonist contact time. In contrast, sensitivity of facilitatory beta2-adrenoceptors on cholinergic nerves to fenoterol gradually increased when the incubation period was prolonged; in addition, a bell-shaped concentration-response relationship was found at 15 min of preincubation. Fenoterol concentration-response relationships (15-min agonist preincubation) in the presence of atropine and yohimbine (1 microM each) were similar in the case of NE release, but in the case of ACh release, the bell shape was lost. The results indicate a differential capacity and response time profile of facilitatory prejunctional beta2-adrenoceptors on adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the guinea pig trachea and suggest that the receptors on adrenergic nerves are more susceptible to desensitization.  (+info)

Stimulus-secretion coupling in neurohypophysial nerve endings: a role for intravesicular sodium? (3/1058)

It is generally accepted that Ca is essentially involved in regulated secretion, but the role of this cation, as well as others such as Na, is not well understood. An illustrative example occurs in neurohypophysial secretion, where an experimentally induced increase in the cytosolic concentration of Na+ can induce continuous neuropeptide release. In contrast, an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ will have only a transient stimulatory effect. The secretion-promoting targets for Ca2+ are not known; they may be cytosolic, as is usually assumed, but they may also be intravesicular, especially in view of evidence that Ca-rich secretory vesicles are preferentially secreted. In the present work, we have investigated the movements of these cations into and out of secretory vesicles during stimulus-secretion coupling. Isolated rat neurohypophysial nerve endings were stimulated by potassium (55 mM) depolarization, and at 6 min (peak secretion) and 20 min after the onset of stimulation, the elemental content of individual secretory vesicles was measured by quantitative x-ray microanalysis. A depolarization-induced transient increase in intravesicular Na+ concentration was found to coincide with the onset of secretion. Moreover, only a predicted small fraction of peripheral vesicles-presumably the docked ones-were Na+-loaded. The low sulfur concentration of Na+-rich vesicles most likely resulted from vesicle swelling. The results suggest that high intravesicular Na+ concentrations in docked vesicles, occurring by Na+/Ca2+ exchange or by transient fusion pore opening, is a proximal event in exocytosis.  (+info)

Quantal secretion and nerve-terminal cable properties at neuromuscular junctions in an amphibian (Bufo marinus). (4/1058)

The effect of a conditioning depolarizing current pulse (80-200 micros) on quantal secretion evoked by a similar test pulse at another site was examined in visualized motor-nerve terminal branches of amphibian endplates (Bufo marinus). Tetrodotoxin (200 nM) and cadmium (50 microM) were used to block voltage-dependent sodium and calcium conductances. Quantal release at the test electrode was depressed at different distances (28-135 microm) from the conditioning electrode when the conditioning and test pulses were delivered simultaneously. This depression decreased when the interval between conditioning and test current pulses was increased, until, at an interval of approximately 0.25 ms, it was negligible. At no time during several thousand test-conditioning pairs, for electrodes at different distances apart (28-135 microm) on the same or contiguous terminal branches, did the electrotonic effects of quantal release at one electrode produce quantal release at the other. Analytic and numerical solutions were obtained for the distribution of transmembrane potential at different sites along terminal branches of different lengths for current injection at a point on a terminal branch wrapped in Schwann cell, in the absence of active membrane conductances. Solutions were also obtained for the combined effects of two sites of current injection separated by different time delays. This cable model shows that depolarizing current injections of a few hundred microseconds duration produce hyperpolarizations at approximately 30 microm beyond the site of current injection, with these becoming larger and occurring at shorter distances the shorter the terminal branch. Thus the effect of a conditioning depolarizing pulse at one site on a subsequent test pulse at another more than approximately 30 microm away is to substantially decrease the absolute depolarization produced by the latter, provided the interval between the pulses is less than a few hundred microseconds. It is concluded that the passive cable properties of motor nerve terminal branches are sufficient to explain the effects on quantal secretion by a test electrode depolarization of current injections from a spatially removed conditioning electrode.  (+info)

Synaptic vesicle dynamics in rat fast and slow motor nerve terminals. (5/1058)

We have investigated whether rat motor nerve terminals with different in vivo activity patterns also have different vesicle trafficking characteristics. To do this, we monitored, using combined optical and electrical techniques, the rate of exocytosis (during different frequencies and patterns of activity), the releasable pool size, and the recycle time of synaptic vesicles in terminals on soleus (slow-twitch) and extensor digitorum longus [(EDL); fast-twitch] muscle fibers. EDL terminals had a higher initial quantal content (QC) than soleus, but during tonic or phasic stimulation at 20-80 Hz, EDL QC ran down to a greater extent than soleus QC. By recording loss of fluorescence from exocytosing vesicles labeled with the dye FM1-43, EDL terminals were found to destain faster than those in soleus. Simultaneous intracellular recording of end plate potentials, to count the number of vesicles released, permitted estimation of the total vesicle pool (VP) size and the recycle time by combining the optical and electrophysiological data. Soleus vesicle pool was larger than EDL, but recycle time was not significantly different. These terminals, therefore, are adapted to their in vivo activity patterns by alterations in QC and VP size but not recycle time.  (+info)

Reorganization of cholinergic terminals in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in transgenic mice carrying mutated presenilin-1 and amyloid precursor protein transgenes. (6/1058)

Cholinergic deficits are one of the most consistent neuropathological landmarks in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have examined transgenic mouse models (PS1M146L, APPK670N,M671L) and a doubly transgenic line (APPK670N,M671L + PS1M146L) that overexpress mutated AD-related genes [presenilin-1 (PS1) and the amyloid precursor protein (APP)] to investigate the effect of AD-related gene overexpression and/or amyloidosis on cholinergic parameters. The size of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and the pattern of cholinergic synapses in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were revealed by immunohistochemical staining for choline acetyltransferase and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, respectively. At the time point studied (8 months), no apparent changes in either the size or density of cholinergic synapses were found in the PS1M146L mutant relative to the nontransgenic controls. However, the APPK670N,M671L mutant showed a significant elevation in the density of cholinergic synapses in the frontal and parietal cortices. Most importantly, the double mutant (APPK670N,M671L + PS1M146L), which had extensive amyloidosis, demonstrated a prominent diminution in the density of cholinergic synapses in the frontal cortex and a reduction in the size of these synapses in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Nonetheless, no significant changes in the size of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were observed in these three mutants. This study shows a novel role of APP and a synergistic effect of APP and PS1 that correlates with amyloid load on the reorganization of the cholinergic network in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus at the time point studied.  (+info)

Isolation of pure cholinergic nerve endings from the electric organ of Torpedo marmorata. (7/1058)

A rapid method for the preparation of highly purified cholinergic nerve endings from the electric organ of Torpedo is described. The endings retain their cytoplasmic components, as shown by biochemical and morphological observations. The homogeneity of these synaptosomes make them a useful tool for further studies.  (+info)

Specific alteration of spontaneous GABAergic inhibition in cerebellar purkinje cells in mice lacking the potassium channel Kv1. 1. (8/1058)

In the cerebellum, the basket cell innervation on Purkinje cells provides a major GABAergic inhibitory control of the single efferent output from the cerebellum. The Shaker-type K channel Kv1.1 is localized at the axon arborization preceding the terminal of the basket cells and is therefore a potential candidate for regulating the GABAergic inhibition. In this study, we directly assess this role of Kv1.1 by electrophysiological analysis of Kv1.1 null mutant mice. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) were made from Purkinje cells in thin cerebellar slices from postnatal day (P)10-15 Kv1.1-null mutants using wild-type littermates as controls. The null mutation confers a very specific change in the sIPSC: the frequency increases about twofold, without accompanying changes in the mean and variance of its amplitude distribution. The frequency and amplitude of the miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) are unaffected. Spontaneous firing rate of the basket cells is unaltered. Evoked IPSC does not show multiple activity in the mutants. Motor skills tests show that Kv1.1 null mice display a compromised ability to maintain balance on a thin stationary rod. We conclude that the Kv1.1 null mutation results in a persistent elevation of the tonic inhibitory tone on the cerebellum Purkinje cell efferent and that this is not fully compensated for by residual Shaker-type channels. We further suggest that the increase in inhibitory tone in the mutants might underlie the behavioral deficits. At the cellular level, we propose that Kv1.1 deletion enhances excitability of the basket cells by selectively enhancing the likelihood of action potential propagation past axonal branch points.  (+info)

We used the perforated-patch technique to examine the relationship between Ca2+ entry and exocytosis of large dense-cored vesicles in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. Exocytosis evoked by single-step depolarizations was monitored by capacitance detection. Ca2+ entry was varied by changing external calcium concentration, stepping to different test potentials, depolarizing for different durations, or applying blockers of specific calcium channel subtypes. Regardless of protocol, the amount of exocytosis was strictly related to the integral of the voltage-clamped calcium current, raised to a power of approximately 1.5. Thus, despite the complexities of transient and nonuniform changes in submembrane calcium concentration produced by voltage-gated calcium entry, the calcium dependence of large dense-cored vesicle fusion under conditions of minimal stimulation is well approximated by a simple transfer function of summed calcium entry.
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This study is designed to use PET scans in order to measure activity of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is the portion of the nervous system that maintains a normal supply of blood and fuel to organs during stressful situations.. PET scan or Positron Emission Tomography is an advanced form of an X-ray. It is used to detect radioactive substances in the body. During this study researchers plan to inject small amounts of the radioactive drug fluorodopamine into patients. Fluorodopamine is very similar to the chemicals found in the sympathetic nervous system. It can attach to sympathetic nerve endings and allow researchers to view them with the aid of a PET scan. One area of the body with many sympathetic nerve endings is the heart. After giving a dose of fluorodopamine, researchers will be able to visualize all of the sympathetic nerve endings involved in the activity of the heart. In addition, this diagnostic test will help researchers detect abnormalities of the ...
Synonyms for touching a nerve ending at with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
The Nervous System is a collection of systems involved in coordination, perception, sensation, movement, and feeling, as well as the coordination and perception of physical sensations.. It is responsible for many functions including pain perception, coordination, sensation and movement, memory and emotion.. It also acts as the central nervous system controlling and regulating bodily functions, including breathing and heartbeat.. There are many different types of nerves, including blood vessels, nerve endings, sensory nerves, and muscle nerves.. Nerve endings are the projections from the nerve fibers that form the ends of nerves.. There is a lot of information going on within a single nerve, called a synapse.. These are the connections that allow a nerve to send or receive information.. Some nerves also have a lot more than one type of fiber.. The more nerve endings a nerve has, the more information is possible, but this information is only partially reliable.. Another important aspect of the ...
Tempo de leitura: menos de 1 minuto. Laudare to praise docere to teach ducere to lead audire to hear 4. Learn participles and infinitives latin with free interactive flashcards. Examples: paras (you prepare) -> pararis (you are being prepared) tenes (you are holding) -> … Our services are 9 AM each Sunday. At an early point in the history of Latin, the abstract verbal noun had case endings, just like other nouns. Id like you not to sing so loudly. In a way, the ending on Latin verbs are a type of pronoun. 48) It suits me to consider. categorized into four large conjugation groups depending on the ending in the infinitive mood, and this is the verb classification that is currently taught in. iubeo te = I order you. 1. Latin: Verb Endings, Declension Endings. It differs from the imperfect in that the imperfect relates ongoing, repeated, or continuous action. in Sanskrit where there is an infinitive in -tum, cognate with the Latin supine in its accusative form).. 3. In Latin there are also three ...
Hi to all, I am new to this site and I was wondering if anyone could give me info on nerve endings. My husband had radical prostate removel without nerve spari...
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A few years ago, I was at a cookout at Rich Danskys house. Rich is the head Tom Clancy writer for Red Storm Entertainment; hes also a novelist, among many other accomplishments. Another friend of ours was asking about some project I had in the works, and I said that it would probably come out in another six or eight months. When asked how I could stand waiting that long, I shrugged and said it was something Id gotten used to. Rich said, Yeah--after you do this kind of thing for a while, your nerve endings just get sort of worn off ...
