Anemia, Sickle Cell
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Metabolic Syndrome X
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Nerve Growth Factors
Nerve Growth Factor
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
Nerve Compression Syndromes
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Spinal Nerve Roots
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the enteric nervous system. The submucous (Meissner's) plexus is in the connective tissue of the submucosa. Its neurons innervate the epithelium, blood vessels, endocrine cells, other submucosal ganglia, and myenteric ganglia, and play an important role in regulating ion and water transport. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
Acute Coronary Syndrome
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)
Optic Nerve Diseases
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Optic Nerve Injuries
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Nerve Fibers, Myelinated
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)
Long QT Syndrome
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Facial Nerve Injuries
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.
Facial Nerve Diseases
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Cranial Nerve Neoplasms
Central Nervous System
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).
Ribonucleoproteins, Small Cytoplasmic
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
Abducens Nerve Diseases
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
Disease Models, Animal
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.
Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus
Oculomotor Nerve Diseases
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An autosomal dominant defect of cardiac conduction that is characterized by an abnormal ST-segment in leads V1-V3 on the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM resembling a right BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK; high risk of VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA; or VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION; SYNCOPAL EPISODE; and possible sudden death. This syndrome is linked to mutations of gene encoding the cardiac SODIUM CHANNEL alpha subunit.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.
Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult
A syndrome characterized by multiple abnormalities, MENTAL RETARDATION, and movement disorders. Present usually are skull and other abnormalities, frequent infantile spasms (SPASMS, INFANTILE); easily provoked and prolonged paroxysms of laughter (hence "happy"); jerky puppetlike movements (hence "puppet"); continuous tongue protrusion; motor retardation; ATAXIA; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; and a peculiar facies. It is associated with maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-13 and other genetic abnormalities. (From Am J Med Genet 1998 Dec 4;80(4):385-90; Hum Mol Genet 1999 Jan;8(1):129-35)
Nerve Sheath Neoplasms
Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor
Retinal Ganglion Cells
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Restless Legs Syndrome
Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)
A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.
Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)
Staining and Labeling
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Condition characterized by large, rapidly extending, erythematous, tender plaques on the upper body usually accompanied by fever and dermal infiltration of neutrophilic leukocytes. It occurs mostly in middle-aged women, is often preceded by an upper respiratory infection, and clinically resembles ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME. Sweet syndrome is associated with LEUKEMIA.
Cranial Nerve Injuries
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Trigeminal Nerve Diseases
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Chorda Tympani Nerve
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.
2004 Roger Tsien, Development of Tools for Monitoring Signaling in Living Nerve Cells. 2005 Robert Malenka and Roger Nicoll, ... 2007 Huda Zoghbi, Discovery of the Genetic Basis of Rett Syndrome. 2008 Michael E. Greenberg, Discovery of Signaling Pathways ... 2018 S. Lawrence Zipursky and Joshua R. Sanes, Discovery of cell-surface proteins that control circuit assembly in the visual ... Edward Perl (1926-2014), a neuroscientist and former professor of Cell Biology & Physiology at the University of North Carolina ...
Acute limb ischaemia
In late stages, paresthesia is replaced by anesthesia (numbness) due to death of nerve cells. In some cases, ... Compartment syndrome can occur because of acute limb ischaemia because of the biotoxins that accumulate distal to the occlusion ... they are commonly mis-attributed to compartment syndrome. One more symptom would be the development of gangrene. Immediate ...
However, the colon of these foals cannot function due to the absence of nerve cells, and the condition cannot be treated. Foals ... Lethal white syndrome is a genetic disorder linked to the Frame overo (O) gene and most closely studied in the American Paint ... Gray is controlled by a single dominant allele of a gene that regulates specific kinds of stem cells. Gray horses are at an ... The lack of pigment in the skin and hair is caused by the absence of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Some coat ...
Hereditary spastic paraplegia
... and other substances through the cell. Long nerve fibers (axons) are affected because long distances make nerve cells ... Mutations leading to a loss-of-function in L1CAM are also found in other X-linked syndromes. All of these disorders display ... another nerve cell or a muscle). Significant for this mechanism is the L1CAM gene, a cell surface glycoprotein of the ... The affected cells are the primary motor neurons; therefore, the disease is an upper motor neuron disease. HSP is not a form of ...
A group of extramacular ganglion cell axons that extend forward into the posterior optic nerve. Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome: ... Syndrome involving visual agnosia and the inability to re-visualize images. Condition due to occlusion of the posterior ...
Igor J. Koralnik
"JC virus granule cell neuronopathy: A novel clinical syndrome distinct from progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy". Annals ... electroencephalography and other electrophysiologic diagnostic technology to track damage to the brain and nerve cells. He ... He and his colleagues also demonstrated that JCV can infect meningeal and choroid plexus cells and cause JCV meningitis. They ... During three years at the Gallo laboratory, Koralnik performed molecular studies on the Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I ...
Damage to nerve cells may cause peripheral neuropathy, and to kidney cells, diabetic kidney disease (Kimmelstiel-Wilson ... syndrome). It is also possible to classify angiopathy by the associated condition: Diabetic angiopathy Cerebral amyloid ... The decrease of blood flow through stenosis or clot formation impairs the flow of oxygen to cells and biological tissues ( ...
