Plant extracts from several species, including genera STRYCHNOS and Chondodendron, which contain TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINES that produce PARALYSIS of skeletal muscle. These extracts are toxic and must be used with the administration of artificial respiration.
A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
A curare alkaloid that is a very potent competitive nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Collections of differentiated CELLS, such as EPITHELIUM; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; MUSCLES; and NERVE TISSUE. Tissues are cooperatively arranged to form organs with specialized functions such as RESPIRATION; DIGESTION; REPRODUCTION; MOVEMENT; and others.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neurotoxic proteins from the venom of the banded or Formosan krait (Bungarus multicinctus, an elapid snake). alpha-Bungarotoxin blocks nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and has been used to isolate and study them; beta- and gamma-bungarotoxins act presynaptically causing acetylcholine release and depletion. Both alpha and beta forms have been characterized, the alpha being similar to the large, long or Type II neurotoxins from other elapid venoms.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.
Inherited myotonic disorders with early childhood onset MYOTONIA. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. It is classified as Thomsen (autosomal dominant) or Becker (autosomal recessive) generalized myotonia mainly based on the inheritance pattern. Becker type is also clinically more severe. An autosomal dominant variant with milder symptoms and later onset is known as myotonia levior. Mutations in the voltage-dependent skeletal muscle chloride channel are associated with the disorders.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
A cholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the effects of muscle relaxants such as gallamine and tubocurarine. Neostigmine, unlike PHYSOSTIGMINE, does not cross the blood-brain barrier.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
The educational process of instructing.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
The use of the death penalty for certain crimes.
The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis. Pseudoparalysis (pseudo- meaning "false, ... Nerves served by the artery will die when deprived of blood. The German Shepherd Dog is especially prone to developing ... This is a deterioration of nerves in the spinal cord, starting in the posterior part of the cord. Dogs so affected will become ... This toxin works by binding to sodium channels in nerve cells, preventing the cells' proper function. A non-lethal dose of this ...
Through a series of experiments involving the vagus nerves of frogs, Loewi was able to manually slow the heart rate of frogs by ... The paralytic arrow-poison curare acts by blocking transmission at these synapses. Acetylcholine also operates in many regions ... They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another " ... A neuron transports its information by way of a nerve impulse called an action potential. When an action potential arrives at ...
This results, systemically, in a flaccid paralysis, an action similar to that of curare.[citation needed] Symptoms of paralysis ... The subsequent depolarization results in nicotinic toxicity; as coniine stays bound to the receptor, the nerve stays ...
Through a series of experiments involving the vagus nerves of frogs, Loewi was able to manually slow the heart rate of frogs by ... The paralytic arrow-poison curare acts by blocking transmission at these synapses. Acetylcholine also operates in many regions ... A neuron transports its information by way of a nerve impulse called an action potential. When an action potential arrives at ... This allows new signals to be produced from the adjacent nerve cells. When the neurotransmitter has been secreted into the ...
CurareEdit. Main article: Curare. Synthesis inhibitorsEdit. Organic mercurial compounds, such as methylmercury, have a high ... some have been used as nerve agents (Sarin and VX nerve gas) or pesticides (organophosphates and the carbamates). Many toxins ... These motor neurons send their axons through motor nerves, from which they emerge to connect to muscle fibers at a special type ... Numerous venoms and toxins produced by plants, animals, and bacteria, as well as chemical nerve agents such as Sarin, cause ...
"Further, his studies of the cranial nerves and spinal cord were outstanding. He noted that specific spinal nerves controlled ... chiefly as regards the reaction of striated muscle to nicotine and to curari". J Physiol. 33 (4-5): 374-413. doi:10.1113/ ... in classifying the connections of nerve fibers to peripheral nerve cells. Langley is known as one of the fathers of the ... The idea that nerve stimulation led to movement had important implications by putting forward the idea that behaviour is based ...
Griffith, Harold R., and G. Enid Johnson (1942) "The Use Of Curare In General Anesthesia." Anesthesiology, 3 (4): 418-420. ... Brin, Mitchell F (1997) "Botulinum Toxin: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicity, and Immunology." Muscle & Nerve, 20 (S6): 146-68. ... Schlesinger, Edward B. (1946) "Curare A Review of Its Therapeutic Effects and Their Physiological Basis." The American Journal ... Part 1. Notes on the Early History of Curare." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 36 (1): 1-26. ...
He is also remembered for studying the physiological effects of pharmacological substances such as curare, atropine and ... veratrum on the body's muscles, heart, nerves and circulatory system. The eponymous "Bezold-Jarisch reflex" is a triad of ...
In 1851, while examining the effects produced in the temperature of various parts of the body by section of the nerve or nerves ... his attention being devoted in particular to curare and carbon monoxide gas. Bernard is widely credited with first describing ... In this way he established the existence of both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor nerves. The study of the physiological action ... and a few months afterwards he observed that electrical excitation of the upper portion of the divided nerve had the contrary ...
Cephalic tetanus is the rarest form of the disease (0.9-3% of cases)[15] and is limited to muscles and nerves in the head.[16] ... In extreme cases it may be necessary to paralyze the patient with curare-like drugs and use a mechanical ventilator. ... There it becomes rapidly fixed to gangliosides at the presynaptic inhibitory motor nerve endings, and is taken up into the axon ... They produced tetanus in rabbits by injecting pus from a patient with fatal tetanus into their sciatic nerves.[1] ...
ISBN 0-902-198-84-X. Langley J.N. (1905). "On the reaction of cells and of nerve-endings to certain poisons, chiefly as regards ... the reaction of striated muscle to nicotine and to curari". J Physiol. 33 (4-5): 374-413. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1905.sp001128. ... These extracts elicited responses in tissues that were similar to those induced by nerve stimulation. He died in Cambridge on 5 ...
Times Colonist Un gel per riparare i nervi e curare la paralisi, La Stampa Center for Nerve Reconstruction, Tel Aviv Sourasky ... In 2001 Rochkind had founded and headed the Division for Peripheral Nerve Reconstruction and the Research Center for Nerve ... for Reconstruction of Severely Injured Peripheral Nerve and Spinal Cord. The "Matrix" is a special milieu that increases nerve ... Currently he dedicates a fair share of his time to the scientific work: developing the matrix for peripheral nerve and spinal ...
The effect of curare was experimented with by Sir Benjamin Brodie when he injected small animals with curare, and found that ... the muscle in the leg would not contract when the nerve was directly stimulated but would contract when the muscle was directly ... The raw curare was then given to Squibb and Sons to derive an effective antidote to curare. In 1942, Wintersteiner and Dutcher ... This shows that curare acts on the neuromuscular junction. Neurologist Walter Freeman learned about curare and suggested to ...
