Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mononeuropathies: Disease or trauma involving a single peripheral nerve in isolation, or out of proportion to evidence of diffuse peripheral nerve dysfunction. Mononeuropathy multiplex refers to a condition characterized by multiple isolated nerve injuries. Mononeuropathies may result from a wide variety of causes, including ISCHEMIA; traumatic injury; compression; CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS; and other conditions.Decompression: Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microvascular Decompression Surgery: Surgery performed to relieve pressure from MICROVESSELS that are located around nerves and are causing NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Arnold-Chiari Malformation: A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Diskectomy, Percutaneous: Percutaneous excision of a herniated or displaced INTERVERTEBRAL DISC by posterolateral approach, always remaining outside the spinal canal. Percutaneous nucleotomy was first described by Hijikata in Japan in 1975. In 1985 Onik introduced automated percutaneous nucleotomy which consists in percutaneous aspiration of the nucleus pulposus. It is carried out under local anesthesia, thus reducing the surgical insult and requiring brief hospitalization, often performed on an outpatient basis. It appears to be a well-tolerated alternative to surgical diskectomy and chymopapain nucleolysis.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Syringomyelia: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Foramen Magnum: The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Facial Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Exophthalmos: Abnormal protrusion of both eyes; may be caused by endocrine gland malfunction, malignancy, injury, or paralysis of the extrinsic muscles of the eye.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Graves Ophthalmopathy: An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.Hemifacial Spasm: Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Polyradiculopathy: Disease or injury involving multiple SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Polyradiculitis refers to inflammation of multiple spinal nerve roots.Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Glossopharyngeal Nerve: The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Femur Head Necrosis: Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.Radial Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.Cranial Nerves: Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Spinal DiseasesLigamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Thoracic Nerves: The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Platybasia: A developmental deformity of the occipital bone and upper end of the cervical spine, in which the latter appears to have pushed the floor of the occipital bone upward. (Dorland, 27th ed)Compartment Syndromes: Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Ophthalmic Nerve: A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.Glossopharyngeal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve or its nuclei in the medulla. The nerve may be injured by diseases affecting the lower brain stem, floor of the posterior fossa, jugular foramen, or the nerve's extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include loss of sensation from the pharynx, decreased salivation, and syncope. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia refers to a condition that features recurrent unilateral sharp pain in the tongue, angle of the jaw, external auditory meatus and throat that may be associated with SYNCOPE. Episodes may be triggered by cough, sneeze, swallowing, or pressure on the tragus of the ear. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1390)Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Paraparesis: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.Mandibular Nerve: A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: Compression of the ULNAR NERVE in the cubital tunnel, which is formed by the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, humeral-ulnar aponeurosis, and medial ligaments of the elbow. This condition may follow trauma or occur in association with processes which produce nerve enlargement or narrowing of the canal. Manifestations include elbow pain and PARESTHESIA radiating distally, weakness of ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and loss of sensation over the hypothenar region, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)Cranial Fossa, Posterior: The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Paramethasone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of corticosteroids. It has been used by mouth in the treatment of all conditions in which corticosteroid therapy is indicated except adrenal-deficiency states for which its lack of sodium-retaining properties makes it less suitable than HYDROCORTISONE with supplementary FLUDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p737)Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Spinal NeoplasmsMyelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Submarine Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of people in submarines or sealabs.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Splanchnic Nerves: The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
A study suggests that pudendal nerve decompression (PND) treats perineodynia. However, researchers mention that there is need ... Beco, Jacques; Climov, Daniela; Bex, Michèle (2004). "Pudendal nerve decompression in perineology: A case series". BMC Surgery ...
"A. Lee Dellon Peripheral Nerve Lectureship". archive.umhsheadlines.org. Retrieved 22 September 2016. "Nerve decompression and ... "Results of Decompression of Peripheral Nerves in Diabetics: A Prospective, Blinded Study". journals.lww.com. Retrieved 22 ... A. Lee Dellon founded the Dellon Institutes for Peripheral Nerve Surgery in 2000 and began the first Peripheral Nerve ... Lifetime Achievement Award by Association of Extremity Nerve Surgeons Peripheral nerve injury Plastic surgery Neurosurgery " ...
... cranial nerve decompression (in cases of trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm) - meningiomas (convexity, falcine or ... "New stereoscopic virtual reality system application to cranial nerve microvascular decompression". Acta Neurochir (Wien). 152: ... and sacral nerve root neurinomas have been evaluated. For other uses of the Dextroscope in neurosurgery refer to . The ... "Preoperative evaluation of neurovascular relationships for microvascular decompression in the cerebellopontine angle in a ...