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C)Special rules for built-in gains and losses attributable to property received in liquidations and reorganizations. Built-in losses attributable to property received in a transaction described in sections 332 or 361 (during the two-year period ending on the date of the distribution in liquidation covered by this section) shall not offset gain from property not received in the same transaction. Built-in gains attributable to property received in a transaction described in sections 332 or 361 (during the two-year period ending on the date of the distribution in liquidation covered by this section) shall not be offset by a loss from property not received in the same transaction. Built-in gain or loss is that amount of gain or loss on property that existed at the time the domestic liquidating corporation acquired such property. See sections 336(d) and 382 for additional limitations on the recognition of losses. (iii)Distribution of partnership interest - (A)General rule. If a domestic corporation ...
The CJR model began on April 1, 2016. The CJR model is currently in the second performance year, which includes episodes ending on or after January 1, 2017 and on or before December 31, 2017. The third performance year, which includes all CJR episodes ending on or after January 1, 2018 and on or before December 31, 2018, would necessarily incorporate episodes beginning before January 2018. The fifth, and last, performance year would end on December 31, 2020. Currently, with limited exceptions, hospitals located in the 67 geographic areas selected for participation in the CJR model must participate in the model through December 31, 2020; that is, their participation in the CJR model is mandatory unless the hospital is an episode initiator for a lower-extremity joint replacement (LEJR) episode in the risk-bearing period of Models 2 or 4 of the BPCI initiative. Hospitals with a CCN primary address in the 67 selected geographic areas that participated in Model 1 of the BPCI initiative, which ended ...
Nationally, levels of influenza-like illness (ILI) declined again this week. They have been below the national baseline for two weeks but remain elevated in the northeastern and northwestern part of the country.
LEMS is caused by the bodys natural defences (the immune system) mistakenly attacking and damaging the nerves.. Normally, nerve signals travel down the nerves and stimulate the nerve endings to release a chemical called acetylcholine. This chemical then helps activate the muscles.. If the nerve endings are damaged, the amount of acetylcholine they produce decreases, which means nerve signals do not reach the muscles properly.. Its not known what triggers the immune system to attack the nerves. Its often associated with lung cancer, but can occur in people without cancer. LEMS is not inherited.. ...
Computer assisted image analysis (IA) was used to measure the extent of nerve terminal arborization (terminal density) in three different parts of the nervous system. Model experiments, using mouse irides, showed that IA and biochemical analysis techniques gave very similar results. It was also shown that IA had very good reproducibility, but that results should be interpreted in relation to an adequate control rather than in absolute terms. Studies of 5-HT nerve terminals in cerebral cortex and substance P containing terminals in spinal cord showed that important information could be made available through IA where biochemical analysis was not feasible. IA can thus be an important tool in studies of regenerating nerve terminals in regions where biochemical methods do not have sufficient morphological resolution. ...
As always, you can get various endings in the game. The game contains 5 different endings depending on the few key choices you decide through the game. Like killing Alexs mom, forgiving his fat and saving Wheeler at one point. These main actions will decide wether Alex will reunite with Elle or be killed for the Cult for example! Theres one pretty strange ending where hes turned into a Pyramid Head thing/Bogeyman, and another one which is a direct throwback to Jacobs Ladder. Strangely enough, much to the annoyance of a lot of Silent Hill fans you can even attain the traditional UFO ending on a first playthrough for the first time in a SH game!! Finally theres also a super secret finale ending which will get Josh back if you find all of his drawings through the playthrough in a post-credit scene. ...
Synonyms for nerve impulse in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for nerve impulse. 3 synonyms for nerve impulse: nervous impulse, neural impulse, impulse. What are synonyms for nerve impulse?
It is the rare neurotransmitter that has remained unscathed by the innuendo that its release is inhibitable by adenosine derivatives. At the motor nerve ending, acetylcholine (ACh) release is...
Pain plays an important in the survival of all animals. It acts as a signal, alerting us to potential tissue damage, and leads to a wide range of actions to prevent or limit further damage.Physiologically, pain occurs when sensory nerve endings called nociceptors (also referred to as pain receptors) come into contact with a painful or noxious stimulus. The resulting nerve
This drawing is the amalgam of two memories; I shaved a blue-haired girls head with a pair of scissors in the dark when I was 19 years old and my fathers death from Glioblastoma. They have no correlation. Its a workaround to process one memory by padding it with another. Im sure its a bad idea, but at least its an idea ...
It seems that long running manga are starting to become an endangered species as yet another manga is about to reach its end. It has been revealed in the 19th issue of Weekly Shōnen Magazine that Air Gear is going to be ending in only five more chapters.. The series has had a very long run as it has been published since 2002 which means it will be ending a decade long run that saw a few anime series released in both Japan and North America as well. Does the ending of Air Gear strike you as something odd or does it seem fitting that the manga end now? ...
Eventbrite - Happy Endings Comedy Club - Kings Cross presents 6.30pm Sat Nights - Happy Endings - Same show as 8.30pm, just earlier! - Saturday, 31 July 2021 at Happy Endings Comedy Club, Potts Point, NSW. Find event and ticket information.
Ras vsebuje 6 beta listov in 5 alfa listov: • G domene (166 aminokislin) • C terminal membrane ciljanja (CAAX-COOH, znan tudi kot polje CAAX) Domena GG vsebuje pet motivov, ki se vežejo neposredno GDP / GTP • G1 -P-loop veže fosfat beta BDP in GTP • G2 -treonin-35 tudi stikalo 1 • G3 -DXXG motiv, aspartat-57 je značilno za gvanin namesto adenine • G4 • G5 -SAK soglasja zaporedju, alanin-146 je značilen za gvanin namesto adenine ...
The band will play seven shows across the UK on the trek, kicking off on November 18th at Manchester Academy and ending on November 27th in Sheffield. The tour also includes dates in Birmingham, Bristol, Glasgow, London and Newcastle.
Wind project post-mortem; doc delivers 13 babies, ending on the 13th; discrimination suit; fewer Target holiday helpers; talking thermostat; and more.
GateToMedicine (G2M) final mock exam is on 3rd January 2018 ending on 4th January 2018. Top 300 MCQs are picked by previous G2M NEET PG toppers. This exam will (...)
Words that end in ectrophoresis, words that end with ectrophoresis, words ending in ectrophoresis, words ending with ectrophoresis
Words that end in arathyroidism, words that end with arathyroidism, words ending in arathyroidism, words ending with arathyroidism
You need to find all english words ending in X ? We have that list and for sure you will find the word you are looking for. All these words ending in X are sorted by the number of points they give at Scrabble.
You need to find all english words ending in Y ? We have that list and for sure you will find the word you are looking for. All these words ending in Y are sorted by the number of points they give at Scrabble.
Best ending for me has to be te origonal diablo (have not played two yet so dont spoil it of me) the worst ending for me was the origonal Quake very disapointing
Benzocaine hydrochloride is a surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along nerve fibers and at nerve endings.
The actual feeling of pain comes from nerve endings in our bodies that send signals to the brain letting us know that there is a trauma.
Scars itch because they are in the process of healthy healing. Itching may occur due to damage to the surrounding nerve endings or dryness of the area, as explained by UK Health Centre....
Collasate spray occludes nerve endings, reduces bleeding, and provides healing benefits of collagen: new tissue growth, preventing or minimizing scarring.
Words Ending with ias. Words which starts with ias of different lengths. Here is a list of all words which start with the word ias
Words Ending with ole. Words which starts with ole of different lengths. Here is a list of all words which start with the word ole
For each letter, is there a Scrabble legal word ending in that letter followed by ion? Test your knowledge on this language quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by CumbrianRachel
A cell of an emf of 2V and internal resistance of .5ohm is s ending current through a tangent galvanometer of resistance 4.5 ohm .If another resistance of 95oh
Words ending with g. List of all words that ends with g. 19111 words found, aahing, abanding, abandoning, abashing, abasing, abating, abbreviating, abdicating and more
Words ending with e, having 7 letters. List of all words that ends with e. 3426 words found, abalone, abature, abaxile, abollae, abridge, abrooke, abscise, absence, absolve, abthane and more
Im ending this year so tired, really tired, very tired, but in a lovely way. Not in the so-tired-and-weak way of February right after the end of chemo when I didnt have the energy to walk to the mailbox. No, a different tired. One that says Im still not recovered from eight weeks of chemo…
Free nerve endings are unencapsulated and have no complex sensory structures. They are the most common type of nerve ending, and are most frequently found in the skin. They mostly resemble the fine roots of a plant. They penetrate the epidermis and end in the stratum granulosum. FNE infiltrate the middle layers of the epidermis and surround hair follicles. ...
Free nerve endings are unencapsulated and have no complex sensory structures. They are the most common type of nerve ending, and are most frequently found in the skin. They mostly resemble the fine roots of a plant. They penetrate the dermis and end in the stratum granulosum. FNEs infiltrate the middle layers of the dermis and surround hair follicles. ...
Free nerve endings are unencapsulated and have no complex sensory structures. They are the most common type of nerve ending, and are most frequently found in the skin. They mostly resemble the fine roots of a plant. They penetrate the dermis and end in the stratum granulosum. FNEs infiltrate the middle layers of the dermis and surround hair follicles.. ...
free nerve ending definition: microscopic sensory neurological endings inside skin that arent attached to any certain sensory receptor
TY - JOUR. T1 - A slowly activating voltage-dependent K+ current in rat pituitary nerve terminals. AU - Kilic, Gordan. AU - Stolpe, Andreas. AU - Lindau, Manfred. PY - 1996/12/15. Y1 - 1996/12/15. N2 - 1. A novel slowly activating voltage-dependent K+ current was observed in isolated nerve terminals from rat neurohypophysis using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. 2. The activation kinetics of the slow current could be fitted assuming Hodgkin-Huxley-type kinetics, an exponential, n, of 1.3 and activation time constants decreasing from 4 s at -50 mV to 0.7 s at +40 mV. 3. A positive shift of reversal potential was observed when [K+] was increased in the bath solution. The current is carried mainly but not exclusively by K+ ions. 4. When intracellular free [Mg2+] was low (~60 μM), average current density was 74 pA pF-1 at membrane potentials around 0 mV. In 83% of nerve terminals current amplitude was , 20 pA pF-1. 5. The slow current was never observed when the pipette ...
The reaction of colloidal iron hydroxide (CIH) with acidic groups was applied for an ultra-structural study of the distribution of sulphuric acid monoesters and sialic acid in synaptic vesicles and external nerve ending membranes isolated from rat brain. At pH 1.7 CIH was precipitated as electron-dense granules with a uniform size of 6-7 nm specifically labelling the carboxyl group of sialic acid and the sulphate group of monoesters of sulphuric acid. The differentiation of these 2 groups was achieved by treatment with neuraminidase and methylation followed by saponification. After preincubation with neuraminidase, which released 90-100% of the sialic acid from the membranes of the synaptic vesicles and the nerve endings, the electron-dense deposits marked the reaction sites of sulphate with CIH. The sulphate groups which were present at a concentration of 2.3 and 2.2 µmol/mg protein for the synaptic vesicle and nerve ending membrane preparations, respectively, were rendered soluble as methyl ...
The control of neurotransmitter release at nerve terminals is of profound importance for neurological function and provides a powerful control system in neural networks. We show that the balance of enzymatic activities of the α isoform of the phosphatase calcineurin (CNAα) and the kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) has a dramatic influence over single action potential (AP)-driven exocytosis at nerve terminals. Acute or chronic loss of these enzymatic activities results in a sevenfold impact on single AP-driven exocytosis. We demonstrate that this control is mediated almost entirely through Cav2.2 (N-type) voltage-gated calcium channels as blocking these channels with a peptide toxin eliminates modulation by these enzymes. We found that a fraction of nerve terminals are kept in a presynaptically silent state with no measurable Ca2+ influx driven by single AP stimuli attributable to the balance of CNAα and CDK5 activities because blockade of either CNAα or CDK5 activity changes the ...