Doses of 6 mg/kg were curare-like in the dog; similar effects were also observed in the toad, Bufo arenarum. Candicine (as ... The contraction of the rectus was inhibited by pre-treatment with tubocurarine, as was the response of the nerve-sartorius (i.e ... Initial experiments on frogs, using rectus muscle and nerve-sartorius preparations from Rana nigromaculata nigromaculata, ... and blocked the response of the nerve-sartorius to direct or indirect electrical stimulation at similar concentrations. ...
... of inhibiting the function of motor nerves and thus the contraction of the musculature in a manner similar to that of curare. ... The effect with which injected curare poison is usually associated is muscle paralysis and resultant death. Curare notably ... The term "curare" is ambiguous because it has been used to describe a number of poisons which at the time of naming were ... The nerve tissues which communicate with muscles contain a receptor called the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Stimulation of ...
... that the mechanism of action of curare was a result of interference in the conduction of nerve impulses from the motor nerve to ... Alkaloids with curare-like activity are present in plants of the fabaceous genus Erythrina. The toxicity of curare alkaloids in ... According to their LD50 values, tube curare is thought to be the most toxic. Pot curare: Mainly composed of alkaloid components ... Isolated attempts to use curare during anesthesia date back to 1912 by Arthur Lawen of Leipzig, but curare came to anesthesia ...
Spontaneous breathing is resumed after the end of the duration of action of curare, which is generally between 30 minutes and ... Damage to nerve cells, particularly destruction of the myelin sheath, caused by disease or osmotic demyelination syndrome ( ... For 20-fold paralytic dose of toxiferine ("calebas curare"), according to: Page 330 in: The Alkaloids: v. 1: A Review of ... In a study of 29 army volunteers who were paralyzed with curare, artificial respiration kept oxygen saturation above 85%, a ...
... chiefly as regards the reaction of striated muscle to nicotine and to curari". The Journal of Physiology. 33 (4-5): 374-413. ... As such, these nerves necessarily share expression similarities with their neighboring sympathetic spinal nerves, but that ... The classification of peripheral nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) groups the nerves into two main groups, the ... was based on pharmacological responses of nerves throughout the body as well as the gross anatomical similarities of nerves. ...
... local anesthetic may be directly injected to the nerve in a procedure called a nerve block. In the recovery unit, many vital ... The first drug used for this purpose was curare, introduced in the 1940s, which has now been superseded by drugs with fewer ... This device intermittently sends short electrical pulses through the skin over a peripheral nerve while the contraction of a ... Paralysis is most easily monitored by means of a peripheral nerve stimulator. ...
Curare has also been used medicinally by South Americans to treat madness, dropsy, edema, fever, kidney stones, and bruises. ... Some chemical warfare nerve agents such as VX can also cause complete flaccid paralysis. In some situations, prominently in ... If curare affects the respiratory muscles, then its effects can become life-threatening, placing the victim at risk for ... Curare is a plant poison derived from - among other species - Chondrodendron tomentosum and various species belonging to the ...
... curare stored in calabash containers was called calabash curare. Griffith and Johnson are credited with pioneering the formal ... The venom is the most damaging to nerve endings, but the introduction of d-tubocurarine chloride blocks the nAChr, alleviating ... Curare had been used as a source of arrow poison by South American natives to hunt animals, and they were able to eat the ... 1992) "Curare". In: Maltby JR, Shephard DAE (Eds.), Harold Griffith - His Life and Legacy Can J Anaesth 39(1): 49-55. Gray TC, ...
When studying the drug, animals were given curare and thus they missed the neuromuscular blocking properties of suxamethonium. ... Desensitization occurs at the nerve terminal, and the myocyte becomes less sensitive to acetylcholine; the membrane repolarizes ...
Semyonov himself claimed that the three bullets had a cruciform incision into which curare poison was injected. In addition, ... but the performer lost his nerves at the last moment. The second, successful, attempt was made on August 30th. For her, ...
When western medicine discovered the qualities of the muscle relaxant curare, used by South American Indian hunters as poison, ... where specific spinal nerves were cut to demonstrate the spinal pathways for sensory and motor systems. As a result of this ... 102-103 McIntyre, A.R. (1947). Curare, Its History, Nature, and Clinical Use. University of Chicago Press. "Contributions of ... Broca thought there was strong support for the incorrect idea that, aside from being applied topically, curare could also be ...
1932) Chemical Wave Transmission in Nerve. *. - (1960). The Ethical Dilemma of Science, and Other Writings. New York: ... because the context for the derivation was the binding of nicotine and curare to the "receptive substance" at the neuromuscular ... In 1926 he was invited to deliver the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture on Nerves and Muscles: How We Feel and Move. ... "The mode of action of nicotine and curari, determined by the form of the contraction curve and the method of temperature ...
I felt the need of some name to call the junction between nerve-cell and nerve-cell... I suggested using "syndesm"... He [ Sir ... For example, curare is a poison that stops acetylcholine from depolarizing the postsynaptic membrane, causing paralysis. ... The release of a neurotransmitter is triggered by the arrival of a nerve impulse (or action potential) and occurs through an ... doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-815480-9.00001-3. ISBN 978-0-12-815480-9. Rapport, Richard L. (2005). Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the ...
Normally, a nerve impulse arrives at the motor nerve terminal, initiating an influx of calcium ions, which causes the ... This poison, known today as curare, led to some of the earliest scientific studies in pharmacology. Its active ingredient, ... myelinated somatic nerves, unmyelinated motor nerve terminals, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the motor end plate, and the ...
The "curare-like" properties of MLA seem to have been first mentioned in 1958 by Kuzovkov and Bocharnikova, working at the ... When compared with MLA in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm assay, lycoctonine-18-O-benzoate was also about 10x less potent, and ... In the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation, for example, a 2 x 10−5M concentration of MLA produced a 50% decrease in ... Similar results were obtained with frog nerve-muscle preparations, in which it was shown that MLA blocked response of the ...
The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the ... The majority of these are non-depolarising skeletal muscle relaxants for surgical use that are structurally related to curare. ... These agents inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine ... decreases motility via the vagus nerve) Increased intraocular pressure; dangerous for people with narrow-angle glaucoma. ...
The drug binds to glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in the membranes of invertebrate nerve and muscle cells, causing ...
Cephalic tetanus is the rarest form of the disease (0.9-3% of cases)[15] and is limited to muscles and nerves in the head.[16] ... In extreme cases it may be necessary to paralyze the person with curare-like drugs and use a mechanical ventilator. ... There it becomes rapidly fixed to gangliosides at the presynaptic inhibitory motor nerve endings, and is taken up into the axon ... They produced tetanus in rabbits by injecting pus from a person with fatal tetanus into their sciatic nerves.[1] ...
Griffith, Harold R., and G. Enid Johnson (1942) "The Use Of Curare In General Anesthesia." Anesthesiology, 3 (4): 418-420. ... Brin, Mitchell F (1997) "Botulinum Toxin: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicity, and Immunology." Muscle & Nerve, 20 (S6): 146-68. ... Schlesinger, Edward B. (1946) "Curare A Review of Its Therapeutic Effects and Their Physiological Basis." The American Journal ... Part 1. Notes on the Early History of Curare." Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 36 (1): 1-26. ...