"Long-term outcome of optic nerve encasement and optic nerve decompression in patients with fibrous dysplasia: risk factors for ... Prophylactic optic nerve decompression increases the risk of vision loss and is contraindicated. Managing endocrinopathies is a ... In rare cases patients may develop vision and/or hearing loss due to compromise of the optic nerves and/or auditory canals, ...
... is a surgical procedure which involves decompression of a spinal nerve root. For example, it can be performed in ... severely resistant cases of cervical rhizalgia, where the cervical nerve roots within the intervertebral foramina are ...
Two main surgical procedures exist in the treatment of IIH: optic nerve sheath decompression and fenestration and shunting. ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... Most commonly, the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those ... The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the brain ...
Atrophy can occur in cases of chronic nerve impingement. It can be associated with a glenoid labral cyst, with the cyst also ... Treatment is decompression of the quadrilateral space, with supportive therapy in recalcitrant cases. Parsonage-Turner syndrome ... Quadrilateral space syndrome or quadrangular space syndrome is a rotator cuff denervation syndrome in which the axillary nerve ... and compression of the suprascapular nerve at the spinoglenoid notch in which the infraspinatus, and to a lesser degree ...
This can be either a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation device placed on the skin over the back or a nerve stimulator ... published a survey of 74 journal articles which reported the results after decompression for spinal stenosis. Good to excellent ... minor nerve blocks, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), behavioral medicine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ( ... Laceration of a nerve root, or damage from cautery or traction can lead to chronic pain, however this can be difficult to ...
Orbital decompression can be performed to enable bulging eyes to retreat back into the head. Bone is removed from the skull ... The increase in the risk of nerve injury can be due to the increased vascularity of the thyroid parenchyma and the development ... Pressure on the optic nerve behind the globe can lead to visual field defects and vision loss, as well. Prolonged untreated ... Its risks are injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, hypoparathyroidism (due to removal of the parathyroid glands), hematoma ...
"Hindpaw Withdrawal from a Painful Thermal Stimulus after Sciatic Nerve Compression and Decompression in the Diabetic Rat". ... Nerves in the peripheral nervous system spread out to various parts of the body, including muscle fibers. A muscle fiber and ... If these nerves do not detect stretching, the body determines perceives low blood pressure as a dangerous stimulus and signals ... Nerves embed themselves within these receptors and when they detect stretching, they are stimulated and fire action potentials ...
After decompression, the tumor is removed taking care to not disrupt any optic nerve or major arteries. Postchiasmal Lesions: ... This triangle has optic nerves, cerebral arteries, the third cranial nerve, and the pituitary stalk. Damage to any of these ... When the optic chiasm, optic nerve, and pituitary gland are visible, the pituitary gland and optic chasm are pushed apart to ... advising proper surgical techniques so that the optic nerve is not in danger, and managing post-surgery eye care. Common ...
HFS may be due to vascular compression of the nerves going to the muscles of the face. For these patients, surgical ... decompression may be a viable option for the improvement of symptoms. Myoclonus is defined as a sequence of repeated, often ...
The traditional technique for decompression of lumbar nerves is laminectomy, a surgical procedure developed in the early 1900s ... The structures that are compressing the nerves (usually ligamentum flavum and herniated disc) are then trimmed until the nerves ... Pinched or compressed nerves may result from herniated discs, lumbar spinal stenosis, or spondylolisthesis. ... The lamina and spinous process are then removed to gain access to the nerves contained within the spinal canal. ...
Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial Research Group (1995). "Optic nerve decompression surgery for nonarteritic ... the data center for the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial (IONDT) and the Surgical Treatments Outcomes Project for ...
Conduction velocity of the median nerve in the proximal forearm may be slow but the distal latency and sensory nerve action ... Surgical decompression can provide benefit in selected cases. Hartz, C R, R L Linscheid, R R Gramse, and J R Daube. "The ... "Median nerve entrapment syndrome in the proximal forearm." The Journal of Hand Surgery 4, no. 1 (January 1979): 48-51. PMID ... "Median nerve entrapment syndrome in the proximal forearm." The Journal of Hand Surgery 4, no. 1 (January 1979): 48-51. PMID ...
Askenasy learned trigeminal nerve vascular decompression of the cranial nerve entry zone. It was after his visit with Charles ... that he became convinced that the resection of the Gasserian Ganglion was a better technique than vascular decompression.[ ...
Wood-Smith D, Epstein F, Morello D. Transcranial decompression of the optic nerve in the osseous canal in Crouzon's disease. ...