We have used pulsed laser imaging to measure the spatial distribution of Ca2+ influx into isolated neuroendocrine axon terminals from the neurohypophysis. The sensitivity and rapidity of the pulsed laser technique has allowed us to image Ca2+ increases after influx of only 0.6 msec during a tail current. Despite efforts to identify localized entry of Ca2+ by imaging influx after brief or extended periods of depolarization, and in the presence of various Ca2+ channel blockers or intracellular Ca2+ chelators, the influx into the neurohypophysial terminals was always homogeneously distributed over the terminal membrane. Localized influx, however, was clearly seen after electroporation of the terminal membrane and when similar experiments were performed on bovine chromaffin cells (Monck et al., 1994; Robinson et al., 1995, 1996). These data support the hypothesis that Ca2+ channels in the terminals do not possess the large clusters of Ca2+channels seen at specialized release sites in the presynaptic ...
Both methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic divalent mercury (Hg++) alter the flux of ions and small molecules across nerve terminal membranes by mechanisms that may involve membrane depolarization. We compared the effects of MeHg and Hg++ on plasma (psi p) and mitochondrial membrane potentials (psi m) in synaptosomes using the potentiometric carbocyanine dye 3,3-diethylthiadicarbocyanine iodide [diS-C2(5)]. Both mercurials (1-20 microM) produced concentration-dependent increases in dye fluorescence after 5 min of exposure which were not altered by removal of Ca++ from the medium. To determine directly effects of mercurials on psi p, predepolarization of psi m using NaN3 and oligomycin was necessary. Under this condition, MeHg- and Hg(++)-induced increases in fluorescence were associated with depolarization of psi p. A second approach was used to assess changes in psi p. In synaptosomes, the magnitude of the increase in fluorescence resulting from depolarization of psi p with a stimulus of constant ...
Previously this Company also published a study in the journal Pain in which they discuss the case of a woman who has been born without special nerve ending. The medical community thought that without nerve ending woman wont be able to feel touch or taste senses as these nerves are necessary for touch senses. The Woman turned out fine and continue her life. Later it is found out that she had the nerve ending near the fine capillary blood vessels in her skin. Dr. Rice Added that previously their team thought that nerve ending is for only blood regulation in our body at a subconscious level. This woman Clearly an example that nerve ends also contribute to our sense of touch and also PAIN.. Currently used drugs, made by Eli Lilly and Forest Labs, are serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) that usually work on the brain. But, these drugs can also work on the nerve endings near blood vessels in the skin. As we already know how these drugs work on molecules in the brain, Dr. Philip J. ...
Fig. 1. An amperometry recording (below) signals three successive stages in exocytosis (above). The SNARE proteins, which play an essential role in exocytosis, are shown in different hypothetical configurations.. We also do experiments on the posterior pituitary, and have used this preparation to investigate presynaptic excitability. We have identified and characterized the ion channels in pituitary nerve terminals and shown how various signaling systems can target these ion channels for modulation. Present efforts focus on the sigma receptor, which modulates several ion channels (in collaboration with Arnold Ruoho of the Pharmacology Department), and the NO/cGMP signaling system, which produces a unique use-dependent enhancement of excitability. We are also imaging intra-terminal Ca2+ with two-photon microscopy in order to characterize the cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffers and explore how the spatial dynamics of Ca2+ controls the time course of release.. To relate what we learn at the molecular and ...
BioAssay record AID 65182 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of high affinity uptake of [3H]dopamine into striatal nerve endings (synaptosomes).
There are more than 8,000 nerve endings in the tip of the clitoris alone. Thats double the number of those in a penis. A clitoris is made up of 18 distinct parts - a mixture of erectile tissue, muscle and nerves.
Investigate Nerve Tissue.VWR supplies microscope slides for cytology, histology, and general microbiology applications. Slides for staining experiments are constructed of high quality sheet glass and soda-lime glass; economical options include disposable clear vinyl or standard sheet glass slides. Choose plain or frosted products with or without coverslips. Clipped or beveled corners are offered as well as color-coded and markable slides for organization. Purchase clean or prepared slides in your choice of dimensions and thickness in packs or larger cases.
title: The synaptic microcircuitry associated with primary afferent terminals in the interpolaris and caualis of trigeminal sensory nuclear complex, doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2005.08.042, category: Article
From: the period of adjustment…shall be reduced by the lesser of: (i) the number of days, if any, beginning on the date the amendment under §1.312 or other paper was filed and ending on the mailing date of the Office Action or notice in response to the amendment under §1.312 or such other paper; or (ii) four months.. To: the number of days, if any, beginning on the day after the date of mailing of the Notice of Allowance under 35 U.S.C. 151 and ending on the date the amendment under §1.312 or other paper was filed.. Countries without PTE or PTA laws:. Countries such as India, Brazil, Mexico, China, Thailand, Indonesia, Hong Kong etc. have a lack of a system of patent term extension or patent term adjustment. In these countries patent term is provided only for 20 years even if the regulatory authorities delay in the patent prosecution process.. Countries with PTE or PTA laws other than US:. Countries like EP, AU, JP, TW, Israel, Russia, South Korea, Singapore, Columbia etc. have a sound ...
Noxious stimuli are transduced into electrical signals in free unencapsulated nerve endings that have branched from the main axon and terminate in the wall of arterioles and surrounding connective tissue, and may innervate distinct regions in the dermis and epidermis (17, 30). The endings are ensheathed by Schwann cells except at the end bulb and at mitochondria- and vesicle-rich varicosities (17). A-fibers lose their myelin sheath and the unmyelinated A-fiber branches cluster in separated small spots within a small area, the anatomical substrate for their receptive field (17). C-fiber branches are generally more broadly distributed, precluding precise localization of the stimulus (17). In contrast, specialized nonneuronal structures conferring high sensitivity to light touch, stretch, vibration, and hair movement are innervated by low threshold A-fibers (11). Nociceptive endings are in the vicinity of keratinocytes, mast cells, and Langerhans cells, indicating the capacity of peripheral ...
The researchers also looked at another measurement called the pulse pressure, which is the change in blood pressure when the heart contracts. Pulse pressure is calculated by subtracting the bottom number (diastolic reading) from the top number (systolic reading). Those with higher pulse pressure had up to 50 percent fewer headaches. The researchers think that the higher the pulse pressure, the stiffer the blood vessels. The stiffer the blood vessel, the less likely the nerve endings are working properly. If the nerve endings arent functioning correctly, the less likely a person will feel pain ...
Dr. Robert Kwok answered: No sensory nerves...: If there are no sensory nerve endings in that part of the body, then no sensations are detected, so thus the...
Pain is part of your survival mechanism. Its your bodys way of saying, Ah, hey… something is wrong here. Pay attention please and help me out. Hopefully you then consciously do something to help your body out and fix the issue.. The question remains though, why does pain sometimes come and stay even when there is no life-threatening situation?. Ah, so heres where things get more intriguing and where I believe more research and science is needed. When nociceptors react and start sending the message, danger, danger… something is wrong here, sometimes they keep sending the same message yet the danger isnt really there. Why? Heres my theory and why I believe MELT helps so many people so fast. You have to get the nociceptors to sense something different. When an injury occurs, the connective tissue is frequently what gets damaged. (This is why doctors sometimes cant find anything wrong with you even when you have an MRI and X-rays.) When the environment around your sensory nerve endings ...
Soft tissue injuries are painful because the connective tissue is where the sensory nerve endings live. In this video, fitness expert Sue Hitzmann, MS/CST/NMT, shares her tips for restoring the fluid in your connective tissue using the MELT Method.
Baroreceptors are sensory nerve endings in human blood vessels that detect blood pressure. There are two types of barorecptors...
Ive hurt myself. Not a cut or bruise; thats usual. Ive seriously hurt myself for the first time ever. Someone who has never broken a bone or had any sort of surgery in her life. I fell. HARD. And x-rays show that while I havent broken anything, Ive suffered a contusion. On my tailbone. And…
This rare wonderful time of openness may pass, as we heal, as we move on, as one distraction of life and another take us forward, through the passage of time, causing the rawness to diminish and eventually to fade. A key for all of us during the special time of Kairos--of man-ing or woman-ing up and feeling our pain, facing it and eventually transitioning, learning to let go of the pain, so learning to live again--a key is to keep sacred the openness we learn, so that we can continue as much as possible to experience things like nature, art, the faces of our beloveds, the touch of their hands, the embrace of the world, from the place where great grace and the purification of suffering have rendered our hearts open, our minds clear and honest, and our souls more alive than they might have been if we had never voyaged so deeply ...
Why are my feet ticklish The KGB Agent answer: Nerve endings are what makes us feel ticklish. Our feet have the most so theyre the most ticklish of all.
I have no complaints these days. Im in IOP but Im ending on Tuesday. Think I got all the resources out of it that I could. I dont work now for 2 1/2 months but thats fine. Ill work again when I can. Ive been readi…
While the weekdays tend to move quite rapidly at, the weekends are characteristically slower. To help you get caught up on the week that was, you can check out the below list of the most viewed stories that ran over the past seven days. While youre at it, feel free to engage in whatever discussion you see fit on this very post.. The Ten Most-Viewed Stories On For The Week Ending On January 10th, 2021: ...
In the case of the Gospels, lets assume for the sake of argument that Jesus died about 33 A.D. If the Gospels were all written around 70 A.D. (as the member of the Irrational Rescue Squad admits in his post), and assuming the fact that the apostles were all in their mid 20s at the time that Jesus lived (making them middle-aged by the authors reckoning), then they would have been around 65 at the time that the Gospels were written. This is certainly not impossible. Credible evidence exists that John the Apostle died in the early 2nd Century -- approximately 70 years after the crucifixion. There is no question that Peter, another apostle, lived until he was executed around 65 A.D. If you want the evidence see the New Advent Encylopedias article on Saint Peter the Apostle. If John lived to 100 A.D. (making him no less than 85) and if the Apostle Peter lived to 65 A.D. (his life ending on that date only because he was executed), then in what way is it possibly unreasonable that the other apostles ...
The Bacon Bacon Truck sustained a fire, but the Bacon Bacon storefront is still open. Theres a happy ending on the truck front, too, as owner Jim Angelus expects to get a new Bacon Bacon Truck in the next several months. less ...
The Bacon Bacon Truck sustained a fire, but the Bacon Bacon storefront is still open. Theres a happy ending on the truck front, too, as owner Jim Angelus expects to get a new Bacon Bacon Truck in the next several months. less ...
Random inspections of germplasm consignments are resuming from 1 August 2020. Inspections had initially started in March 2020, but were suspended due to restrictions relating to COVID-19.. The inspections will be carried out for a 12 month trial period ending on 1 August 2021.. The following germplasm will be randomly selected for inspection:. ...
Notes: For the fourth Fathers Day in a row, Brother was performed and featured all of the bands children on stage and subsequent introductions (which included a Charge! from Page). After Timber, Trey sang the ending notes to Brother. Trey then said he had a trivia question for the crowd and asked how many songs end like this? and the band sang the ending of Brother again. He answered the question by saying the songs were My Friend, My Friend, Rift, and Brother (all of which had their endings sung). Trey added that tonight was special because from now on, Timber would also end with the Brother ending (which was sung again). Trey said Page could also end Lawn Boy that way from now on, prompting a Lawn Boy quote from Page. Mike then teased Ha Ha Ha. Trey went on to say that Metallica would be playing at Bader Field soon after Phish and that he didnt think they ended a single song like the ending of Brother (Trey sang the ending). Trey said if everyone wrote Metallica a note saying Dear ...