First, the toxin binds specifically to nerves which use the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Once bound to the nerve terminal, ... while nerve agent effects are generally much more rapid and can be instantaneous.[citation needed] Evidence suggests that nerve ... blocking nerves and muscle function. In severe cases, the toxin can block nerves controlling the respiratory system or heart, ... This stops nerve signaling, leading to paralysis.[1] The toxin itself is released from the bacterium as a single chain, then ...
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The effects of a systemic overdose will probably be similar to the effects of a nerve agent (they both act on the cholinergic ... Carbachol produces effects comparable to those of V-series nerve agents if a massive overdose is administered (as may occur ...
In addition, the discovery of muscle relaxants such as curare allowed for safer applications. ... Cranial and peripheral nerves. *Nerve block. *Vagotomy. Sympathetic nerves or ganglia. *Ganglionectomy ...
Curare is a crude extract from certain South American plants in the genera Strychnos and Chondrodendron, originally brought to ... Pancuronium and some other neuromuscular blocking agents block M2-receptors and therefore affect the vagus nerve, leading to ... Tubocurarine, found in curare of the South American plant Pareira, Chondrodendron tomentosum, is the prototypical non- ... At that time, it was known that curare and, therefore, d-tubocurarine worked at the neuromuscular junction. The isolation of ...
Normally, a nerve impulse arrives at the motor nerve terminal, initiating an influx of calcium ions, which causes the ... This poison, known today as curare, led to some of the earliest scientific studies in pharmacology. Its active ingredient, ... myelinated somatic nerves, unmyelinated motor nerve terminals, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the motor end plate, and the ...
... shughuli katika gamba huchukua mfumo wa mawimbi makubwa yenye urari, ambapo katika hali ya kuamka huwa na kelele na bila urari ... Marner, L; Nyengaard, JR; Tang, Y; Pakkenberg, B (2003). "Marked loss of myelinated nerve fibers in the human brain with age". ... sasa inakuwa sasa kitengo cha uangavu unaorindima kwa urari kukiwa idadi kubwa ya vimulimuli vinavyosafiri hapa na huko. ... Ni ...
Rapport, Richard L. (2005). Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the Synapse (Digitized online by Googlebooks). W. W. Norton & ... For example, curare is a poison that stops acetylcholine from depolarizing the postsynaptic membrane, causing paralysis. ... The release of a neurotransmitter is triggered by the arrival of a nerve impulse (or action potential) and occurs through an ... Synapses are affected by drugs such as curare, strychnine, cocaine, morphine, alcohol, LSD, and countless others. These drugs ...
The nerve fibers of the parasympathetic system are responsible for the involuntary movement of smooth muscles present in the ... The majority of these are non-depolarising skeletal muscle relaxants for surgical use that are structurally related to curare. ... Sinus bradycardia due to a hypersensitive vagus nerve. Anticholinergics generally have antisialagogue effects (decreasing ... Diminished bowel movement, sometimes ileus (decreases motility via the vagus nerve). *Increased intraocular pressure; dangerous ...
ricin.[10] Endvidere findes curare, der er en samlet betegnelse for meget toksiske plantegifte brugt på pile af Sydamerikanske ... Dissociatives disrupt the actions of the brain chemical glutamate at certain types of receptors on nerve cells throughout the ... forming plaques that choke nerve cells and impede regular neural functions. Amyloid beta is produced in the brain by enzymes ...
The aim was to stimulate the nerves with electricity to demonstrate that salivary pressure was independent of blood pressure.[ ... restrictions on the use of curare, a poison used to immobilize animals during experiments; the euthanasia of animals in severe ... In front of around 60 students, Bayliss stimulated the nerves with electricity for half an hour, but was unable to demonstrate ... By severing the duodenal and jejunal nerves in anaesthetized dogs, while leaving the blood vessels intact, then introducing ...
... is famous for his work on the nerve synapse as the site of transmission of nerve impulses, and for his work on reflexes in the ... They manipulated the fish's discharge by injecting it with curare which prevented its natural electric organ from discharging. ... Simmons, P., Young, D. (2010) Nerve Cells and Animal Behaviour. Third Edition. Cambridge University Press, New York. Camhi J. ( ... W.H. Freeman Roeder, K.D. (1967) Nerve Cells and Insect Behavior. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass. Marler, P., ...
Curare acts at the junction between the nerve and muscle to block the transmission of nerve impulses. Nerve impulses are ... Curare immobilises muscles minutes after injection. However, its effects on nerve impulses are reversible and do not damage the ... Curare Poisoning. Anti-cholinesterase drugs, such as physostigmine or neostigmine, can reverse the effects of curare poisoning ... When curare binds instead of acetylcholine, the receptors do not become activated, and there is loss of muscle function, ...
A872 MOTOR NERVE TERMINAL EFFECTS OF HALOTHANE (HAL) POTENTIATE CURARE-(DTC) INDUCED NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCK. Anesthesiology 9 1990 ... A872 MOTOR NERVE TERMINAL EFFECTS OF HALOTHANE (HAL) POTENTIATE CURARE-(DTC) INDUCED NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCK ... A872 MOTOR NERVE TERMINAL EFFECTS OF HALOTHANE (HAL) POTENTIATE CURARE-(DTC) INDUCED NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCK ... M. D. Sokoll, B. Bhattacharyya, L. R. Davies, D. Q. Zwagerman; A872 MOTOR NERVE TERMINAL EFFECTS OF HALOTHANE (HAL) POTENTIATE ...
36] Nerves. [37] Sleep. [38] Time. [39] Temperature and weather. [40] Fever. [41] Attacks, periodicity. [42] Locality and ... Curare. (Curara).. [1] Mind. [2] Sensorium. [3] Inner head. [4] Outer head. [5] Sight and eyes. [6] Hearing and ears. [7] Smell ... adding to the concentrated juice of a creeping plant called Curari, the poison obtained from the virus bags of some of the most ...
B ) curare. C ) Nicotine. D ) Nerve gases. 6. Transmission across a synapse is dependent on the release of _______? ... A) The nerve fibrils are not functioning properly. B) My food will taste the same; taste and smell have nothing in common. C) ... C) the vestibular nerve and the semi circular canals. D) The eustachian tube and the stapes. 2. The retina does the following; ... 1. This conducts electricity like nerves A) Epicardium. B) Pericardium. C) Myocardium. D) Subvalaular Apparatus. E) None of ...
Make research projects and school reports about curare easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Muscles with many nerves, such as eye muscles, are affected first. In recent years curare has been put to medical use. When ... Curare Medical Discoveries COPYRIGHT 1997 Thomson Gale. Curare. Curare is a name used to identify a variety of highly toxic ( ... tube-curare); in gourds (calabash-curare) containing material from Strychnos species; and in earthenware pots (pot-curare). In ...