There are usually entrapped fat cells, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves. The may be perineural fibrosis. The elastic ... There is a slight male predilection, although this is not seen in syndrome associated patients. The most common site is the ... The tumor cells are strongly positive for vimentin, CD34, and sometimes with CD99. There is often (up to 2/3rds) a nuclear ... There is a strong association with diabetes mellitus and Gardner syndrome; in fact, it may be the initial manifestation of ...
Those neural crest cells eventually form bundles of nerve cells called ganglions. EDNRB codes for proteins that connect these ... Bardet-Biedl syndrome Cartilage-hair hypoplasia Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome MEN2 Mowat-Wilson syndrome Smith- ... Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital disorder of the colon in which certain nerve cells, known as ganglion cells, are absent ... where the portion of the colon that does have nerve cells is pulled through and sewn over the part that lacks nerve cells. For ...
Damage to any part of the cerebellum can cause a disconnect between nerve cells and muscles, causing impaired muscle ... Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 1 is a rare, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by myoclonus, intention tremor, progressive ... Types of dyssynergia include Ramsay Hunt syndrome type 1, bladder sphincter dyssynergia, and anal sphincter dyssynergia. ... ". "Ramsay Hunt Syndrome". Archived from the original on 2011-08-28. Retrieved 2011-05-12. "National Institute of Neurological ...
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy
It remains unclear how these genetic changes cause the death of cells in the optic nerve and lead to the specific features of ... Mutations in any of the genes disrupt this process to cause a variety of syndromes depending on the type of mutation and other ... reduces islet cell apoptosis, increases islet cell yield, and improves posttransplantation function". J Am Soc Nephrol. 18 (1 ... causing apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells. Also, experiments suggest that normal non LHON affected retinal ganglion cells ...
Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system
Brain MRI showing swelling in the brain or destruction of part of the nerve cells (demyelination) University of Zurich(2018, ... "Chronic Fatigue Syndrome - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome". Health Information. New York Times. The ... Single Cell Analysis of MS CSF B-Cells Show Significant Differences in Expansion Patterns and Gene Family Usage Between MS ... found that the profile of T-cells is different in PPMS and SPMS MS can be considered among the acquired demyelinating syndromes ...
... in the United States for the visual detection of certain nerve cells in adult patients with suspected Parkinsonian Syndromes ( ... to visualize dopaminergic nerve terminals in the striatum for the evaluation of adults with suspected Parkinsonian syndromes ( ...
Sciatic Nerve and Glial Cells". PLOS ONE. 10 (4): e0124649. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1024649G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124649. PMC ... Mutations within the UBE3A gene are responsible for some cases of Angelman syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome. Most of these ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Angelman syndrome OMIM entries on Angelman syndrome GeneCard. ... Grier MD, Carson RP, Lagrange AH (2015-04-20). "Toward a Broader View of Ube3a in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome: ...
... and miR-140 to regulate cortical plate entry of newly born nerve cells, and regulate axon branching and axon formation in ... SOX genes Ninomiya S, Narahara K, Tsuji K, Yokoyama Y, Ito S, Seino Y (March 1995). "Acampomelic campomelic syndrome and sex ... Studies in chondrocyte cell line has revealed nearly 50% of SOX9 is bound to DNA and it is directly regulated by external ... SOX-9 also plays a pivotal role in male sexual development; by working with Sf1, SOX-9 can produce AMH in Sertoli cells to ...
Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen
... consisting of an intense commingling of nerve cells and fibrous tissue. NF-1 is sometimes referred to as "von Recklinghausen ... and the persons behind the syndromes". American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 176 (3): 515-550. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.38486 ... Here Recklinghausen described granular cells in the frog mesentery, later named "mast cells" by Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915). ... An overview of cell death". Am. J. Pathol. 146 (1): 1-2, 16-19. PMC 1870771. PMID 7856735. Reynolds, R. M.; Browning, G. G. P ...
VZV then remains latent in the dorsal ganglion cells of the sensory nerves. Reactivation of VZV results in the clinically ... These syndromes have variable courses, with febrile purpura being the most benign of the syndromes and having an uncomplicated ... Cell-mediated immune responses are also important in limiting the scope and the duration of primary varicella infection. After ... "Reye's Syndrome-Topic Overview". Archived from the original on 5 April 2011. Retrieved 27 March 2011. Tunbridge AJ, Breuer J, ...
... which is involved in the migration of certain nerve cell precursors (neuroendocrine GnRH cells) during embryogenesis. Deletion ... Clinically, mutation results in the X-linked form of Kallmann syndrome. Individuals with Kallmann syndrome experience anosmia ( ... Because of this and because of its contribution to normal migration of nerve cells, a role in the extracellular matrix has been ... During neural crest cell development, anosmin-1 plays a role in cranial neural cell formation by spatiotemporal regulation. ...
Tryptophan hydroxylase activity can be detected neither in cell bodies or nerve terminals. After one week 10% of control values ... It has been used experimentally to treat carcinoid syndrome, but the side effects, mostly hypersensitivity reactions and ... Kvols LK (December 1986). "Metastatic carcinoid tumors and the carcinoid syndrome. A selective review of chemotherapy and ...