Olive Garden announced the return of its Never Ending Pasta Pass for a sixth year and also introduced a first-of-its-kind $500 Lifetime Pasta Pass. According to the casual dining restaurant chain, 24,000 Never Ending Pasta Passes are available this year, priced at $100 plus tax.
Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory
ANSWER: An action potential is transmitted to the muscle via a motor nerve; the electrical signal is transmitted to the muscle chemically (acetyl choline) across the gap between the nerve and the muscle; an action potential is generated in the muscle; the acetyl choline is broken down and/or taken back up into the nerve ending ...
The other bit of me-related news that came out of San Diego Comic Con was that SCALPED is ending with issue #60. Still feels weird to see it finally spelled out so definitely, but this has actually been the plan for quite a while now. This was my choice. We were not canceled or forced into an ending. The series will be ending just the way Ive always imagined it ending. There are a couple of smaller stories I always thought I might get to which I ultimately wont, but those were set aside in the interest of giving the series as solid a finish as possible. There wont be any more stand-alone issues. Instead well have two final big arcs to bring everything home, with Guera drawing every issue. Expect a death or two and hopefully at least a couple of surprises. And expect everyone to get the ending theyve got coming to them, good or bad. In many ways, the entire story of SCALPED will ultimately be about what happens in these last ten issues. Thanks again to everybody whos stuck with us this ...
The other bit of me-related news that came out of San Diego Comic Con was that SCALPED is ending with issue #60. Still feels weird to see it finally spelled out so definitely, but this has actually been the plan for quite a while now. This was my choice. We were not canceled or forced into an ending. The series will be ending just the way Ive always imagined it ending. There are a couple of smaller stories I always thought I might get to which I ultimately wont, but those were set aside in the interest of giving the series as solid a finish as possible. There wont be any more stand-alone issues. Instead well have two final big arcs to bring everything home, with Guera drawing every issue. Expect a death or two and hopefully at least a couple of surprises. And expect everyone to get the ending theyve got coming to them, good or bad. In many ways, the entire story of SCALPED will ultimately be about what happens in these last ten issues. Thanks again to everybody whos stuck with us this ...
Bradford HF, Foley P, Docherty M, Fillit H, Luine VN, McEwen B, Bucht G, Winbald B, Hardy J. Antibodies in serum of patients with Alzheimers disease cause immunolysis of cholinergic nerve terminals from the rat cerebral cortex ...
The deal with neuros saying they can usually spot a true ALS case the minute it walks through the door is becaue most people with ALS dont even notice the twitches. An ALS twitch is very fine compared to BFS twitches. A true fasciculation is a very fine, low impulse, momentary twitch that barely has enough power to move the surface of the skin and you have to figure that if the twitch is caused by dying nerves and muscle tissue, you most likely wouldnt feel the twitches happening in the first place... after all, if your muscle is dying and the nerves are disconnecting, then what is sending the signals of feeling the ALS twitch up to the brain? Not much, thats for sure... its pretty hard to send signals of feeling through dead or disconnected nerve endings ...
There the electrical sign alterations right into a chemical 1, along with the nerve ending sprays a molecular transmitter, acetylcholine, onto the muscle mass. During the milliseconds just before enzymes have an opportunity to chew it up, a lot of the acetylcholine binds with receptors, known as gated-ion channels, within the surface on the muscle mobile. When acetylcholine sticks to them, they open up, making it possible for the sodium ions from the encompassing salty fluid to hurry in ...
Reflexology is a part of medicine that pain pressing on specific points on the body. It is particularly suitable methods for application to the ear, because there are many nerve endings. With the help of clothespin, which puts pressure on specific nerve, can be solved discomfort or pain.. Through these 6 points, the ear is connected with all parts of the body. The pain in certain areas can be healed with pressure on certain points. ...
The skin is a human beings largest sensory organ, helping to distinguish between a pleasant contact, like a caress, and a negative sensation, like a pinch or a burn. Previous studies have shown that these sensations are carried to the brain by different types of sensory neurons that have nerve endings in the skin. Now biologists at Caltech have identified in mice a specific class of skin sensory neurons that reacts to an apparently pleasurable stimulus.
A feeling of distress, suffering, or agony caused by stimulation of specialized nerve endings. The sensation we feel as pain is produced through a number of complex biochemical interactions. These interactions can be likened to a battle between the
Hi! , Unfortunately theres been a spate of mono cases in our are this , past week and my 16 y/o pumper Liz was one of those diagnosed. Thank , goodness for the pump because it certainly makes life easier when , her fever spikes and causes a corresponding bg increase. Does anyone , have mono with diabetes experience they can share with me? (ie: , length of illness, problems to look out for, etc.) FWIW, this , morning at 2am she did a supplemental bolus with a syringe instead , of the pump since her bgs jumped to 320. She was quite surprised , that the syringe caused her more discomfort than inserting a sil! Tell her to give her injections the SAME way she inserts the Sil ..... sideways under the skin. The abdomen is a great spot for this, lots of skin the really has very few nerve endings. I demonstrated this to Lily (on me, of course) as a prelude to pumping 7 years ago. She finally tried it and hasnt done an injection in an arm or leg since then. Michael email @ redacted ...
Revising may be boring, but how you revise is only one part of getting a good grade. What you eat is vital to how your brain works. Snacking on crisps and sweets may sound like the best idea but really isnt, sorry. Junk food has been found to block the passage of messages between the nerve endings in your brain, so all those hours studying could be for nothing if Doritos are all youre munching on. Instead try a handful of nuts or berries, both contain Omega3 and will keep you active and focused. ...
Greetings- , My Blood Sugars at night have been all over the place- lots of lows , followed by highs- a mess. My endo is talking about being tested for , gastro-paresis. I know it has to do withe nerve endings in the tummy , not responding like they did in days of yore (been diabetic over 33 , years) - and that theres medication available to help the stomach empty , faster but what about that test - swallowing Radio-Active material in a , sandwich somes very nasty indeed - I dont want that in my body. Any , other options? Write soon- the test is set for Friday, the 30th. , Also what are the other symptoms? Are there any FAQs available - , somewhere? Thanks. Several, do a search of Medline (see the SEARCH page) and take a look at the material under Other Diabetes Links on the LINKS page. You want the Center for Disease Control doctor and patient guides. email @ redacted Insulin-Pumpers website ...
Itching occurs when irritants stimulate the nerve endings of your skin. If you suffer from itching after a bike ride or other aerobic workout, you might be...
The endings are definitely different. I shot in the air in mine, and it mention how lieutenants like me who refused to shoot were killed as well.I sho
European Central Bank policymakers will discuss adjusting but not ending the ECBs economic stimulus in light of stronger growth, keeping in mind that markets can over-react to any change, ECB chief economist Peter Praet said on Thursday.
"Marc Sloan Discography". Trees of Nerve Endings. Archived from the original on 2012-03-13. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
Nerve Endings: Selected Lyrics. Unbound, 2018. ISBN 978-1783525638. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Kristin Hersh , Biography & ... Richards, John (February 13, 2007). "Nerves Exposed, Hersh Sings One for the Oddballs". NPR. Retrieved on October 24, 2016. ...
Blood pressure and temperature have gone down; nerve endings have healed over. The new tone could be described in a word: ... On July 27, 1953, the United States, North Korea, and China agreed to the Korean Armistice Agreement, ending the Korean War. ...
Adrian, Edward D. (1926). "The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings". The Journal of Physiology. 61 (1): 49-72. doi: ... Kleene, S.C. (1956). "Representation of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata". Annals of Mathematics Studies (34). ...
Fatt, P.; Katz, B. (1952). "Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings". J Physiol. 117 (1): 109-128. doi:10.1113 ...
... chemical transmission at dorsal root nerve endings. He was appointed to a Chair of Zoology at the University of Melbourne in ... Between 1922 and 1934 Oscar Tiegs was almost entirely concerned with the physiology of nerve and muscle, apparently influenced ...
doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-815480-9.00001-3. ISBN 978-0-12-815480-9. Rapport, Richard L. (2005). Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the ... I felt the need of some name to call the junction between nerve-cell and nerve-cell... I suggested using "syndesm"... He [ Sir ... The release of a neurotransmitter is triggered by the arrival of a nerve impulse (or action potential) and occurs through an ... Pereda AE, Rash JE, Nagy JI, Bennett MV (December 2004). "Dynamics of electrical transmission at club endings on the Mauthner ...
"Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings". The Journal of Physiology. 117 (1): 109-28. doi:10.1113/jphysiol. ... The neuromuscular junction of the sciatic nerve fibers of the sartorius muscle of this frog has been the source of initial data ... Hille, B (1967). "The selective inhibition of delayed potassium currents in nerve by tetraethylammonium ion". The Journal of ...
However, this is not its only function, as it has been shown to contain nerve endings, which may cause pain if damaged. The ... The most common nerve to be injured is the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh. This nerve supplies feeling to the upper, ... Kim, Y.; Azuma, H. (1995). "The nerve endings of the acetabular labrum". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (320): 176- ... and pudendal nerves. The pudendal nerves supply feeling to the reproductive organs. Persistent inflammation to the soft tissue ...
1° (Free nerve ending → A delta fiber) → 2° (Anterior white commissure → Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic tract → Spinal ... Pontine cranial nerve nuclei *chief or pontine nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V) ... 1° (Group C nerve fiber → Spinoreticular tract → Reticular formation) → 2° (MD of Thalamus) → 3° (Cingulate cortex) ...
Epinephrine (adrenaline) a "neurotransmitter" at sympathetic nerve endings. And a hormone which has effects throughout the body ... Mononeuropathy A form of diabetic neuropathy affecting a single nerve. The eye is a common site for this form of nerve damage. ... Nerve conduction studies Tests to determine nerve function; can detect early neuropathy. Neurologist a physician specializing ... Electromyography EMG Test used to diagnose neuropathy and check for nerve damage. It uses electrodes to measure speed of nerve ...
Whenever these afferent nerve endings are stimulated (for example, by dust, cold air or fumes) impulses travel to the brain- ... The parasympathetic reflex loop consists of afferent nerve endings which originate under the inner lining of the bronchus. ... Acetylcholine is released from the efferent nerve endings. This acetylcholine results in the excessive formation of inositol 1, ...
Vogt coauthored a paper with Dale and Wilhelm Feldberg: 'Release of Acetylcholine at Voluntary Motor Nerve Endings' in 1936. ... Dale, H.H.; Feldberg, W.; Vogt, M. (1936). "Release of Acetylcholine at Voluntary Motor Nerve Endings". Journal of Physiology. ... Dale, H.H.; Feldberg, W.; Vogt, M. (1936). "Release of Acetylcholine at Voluntary Motor Nerve Endings". Journal of Physiology. ... "Sir Henry Dale - Nobel Lecture: Some Recent Extensions of the Chemical Transmission of the Effects of Nerve Impulses". www. ...
With the advent of the electron microscope in the early 1950s, nerve endings were found to contain a large number of electron- ... Gray EG, Whittaker VP (1962). "The isolation of nerve endings from brain: an electron microscopic study of cell fragments ... Fatt, P.; Katz, B. (May 28, 1952). "Spontaneous subthreshold activity at motor nerve endings" (PDF). The Journal of Physiology ... Whittaker VP, Michaelson IA, Kirkland RJ (1964). "The separation of synaptic vesicles from nerve ending particles (' ...
... and some free nerve endings. Also, tactile corpuscles do not detect noxious stimuli; this is signaled exclusively by free nerve ... This corpuscle is a type of nerve ending in the skin that is responsible for sensitivity to light touch. In particular, they ... Tactile corpuscles are encapsulated myelinated nerve endings, surrounded by Schwann cells. The encapsulation consists of ... A single nerve fiber meanders between the lamellae and throughout the corpuscle. They are distributed on various areas of the ...
Kress M, Kuner R (Jun 2009). "Mode of action of cannabinoids on nociceptive nerve endings". Experimental Brain Research. 196 (1 ...