I was wondering what curare actually does to a : working nerve fiber on the molecular and then organismic level. [stuff deleted ... Curare and Nervous System. Jim Hutchins hutchins at fiona.umsmed.edu Fri Feb 10 16:28:32 EST 1995 *Previous message: Curare and ... Curare causes death by paralysis of the respiratory muscles, particularly the diaphragm. Presumably, cooking the meat renders ... Normally, this receptor binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released by motor neurons (nerve cells which control ...
Rats were immobilized with curare; this drug blocks the junction between muscle and nerve to paralyze the skeletal muscles. ... and birds on the pattern of nerve conduction in the optic nerve of the horseshoe crab. There was little concern even for ...
curare: Drug belonging to the alkaloid family of organic compounds, derivatives of which are used in modern medicine primarily ... competition at the neuromuscular junction by curare prevents nerve impulses from activating skeletal muscles. The major outcome ... pot curare in earthenware jars, tube curare in bamboo, and calabash curare in gourds. Tube curare was the most toxic form, ... Curare, drug belonging to the alkaloid family of organic compounds, derivatives of which are used in modern medicine primarily ...
Its required for all manner of nerve signals, proper brain functioning, and for the constant beating of the heart. The body ... These drugs are modern relatives of the South American arrow poison, curare. They work by blocking the chemical signals from ... They act precisely where these nerves end at our muscles, hence the term neuromuscular blocker. ... muscle relaxants that work on the brain or on the nerves at the muscle itself, and substances of recreational abuse, among ...
Through a series of experiments involving the vagus nerves of frogs, Loewi was able to manually slow the heart rate of frogs by ... The paralytic arrow-poison curare acts by blocking transmission at these synapses. Acetylcholine also operates in many regions ... They transmit signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another " ... A neuron transports its information by way of a nerve impulse called an action potential. When an action potential arrives at ...
What does curare cause?. And how? Paralysis - by blocking the transmission between nerve and muscle ... Gets to nerve terminal and release of transmitter causes contraction of skeletal muscle ... What is the name of the synapse between a nerve and skeletal muscle fibre? ... AP travels along post synaptic nerve fibre and initiating an AP in the muscle ...
Effects on Nerves, Muscles and Synapses - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780080280004, 9781483150437 ... Anti-Curare Action of 4-Aminopyridine and 4-Aminopyridine-Like Substances. 4-Aminopyridine Reversal of Morphine Analgesia. 4- ... Properties and Physiological Roles of K+ Currents in Frog Myelinated Nerve Fibres as Revealed by 4-aminopyridine. Effects of ... Aminopyridines and Similarly Acting Drugs: Effects on Nerves, Muscles and Synapses 1st Edition. Proceedings of a IUPHAR ...
Has anyone used curare to block movements? What about analgesics? Thanks, Christian -- *********************************** ... We are interested in measuring nerve conductance velocity. Tricaine/Mesab/MS-222 blocks action potentials and therefore is ...
... that the mechanism of action of curare was a result of interference in the conduction of nerve impulses from the motor nerve to ... Alkaloids with curare-like activity are present in plants of the fabaceous genus Erythrina. The toxicity of curare alkaloids in ... According to their LD50 values, tube curare is thought to be the most toxic. Pot curare: Mainly composed of alkaloid components ... Isolated attempts to use curare during anesthesia date back to 1912 by Arthur Lawen of Leipzig, but curare came to anesthesia ...
Median and ulnar nerve motor amplitudes were also more severely affected in older males, whereas ulnar nerve motor potentials ... Transgenic mice were abnormally sensitive to the neuromuscular blocker, curare. These observations demonstrate that we can ... TRAUMA, TDP-43, AND AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS MUSCLE & NERVE Appel, S. H., Cwik, V. A., Day, J. W. 2010; 42 (6): 851-852 ... and temporal dispersion on nerve conduction studies, which resemble those features in acquired demyelinating peripheral nerve ...
TRAUMA, TDP-43, AND AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS MUSCLE & NERVE Appel, S. H., Cwik, V. A., Day, J. W. 2010; 42 (6): 851-852 ... Transgenic mice were abnormally sensitive to the neuromuscular blocker, curare. These observations demonstrate that we can ... and temporal dispersion on nerve conduction studies, which resemble those features in acquired demyelinating peripheral nerve ... Revised Upper Limb Module for Spinal Muscular Atrophy: 12 month changes. Muscle & nerve Pera, M. C., Coratti, G., Mazzone, E. S ...
Ditto for atropine, a mainstay of cardiac resuscitation and an essential antidote to nerve gas; or rocuronium, a curare ... It stimulates nerve endings to send a signal to the brain that mimics a burning sensation. Capsaicin does not dissolve in water ...
Hypoglossal Nerve / cytology * Hypoglossal Nerve / physiology* * Motor Neurons / physiology* * Nicotinic Antagonists / ... Curare / pharmacology * Evoked Potentials / drug effects * Evoked Potentials / physiology * Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists ...
... from the motor nerve ending. This can be demonstrated by the hyperpolarization produced by the application of curare (H-effect ... A. I. Malomouzh, E. E. Nikolskii, Non-quantal secretion of acetylcholine from motor nerve endings: Molecular mechanisms, ... Purine P2Y receptors in ATP-mediated regulation of non-quantal acetylcholine release from motor nerve endings of rat diaphragm ... Interaction of hydrocortisone with ATP and adenosine on nerve-mediated contractions of frog skeletal muscle, European Journal ...
CurareEdit. Main article: Curare. Synthesis inhibitorsEdit. Organic mercurial compounds, such as methylmercury, have a high ... some have been used as nerve agents (Sarin and VX nerve gas) or pesticides (organophosphates and the carbamates). Many toxins ... These motor neurons send their axons through motor nerves, from which they emerge to connect to muscle fibers at a special type ... Numerous venoms and toxins produced by plants, animals, and bacteria, as well as chemical nerve agents such as Sarin, cause ...
The chemical curare... v t e Nerves of head and neck : the cranial nerves and nuclei Orbit Oculomotor (III): Levator palpebrae ... 787 Dissection showing origins of right Ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the... Rectus Muscle for ID only How do you ... 890 Dissection showing origins of right Ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the... Physiology of the Eye CD-ROM Grade level ... Dissection showing origins of right Ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the superior orbital... Patent #22 March 8, 1938 ...
Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis. Pseudoparalysis (pseudo- meaning "false, ... Nerves served by the artery will die when deprived of blood. The German Shepherd Dog is especially prone to developing ... This is a deterioration of nerves in the spinal cord, starting in the posterior part of the cord. Dogs so affected will become ... This toxin works by binding to sodium channels in nerve cells, preventing the cells proper function. A non-lethal dose of this ...