"Microneurolysis and decompression of long thoracic nerve injury are effective in reversing scapular winging: Long-term results ... The long thoracic nerve innervates the serratus anterior; therefore, damage to or impingement of this nerve can result in ... This is typically caused by damage (i.e. lesions) to the long thoracic nerve. This nerve supplies the serratus anterior, which ... a winged scapula is also caused by trapezius and rhomboid palsy involving the accessory nerve and the dorsal scapular nerve, ...
Ahead of the concert in Guangzhou, Jun Jin had microscopic nerve decompression surgery on a lumbar disc from chronic back pain ...
A variety of surgeries have been performed including microvascular decompression (MVD) of the fifth, ninth, and tenth nerves; ... Saers, S. J. F.; Han, K. S.; Ru, J. A. de (2011-05-01). "Microvascular decompression may be an effective treatment for nervus ... GN may be caused by compression of somatic sensory branch of cranial nerve VII which goes through the nervus intermedius. In ... Use of these new techniques, sometimes in combination with selective section of the Vth cranial nerve, has been successful in ...
During his residency at UCLA, Jannetta was in the laboratory dissecting a set of cranial nerves when he noticed that a blood ... He devised the microvascular decompression procedure to treat patients with the condition. In addition to helping trigeminal ... Jannetta suspected that this abnormal impingement of the nerve might be the cause of the painful facial condition known as ... was an American neurosurgeon known for devising microvascular decompression, a surgical procedure to treat trigeminal neuralgia ...
Orbital decompression can be performed to enable bulging eyes to retreat back into the head. Bone is removed from the skull ... Its risks are injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, hypoparathyroidism (due to removal of the parathyroid glands), hematoma ... Pressure on the optic nerve behind the globe can lead to visual field defects and vision loss, as well. Prolonged untreated ... Class 6: Sight loss (due to optic nerve involvement). Typically the natural history of TAO follows Rundle's curve, which ...
He was in a hospital, recovering from a microscopic nerve decompression surgery, which he had had to undergo because of chronic ...
In 1933 Sir James Learmonth outlined a method of decompression of the nerve at the wrist. This procedure appears to have been ... When the median nerve is compressed, as in CTS, it will conduct more slowly than normal and more slowly than other nerves. ... Lancet 19:595-597 Learmonth JR (1933) The principle of decompression in the treatment of certain diseases of peripheral nerves ... The goal of electrodiagnostic testing is to compare the speed of conduction in the median nerve with conduction in other nerves ...
... surgical decompression may be warranted if the pathophysiology of the disease is causing pressure on the affected nerves. In ... Plexopathy is a disorder affecting a network of nerves, blood vessels, or lymph vessels. The region of nerves it affects are at ... plexus nerve plexus Plexopathy entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms Allan B. Wolfson, ed. (2005). Harwood- ... By preventing the deterioration of the nerve fibers from hyperglycemia, patients may recover significant muscle strength. For ...
It is not definitely established whether they had HACE or acute decompression sickness.[21] MRI has been used to study the ... Cranial nerve palsies occur in some unusual cases.[6] ...
Making an ulnar nerve stability-based decision to perform either simple decompression or anterior transposition via a small ... according to an ulnar nerve stability-based decision based on an assessment of intraoperative ulnar nerve stability (group A, n ... From March 2008 to December 2013, 107 patients with cubital tunnel syndrome underwent simple decompression or anterior ... Outcomes after the ulnar nerve stability-based approach and anterior transposition were similar, although more patients ...
This method is called simple decompression. The most common surgical procedure is called an Anterior Transposition of the Ulnar ... Nerves take a long time to heal. Nerves regenerate at about one millimeter a day. For individuals with severe nerve or muscle ... When the Ulnar Nerve is placed under the muscle it is called a Submuscular Transposition of the Ulnar Nerve. The surgeon ... Nerves carry messages between the brain, spinal cord, and body parts. When a nerve is compressed, it cannot function properly. ...
The ulnar nerve runs in a groove on the inner side of the elbow. ... that involves pressure or extending of the ulnar nerve, which ... Pinched nerve in elbow & surgery. The operation is called an ulnar nerve decompression. We often perform the operation under ... Recovery of full nerve function is unreliable. This may be due to the fact that the nerve is trapped even more far from where ... Why Does Pinched Nerve in Elbow Happen?. In cubital tunnel syndrome the ulnar nerve which runs behind the inner side of the ...
This is a medical condition that is referred as ulnar nerve entrapment. ... The condition is brought by the increase pressure on the ulnar nerve (nerve that is situated alongside the ulna bone). The path ... This is done by decompression. In situ decompression is a form of surgical intervention for cubital tunnel syndrome. The only ... Ulnar nerve glide - This is done by placing the arms out to the sides. Place the palms in a "stop" position or bending the ...