The nerve dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome is caused by an immune attack on the nerve cells of the peripheral nervous ... The nerve cells have their body (the soma) in the spinal cord and a long projection (the axon) that carries electrical nerve ... Various antibodies directed at nerve cells have been reported in Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the axonal subtype, these ... Between Schwann cells are gaps (nodes of Ranvier) where the axon is exposed. Different types of Guillain-Barré syndrome ...
... in terms of which part of the nerve cell is affected mainly: the axon, the myelin sheath, or the cell body. Distal axonopathy, ... A number of different disorders may cause polyneuropathy, including diabetes and some types of Guillain-Barré syndrome. ... This demyelination slows down or completely blocks the conduction of action potentials through the axon of the nerve cell ( ... and axonal atrophy advances slowly toward the nerve's cell body. However, if the cause is removed, then regeneration is ...
In mice, Kcne5 transcript was detected in embryonic cranial nerve migrating crest cells, ganglia, somites and myoepicaridal ... Brugada syndrome is a relatively rare but lethal ventricular arrhythmia most commonly linked to voltage-gated sodium channel ... These two gene variants did not affect KCNQ1-KCNE1 currents when co-expressed in CHO cells, but produced larger currents than ... This co-assembly induces a +140 mV shift in voltage dependence of activation (when co-expressed in CHO cells) which would ...
... may also be caused by some populations of stem cells used to treat nerve damage including spinal cord injury. The ... complex regional pain syndrome, postherpetic neuralgia, fibromyalgia, and migraine. ... The cell bodies of these neurons lie in dorsal root ganglia, important structures located on both sides of the spinal cord. The ... Different cell types have also been linked to allodynia. For example, there are reports that microglia in the thalamus might ...
Nuclei of cranial nerves, arcuate nuclei, and posterior horn cells were also affected. Studies examining patients with ... of spinal cord tracks has been observed in patients with Marchiafava-Bignami disease and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, both ... It is an induced response of the cell usually triggered by axotomy, ischemia, toxicity to the cell, cell exhaustion, virus ... The cells exhibited decreased numbers of Nissl bodies throughout the cell, especially at the peripheral cytoplasm were the ...
X-linked mental retardation
It appears to be essential for the normal function of nerve cells. In contrast to other MBD family members, MECP2 is X-linked ... These include: Coffin-Lowry syndrome MASA syndrome MECP2 duplication syndrome Mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine ... It has been estimated there are ~200 genes involved in this syndrome; of these ~100 have been identified. Many of these genes ... MECP2 gene mutations are the cause of most cases of Rett syndrome, a progressive neurologic developmental disorder and one of ...
"Brain lipid binding protein in axon-Schwann cell interactions and peripheral nerve tumorigenesis". Molecular and Cellular ... Sánchez-Font MF, Bosch-Comas A, Gonzàlez-Duarte R, Marfany G (Jun 2003). "Overexpression of FABP7 in Down syndrome fetal brains ... Reelin was shown to induce FABP7 expression in neural progenitor cells via Notch-1 activation. According to one study, FABP7 ... Keilani S, Sugaya K (July 2008). "Reelin induces a radial glial phenotype in human neural progenitor cells by activation of ...
RCC may present with signs and symptoms caused by the substances the cancer cell produce (i.e. paraneoplastic syndromes). ... disorders of nerves, muscles (neuromyopathies), blood vessels (vasculopathy) and blood clotting mechanisms (coagulopathy). ... The cells that line the renal pelvis are called transitional cells, and are also sometimes called urothelial cells. The ... Other rare types of kidney cancers that can arise from the urothelial cells of the renal pelvis are squamous cell carcinoma and ...
The superior salivatory nucleus contains the cell bodies of parasympathetic axons within the intermediate nerve. These fibers ... Nervous intermedius neuralgia is a pain syndrome associated with the nervus intermedius. Chern, Kenneth C.; Wright, Kenneth ... The intermediate nerve, nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg or Glossopalatine nerve, is the part of the facial nerve (cranial ... nerve VII) located between the motor component of the facial nerve and the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII). It ...
Nerve conduction velocity
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a form of nerve compression syndrome caused by the compression of the median nerve at the wrist ... Two primary classifications exist: demyelinating (Schwann cell damage) and axonal (direct nerve fiber damage). Each of these ... Two sets of nerve conduction studies should allow for proper diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. It is recommended that these ... Carpal tunnel syndrome presents in each individual to different extents. Measurements of nerve conduction velocity are critical ...
Without a proper supply of blood and nutrients, nerve cells can no longer adequately send signals to the brain. Because of this ... Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome Beta alanine Blood pressure medications Carpal tunnel syndrome Cerebral amyloid angiopathy ... Similar brief shocks can be experienced when any other nerve is tweaked (a tweaked neck nerve may cause a brief shock-like ... everyday cause is temporary restriction of nerve impulses to an area of nerves, commonly caused by leaning or resting on parts ...
Type 2 diabetes
... a type 2 diabetic will have lost about half of their beta cells. Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in ... polycystic ovary syndrome; excess weight; and conditions associated with metabolic syndrome. The American Diabetes ... Saad F, Gooren L (March 2009). "The role of testosterone in the metabolic syndrome: a review". The Journal of Steroid ... Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance. Insulin ...
Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are liver disease, and starvation. Muscle atrophy occurs ... Neurogenic atrophy, which has a similar effect, is muscle atrophy resulting from damage to the nerve which stimulates the ... "satellite cells" which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of ... which is a syndrome that is a co-morbidity of cancer and congestive heart failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; burns ...