By interfering with nerve impulses in this way, the botulinum toxin may cause decreased activity or paralysis of muscles. In ... That is, in one embodiment the polycyclic β-carboline alkaloid may simulate curare in function. ... Because the sympathetic nervous system controls or influences the pace of the heart beat, blocking the action of these nerves ... decrease the excitability of the motor end-plate such that response to repetitive nerve stimulation and/or to acetylcholine may ...
... of This Study is to Compare the Nerve Block of the Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Between the Bilateral TAP Block and Curare ... Active Comparator: curare Patients will be randomized into two parallel groups. One group will receive curare, another benefit ... Curare. Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents. Neuromuscular Blocking Agents. Neuromuscular Agents. Peripheral Nervous System ... Comparison of the Bilateral TAP Block Versus Curare in Muscle Relaxation of the Abdominal Wall During Laparoscopic Digestive ...
... the functions of the vasomoter nerves, and the nature of the action of curare, carbon monoxide, and other poisons. Bernard ... In 1851 Bernard cut the cervical sympathetic nerve in a rabbit and noted that part of the head, on the side of the served nerve ... Bernard was always intrigued by the role of nerves in controlling the activities of the body, and in 1852 he showed how nerves ... In a series of experiments on severed nerves, Bernard noted the degeneration of tissues robbed of their nerve supply. He thus ...
Vertigo and ataxia, with presumed involvement of the vestibular nerve may occur (Bateman & Dyson, 1986).. 9.4.3.2 Peripheral ... Thus, quinine can antagonize the actions of physostigmine on skeletal muscle as does curare. The same mechanism, however, may ... Quinine increases the tension response to a single maximal stimulus delivered to the muscle directly or through the nerve, but ... Pallor of the optic nerve heads has often been noted, developing gradually, generally proportional to the amount of permanent ...
synthetic compounds acting on the vascular system and skeletal muscles (curare). Eccles, Hodgkin & Huxley (1963). mechanisms ... highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres. Hess (1949). functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator ... chemical transmission of the nerve impulses. Erlanger & Gasser (1944). ... involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane. ...
... curare-like effects on the voluntary nerves; atropine-like effect on the nervous system; elevated reflex irritability; ...
History of facial nerve palsy.. *Any patients with known autoimmune disease or compromised immune systems ie HIV, AIDS or ... Current use of aminoglycoside antibiotics, curare-like agents, or agents that might interfere with neuromuscular (skeletal) ...
  • Anti-cholinesterase drugs, such as physostigmine or neostigmine, can reverse the effects of curare poisoning. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The effects of curare do not last long, and a person or animal who has been poisoned by this substance can fully recover if given artificial respiration until the poison wears off. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Patients with neuromuscular disorders such as myasthenia gravis , in which acetylcholine activity is already reduced, are highly sensitive to the effects of curare-like drugs. (britannica.com)
  • Langley pioneered research on the effects of curare, demonstrating that it inhibited the effects of nicotine since nicotine triggers muscle contraction and curare inhibits this effect on muscle. (pasteur.fr)
  • Curare immobilises muscles minutes after injection. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Curare contains two alkaloids: curine, which paralyzes the muscle fibers of the heart, and curarine, which paralyzes the motor nerve endings in voluntary muscles. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Over the next ten years, many doctors began using curare to relax their patients' muscles during abdominal surgery or during tracheal intubation (the inserting of a tube into the trachea to allow a patient to breathe). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Curare causes death by paralysis of the respiratory muscles, particularly the diaphragm. (bio.net)
  • hence, competition at the neuromuscular junction by curare prevents nerve impulses from activating skeletal muscles. (britannica.com)
  • The prey was shot by arrows or blowgun darts dipped in curare, leading to asphyxiation owing to the inability of the victim's respiratory muscles to contract. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1780, Abbe Felix Fontana discovered that it acted on the voluntary muscles rather than the nerves and the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aminopyridines and Similarly Acting Drugs: Effects on Nerves, Muscles and Synapses presents the proceedings of a IUPHAR Satellite Symposium in conjunction with the eighth International Congress of Pharmacology held in Paris, France on July 27-29, 1981. (elsevier.com)
  • Numerous venoms and toxins produced by plants, animals, and bacteria, as well as chemical nerve agents such as Sarin , cause harm by inactivating or hyperactivating muscles via their influences on the neuromuscular junction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dissection showing origins of right Ocular muscles , and nerves entering by the superior orbital. (picsearch.com)
  • KNIESPIEREN MUSCLES of the PELVIS Patienten en leken die raadgevingen/adviezen/informatie. (picsearch.com)
  • Any of various compounds, such as curare, that compete with neurotransmitters for nerve cell receptor sites, thus preventing the contraction of skeletal muscles. (dictionary.com)
  • curare is used clinically (for example, as d- tubocurarine chloride, metocurine iodide) to relax muscles during surgery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Curare acts at the junction between nerves and muscles and produces complete paralysis of all voluntary movement without having any effect on consciousness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The presence of curare, a drug that paralyzes muscles by jamming the transfer of an impulse from nerve to muscle, had no effect on the amount of clam or puffer-tish poison required to block response to direct stimulation. (newspapers.com)
  • Batrachotoxin kills by interfering with sodium ion channels in the cells of muscles and nerves, jamming them open so that they do not close. (businessinsider.com)
  • The Taser works by overwhelming the nerves that control the muscles in the target's body, causing the muscles to involuntarily contract. (futurity.org)
  • To determine whether the discharges were acting on the prey's motor neurons-the nerves that control the muscles-or on the muscles themselves, he placed two pithed fish behind the barrier: one injected with saline solution and other injected with curare, a paralytic agent that targets the nervous system. (futurity.org)
  • The muscles of the fish with the saline continued to contract in response to the eel's electrical discharges but the muscle contractions in the fish given the curare disappeared as the drug took effect. (futurity.org)
  • The poison blocks nerve signals that make muscles move, but victims are otherwise awake. (businessinsider.com)
  • Curare competes with acetylcholine--or Ach--for receptors on muscle cells. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Acetylcholine is a chemical messenger that normally transmits nerve impulses and activates muscle receptors. (ehow.co.uk)
  • When curare binds instead of acetylcholine, the receptors do not become activated, and there is loss of muscle function, paralysis and possibly death. (ehow.co.uk)
  • These drugs block acetylcholine breakdown at the neuromuscular junction, so acetylcholine molecules can outnumber curare and activate unoccupied muscle receptors. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Normally, this receptor binds the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is released by motor neurons (nerve cells which control muscle). (bio.net)
  • In modern medicine, curare is classified as a neuromuscular blocking agent-it produces flaccidity in skeletal muscle by competing with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction (the site of chemical communication between a nerve fibre and a muscle cell). (britannica.com)
  • Their effects also can be reversed by the administration of an anticholinesterase such as neostigmine, which prevents the destruction of acetylcholine at nerve endings. (britannica.com)
  • Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter -a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The postsynaptic membrane of the neuromuscular synapse treated with antiacetylcholinesterase is depolarized due to nonquantal release of acetylcholine (ACh) from the motor nerve ending. (wiley.com)
  • Beani L, Bianchi C, Ledda F (1964) The effect of tubocurarine on acetylcholine release from motor nerve terminals. (springer.com)
  • If you're an Amazonian tribesman, you might use curare, an acetylcholine receptor antagonist, on your blowdarts. (lesswrong.com)
  • One example of such an agent is curare which breaks the connection by competing with the neuromuscular transmitter, acetylcholine, for the acetylcholine receptor and hence blocking muscle contraction. (paulcraigroberts.org)
  • Its action in paralysis is to prevent ACETYLCHOLINE depolarizing the postsynaptic membrane, particularly at nerve/ muscle junctions, thus preventing the passage of the nerve impulse and so rendering the victim immobile. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 5. The neuromuscular block produced by the toxin differs from that of curare in that the motor end-plates remain sensitive to acetylcholine. (biologists.org)
  • curare-neuromuscular juncion, inactivating acetylcholine and thereby preventing the transmission of an impulse from nerve to muscle, flaccid (limp) paralysis results. (writework.com)
  • In addition to inducing skeletal muscle relaxation under general anesthesia, certain curare alkaloids are widely employed as relaxants to facilitate endotracheal intubation (the insertion of a tube into the windpipe to keep the upper airway open in a person who is unconscious or unable to breathe on his or her own). (britannica.com)
  • Curare alkaloids produce their effects with a minimal concentration of anesthetic agent, which allows patients to recover promptly and reduces the risk of postoperative pneumonias and other complications associated with surgery under general anesthesia. (britannica.com)
  • Almost all curare preparations were and are complex mixtures, and many of the physiological actions attributed to the early curarizing preparations were undoubtedly due to impurities, particularly to other alkaloids present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Varney RF, Linegar CR, Holaday HA (1948) The rabbit 'head-drop' method for the biological assay of curare and its alkaloids. (springer.com)
  • A chemically pure alkaloid (an organic base of a plant, containing nitrogen and usually oxygen) of curare was introduced in 1942 by Thomas Cullen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Curare , drug belonging to the alkaloid family of organic compounds , derivatives of which are used in modern medicine primarily as skeletal muscle relaxants, being administered concomitantly with general anesthesia for certain types of surgeries , particularly those of the chest and the abdomen. (britannica.com)
  • The principal alkaloid responsible for the pharmacological action of curare preparations is tubocurarine , first isolated from tube curare in 1897 and obtained in crystalline form in 1935. (britannica.com)
  • Curare is prepared by boiling the bark of one of the dozens of plant alkaloid sources, leaving a dark, heavy paste that can be applied to arrow or dart heads. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pot curare: Mainly composed of alkaloid components protocurarine (the active ingredient), protocurine (a weak toxicitiy), and protocuridine (non-toxic) from both Menispermaceae and Loganiaceae/Strychnaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dobrudua contains the alkaloid Melinonine A, a calabash-curare alkaloid. (tropilab.com)
  • Also known as tubocurarine, curare functions as a neuromuscular blocking agent, or muscle relaxant. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The first breakthrough leading to successful medical use of curare came in 1935, when Harold King isolated its active principle, which he called tubocurarine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tube or bamboo curare: Mainly composed of the toxin D-tubocurarine, this poison is found packed into hollow bamboo tubes derived from Chondrodendron and other genera in the Menispermaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crude preparations of curare were classified according to the containers used for them: pot curare in earthenware jars, tube curare in bamboo , and calabash curare in gourds . (britannica.com)
  • The poison from the roots and stem of this plant is the main ingredient in pot curare (calabash curare). (tropilab.com)
  • Drugs that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curare inhibits the action of the enzyme cholinesterase, resulting muscular and respiratory paralysis. (tropilab.com)
  • In the nineteenth century, Claude Bernard demonstrated that curare (used in general anesthesia) worked at the junction between nerve and muscle cells causing paralysis and loss of muscle tone. (pasteur.fr)
  • 4. The neuromuscular block produced by the toxin differs from that of curare in that tetanus is well maintained and that paralysis is unaffected by prostigmine or potassium. (biologists.org)
  • With a degree in Biochemistry he was able to understand what was happening in MS. The virus damaged the cells of the central nervous system rendering them incapable of maintaining homeostasis or normal metabolism by retaining adequate B1 within the cells, resulting in a deterioration of the myelin sheath surrounding the nerve and eventual paralysis. (thisisms.com)
  • Drugs that act at the junction between a nerve fibre and a muscle fibre to cause paralysis of the muscle (neuromuscular blocking agents) may be depolarizing or non-depolarizing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Curare acts at the junction between the nerve and muscle to block the transmission of nerve impulses. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Nerve impulses are electrochemical messages that propagate along nerve fibres and muscle cells to produce an action. (ehow.co.uk)
  • However, its effects on nerve impulses are reversible and do not damage the nerve fibres. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Your nervous system is a living network of nerve impulses which travel along the neurones of the body all the time. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • As a result, nerve impulses do not pass properly between the neurones. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Nevertheless, how the mechanical activity of the SBM fibres is controlled by motor nerve impulses during sound production still remains obscure. (biologists.org)
  • Researchers think that this action changes blood flow or the transmission of nerve impulses to genital tissues. (tropilab.com)
  • The train of four (TOF) ratios denotes the number of muscle contractions obtained after the launch of four peripheral nerve impulses [ 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • In 1842, Claude Bernard discovered that the arrow poison curare interrupts the stimulation of muscle by nerve impulses at the neuromuscular junction. (carrington.edu)
  • It was striking to me that the American agencies were interested in samples from skeletal muscle and presumably the nerve endings running to the muscle as well which would be mixed in with any biopsy. (paulcraigroberts.org)
  • The present phytochemicals block or stimulate the release of adrenaline at nerve endings at different parts of the body. (tropilab.com)
  • Extensive electrophysiological and pharmacological research was subsequently carried out with a view to understanding what happens in nerves and the contacts (or synapses) between nerve endings and their targets when neural signals are transmitted, a process known as chemical synaptic transmission. (pasteur.fr)
  • In 1901, Langley challenged the dominant hypothesis that drugs act at nerve endings by demonstrating that nicotine acted at sympathetic ganglia even after the degeneration of the severed preganglionic nerve endings. (powershow.com)
  • With time, new nerve endings will grow. (cueflash.com)
  • This can be demonstrated by the hyperpolarization produced by the application of curare (H-effect). (wiley.com)
  • In three patients, the fasciculations and evoked electrical potentials were abolished by regional application of curare but not nerve block. (neurology.org)
  • In accordance with the above results, histochemical studies showed that motor nerve branches run along the SBM fibres to form many endplates with cholinesterase activity, indicating multiterminal innervation. (biologists.org)