... numerous nerve endings throughout the skin. Acorn worms have a Y-shaped nuchal skeleton that starts their proboscis and collar ... A plexus of nerves lies underneath the skin, and is concentrated into both dorsal and ventral nerve cords. While the ventral ... This part of the dorsal nerve cord is often hollow, and may well be homologous with the brain of vertebrates. In acorn worms, ...
Merkel nerve endings and Meissner's corpuscles are not present." Yang & Bradley argue; "the distinct pattern of innervation of ... "the glans penis contains a predominance of free nerve endings, numerous genital end bulbs and rarely Pacinian and Ruffinian ... Yang, C. C.; W.E. Bradley (July 1998). "Neuroanatomy of the penile portion of the human dorsal nerve of the penis". British ...
... also known as Ruffini endings) detect tension deep in the skin and fascia. The Merkel nerve endings (also known as Merkel discs ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch ... They are all innervated by Aβ fibers, except the mechanorecepting free nerve endings, which are innervated by Aδ fibers. ... Each muscle spindle consists of sensory nerve endings wrapped around special muscle fibers called spindle fibers (also called ...
Close relations exist between epithelial cells and nerve endings. Histochemically, the parenchyma displays a characteristic ... embedded in connective tissue particularly rich in nerve fibers and sensory receptors. ...
Requiem was covered by the British post-punk band Eagulls in 2013 as the B-side to their "Nerve Endings" single, which received ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Eagulls - Nerve Endings (Vinyl)". Discogs. Retrieved 29 April 2018. CS1 maint: ...
This stretching causes the nerve endings to become dull. The child may not feel when they need to eliminate the feces or if the ...
Adrian ED, Zotterman Y (April 1926). "The impulses produced by sensory nerve-endings: Part II. The response of a Single End- ... Auditory nerve fibers take this slightly-processed sensory information to the cochlear nucleus where information either ... E.D. Adrian, Barlow's advisor, was the discoverer of the frequency code-the observation that sensory nerves convey signal ...
... l tissues are frequently innervated by sensory nerve endings. These include myelinated as well as unmyelinated nerves. ... It serves as a storage medium of fat and water; as a passageway for lymph, nerve and blood vessels; and as a protective padding ... A fascial compartment is a section within the body that contains muscles and nerves and is surrounded by fascia. In the human ... In doing so, fasciae provide a supportive and movable wrapping for nerves and blood vessels as they pass through and between ...
α-LTX affects motor nerve endings and endocrine cells. No major enzymatic activities are associated. Instead, the toxin can ... The N-terminus of the α-LTX precursor molecule is preceded by short hydrophilic sequences ending with a cluster of basic amino ... This causes nerve terminal swelling. Further membrane potential disturbances occur due to permeability of small molecules, such ...
"Opening Nerve Endings Concert Launches into Deep Space Fine." The Oregonian, Sep. 24, 1998. Anderson, Rick. "Terry Robb, ...
G. Hertting; J. Axelrod (1961). "Fate of tritiated noradrenaline at the sympathetic nerve-endings". Nature. 192 (4798): 172-173 ... are liberated in the region of the sympathetic nerve endings when these are excited." The manuscript was received by Springer- ... In the meantime, Dale created a terminology that since has imprinted the thinking of neuroscientists: that nerve cells should ... For many responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation, the ATP co-stored with noradrenaline (see above) is a cotransmitter. It ...
Adrian ED, Zotterman Y (April 1926). "The impulses produced by sensory nerve-endings: Part II. The response of a Single End- ... The above account deals with the response of a single nerve fibre. If a nerve trunk is stimulated, then as the exciting ... but a stronger stimulus excites all the nerve fibres. Increasing the stimulus further does increase the response of whole nerve ... The nerve fibre gives a maximum response or none at all. This is called the "all or none" principle. It is also Known as all or ...
Beta-neurotoxins keep nerve endings from liberating the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. According to researcher Ronelle Welton ...
The number of vein endings is very variable, as is whether second order veins end at the margin, or link back to other veins.[ ... 2 major basal nerves besides the midrib. Diagrams of venation patternsEdit. ... Some of the smallest veins (veinlets) may have their endings in the areoles, a process known as areolation.[26] These minor ... Ending abruptly with a flat end, that looks cut off.. SurfaceEdit. ...
Efferent nerve-fibers carry impulses out from the center to their endings. Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called ... "Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two classes, afferent and efferent. Impressions are made on the ... Thus, nerves carry impulses outward and sensations inward. The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become ... that vertebral subluxations caused pinched nerves in the intervertebral spaces in favor of subluxations causing altered nerve ...
His only original contributions to this work were on the sympathetic nerve, nerve-ganglia and nerve-endings, and he modestly ... nerve-endings, and the sympathetic nerves. ...
Efferent nerve fibers of gamma motoneurons also terminate in muscle spindles; they make synapses at either or both of the ends ... The sensory endings of a primary (group Ia) afferent and a secondary (group II) afferent coil around the non-contractile ... They convey length information to the central nervous system via afferent nerve fibers. This information can be processed by ... Primary type Ia sensory fibers (large diameter) spiral around all intrafusal muscle fibres, ending near the middle of each ...
Injuries and cataracts affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia affect the nerve bundle that ... The work is explicitly incongruous, ending with the comment Did you ever see such a sight in your life, As three blind mice? ... Glaucoma causes visual field loss as well as severs the optic nerve.[35] Early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma in patients ... to the occipital lobe of the brain that prevent the brain from correctly receiving or interpreting signals from the optic nerve ...
... as with the ending chord arpeggios on "A Hard Day's Night".[222] On this and other songs from the period, he used a ... as both men admitted that they often got on each other's nerves.[392] Rodriguez commented: "Even to the end of George's days, ... but the project was lost amid the litigation surrounding the former Beatles ending their business ties with Klein.[318] ...
... and nerve fibers of the olfactory nerves.[1] Odor molecules can enter the peripheral pathway and reach the nasal cavity either ... Olfactory nerve fibers, which originate in the epithelium, pass through the cribriform plate, connecting the epithelium to the ... Olfactory nerves and fibers transmit information about odors from the peripheral olfactory system to the central olfactory ... causing an electrical response that spreads through the sensory neuron to the olfactory nerve fibers at the back of the nasal ...
In the U.S., around 2000 women became pregnant while taking the drug between 1982 and 2000, with most pregnancies ending in ... It is also used for treatment of neuroblastoma, a form of nerve cancer. ...
After MacLaine's character admits her love for Hepburn's, she hangs herself; this set a precedent for miserable endings in ... or speak to me there is not a nerve of fibre in my body that does not respond with a thrill of delight?"[76] ... effectively ending the movement, until 2004, when Grupo Safo - Grupo de Mujeres Lesbianas de Nicaragua was created, four years ... violent deaths in moral endings.[225] Samuel Taylor Coleridge's 1816 poem "Christabel" and the novella Carmilla (1872) by ...
Rapport, Richard L. Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the Synapse. New York: W.W. Norton, 2005. Print. ... Emil du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896): German physician and physiologist, the discoverer of nerve action potential, and the father ... but lost his nerve at the last minute and walked out of the classroom, never to return. On his long walk home, he came up with ... received the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF).[233] ...
The light from a star travels over intervening space and causes a disturbance in the optic nerve ending in an occurrence in the ... The brain has ganglia and nerve fibers, has neuroglia and vessels, has different colors (is colored this way or that) and so on ...
In about half of observed cases the cardiac bronchus presents as a short dead-ending bronchial stump, in the remainder the ... Nerve. Pulmonary branches of vagus nerve. Identifiers. Latin. Bronchus. MeSH. D001980. TA. A06.4.01.001. ...
Kardos J, Kovács I, Hajós F, Kálmán M, Simonyi M (August 1989). "Nerve endings from rat brain tissue release copper upon ... The abnormal protein PrPSc accumulates in the brain and destroys nerve cells, which leads to the mental and behavioral features ...
1968 - As a result of nerve gas testing in Skull Valley, Utah, US, over 6,000 sheep are found dead. ... 1776 - American Revolution: British forces evacuate Boston, Massachusetts, ending the Siege of Boston, after George Washington ... ending the first of the Scottish Wars of Independence. ...
James Berardinelli stated that the "ending is too facile", and that the film took "longer than necessary to arrive at its ... resolution", adding that there are moments in it where the script would strike a raw nerve with certain people because of how ...
Merkel nerve ending. *Pacinian corpuscle. *Ruffini ending. *Muscle spindle. *Free nerve ending ... The nerve fibres which make up the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres are categorized on the basis of their course and ... The posterior commissure (also known as the epithalamic commissure) is a rounded nerve tract crossing the middle line on the ...
... nerve ending preparations isolated during homogenization and centrifugation of brain tissue) (24), research with reserpine and ...
... are attached to the severed nerve-endings of the patient. The patient is then taught how to operate the prosthetic, trying to ... Fromherz, Peter; "Neuroelectronic Interfacing: Semiconductor Chips with Ion Channels, Nerve Cells, and Brain"; Nanoelectronics ... an institute working on nerve cell/chip interconnection Wetware Technology. ...
All breasts have the same number of nerve endings no matter how large they are. Accordingly, smaller breasts are more sensitive ...
Yoga is a great example of an activity that calms your entire body and nerves. According to a study on well-being by Richards, ... and even ending lives because of the lack of action. There has been some effort to financially fund psychiatric support in ... Psychiatrist Walter Freeman believed that "an overload of emotions led to mental illness and "that cutting certain nerves in ...
... since the latissimus dorsi has roughly twice the number of nerve endings per square inch of other muscles. ... The most commonly involved nerves are the suprascapular nerve, musculocutaneous nerve, and the axillary nerve.[9][10] ... These form part of the brachial plexus, comprising the ventral rami of spinal nerves C5-C8 and thoracic nerve T1.[1][2][3] ... and it can result in nerve damage in the area from which the nerves were taken. Scarring can vary from faint scars along the ...
Nerve. Sensory: Anterior 2/3: lingual nerve & chorda tympani Posterior 1/3: Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Motor Innervation: - CN ... The ue ending of the word seems to be a fourteenth-century attempt to show "proper pronunciation", but it is "neither ... The pharyngeal part is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve and the oral part is supplied by the lingual nerve (a branch of ... Taste and sensation: internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (itself a branch of the vagus nerve, CN X) ...
... of cynodonts as channels that supplied blood vessels and nerves to vibrissae (whiskers) and suggested that this was evidence of ... beginning with animals that were very like their pelycosaur ancestors and ending with some that could easily be mistaken for ... A study of cranial openings for facial nerves connected whiskers in extant mammals indicate the Prozostrodontia, small ...
It was the Orioles' first game-ending pinch hit home run since Larry Sheets had one on August 24, 1988.[80] Davis struggled in ... "Davis battles blister, nerves in first Derby experience". Archived from the original on July 17, 2014 ... an injury which was initially feared to be season-ending but wound up keeping him out only until September 6.[45][46] In an 11- ... After Markakis suffered a season-ending injury on September 8, Davis moved to right field for the remainder of the season and ...
... preserved tails ending in something like a pygostyle, a bony structure at the end of the tail that, in modern birds, is used to ... and the coracoid has the primitive coelurosaur shape with a proximal supracoracoidal nerve foramen and a moderate biceps ...
The sweat gland is in the layer of skin called the dermis along with other "equipment," such as nerve endings, hair follicles ... Nerve cells from the sympathetic nervous system are connected to the sweat glands. There are two types of sweat glands: * ... So when you are nervous, anxious or afraid, there is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity in your body as well as an ... Sweat can be made in response to nerve stimulation, hot air temperature, and/or exercise. First, let's concentrate on how sweat ...
Unlike dolphins, these fish do not feel the bubbles, because they have bony fins without nerve endings. Nevertheless, they ...