The TH2 lymphocytes interact with B cells and together they produce IgE. IgE circulates around and binds to receptors of cells ... For example, after a back surgery that removed a herniated disc from causing a pinched nerve, the patient may still continue to ... dependence - an adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated exposure to a stimulus (e.g., ... the Antigen-Presenting Cell causes a response in a TH2 lymphocyte which produce the cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4). ...
Pituitary adenomas are responsible for 80% of endogenous Cushing's syndrome, when excluding Cushing's syndrome from ... excess secretion from the acidophil cells) caused acromegaly, then an excess of basophil cells must be involved in another ... These tumors can compress the nerves that carry information from the eyes, causing a decrease in peripheral vision.[citation ... "Cushing's Syndrome Information Page". Retrieved August 26, 2013.. *^ Kirk, Lawrence F., Jr; Robert B. Hash; Harold P. Katner; ...
... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... Chronic fatigue syndrome. A potential use for rituximab was identified by two Norwegian doctors who were treating people ... Nerve. 56 (2): 185-196. doi:10.1002/mus.25597. ISSN 1097-4598. PMID 28164324.. ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ...
When the innervation to substance P nerve terminals is lost, post-synaptic cells compensate for the loss of adequate ... Stark D, van Hal S, Marriott D, Ellis J, Harkness J (Jan 2007). "Irritable bowel syndrome: a review on the role of intestinal ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures, and it was shown that ... on cells (including cancer cells) bestowing upon them mobility. and metastasis. It has been suggested that cancer ...
... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... Chronic fatigue syndromeEdit. Rituximab did not improve symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in a trial published ... Nerve. 56 (2): 185-196. doi:10.1002/mus.25597. ISSN 1097-4598. PMID 28164324.. ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... Garin-Bujadoux syndrome, Bannwarth syndrome, Afzelius's disease, Montauk Knee or sheep tick fever. Since 1976 the disease ... "Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome".. Further reading. *. Richard Ostfeld (2012). Lyme Disease: The Ecology of a ... It may also cause intermittent double vision. Lyme radiculopathy is an inflammation of spinal nerve roots that often ...
158 Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose ... Congenital diseases include Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.. *Myxomatous degeneration - a pathological weakening of ... Connective tissue neoplasms including sarcomas such as hemangiopericytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in ... The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. ...
... and the survival of nerve cells. The protein RSK2 which is encoded by the RPS6KA3 gene is a kinase which phosphorylates some ... The Coffin-Lowry Syndrome Foundation acts as a clearinghouse for information on Coffin-Lowry syndrome and hosts a forum for ... The syndrome is caused by mutations in the RPS6KA3 gene. This gene is located on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp22.2 ... "Coffin-Lowry Syndrome Foundation". National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved 29 February 2016.. ...
From the olfactory bulb, mitral/tufted cells send axons via the lateral olfactory tract (the cranial nerve I) to the olfactory ... The causes of hyperosmia may be genetic, environmental or the result of benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. When odorants enter ... Atianjoh, FE; Ladenheim, B; Krasnova, IN; Cadet, JL (2008-07-28). "Amphetamine causes dopamine depletion and cell death in the ... mitrial/tufted cells and dopaminergic periglomerular cells. ... smell Olfaction Oliver Sacks Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome ...
Facial nerve branches. Facial nerve should be examined for any potential damage when buccal mucosa is involved. ... Cracked tooth syndrome. References. *^ Textbook and Color Atlas of Traumatic Injuries to the Teeth, Fourth Edition, ... as this will damage the delicate cells that make up the tooth's interior. ... The facial nerve and parotid duct should be examined for any potential damage when the buccal mucosa is involved. ...
ادرار کردن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
When the bladder is fully distended the superficial cells become squamous (flat) and the stratification of the cuboidal cells ... When the afferent and efferent nerves are both destroyed, as they may be by tumors of the cauda equina or filum terminale, the ... Paruresis, also known as shy bladder syndrome, is an example of a bladder interruption from the brain that often causes total ... The bladder's smooth muscle has some inherent contractile activity; however, when its nerve supply is intact, stretch receptors ...
Cushing's syndrome. References. *^ a b Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 10: Neural and Neuroendocrine ... CRH and vasopressin are released from neurosecretory nerve terminals at the median eminence. CRH is transported to the anterior ... There, CRH and vasopressin act synergistically to stimulate the secretion of stored ACTH from corticotrope cells. ACTH is ... chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and alcoholism. Antidepressants, which are routinely ...
Injuries and cataracts affect the eye itself, while abnormalities such as optic nerve hypoplasia affect the nerve bundle that ... One such example is Bardet-Biedl syndrome. PoisoningEdit. Rarely, blindness is caused by the intake of certain chemicals. A ... For example, the Canadian currency tactile feature is a system of raised dots in one corner, based on Braille cells but not ... Childhood blindness can be caused by conditions related to pregnancy, such as congenital rubella syndrome and retinopathy of ...
Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome
T cell deficiency. (T). *thymic hypoplasia: hypoparathyroid (Di George's syndrome). *euparathyroid (Nezelof syndrome ... Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome/Hay-Wells syndrome/Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome 3/Limb-mammary syndrome/OFC8 ... "hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ Dermatologic Manifestations of Job Syndrome at eMedicine ... Hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome (HIES), of which the autosomal dominant form is called Job's syndrome or Buckley ...
Neuroscience of music
The hair cells in the cochlea release neurotransmitter as a result, causing action potentials down the auditory nerve. The ... Music agnosia, an auditory agnosia, is a syndrome of selective impairment in music recognition. Three cases of music ... Phase-locking to stimulus frequencies has been shown in the auditory nerve, the cochlear nucleus, the inferior ... however it is often found that cells in primary and non-primary auditory cortex have spatio-temporal receptive fields, rather ...
The Merkel nerve endings (also known as Merkel discs) detect sustained pressure. The lamellar corpuscles (also known as ... Indeed, the most sensitive mechanoreceptors in humans are the hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear (no relation to the ... A mechanoreceptor, also called mechanoceptor, is a sensory cell that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion. There are ... Mechanosensory free nerve endings detect touch, pressure, stretching, as well as the tickle and itch sensations. Itch ...
Schizophrenia - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Accounts of a schizophrenia-like syndrome are rare before the 19th century. Detailed case reports from 1797 and 1809, are ... but clozapine can lower the white blood cell count in 1 to 4 percent of people who take it. This is a serious side effect.[ ... the band of nerve fibers which connects the left side and the right side of the brain. People with schizophrenia also tend to ... March 2006). "Heterogeneity in incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes: findings from the 3-center AeSOP ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
nerve development. • nerve growth factor signaling pathway. • regulation of neuron differentiation. • neuron projection ... cell-cell signaling. • positive regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • collateral ... Rett syndrome, and dementia, as well as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Increased levels of BDNF can ... regulation of protein localization to cell surface. • regulation of receptor activity. • activation of phospholipase C activity ...
Cell death may be instigated in the meibomian glands, hypothalamic cells, hippocampus cells and-important ... Hypervitaminosis A syndrome. References. *^ a b c "Isotretinoin international brands". Drugs.com. Retrieved 1 June 2017. ... It is also used for treatment of neuroblastoma, a form of nerve cancer. ... programmatic cell death) in various cells in the body. ... suppresses hippocampal cell survival in mice". Annals of the ...
Artificial cardiac pacemaker
Stem cells may be of interest in transitional tissue welding. ... Another possible complication called twiddler's syndrome occurs when a patient manipulates the pacemaker and causes the leads ... to be removed from their intended location and causes possible stimulation of other nerves. ... The Greatbatch innovation varied from the earlier Swedish devices in using primary cells (mercury battery) as the energy source ...
LHCGR (Luteinizing hormone insensitivity, Leydig cell hypoplasia, Male-limited precocious puberty). *FSHR (Follicle-stimulating ... Any problems with the development of the olfactory nerve fibres will prevent the progression of the GnRH releasing neurons ... FGFR1 (Pfeiffer syndrome, KAL2 Kallmann syndrome). *FGFR2 (Apert syndrome, Antley-Bixler syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Crouzon ... "Kallmann syndrome". National Institutes for Health. US Library of Medicine. Genetics Home Reference. December 2017. Retrieved ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Excitotoxicity, or nerve cell death caused by high levels of intracellular calcium due to excessive stimulation by the ... Examples include flail arm syndrome, flail leg syndrome, and isolated bulbar ALS. Flail arm syndrome and flail leg syndrome are ... Additional names for flail arm syndrome include the scapulohumeral form of ALS, Vulpian-Bernart syndrome, hanging arm syndrome ... Myasthenic syndrome, also known as Lambert-Eaton syndrome, can mimic ALS, and its initial presentation can be similar to that ...
"Cell. 137 (1): 133-45. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.041. PMC 2668214. PMID 19345192.. ... Sjogren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) predominantly exhibit circulating proteasomes which can be applied as clinical ... and muscle and nerve diseases such as inclusion body myopathy. ... Cell cycle controlEdit. Cell cycle progression is controlled by ordered action of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), activated by ...
This explains why vesicles are classically seen on the auricle in herpes infections of the facial nerve (Ramsay Hunt syndrome ... Nerve. Trigeminal nerve, Great auricular nerve, Lesser occipital nerve. Lymph. To pre- and post-auricular nodes, nodes of ... Cutaneous sensation to these areas is via the trigeminal nerve, the attendant nerve of the 1st branchial arch. The final three ... These portions of the ear are supplied by the cervical plexus and a small portion by the facial nerve. ...
Targeting double-stranded breaks increases the probability that cells will undergo cell death. Cancer cells are generally less ... Radiation treatments are vitally necessary but may damage nerves near the target area or within the delivery path as nerve ... Fractionation allows normal cells time to recover, while tumor cells are generally less efficient in repair between fractions. ... Single-strand DNA damage is then passed on through cell division; damage to the cancer cells' DNA accumulates, causing them to ...
Male reproductive system
XYY syndrome and XXYY syndrome. Other less common chromosomal arrangements include: triple X syndrome, 48, XXXX, and 49, XXXXX ... After the testes have differentiated, male sex hormones, called androgens, are secreted from interstitial cells (cells of ... It carries with it the ductus deference, that is testicular vessels and nerves, a portion of the abdominal muscle, and lymph ... This includes Turner's syndrome - a single X chromosome is present, Klinefelter's syndrome - two X chromosomes and a Y ...
Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases may be further categorized by the type of nerve cell (motor, sensory, or both) ... Urdinguio RG, Sanchez-Mut JV, Esteller M (November 2009). "Epigenetic mechanisms in neurological diseases: genes, syndromes, ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.01.033. PMID 17320505.. *^ a b c Faghihi MA, Modarresi F, Khalil AM, Wood DE, Sahagan BG, Morgan TE, ... The Journal of Cell Biology. 191 (2): 367-81. doi:10.1083/jcb.201008051. PMC 2958468. PMID 20937701.. ...
The abnormal protein PrPSc accumulates in the brain and destroys nerve cells, which leads to the mental and behavioral features ... Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome - usually a change in codon 102 from proline to leucine ... cell cycle arrest. • learning or memory. • cellular copper ion homeostasis. • cellular response to copper ion. • cell cycle. • ... cell surface. • endoplasmic reticulum. • membrane raft. • anchored component of membrane. • extracellular exosome. • cell ...
PPM-X syndrome: MedlinePlus Genetics
PPM-X syndrome is a condition characterized by psychotic disorders (most commonly bipolar disorder), a pattern of movement ... between nerve cells. . The MeCP2 protein may also control the production of different versions of certain proteins in nerve ... Although mutations in the MECP2 gene disrupt the normal function of nerve cells, it is unclear how these mutations lead to the ... in each cell. In males, who have only one X chromosome, a mutation in the only copy of the gene in each cell is sufficient to ...
Mast Cell Activation Syndrome Archives - Vagus Nerve Support
Diana Driscoll , Mar 4, 2019 , Mast Cell Activation Syndrome, Science. WHAT CONTROLS MAST CELLS? Can one nerve balance ... Vagus Nerve Support™. * Vagus Nerve Support™ Digestive Enzymes Rated 5.00 out of 5 ... For optimal Vagus Nerve Support™ buy all three, save 10%, and get Free Domestic Shipping. ... Mast cells are no exception. By Dr. Diana Driscoll Why do mast... ...
Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS): Are You a Night Walker?
You may have symptoms of restless legs syndrome, also known as RLS. ... cells in the brain that make dopamine," says Connor. This could lead to decreased function of these nerve cells, including the ... Dopamine, a neurotransmitter, relays messages between nerve cells in the brain.. In those with RLS, "there appears to be ... Restless Legs Syndrome: What Causes It?. Experts arent sure what causes restless legs syndrome. According to James Connor, PhD ...
Rett syndrome - NHS
Read about Rett syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that affects brain development and causes severe physical and mental ... The gene abnormality prevents nerve cells in the brain from working properly. ... What causes Rett syndrome?. Almost all cases of Rett syndrome are caused by a mutation (a change in the DNA) in the MECP2 gene ... Rett syndrome Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects brain development, resulting in severe mental and physical ...
Griscelli Syndrome: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology
Griscelli and Prunieras initially described Griscelli syndrome, or partial albinism with immunodeficiency, in 1978. Griscelli ... This is important for fast axonal transport in nerve cells. This may explain the neurological complications seen in Griscelli ... Three variants of Griscelli syndrome have been identified: Griscelli syndrome types 1-3. Griscelli syndrome type 2 is the most ... affecting release of cytolytic granules from T cells and natural killer cells. Children with Griscelli syndrome type 2 develop ...
Is the virus somehow linked to Guillain-Barre syndrome, which can cause temporary paralysis? Researchers are searching for the ... Its a temporary condition in which your immune system starts attacking your nerve cells. People can lose the ability to walk, ... Researchers In Colombia Try To Determine If Zika Virus Is Linked To Guillain-Barre Syndrome Is the virus somehow linked to ... theyre also latching onto nerve cells that have a component that look like Zika. ...
Scientists identify defect in brain cell channel that may cause autism-like syndrome - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
Brain and Nerves. 10/21/2019 Brain and Nerves Drug combination reverses hypersensitivity to noise ... "We developed a way of taking skin cells from humans with Timothy syndrome and converting them into stem cells, then converting ... The researchers also found brain cells grown from individuals with Timothy syndrome resulted in fewer of the kind of cells that ... The scientists studied cells from patients with Timothy syndrome, a rare genetic condition that is associated with one of the ...
Lethal white syndrome - Wikipedia
... the stem cells of the neural crest are precursors to nerve cells. Another cell type that descends from neural crest cells are ... both pigment cells and enteric nerve cells-are termed pleiotropic. The unusual instance of pleiotropy in LWS foals suggested ... Lethal white syndrome (LWS), also called overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS), lethal white overo (LWO), and overo lethal white ... Lethal white syndrome has been described by researchers as both dominantly and recessively inherited. Lethal white syndrome is ...
Bacillary dysentery as a causative factor of irritable bowel syndrome and its pathogenesis | Gut
Number of mast cells and the relationship between mast cells and nerve fibres in the intestinal mucosa of IBS patients. Number ... Cell counts were expressed as the number of cells per field under high power microscopy (mean (SD)). Positive nerve fibre ... East meets West: infection, nerves, and mast cells in the irritable bowel syndrome ... This linkage between immune cells/mast cells and enteric nerves is important as it provides the structural requirement for a ...