  • The SBM consisted of about 600 fibres, while its motor nerve contained about 100 axons, giving an innervation ratio of about 1:6. (biologists.org)
  • It will be shown that, in the SBM fibres, motor nerve branches run in parallel with the muscle fibres to form many cholinergic neuromuscular junctions, so that action potentials propagate rapidly along the nerve branches but not along the fibre membrane. (biologists.org)
  • The SBM consists of about 600 muscle fibres, with low succinic dehydrogenase activity and high ATPase activity, and is innervated by a motor nerve containing about 100 nerve fibres. (biologists.org)
  • A type of gynecologic laparoscopists to most types of afferent nerve fibres connecting the third day of surgery. (dsaj.org)
  • the term is applied to those nerve fibres that liberate norepinephrine at a synapse when a nerve impulse passes, i.e., the sympathetic fibres. (free.fr)
  • Maternal infections ( rubella , rubeola, coxsackievirus, enterovirus , Akabane) can lead to CNS or peripheral nerve destruction with secondary congenital contractures. (medscape.com)
  • In case of a peripheral nerve injury does occur from a sensory receptor, and in particular may give dramatic relief. (yogachicago.com)
  • We designate this hyperexcitable peripheral nerve disorder as the "cramp-fasciculation syndrome. (neurology.org)
  • Neuromuscular blockade: indications, peripheral nerve stimulation, and other concurrent interventions. (springer.com)
  • Peripheral nerve stimulation cause muscle contraction in associated innervation territory. (omicsonline.org)
  • 4 It is caused by sustained or repetitive spontaneous muscle activity of peripheral nerve origin. (bmj.com)
  • What are the layers of CT in a peripheral nerve? (studystack.com)
  • Crude preparations of curare have long been used as arrow poisons to aid in the capture of wild game by the Indians of South America . (britannica.com)
  • Crude curare is a resinous dark brown to black mass with a sticky to hard consistency and an aromatic, tarry odour. (britannica.com)
  • The clamp should be performed, and the fact that crude curare was stored and transported through or thoroughly + capere, ceptum to take] top percodan n. (dsaj.org)
  • Crude curare is a potentially hazardous procedure and remove the stimulating and blocking drugs are far enough removed from the scale being specifically intended to prevent tightness of an iccu. (cadasb.org)
  • Stimulation of the motor nerve, however, uniformly evoked action potentials along the fibre. (biologists.org)
  • When neuromuscular transmission was blocked by curare, motor nerve stimulation uniformly evoked endplate potentials along the fibre. (biologists.org)
  • Supramaximal stimulation of the median, ulnar, peroneal, and posterior tibial nerves at frequencies of 0.5, 1,2, and 5 Hz produced showers of electrical potentials following the M response in at least one nerve. (neurology.org)
  • The initial hastening is due to a stimulation of the vagus terminals in the lung, as it does not occur if these nerves are previously divided. (wikisource.org)
  • Established after his experiments using nicotine and curare analogues on muscle contraction. (powershow.com)
  • But it was not until 1905 that Langley published the results of the decisive experiments using systemic injections of curare and nicotine given to chicks. (powershow.com)
  • Although curare is a potential nervous-system poison, medical texts, including "Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics," agree on one thing: the discovery of its effects on nerve impulse was a milestone for anaesthesia practice, which opened the way for the discovery of better and safer muscle relaxants. (ehow.co.uk)
  • According to M. Goudot, who learned the mode of preparation from an Indian tribe, it is made by adding to the concentrated juice of a creeping plant called Curari, the poison obtained from the virus bags of some of the most venomous serpents. (homeoint.org)
  • European scientists began studying curare in the late sixteenth century after explorers learned that Indians living along the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers in South America had been using it for centuries to make poison-tipped hunting arrows. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Used as a paralyzing agent for hunting and for therapeutic purposes, Curare only becomes active by a direct wound contamination by a poison dart or arrow or via injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • calabash or gourd curare: Mainly composed of C toxiferine I, this poison is originally packed into hollow gourds from Loganiaceae/Strychnaceae alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curare was used as a paralyzing poison by many South American indigenous people. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1596, Sir Walter Raleigh mentioned the arrow poison in his book Discovery of the Large, Rich, and Beautiful Empire of Guiana (which relates to his travels in Trinidad and Guayana), though the poison he described possibly was not curare. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. toxifera, used as an arrow poison for its effect of arresting the action of motor nerves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • An other poison in the curare mixture, spigelia anthelmia, raises the heartbeat to a very rapid beat until it stops due to this. (tropilab.com)
  • Many plant materials are used in addition to the strychnos to complete the poison curare, such as chondrodendron tomentosum and spigelia anthelmia. (tropilab.com)
  • The Amerindians use the curare as an arrow poison. (tropilab.com)
  • A research team at Columbua University found that the equivalent of one drop in a rain barrel (a concentration of .0001 microgram por milliliter) ol either poison would block electrical activity in tlw frog sciatic nerve fiber within 3D seconds. (newspapers.com)
  • Curare is a poison indigenous to Central and South America and was historically applied to the tips of darts and arrows to paralyze prey and enemies. (todayifoundout.com)
  • Tube curare was the most toxic form, typically being prepared from the woody vine Strychnos toxifera . (britannica.com)
  • According to their LD50 values, tube curare is thought to be the most toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natives called the poisonous plant ourari (or "woorari"), which became "curare" to the Europeans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It has been largely replaced by various curare-like drugs, including atracurium, pancuronium, and vecuronium. (britannica.com)
  • This broad range of drugs could barely fit into 30 hours of lecture as it includes anesthetics, anti-anxiety drugs, antidepressants, antipsychotics, old sedative-hypnotic drugs, muscle relaxants that work on the brain or on the nerves at the muscle itself, and substances of recreational abuse, among others. (forbes.com)
  • Drugs like curare which is a muscle relaxant, misoprostol, cocaine and alcohol are associated with this condition. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • South American aborigines used curare for centuries to hunt animals before Claude Bernard showed in 1850 that these drugs act peripherally, blocking conduction where motor nerves meet the muscle (1). (springer.com)
  • Aminoglycosides should be used with caution in patients with neuromuscular disorders, such as myasthenia gravis, since these drugs may aggravate muscle weakness because of their potential curare-like effects on the neuromuscular junction. (ipmsstockholm.org)
  • Control of breathing was perfected by the early 1930s, and intravenous drugs, like the barbiturate, thiopental, were being used by the 1940s, as were muscle relaxants, beginning with curare. (todayifoundout.com)
  • the Indian word has been rendered variously as ourara , urali , urari , woorali , and woorari . (britannica.com)
  • During the nineteenth century, doctors tried to use curare as a muscle relaxant in the treatment of rabies, tetanus (an infectious disease that usually enters the body through a wound), and epilepsy (a chronic, or lasting, disease of the nervous system characterized by convulsions), but these trials were unsuccessful because available curare extracts were not of equal quality and potency (strength). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Curare is a generic term for South American arrow poisons, usually from the strychnos toxifera or chondrodendron tomentosum plants. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In addition, he demonstrated that there was a functional junction between nerves and muscle and that curare blocks this junction. (tamu.edu)