Merkel nerve ending. *Pacinian corpuscle. *Ruffini ending. *Muscle spindle. *Free nerve ending ... The dendrites are short with claw-like endings that form glomeruli to receive mossy fibers, similar to cerebellar granule cells ... They are characterized by a very small soma and several short dendrites which terminate with claw-shaped endings. In the ...
Merkel nerve ending. *Pacinian corpuscle. *Ruffini ending. *Muscle spindle. *Free nerve ending ... In the nervous system, a synapse[1] is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical ... Nerve cells have long been used as models for cellular polarization, and of particular interest are the mechanisms underlying ... The distinctive structure of nerve cells allows action potentials to travel directionally (from dendrites to cell body down the ...
A free nerve ending (FNE) or bare nerve ending, is an unspecialized, afferent nerve fiber ending of a sensory neuron. Afferent ... Free nerve endings are unencapsulated and have no complex sensory structures. They are the most common type of nerve ending, ... Hada R (1990). "[Difference in responses of free nerve endings and Ruffini-type endings innervating the cat mandibular ... The majority of Aδ (A delta) fibers (group III) and C (group IV) fibers end as free nerve endings. ...
I am new to this site and I was wondering if anyone could give me info on nerve endings. My husband had radical prostate ... As far as the nerve endings, someone on this forum mentioned that nerves regenerate at the rate of 1/2 inch per month, what ... I am new to this site and I was wondering if anyone could give me info on nerve endings. My husband had radical prostate ... I had non nerve sparing surgery 4 months ago. I didnt take any of the ED medications since they really dont help much in my ...
Receptor, molecule, generally a protein, that receives signals for a cell. Small molecules, such as hormones outside the cell or second messengers inside the cell, bind tightly and specifically to their receptors. Binding is a critical element in effecting a cellular response to a signal and is
Definition of free nerve endings. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical terms and ... free nerve endings. Definition: a form of peripheral ending of sensory nerve fibers in which the terminal filaments end freely ...
The damaged nerves still manage to transport enough information to keep the patient alive longer than he or she could have ... "The human brain is estimated to have 100 billion neurons or nerve cells. Each neuron can be connected to thousands of others. ...
Doc says its sensitive nerve endings. They tingle/throb constantly at the tip(nasal dorsal nerve?) The area below my lower... ... Doc says its sensitive nerve endings. They tingle/throb constantly at the tip(nasal dorsal nerve?) The area below my lower lip ... The concern would be for a meningioma irritating the nerve supplying the region you describe. If this is the case, the ...
Nerve Ending Neuronal Body Sialic Acid Content Synaptosomal Membrane Hypoosmotic Shock This is a preview of subscription ... 1980) Gangliosides, Neuraminidase and Sialyltransferase at the Nerve Endings. In: Svennerholm L., Mandel P., Dreyfus H., Urban ... internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine
Nerve burning/nerve freezing/nerve block procedure do help control pain. However, at times it leaves the person feeling numb in ... Nerve burning/nerve freezing/nerve block procedure do help control pain. However, at times it leaves the person feeling numb in ... Burning nerve ending in low back Pamelahobo Hi, to all of you out there.Boy this is surely wide spread.I want to tell all of ... Burning nerve ending in low back. Hi, to all of you out there.Boy this is surely wide spread.I want to tell all of how Sorry I ...
... Merkel nerve endings are mechanoreceptors found in the skin and mucosa of vertebrates that provide touch ... In mammals, Merkel nerve endings have a wide distribution. Merkel nerve endings are found in the basal layer of glabrous and ... Touch/mechanoreceptors: Pacinian corpuscles • Meissners corpuscles • Merkels discs • Ruffini endings • Free nerve endings • ... In mammals, electrical recordings from single afferent nerve fibres have shown that the responses Merkel nerve endings are ...
Injured nerves are known to sometime repair themselves, and in certain situations autografts can be performed to bridge gaps in ... Spinal Cord Transsection? Hydrogel Tunnels Guide Growth of Nerve Endings Across Gaps. December 18th, 2012 Medgadget Editors ... To make sure nutrients and oxygen would reach the regenerating nerve endings, the team created a spiral PEDOT design that ... The pictures of the spiral PEDOT design showed that the health of the nerve itself was nearly indistinguishable from a nerve ...
Semenov, E.V. Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the45Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings. Bull Exp Biol Med 86, 1168-1170 ... Effect of benactyzine and arecoline on the45Ca uptake by rat brain nerve endings. *E. V. Semenov ...
... Pain. 1982 Oct;14(2):105-120. doi: ... Horizontal axons developed into families of leashes with disorganized terminal branches and endings. The density and ...
A free nerve ending (FNE) is an unspecialized, afferent nerve ending, meaning it brings information from the bodys periphery ... Hada R (1990). "[Difference in responses of free nerve endings and Ruffini-type endings innervating the cat mandibular ... Ruffini endings • Free nerve endings - pain • Hair cells • Baroreceptor ... They are the most common type of nerve ending, and are most frequently found in the skin. They penetrate the epidermis and end ...
THE NERVES OF THE CAPILLARIES, WITH REMARKS ON NERVE-ENDINGS IN MUSCLE. Chr. Sihler ... THE NERVES OF THE CAPILLARIES, WITH REMARKS ON NERVE-ENDINGS IN MUSCLE ... 7. The nerves supplying the capillaries connect also with sensory nerves and with nerves surrounding the larger blood-vessels, ... 1. The endings of the motor nerves in striped muscle remain on the outside of the sarcolemma. Aside from the surfaces of ...
Investigate Nerve Tissue.VWR supplies microscope slides for cytology, histology, and general microbiology applications. Slides ... Unless otherwise specified, any item with a price ending in 9 (i.e. $5.09, $14.99, $100.89) is excluded from special offers, ...
The thousands of nerve endings in the human foot supply sensory feedback to the central nervous system, according to the ... What is a bundle of nerve fibers called?. A: A bundle of nerve fibers is referred to as a tract in the nervous system. Nerve ... The foot has more nerve endings per square inch than anywhere else in the body. Nerves constantly are sensing characteristics ... The thousands of nerve endings in the human foot supply sensory feedback to the central nervous system, according to the ...
"Nerve Endings" is culled from the bands album of the same name, which also exclusively premiered on AP earlier this year. ... Nerve Endings is about the internal conflict between an individuals heart and mind," says frontman Keaton Pierce. "Its about ... Too Close To Touch (Epitaph) unleash emotive whirlwind with "Nerve Endings" video (exclusive). October 29 2015, 3:50 PM EDT By ... Too Close To Touch are teaming up with AltPress for a premiere of their emotive "Nerve Endings" music video, which was directed ...
Spinal Cord And Nerve Endings 13 cm 26 cm. 20 cm 1. 34. Each. Retrieving. The minimum order for this item is . ... Unless otherwise specified, any item with a price ending in 9 (i.e. $5.09, $14.99, $100.89) is excluded from special offers, ...
Synonyms for touching a nerve ending at with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and ...
Blood movement, oxygen transport, muscle constriction, nerve firing, joint movement, and bone formation are brought to life in ...
The data clearly demonstrate that in mammalian neurosecretory nerve endings tetanus toxin acts at a step downstream from the ... Exocytosis was induced by challenging the permeabilized nerve endings with micromolar calcium concentrations. Tetanus toxin ... The light chain of tetanus toxin inhibits calcium-dependent vasopressin release from permeabilized nerve endings. In: ... and its light and heavy chain subunits on vasopressin release were investigated in digitonin-permeabilized neurosecretory nerve ...
Optic Nerve and Ruffini Ending Mara Goldberg 2009 SC / 80 pages / 30,4 x 22,8 cm Published by MER. Paper Kunsthalle Language. ... artist book the process of alteration as a result of repetition finds its way in drawings of optic nerves and Ruffini endings. ...
Most of the nerve endings involved in sexual stimulation in a woman are in the clitoris. This is a small pea size organ that is ... I know this does not really matter but how far are the nerve endings of a womans vagina when it comes to sexual pleasure? I ... The vagina itself doesnt have many nerve endings, almost all the stimulation from sex comes from the various connections to ...
Nerve Ending Tunica Albuginea Sensory Nerve Ending Free Nerve Ending Glans Penis These keywords were added by machine and not ... Three types of nerve endings were observed: 1. free nerve endings, 2. Ruffini corpuscles and 3. genital corpuscles. The free ... Halata Z., Johnson R.B., Kitchell R.L., Strasmann T. (1988) The Ultrastructure of Sensory Nerve Endings in the Penis of the ... The Ultrastructure of Sensory Nerve Endings in the Penis of the Goat. ...
Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity in Dopamine Nerve Endings of the Striatum Is Associated with Microglial Activation. David M. ... Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity in Dopamine Nerve Endings of the Striatum Is Associated with Microglial Activation. David M. ... Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity in Dopamine Nerve Endings of the Striatum Is Associated with Microglial Activation. David M. ... MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), which damages dopamine nerve endings and cell bodies, causes extensive ...
... microscopic sensory neurological endings inside skin that arent attached to any certain sensory receptor ... Definition for "free nerve ending"*microscopic sensory neurological endings inside skin that arent… ... How would you define free nerve ending?. All the definitions on AZdictionary were written by people just like you. Nows your ... microscopic sensory neurological endings inside skin that arent attached to any certain sensory receptor ...
... and novel technique for recording afferent discharge due to mechanical stimulation of lanceolate terminals of palisade endings ... such as Ia endings in muscle spindles15, and in the lanceolate endings here7, styryl dye labeling seems to reflect membrane ... To avoid nerve damage, however, ensure that the connective tissue is cushioning the nerve from compression on the surrounding ... For the recording electrode, ensure the internal diameter is a snug fit for the nerve, and the maximum length of nerve is drawn ...
Nerve Ending. Officially licensed merchandise, T shirts, hoodies, and much more. The largest range available on the net. ...