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome | Encyclopedia.com
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Definition Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a pattern of birth defects , learning, and behavioral ... Alcohol interferes with the development and function of nerve cells and can result in cell death. Alcohol consumption can act ... Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Child Development COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME. Fetal alcohol syndrome ( ... Fetal alcohol syndrome. Definition. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a set of physical and mental birth defects that can result ...
Risk factors for adrenal gland cancer - Canadian Cancer Society
... nerve cells). It causes tumours (called neurofibromas) to grow on nerves and may cause other abnormalities in muscles, bones ... Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome affects how different parts of the body grow. It increases the risk of ... Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Li-Fraumeni syndrome increases the risk of developing several different types of cancer, including ... Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome VHL syndrome affects blood vessels in the eyes, brain, spinal cord, adrenal glands or other ...
Ichthyosis follicularis atrichia photophobia syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an...
... answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Ichthyosis follicularis atrichia photophobia syndrome ... Enlarged colon lacking nerve cells 0002251 Agenesis of corpus callosum. 0001274 Astigmatism. Abnormal curving of the cornea or ... syndrome. , hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia, keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID syndrome) and keratosis follicularis ... Registries for Ichthyosis follicularis atrichia photophobia syndrome:. The National Registry for Ichthyosis & Related Skin ...
Oculoectodermal syndrome | Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - an NCATS Program
... resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Oculoectodermal syndrome ... Enlarged colon lacking nerve cells 0002251 Anteverted nares. Nasal tip, upturned Upturned nasal tip ... Oculoectodermal syndrome Title Other Names:. Oculo-ectodermal syndrome; Aplasia cutis congenita with epibulbar dermoids; ... syndrome. (OES) is characterized by the association of epibulbar dermoids and aplasia cutis congenital. . ...
Horners Syndrome | Encyclopedia.com
Horners syndrome Description William Edmonds Horner (1793-1853) first described a small muscle at the angle of the eyelid ( ... Occasionally Horners syndrome may be seen in a newborn with a neuroblastoma (tumor originating from nerve cells). This is ... Horners syndrome is caused by damage or interruption of the sympathetic nerve to the eye. There are two major divisions of the ... Thus, damage that occurs anywhere along the course of this nerves route from the brain to the eye can evoke this syndrome. ...
Peripheral Nerve Surgery
... compression neuropathies such as carpal tunnel syndrome, peripheral nerve injuries, painful nerves (neuromas) and nerve tumors. ... diagnosing and treating patients with peripheral nerve disorders, including peripheral neuropathy, ... The Peripheral Nerve Surgery Program specializes in evaluating, ... disorganized growth of nerve cells at the site of a nerve ... Nerve repair and/or nerve grafting: for injured nerves. *Nerve transfers and targeted reinnervation: transferring nerve ...
Would a Therapy for Down Syndrome Change Lives For Better or For Worse? | Bioethics Research Library
White matter insulates nerve fibers and facilitates communication between brain cells; thus, decreased white matter formation ... People with Down Syndrome have defects in their oligodendrocytes, a type of brain cell that forms white matter. This defect ... Previously it was thought that most of the effects of Down Syndrome occurred prenatally, but comparisons between toddlers and ... Would a Therapy for Down Syndrome Change Lives For Better or For Worse?. ...
Horner syndrome - Mayo Clinic
The nerve pathway affected in Horner syndrome is divided into three groups of nerve cells (neurons). ... Horner syndrome is a combination of signs and symptoms caused by the disruption of a nerve pathway from the brain to the face ... Theres no specific treatment for Horner syndrome, but treatment for the underlying cause may restore normal nerve function. ... Tests to confirm Horner syndrome. Your doctor may be able to diagnose Horner syndrome based on your history and his or her ...
Characterization of ANKRD11 mutations in humans and mice related to KBG syndrome | SpringerLink
Mutations in ANKRD11have recently been reported to cause KBG syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition characterized by ... Kawabe H, Brose N (2011) The role of ubiquitylation in nerve cell development. Nat Rev Neurosci 12(5):251-268PubMedCrossRef ... Herrmann J, Pallister PD, Tiddy W, Opitz JM (1975) The KBG syndrome-a syndrome of short stature, characteristic facies, mental ... contiguous gene syndromes by chromosome engineering in mice: phenotypic consequences of gene dosage imbalance. Mol Cell Biol 23 ...
Chronic fatigue syndrome | University of Maryland Medical Center
The circadian clock -- a group of nerve cells in the brain -- regulates this cycle. A mentally or physically stressful event, ... Detection of an infectious retrovirus, XMRV, in blood cells of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Science. 2009;326(5952): ... Chronic fatigue syndrome. Description. An in-depth report on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. ... Are involved with immune system function, communication between cells, and the transfer of energy to cells ...
Frontiers | Reduced Responses of Submucous Neurons from Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients to a Cocktail Containing Histamine,...
This was very likely due to desensitization to mediators constantly released by mucosal and immune cells in the gut wall of IBS ... Results:Activity in submucous ganglia in response to nicotine or electrical nerve stimulation was not different between HC and ... Results: Activity in submucous ganglia in response to nicotine or electrical nerve stimulation was not different between HC and ... Activity of human submucous neurons in response to electrical nerve stimulation and local application of nicotine or a mixture ...