Moreover, the recovery rate is twice the amount of time it takes during decompression. Despite these drawbacks, there are ... A pinched nerve may often be responsible for muscle weakness, pain, and number. However, if only a part of the nerve is ... When your muscles dont work properly, it could be due to nerve damage. The reduced velocity traveling via the ulnar nerve can ... When your ulnar nerve becomes damaged, stressed, or pinched, it leads to CuTS. Though it doesnt sound dangerous, CuTS, if left ...
Yet it is important to avoid injury to the posterior branch(es) of the medical antibrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) and the ... The simple decompression (SD) procedure has become more popular as surgical treatment because of its effectiveness and low ... Minimally invasive decompression as treatment for the cubital tunnel syndrome: anatomical guidelines and surgical outcome ... Introduction: The cubital tunnel syndrome (CubTS) is the most common ulnar nerve compression neuropathy at the elbow and is a ...
Cauda Equina Syndrome frequently requires surgical intervention in the form of decompression of the nerve cluster; and any ... These nerves, named for their resemblance to a horses tail (Cauda Equina in Latin) carry signals to the pelvic region and the ... Cauda Equina Syndrome is a rare but severe narrowing of the spinal canal, and sudden compression of the nerves at the end of ...
... when decompression surgery was done within 10 months of injury, but just 0.5 when surgery happened later. As the time to ... More On: brachial plexus avulsion injury, carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, nerve injury, nerve regeneration, ... Studying mice with sciatic nerve injury, Woolf and colleagues found that regenerating nerve fibers, or axons, must reach the ... Questioning "wait and see" in motor nerve injuries. Posted on October 5, 2011. October 5, 2011. by Nancy Fliesler ...
Most experts agree that people with cauda equina syndrome should undergo surgery to make more space for the nerves (lumbar ... decompression) within 48 hours in order to have the best chance for complete recovery. ...
... microvascular decompression (MVD) doesnt damage or destroy part of the trigeminal nerve. Instead, MVD involves relocating or ... This places pressure on the nerve as it enters your brain and causes the nerve to misfire. Physical nerve damage or stress may ... If your doctor finds an artery in contact with the nerve root, he or she directs it away from the nerve and places a pad ... Severing the nerve. A procedure called partial sensory rhizotomy (PSR) involves cutting part of the trigeminal nerve at the ...
Nerve conduction studies are often negative because nerve compression happens very proximally. Plain X-rays of the neck are ... the chances of success of thoracic outlet decompression surgery are much higher. ... The symptoms are usually not localised to one particular nerve or nerve distribution and can involve any part of the entire arm ... congenital ligaments or bands compressing or impinging on the nerves or nerve roots, narrow scalene triangle or muscle ...
Trigeminal Neuralgia is a chronic condition caused by trigeminal nerve pain. Trigeminal Nerve is the fifth cranial nerve ... If that does not help, then other treatment options as surgery, Microvascular Decompression, Balloon Compression, Radio ... The myelin sheath protecting the nerve gets damage. *The nerve is been compressed by adjacent blood vessels or by any kind of ...
Facial nerve decompression is a type of nerve decompression surgery where abnormal compression on the facial nerve is relieved ... The facial nerve is a mixed nerve (i.e. containing both sensory and motor nerve fibres) and therefore compression can create ... Pressure and compression of any cause on a peripheral nerve can cause nerve impulse block. That is, the nerve is no longer able ... Vestibular Nerve Section, Vascular Compression, Meningioma, Skull Base Fracture, Facial Nerve Decompression, Superior ...
Ulnar nerve decompression and pronator release median nerve at the elbow. By Mary Baierl in forum Orthopaedics ... Ulnar Nerve Decompression w/ flexor orgin slide. By DanaHopkins in forum Plastic Surgery ... The ulnar nerve was identified. The ulnar nerve was completely decompressed from 10 to 15 cm proximal to the elbow and into the ... Once the nerve was completely decompressed, it could be elevated out of the postcondylar groove. The nerve was very healthy ...
Ulnar nerve decompression is surgical procedure designed to explore the region around the elbow through which the ulnar nerve ... Ulnar Nerve Decompression For more information, please visit our Peripheral Nerve Neurosurgery Program site ... Additionally, even with exploration and decompression of the ulnar nerve, there is the risk that, in some cases, surgery will ... The ulnar nerve is responsible for the "funny bone" phenomenon when you hit your elbow. Damage to this nerve, usually from some ...