  • Some other types of mechanoreceptors, such as Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini endings, are found primarily in subcutaneous tissue . (
  • In this artist book the process of alteration as a result of repetition finds its way in drawings of optic nerves and Ruffini endings. (
  • Sensory nerve endings in the fingers include Meisnner's corpuscles (light touch, rapidly adapting) , Pacinian corpuscles (large receptive fields, rapidly adapting), free nerve endings (temperature and pain), Merkel discs (light touch discrimination of objects and texture), and Ruffini endings (slowly adapting, finger position information). (
  • Occasionally, the existence of an outer collagenous capsule is used to differentiate different types of sensory receptors (Malinovsky, 1996), for example, Ruffini endings that possess an outer capsule vs. Ruffini-like endings that do not (see section on Ruffini-like endings, below). (
  • The human brain is estimated to have 100 billion neurons or nerve cells. (
  • NGF may act by increasing substance P release from sensory nerve endings, without upregulation of substance P in the neurons. (
  • The current study investigated a glial cell that encases the nerve endings of 12 different neurons in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans . (
  • RTX isn't going to destroy the endings of all these neurons willy-nilly. (
  • Particularly germane to this report is the dense innervation of the follicle by a large variety of nerve fibers provided by sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (Fig. 1, inset). (
  • A free nerve ending ( FNE ) or bare nerve ending , is an unspecialized, afferent nerve fiber ending of a sensory neuron . (
  • A single afferent nerve fibre branches to innervate up to 90 such endings. (
  • In mammals, electrical recordings from single afferent nerve fibres have shown that the responses Merkel nerve endings are characterized by a vigorous response to the onset of a mechanical ramp stimulus (dynamic), and then continued firing during the plateau phase (static). (
  • A free nerve ending ( FNE ) is an unspecialized, afferent nerve ending, meaning it brings information from the body's periphery to the brain. (
  • A simple and novel technique for recording afferent discharge due to mechanical stimulation of lanceolate terminals of palisade endings innervating mouse ear skin hair follicles is presented. (
  • Sensory nerves, or afferent nerves, carry information from the periphery of the body to the brain and spinal cord. (
  • comprise afferent and efferent endings. (
  • Four distinct morphological types of spinal afferent ending in the bladder were identified. (
  • The majority of spinal afferent nerve endings were CGRP-immunoreactive. (
  • Single spinal afferent axons bifurcated many times upon entering the bladder and developed varicosities along their axon terminal endings. (
  • We present the first morphological identification of spinal afferent nerve endings in the mammalian urinary bladder. (
  • The sensory endings of a primary (group Ia) afferent and a secondary (group II) afferent coil around the non-contractile central portions of the intrafusal fibres. (
  • They convey length information to the central nervous system via afferent nerve fibers . (
  • The free nerve endings occur within all layers of the connective tissue, but mainly in the papillary layer of the dermis. (
  • The perception of the speed at which any substance moves across skin is a function of the nerve fibres within the dermis and the texture of the material involved. (
  • Spinal cord stimulator also helps control pain in some cases while in others it causes symptoms similar to those experienced after nerve burning. (
  • The Spinal cord nerve ending model illustrates the composition of the spinal cord, magnified to a scale of about 5:1. (
  • The Spinal Cord with Nerve Endings model is supplied on a base. (
  • This Spinal Cord with Nerve Endings model is a great tool for teaching the anatomy of the human nervous system. (
  • Motor nerves, or efferent nerves, transmit impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the periphery, especially the muscles. (
  • Together, the nerves make up the peripheral nervous system, as distinguished from the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord. (
  • Spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord and pass out between the vertebrae. (
  • Although the location of the nerve cell bodies of spinal afferents is well known to reside in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), the morphology and location of peripheral nerve endings of spinal afferents that transduce sensory stimuli into action potentials is poorly understood. (
  • The individual nerve endings of spinal afferents that innervate the urinary bladder have never been unequivocally identified in any species. (
  • Mu (μ) receptors are found on the sensory nerve endings in the peripheral nervous system as well as in the spinal cord, the brain, the gut and many other places. (
  • Nervous tissue is found in the brain , spinal cord , and nerves. (
  • Peripheral neuropathy, a result of damage to the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord (peripheral nerves ), often causes weakness, numbness and pain , usually in your hands and feet . (
  • The degenerating disc can cause structural changes nearby, such as the narrowing of a nerve pathway which causes spinal stenosis and may result in radicular pain . (
  • even chronically demyelinated areas of the optic nerve and spinal cord can be symptom free. (
  • Until now the regeneration of nerve cells - or neurones - in the brain and the spinal column has been considered impossible. (
  • These proteins, they discovered, were produced in large quantities after a spinal injury and formed a scar, described as an impenetrable wire fence, around the damaged nerve endings, preventing messages being transmitted to the brain. (
  • 4. In other animals Henle's sheath extends over the end fibres of the motor nerve and the cells lining it envelop the end fibrils. (
  • Showing intercostal muscles and motor nerve plates. (
  • 3. Based on the experimental and cadeveric results, free vascularized long nerve grafts and vascularized muscle transfer with a long motor nerve have been clinically developed for repair of untreatable established nerve paralysis. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis has demonstrated presence of the α 3 nAChR subunit at the presynaptic motor nerve ending. (
  • This slide is a whole-mount of motor nerve endings and plates from a mammal. (
  • Aside from the surfaces of contact of muscle and nerve fibre, the end fibres are covered down to their tips with the sheath of Schwann and are provided with nuclei. (
  • Properly interpreted it demonstrates that the nerve fibres that are to influence the muscle fibre are not naked and that they need not be end fibres. (
  • 5. The terminal nerves in smooth muscle form a network entwining the bundles of muscle fibres. (
  • From this network fine, nucleated, nerve fibres pass to the walls of the capillaries, with which they are very closely united. (
  • The intragemmal nerve fibres show knotty swellings of various sizes and shapes. (
  • Parvalbumin-immunoreactive nerve fibres were most abundant in the lingual periodontal ligaments of incisor teeth. (
  • In the part of the ligament adjacent to the alveolar bone, thick and smooth parvalbumin-immunoreactive nerve fibres left main nerve bundles and passed towards the part of the ligament adjacent to the tooth. (
  • In the ligament, halfway between the bone and tooth surfaces, these nerve fibres repeatedly branched and extended one to four twigs to produce bush-like endings. (
  • The monkey studies revealed that a particular type of nerve cell tissues - called Pacinian corpuscle -associated (PC) fibres - were triggered by movement across the skin. (
  • In summary," they write, "the firing rates of tactile nerve fibres systematically increase with increasing speed, but the perceptual sensitivity to speed and the dependence of perceived speed on surface texture seem to reflect PC firing rates. (
  • Primary type Ia sensory fibers (large diameter) spiral around all intrafusal muscle fibres, ending near the middle of each fibre. (
  • Free nerve endings are unencapsulated and have no complex sensory structures, unlike those found in Meissner's or Pacinian corpuscles . (
  • The majority of Aδ (A delta) fibers (group III) and C (group IV) fibers end as free nerve endings. (
  • a form of peripheral ending of sensory nerve fibers in which the terminal filaments end freely in the tissue. (
  • What is a bundle of nerve fibers called? (
  • A bundle of nerve fibers is referred to as a tract in the nervous system. (
  • Nerve fibers can also be referred to as a lumbosacral plexus or a complex network. (
  • The results obtained support the hypothesis that both NE and 5-HT coexist in the nerve vesicles of pineal adrenergic fibers. (
  • a macroscopic cordlike structure of the body, comprising a collection of nerve fibers that convey impulses between a part of the central nervous system and some other body region. (
  • Mixed nerves are composed of both motor and sensory fibers, and transmit messages in both directions. (
  • The various nerve fibers and cells that make up the autonomic nervous system innervate the glands, heart, blood vessels and involuntary muscles of the internal organs. (
  • Only 60% of the axons in the nerve to a given muscle are motor to the muscle fibers that make up the bulk of the muscle. (
  • The nerve supply branches within the muscle belly, forming a plexus from which groups of axons emerge to supply the muscle fibers. (
  • The pain experience for all of us begins when unpleasant stimuli activate sensory nerve fibers called nociceptors. (
  • Most of Ad fibers and C fibers end as free nerves endings. (
  • With continued degradation, the nerve fibers on the periphery of the disc will actually grow further into the disc space. (
  • It remains to be seen whether a lack of sensory nerve fibers in the hand of non-human hominids contributes to the lack of tool use in those species. (
  • Merkel nerve endings are found in the basal layer of glabrous and hairy skin, in hair follicles , and in oral and anal mucosa. (
  • The system is suitable for assaying the electrophysiological and optical properties of lanceolate terminals of palisade endings of hair follicles, as well as the outcomes from their pharmacological and/or genetic manipulation. (
  • The innervation of hair follicles in such a preparation is less complex but the density of the hair follicles, plus the presence of three different follicle types (guard, Awl/auchene and zigzag hairs) in such close proximity 6 , means studying the specific responses of a single follicle or single type of ending is again challenging. (
  • There are also sensory nerves encircling hair follicles that give information on when the hair is displaced. (
  • Free nerve endings can detect temperature, mechanical stimuli (touch, pressure, stretch) or danger ( nociception ). (
  • These nerve endings are responsible for detecting temperature, mechanical stimuli (such as pressure), pain (nociception), and information about touch. (
  • 4 Recently, it was demonstrated that a selective block of the α 3 β 2 nAChR in an in vitro nerve-muscle preparation reduced the presynaptic acetylcholine release, and furthermore caused tetanic fade after a magnesium-induced reduction of the safety factor of synaptic transmission. (
  • These results have demonstrated that Aβ peptides can acutely inhibit the depolarization-evoked release of ACh by acting directly on cholinergic presynaptic nerve endings. (
  • Because Slc4a8 was found to predominantly localize to presynaptic nerve endings, we hypothesize that Slc4a8 is a key regulator of presynaptic pH. (
  • Here, we show that Slc4a8 was enriched in presynaptic glutamatergic nerve endings and, indeed, played an essential role in the regulation of intracellular pH (pH i ). (
  • At electrical synapses , which are relatively rare in vertebrates, the membranes of the two cells are in tight contact, producing electrical coupling, which enables a nerve impulse (or action potential ) arriving at the presynaptic nerve ending to pass swiftly and reliably to the next cell. (
  • The cytoplasm of the presynaptic nerve terminal (in a chemical synapse) is packed full of small vesicles, each containing a few thousand molecules of neurotransmitter. (
  • The data clearly demonstrate that in mammalian neurosecretory nerve endings tetanus toxin acts at a step downstream from the activation by Ca2+ of the exocytotic machinery and that the functional domain of this toxin is confined to its light chain. (
  • Merkel nerve endings are mechanoreceptors found in the skin and mucosa of vertebrates that provide touch information to the brain . (
  • Each ending consists of a Merkel cell in close apposition with an enlarged nerve terminal . (
  • In mammals, Merkel nerve endings have a wide distribution. (
  • Because of their sustained response to pressure, Merkel nerve endings are classified as slowly adapting. (
  • Merkel nerve endings are extremely sensitive to tissue displacement, and may respond to displacements of less than 1 μm. (
  • For this reason, Merkel nerve endings and Meissner's corpuscles are most densely clustered in the highly sensitive finger tips, and less so in the palms. (
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Merkel_nerve_ending" . (
  • Each type of mechanoreceptor has a characteristic morphology (see Merkel or lanceolate endings Figs. 1 and 2). (
  • Horizontal axons developed into families of leashes with disorganized terminal branches and endings. (
  • I consider it improbable that each plain muscle fibre has a special terminal nerve fibril. (
  • We have used synaptosomes and glial plasmalemmal vesicles (GPV) from adult mouse and rat CNS to identify the nerve terminal transporter. (
  • The data presented in this study indicate that EAAT2 is the predominant nerve terminal glutamate transporter in the adult rodent CNS. (
  • 4. To further investigate the involvement of sensory nerve endings we used the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) agonist R-methanandamide to inhibit excitatory events at the nerve terminal. (
  • Il est possible que le Nerve Ending soit un axone géant, un terminal d'impulsions électriques pour cellules nerveuses, ce qui explique son nom. (
  • Halata Z., Johnson R.B., Kitchell R.L., Strasmann T. (1988) The Ultrastructure of Sensory Nerve Endings in the Penis of the Goat. (
  • Do water penis enlarged nerve endings on the penis pumps work. (
  • Penis enlarge pump enlarged nerve endings on the penis use. (
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  • Whether you have a penis or a vagina, there are tons of nerve endings located at the entry of the bum. (
  • As far as the nerve endings, someone on this forum mentioned that nerves regenerate at the rate of 1/2 inch per month, what exactly that leads to I don't know. (