  • More important than their historical role, nicotinic receptors continue to be at the forefront of science, as they are drug targets for muscle and nerve diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Schizophrenia and Myasthenia gravis. (intechopen.com)
  • Non-depolarizing agents such as curare act by combing with and blocking the nicotinic cholinergic receptors at the post-junctional membrane. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The curare preparations are now considered to be of two main types, those from Chondrodendron or other members of the Menispermaceae family and those from Strychnos, a genus of the Loganiaceae [ now Strychnaceae ] family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curare is a name used to identify a variety of highly toxic (poisonous) extracts from some types of woody vines that grow in South America . (encyclopedia.com)
  • times more toxic that the most powerful nerve gases known. (newspapers.com)
  • In real-life, this clay pot would have been used to store "curare," a general term for a toxic paste made from the roots, bark, stems, and leaves of different tropical trees, vines, or plants. (businessinsider.com)
  • Historically, curare has been used as an effective treatment for tetanus or strychnine poisoning and as a paralyzing agent for surgical procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compare curare, picrotoxin, tetanus toxin. (yogachicago.com)
  • In 1905, the British physiologist John Newport Langley demonstrated that curare acts on the muscle side of the neuromuscular junction in a structure that he described as a 'receptive substance' or receptor. (pasteur.fr)
  • controlled by sympathetic cholinergic nerves which are controlled by a centre in the hypothalamus. (wikibooks.org)
  • During 1811-1812, Sir Benjamin Collins Brody experimented with curare (woorara). (wikipedia.org)
  • He succeeded in 1947 with the medicine gallamine, and then went on to make more than 400 compounds that had the same effects as curare. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One of these compounds, succinylcholine, became a widely used and effective curare substitute that could be given in precise dosages with predictable effects. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Chapter XX, Curare-like compounds. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that action potentials propagate along the nerve branches but not along the SBM fibre membrane. (biologists.org)
  • 6. Laevo-miotine is approximately eight times more powerful an antagonist of curare than is dextro-miotine when tested on the cat's sciatic nerve preparation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Chang CC, Chuang ST, Lee CY, Weio JW (1972) Role of cardiotoxin and phospholipase A in the blockade of nerve conduction and depolarization of skeletal muscle induced by cobra venom. (springer.com)
  • Conduction in the nerve is unaffected and the muscle is only slightly affected. (biologists.org)
  • This toxin works by binding to sodium channels in nerve cells, preventing the cells' proper function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The secretion of lymph is not altered by atropine,so that it is probably not controlled by nerves in the same way as thetrue secretions.all organs containing unstriped muscle (apart from the arterial wall)seem to be altered by atropine. (granpallars.com)
  • Skinner HG, Young DM (1947) A mouse assay for curare. (springer.com)
  • VX and other nerve agents stop this enzyme from working, so muscle contractions go out of control and you die of asphyxiation. (businessinsider.com)
  • Richard Gill, a plant collector, found that the indigenous peoples began to use a variety of containers for their curare preparations, henceforth invalidating Boehm's basis of classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • In such cases, the disc may rupture, with disc material ending up in the spinal canal, or rupturing more laterally to press on spinal nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1841 to December 1844, Bernard worked as préparateur to Magendie at the Collège de France, assisting him in experiments concerning the physiology of nerves (especially the problem of "recurrent sensitivity" of the spinal nerve roots), the cerebro spinal fluid, the question of the seat of oxidation in the body of horses (by important experiments with cardiac catheterization), and the physiology of digestion. (encyclopedia.com)
  • What is the name of the synapse between a nerve and skeletal muscle fibre? (brainscape.com)
  • Due to its popularity among the indigenous people as means of paralyzing prey, certain tribes would create monopolies from curare production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, curare became a symbol of wealth among the indigenous populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a series of experiments involving the vagus nerves of frogs, Loewi was able to manually slow the heart rate of frogs by controlling the amount of saline solution present around the vagus nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each nerve impulse is a tiny electrical event which passes along the neurone. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • A nerve impulse is the result of charge differences across the membrane of the axon. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Depolarizing agents so affect the electrical charges at the interface that the nerve impulse can to be passed to the muscle fibre, but because the depolarization is maintained, the muscle, after the initial contraction, cannot continue to contract. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • What is the importance of mitochondria in nerve terminals? (brainscape.com)
  • Because of the difficulties in recording directly from nAChRs on nerve terminals, however, we know little about the precise manner by which nAChR-mediated depolarizations modulate presynaptic transmitter release. (jneurosci.org)
  • The terminals of the vagus nerve are also stimulated, causing the heart to beat more slowly. (wikisource.org)
  • It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. (free.fr)
  • This is a Biomedical Research, prospective, randomized, controlled single-blind mono centric, phase IV comparison trial of the bilateral TAP block versus curare in muscle relaxation of the abdominal wall during laparoscopic digestive surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • He also showed that the contraction and relaxation of small blood vessels were regulated by nerves. (tamu.edu)
  • Muscle relaxation using curare was first demonstrated in humans in Montreal in 1942, allowing a lighter depth of general anaesthesia than had previously been possible. (asa.org.au)
  • Our experiments indicate that mild elevations in cytosolic ROS, including that produced by transient interruption of NGF signaling, induce a use-dependent, long-lasting rundown of ACh-evoked currents on cultured sympathetic neurons and a long-lasting depression of fast nerve-evoked EPSPs. (jneurosci.org)
  • If you're a terrorist, you might use sarin nerve gas, a more dramatic acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, to bomb subways. (lesswrong.com)
  • Organophosphates like Sarin also act at the neuromuscular junction and other sites in a more complicated way than curare. (paulcraigroberts.org)
  • They transmit signals across a chemical synapse , such as a neuromuscular junction , from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell , or gland cell . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bmj evaluation of the uterus, the surgeon can typically be continued for a person who has redundant vaginal tissue, which contain the pelvic nerves (nervi erigentis) tadalafil obat sildenafil which synapse near or within one instrument improves efficiency, because the repressive functions of estrogen: It promotes infection distal to the opposite side, amplifying the effects of protein binding. (cadasb.org)
  • diameter, 90-200 μm) was carefully removed together with the motor nerve, which entered the SBM. (biologists.org)
  • The motor nerve innervating the SBM was stimulated with single or repetitive 1 ms current pulses given through a pair of platinum wire electrodes. (biologists.org)
  • of motor nerve. (writework.com)
  • Curare was traditionally used by hunters in the 1930s to coat blowgun darts, like the one pictured here. (businessinsider.com)