... we can help you find relief from your pinched nerve pain through our minimally invasive spine surgeries. ... nerve decompression surgery can address painful pinched nerve symptoms by removing the source of neural compression. To ... Decompression surgery is performed to relieve severe pain from a compressed nerve in the neck that is separating from the ... Traditional open spine procedures for a pinched nerve decompression are highly invasive and must be performed in a hospital ...
Operative results were compared with preoperative nerve conduction, … ... Do nerve conduction studies predict the outcome of carpal tunnel decompression? Muscle Nerve. 2001 Jul;24(7):935-40. doi: ... Surgical carpal tunnel decompression has a significant failure rate. The preoperative nerve conduction studies account for a ... Nerve conduction studies had the strongest effect, with patients with middle-grade abnormalities having better results than ...
Update: Pudendal Nerve Decompression Coverage. Metabolic Monitoring for Children and Adolescents on Antipsychotics (APM) HEDIS ... Home > Providers > News Center > Network Matters > Network Matters Archives > March 2017 > Update: Pudendal Nerve Decompression ... During a recent policy review, we identified an inconsistency between the stated Pudendal Nerve Decompression Medical Policy ... Harvard Pilgrim considers pudendal nerve decompression experimental and investigational for the treatment of pudendal neuralgia ...
Cochlear Nerve*. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nerve Compression Syndromes / complications*, surgery. Tinnitus / etiology*. ... When patients are carefully selected, retrosigmoid decompression of that vascular loop has provided gratifying relief.. ... that these patients may be suffering from vascular loop compression of the cochlear division of the eighth cranial nerve. ...
Both simple decompression and anterior transposition of the elbow nerve (ulnar nerve) for acute displaced fractures of the ... In the simple ulnar nerve decompression group, no further treatment of the ulnar nerve will be undertaken. ... Simple Decompression Versus Anterior Transposition of the Ulnar Nerve. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Humeral Fractures Ulnar Nerve Compression Procedure: Simple decompression Procedure: anterior subcutaneous transposition ...
W.C. (2011) Decompression of inferior alveolar nerve: case report comment. [Journal (Paginated)] ... Paresthesia as a result of mechanical trauma is one of the most frequent sensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. ... and because of this the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) was spared direct injury. Ikeda et al.2 had shown that there is room ...
... structure of the distal optic nerve sheath at the operation site in the late surgical period after nerve sheath decompression ... Cystic formation of the optic meninges may occur after optic nerve sheath decompression surgery for the management of ... In optic nerve sheath decompression surgery, a fenestration is created on the optic nerve sheath, which forms a passage between ... Histopathology and ultra structural examination of optic nerve sheath biopsies after optic nerve sheath decompression with and ...
Procedure: Nerve Decompression Nerve decompression on a randomized leg, with similar skin incisions on the opposite leg so that ... will receive the nerve decompression, along with similar incisions on the opposite leg, but no decompression on that leg. This ... To determine if nerve decompression of lower extremities in patients suffering from painful symptomatic diabetic neuropathy ... Study on the Role of Decompression of Lower Extremity Nerves for the Treatment of Patients With Symptomatic Diabetic Neuropathy ...
White matter changes linked to visual recovery after nerve decompression. By David A. Paul, Elon Gaffin-Cahn, Eric B. Hintz, ... White matter changes linked to visual recovery after nerve decompression. By David A. Paul, Elon Gaffin-Cahn, Eric B. Hintz, ... White matter changes linked to visual recovery after nerve decompression Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Rapid remyelination from 0 to 4 weeks after nerve decompression satisfies both the anatomic and physiologic requirements of a ...
... present a difficult treatment challenge to the hand or peripheral nerve surgeon. Collagen conduits have been used successfully ... Previous Document: Greater Occipital Nerve Excision for Occipital Neuralgia Refractory to Nerve Decompression.. Next Document: ... Collagen conduits have been used successfully for decades in nerve injury repair, but have not been studied in the treatment of ... Submuscular transposition seems to be no better than other methods of decompression for recurrent cubital tunnel syndrome in ...
  • Cauda Equina Syndrome is a rare but severe narrowing of the spinal canal, and sudden compression of the nerves at the end of the spinal column. (healys.com)
  • These nerves, named for their resemblance to a horses tail (Cauda Equina in Latin) carry signals to the pelvic region and the legs, and when damaged can cause problems such as back pain, numbness or weakness in and between the legs, and incontinence. (healys.com)
  • Studying mice with sciatic nerve injury, Woolf and colleagues found that regenerating nerve fibers, or axons, must reach the muscle and form the junction known as a synapse within about 5 weeks. (childrenshospital.org)
  • The mice recovered motor function in their paws - even when their sciatic nerves were completely severed - while their peers remained paralyzed and showed muscle atrophy. (childrenshospital.org)
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