  • However, because the hydrogel expands in water and fluids, the expansion would collapse the tunnel and reduce the ability of the nerve endings to regenerate and connect, [Mohammad Reza Abidian, assistant professor of biomedical engineering, Penn State], said. (
  • moment for a French biologist working to regenerate severed nerve endings, reports Kim Willsher in Paris. (
  • Free nerve endings are unencapsulated and have no complex sensory structures. (
  • Free nerve endings have different rates of adaptation, stimulus modalities , and fiber types . (
  • Thus, different free nerve endings work as thermoreceptors , cutaneous mechanoreceptors and nociceptors . (
  • free nerve endings, 2. (
  • How would you define free nerve ending? (
  • Free nerve ending have different rate of adaptation, stimulus modalities and fiber types. (
  • The commonest form of the intra-epithelial nerve endings belongs to a simple or unbranched type of free endings, but in the papilla foliata nerves often show ramified and complicated endings. (
  • Publications] Koshima Isao: 'Free vascularized deep peroneal nerve grafts. (
  • Includes unlimited streaming of NERVE'S ENDING via the free Bandcamp app, plus high-quality download in MP3, FLAC and more. (
  • The surface of the body -the skin- contains very large numbers of the free nerve endings known as nociceptors, which is why it is so sensitive to pain. (
  • I believe that people of all genders should take a shame-free approach to discovering as many of these nerve endings as possible. (
  • Sensory nerve endings are divided into two groups morphologically: mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings (Fig. 1, inset). (
  • Phasic and tonic receptors are two types of endings of sensory nerve cells. (
  • There are several sensory nerve endings and receptors in the human hand. (
  • Rapidly-adapting nerve receptors deliver information on changes that occur at the skin, such as occurs as you move your finger over a gritty surface. (
  • Human specific differences that mediate enhanced fine motor control might instead rely more heavily on muscular and bone differences rather than differences in sensory nerve receptors. (
  • At nerve-muscle synapses, and in many nerve-nerve synapses, the receptors have a double function, since they also serve as ion channels . (
  • Sensory nerve endings are synonymous with "sensory receptors. (
  • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, which carry messages to and from the brain. (
  • Bloody Mary (Nerve Endings)", often referred to as just "Bloody Mary", is an indie rock song performed by American alternative rock music group Silversun Pickups. (
  • Brian Aubert - guitar, vocals Chris Guanlao - drums Joe Lester - keys Nikki Monninger - bass, vocals " - SILVERSUN PICKUPS - BLOODY MARY (NERVE ENDINGS)" (in Dutch). (
  • a process of a neuron, especially the long slender axon which conducts nerve impulses away from the cell. (
  • The soles of your feet contain more sweat glands and sensory nerve endings per square centimeter than any other part of the body. (
  • Most nerve endings were located in detrusor muscle where the three types could be identified as having: 'branching', 'simple', or 'complex' morphology. (
  • It is possible that parvalbumin-immunoreactive endings are periodontal mechanoreceptors, but at present it is difficult to account for the different representations around rat molar and incisor teeth. (
  • The researchers tested the three designs - plain hydrogel, hydrogel with fully-coated PEDOT wall, and hydrogel with a partially coated PEDOT wall - by implanting the device in 10 mm nerve gaps in rats and measuring the muscle mass and strength of muscle contractions at the end of the nerves. (
  • 1. The endings of the motor nerves in striped muscle remain on the outside of the sarcolemma. (
  • The precise condition of things at the places of contact of muscle and nerve is an unsolved problem of histology. (
  • 2. The ivy-like or festooned arrangement of motor nerves in the frog's muscle has been misinterpreted. (
  • It shows that mere contact between muscle fibre and nerve fibre is all that is necessary. (
  • These nerves also relay information to the brain about the positions of joints, muscle tension and speed of movements. (
  • Periodical changes of muscle cells and peripheral sensory nerve endings after denervation. (
  • 1. Experimentally, it was observed that regeneration following degeneration of the gastrocunemius muscle cells after rat's sciatic nerve transection. (
  • A clitoris is made up of 18 distinct parts - a mixture of erectile tissue, muscle and nerves . (
  • There's a lot of muscle and thick skin on your forearms, without many nerve endings. (
  • synapse A specialized junction where transmission of information takes place between a nerve fibre and another nerve cell, or between a nerve fibre and a muscle or gland cell. (
  • Acetylcholine is the excitatory transmitter at nerve-muscle synapses, and glutamate is the main excitatory transmitter in the central nervous system . (
  • Bloody Mary (Nerve Endings) is off of their upcoming album Neck of the Woods out May 8. (
  • They tingle/throb constantly at the tip(nasal dorsal nerve? (
  • The nerve supply in the posterior part of the corpus linguae and in the dorsal part of the apex linguae is much denser than in the anterior part of the corpus linguae, the inferior surface of the whole tongue, and the dorsal part of the tongue root. (
  • Nerve signals in the foot transmit information to the brain about the safety of the walking surface and the position of the foot relative to the surface. (
  • The reaction of colloidal iron hydroxide (CIH) with acidic groups was applied for an ultra-structural study of the distribution of sulphuric acid monoesters and sialic acid in synaptic vesicles and external nerve ending membranes isolated from rat brain. (
  • Nerve endings are points on the surface of your body that are responsible for sending messages to your brain when you feel sensations such as heat, cold, pain, and pleasure,' says Sinclair. (
  • 7. The nerves supplying the capillaries connect also with sensory nerves and with nerves surrounding the larger blood-vessels, both arteries and veins. (
  • They are a mix of rapidly and slowly adapting endings that predominantly produce short bursts of activity in response to hair movement. (
  • Other types of nerve cells - in families known as "rapidly adapting" and "slowly adapting" - also increased activity in response to speed, but in less pronounced and less consistent manners. (
  • Methamphetamine intoxication causes long-lasting damage to dopamine nerve endings in the striatum. (
  • We report here that methamphetamine activates microglia in a dose-related manner and along a time course that is coincident with dopamine nerve ending damage. (
  • MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), which damages dopamine nerve endings and cell bodies, causes extensive microglial activation in striatum as well as in the substantia nigra. (
  • The effects of tetanus toxin and its light and heavy chain subunits on vasopressin release were investigated in digitonin-permeabilized neurosecretory nerve terminals isolated from the neural lobe of the rat pituitary gland. (
  • Most CNS glutamate uptake is mediated by EAAT2 into glia, though nerve terminals show evidence for uptake, through an unknown transporter. (
  • The IC50 values found for these compounds suggested functional expression of the 'glial, transporter, EAAT2 in nerve terminals. (
  • The thin underlying dermal layer gives good accessibility to the nerve terminals with pharmacological drugs and dyes. (
  • These have taught us much about the general principles of mechanosensory physiology in the nerve terminals surrounding the hair shaft. (
  • It used to be thought that each nerve fibre releases only one neurotransmitter ('Dale's principle', after the British pharmacologist, Henry Dale), but it is now known that two or more transmitters and/or modulators can be produced by individual nerve terminals. (
  • Publications] Koshima Isao: 'The combined anterior and posterior tibial perforator‐based flap with a vascularized deep peroneal nerve for repair of facial defect. (
  • In dogs, the common peroneal, ulnar and tibial nerves are the usual sources. (
  • Most of the nerve endings involved in sexual stimulation in a woman are in the clitoris. (
  • The vagina itself doesn't have many nerve endings, almost all the stimulation from sex comes from the various connections to the clitoris being pulled on during sex. (
  • 1. an inhibitory nerve whose stimulation depresses a motor center. (
  • Sinclair says, 'There's a common misconception that anal play always end in anal penetration, but wearing a small butt plug like our Novice Plug can add an amazing amount of extra stimulation to the sensitive nerve endings located at the entry of the anal canal. (
  • It is a type of a vascular headache Of unknown aetiology In which final step of pathology of pain is constriction (producing the neurological symptoms of the prodroma and the aura) followed by diltation of one or more of branches of carotid artery or vertebrobasilar arteries Leading to stimulation of pain nerve endings surrounding artery by stretching -- producing the headache). (
  • Nerve burning/nerve freezing/nerve block procedure do help control pain. (
  • The mouse skin/saphenous nerve preparation is most often used in its depilated state to investigate touch and pain responses. (
  • Feels as though nerve endings reach down into my head/cause travelling pain. (
  • Sensations of heat, cold, pressure and pain are conveyed by the sensory nerves. (
  • The pain caused by pressure on the trigeminal nerve has been described as the most agonising known to humankind, but what does the nerve actually do? (
  • What causes nerve pain in feet and hands? (
  • If a tear in the annulus fibrosus reaches the outer edge, the nerves there can become sensitized and cause significant spine pain. (
  • The growth of nerves may be associated with pain from a degenerating disc. (
  • If the nucleus pulposus, which contains a great deal of inflammatory proteins, leaks out of the disc and touches a nerve root, that nerve root can become inflamed and cause pain that radiates down a leg ( sciatica or lumbar radiculopathy ) or down an arm ( cervical radiculopathy ). (
  • Disc pain may be caused by several factors acting simultaneously, usually involving nerves that penetrate deep into the disc's outer edge or involving the instability of the disc after an injury. (
  • Inject RTX, as it's known, into an aching joint, and it'll actually destroy the nerve endings that signal pain. (
  • Instead, it binds to a major molecule in specifically pain-sensing nerve endings, called TRPV1 (pronounced TRIP-vee one). (
  • That's toxic, leading to the inactivation of the pain-sensing nerve endings. (
  • What is involved in burning nerve endings to relieve pain? (
  • Patients with specific patterns of referred pain (trigger points), indication of blood vessel, lymph, nerve entrapment or proprioceptive disturbances (balance) should be evaluated for MPS. (
  • Many such foods contain tyramine, a natural food chemical that transmits signals along pain nerve endings. (
  • Aims Lidocaine makes analgesia by inhibiting excitation of nerve endings or blocking impulse conduction in peripheral nerves. (
  • In gross anatomy, the nerves to skeletal muscles are branches of mixed peripheral nerves. (
  • In these rings sensory nerve endings are present, but these endings lack any contact with their cell bodies. (
  • 5. This indicates that NGF can induce an increase in airway responsiveness in the absence of sensory nerve cell bodies. (
  • Greene LA, Rein G (1977a) Release, storage and uptake of catecholamines by a clonal cell line of nerve growth factor ( NGF) response pheochromocytoma cell. (
  • Preparations of synaptosomes (P 2 ) from the telencephalon and from the diencephalon plus optic lobes of the pigeon and from the telencephalon of the rat were used to study the effects of 5 hydroxytryptophan (5 HTP) on the levels of serotonin (5 HT) in nerve endings and the release of 5 HT from nerve endings. (
  • The more than 200,000 nerves in the feet also exist to aid in walking with proper movement, according to New York. (
  • The soles of the feet are extremely sensitive to touch due to a high concentration of nerve endings, with as many as 200,000 per sole. (
  • However, it is the sensory nerve endings on glabrous (non-hairy) skin that likely contribute to the proprioceptive and tactile control necessary for fine touch discrimination and tool use. (
  • 6. In muscular tissue fine non-medullated nerves, probably belonging to the centrifugal, vasomotor system, proceed from the fasciculi of motor nerves. (
  • Investigate Nerve Tissue. (
  • The irritation often causes the nerves to enlarge and noncancerous (benign) growths of nerve tissue (neuromas) to form, usually between the base of the third and fourth toes (Morton neuroma). (
  • They constantly sway back and forth and appear to be attached to a small pile of organ tissue on the ground with smaller Nerve Endings protruding. (
  • These neural symptoms are a challenging thing to treat as careful examination is needed to ascertain the level of nerve involvement. (
  • It has already been suggested that glial cells may possess the ability to manipulate the shape of nerve endings and mold the function of neural cells, however, the mechanisms for such alterations remain, for the most part, unknown. (
  • Since antagonizing the neurokinin-1 (NK(1)) receptor can prevent this NGF-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and since sensory nerves release tachykinins, we investigated the role of sensory nerves in the NGF-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. (
  • When RTX binds to TRPV1, it props open the nerve cell's ion channel, letting a whole lot of calcium in. (
  • Wherever they are found, the epithelium is arranged to optimize the transfer of pressure to the ending. (
  • Bundles of nerve processes within the central nervous system are called fasciculi, tracts or funiculi, depending upon their size. (
  • The thousands of nerve endings in the human foot supply sensory feedback to the central nervous system, according to the Canadian Federation of Podiatric Medicine. (
  • The ability to throw and club effectively contributes to all of the above pursuits and likely involves proprioceptive and sensory feedback from sensory nerve endings. (
  • The two largest nerves in the bottom of the foot, the medial and lateral plantar nerves, work together to control the small foot and toe muscles, according to InnerBody. (
  • Three types of nerve endings were observed: 1. (
  • However, it can be difficult to decipher the output due to its complexity, as vibrissal follicles contain at least 8 different types of anatomically distinct mechanosensory ending 5 and the matching of these morphological types to specific electrophysiological responses is still a matter of dispute. (
  • A further study by the same group, published in Cell Reports , indicates that glial cells in C.elegans alter the shape of many different types of nerve endings, pointing to many other molecular mechanisms that have not yet been discovered. (