Short Bowel Syndrome in Babies | Products for SBS | Neocate
Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition that makes it difficult for a child to get the nutrients he/she needs to grow ... Aganglionosis: absence of nerve cells in the colon. *Congenital anomaly: condition present at birth that could be hereditary or ... Short bowel syndrome (SBS) occurs when a large portion of the small intestine and/or colon is removed. A shortened small bowel ... In infants and children, the reasons to remove part of the small intestine, leading to short bowel syndrome, include the ...
Tourette Syndrome Factsheet (for Schools) (for Parents) - Nemours KidsHealth
What teachers should know about Tourette syndrome, and teaching strategies to help students with TS do their best in school. ... Experts dont know the exact cause of Tourette syndrome, but there may be problems with how nerve cells communicate. ... Students with Tourette syndrome face a significantly higher risk of being bullied. Counselors and Tourette syndrome ... Tourette syndrome usually emerges in childhood or adolescence and is more common in boys. While there is no cure for Tourette ...
Bell's Palsy: The Mona Lisa syndrome - Canada.com
Increased pressure from the swelling further constricts the nerve and interrupts the blood supply causing death of nerve cells ... By this time the nerve cells have already been damaged. Moreover, antiviral drugs must be used early to stop the reproduction ... Now, her face drooped on one side due to a paralysis of the facial nerve. The cause? A condition known as Bells palsy. Sir ... Fortunately, the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord have a great capacity to heal. Consequently, the majority of ...
Guillain-Barré syndrome - Wikipedia
The nerve dysfunction in Guillain-Barré syndrome is caused by an immune attack on the nerve cells of the peripheral nervous ... The nerve cells have their body (the soma) in the spinal cord and a long projection (the axon) that carries electrical nerve ... Various antibodies directed at nerve cells have been reported in Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the axonal subtype, these ... Between Schwann cells are gaps (nodes of Ranvier) where the axon is exposed. Different types of Guillain-Barré syndrome ...
DNA demethylation of inflammasome-associated genes is enhanced in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the sole projecting neurons of the retina and their axons form the optic nerve. Here, we show ... Start is the main decision point in eukaryotic cell cycle in which cells commit to a new round of cell division. It involves ... Autophagy promotes survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve axotomy in mice. Natalia Rodríguez-Muela, Francisco ... Overactivation of the MEK/ERK Pathway in Liver Tumor Cells Confers Resistance to TGF-B-Induced Cell Laia Caja, Patricia Sancho ...
Alternative Treatments for Depression, Anxiety & Stress | Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Autism Related Conditions
As a result of this development, changes are often observed in the brain neurons or brain nerve cells. As neurons are ... Down Syndrome. Also known as Trisomy 21, Down syndrome is a genetic condition linked to delays in physical growth, mild to ... Fragile X Syndrome. Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a genetic condition that leads to intellectual disability, developmental ... Children with Down syndrome who also have autism often develop a different pattern of symptoms compared to those with a single ...
GBS (Guillain-Barré Syndrome) and Vaccines | Vaccine Safety | CDC
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare disorder where the bodys immune system damages nerve cells, causing muscle weakness ... Invited commentary: Influenza vaccine and Guillain-Barre syndrome-is there a risk?external icon Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Jun 1;175( ... ES Hurwitz, LB Schonberger, DB Nelson, et al.: Guillain-Barre syndrome and the 1978-1979 influenza vaccineexternal icon. N Engl ... R Baxter, N Lewis, N Bakshi, et al.CISA Network: Recurrent Guillain-Barre syndrome following vaccinationexternal icon. Clin ...
CDC H1N1 Flu | General Questions and Answers on Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare disorder in which a persons own immune system damages the nerve cells, causing muscle ... It is not fully understood why some people develop GBS, but it is believed that the nerve cells are damaged by a persons own ... Many types of infections, and in very rare cases vaccines, may activate the immune system to cause damage to the nerve cells. ... Most people recover fully from GBS, but some people have permanent nerve damage. In rare cases, people have died of GBS, ...
Study Suggests Possible Treatment for Neurological Disorder Rett Syndrome | Newswise: News for Journalists
... and stalled nerve cell development. Rett syndrome is an inherited neurological disease that affects one out of 10,000 girls ... into the bloodstream reduces Rett syndrome symptoms in mice, including lethargy, breathing and heart rhythm irregularities, ... keeping the cells from forming projections, called spines, which are used for nerve-cell-to-nerve-cell communication. Recent ... that directly promotes nerve cell maturation. The normal (left) and treated Rett syndrome model cells (right) have similar ...
NeuronsSymptomsNervous systemGuillain-Barre SyDifferent types of paraneoplastic syndromesParalysisSpinalPeripheralOccursImmuneDisorderInflammationMusclesSeizuresDisordersExact cause of Tourette syndromeCranialSensoryParaneoplastic syndromeGeneDiseasesAffectsTarsal tunnel sDiagnosisCongenitalSevereChromosomeTouretteBrainBody'sResearchersNumbnessPeopleEnteric nerveEndingsStem cellsProteinChronic compartmCarpalNeuronOccurMutationCapillariesFamilialEncephalomyelitisAutosomal dominantFacialPhenotypePainfulMutationsInfectionIrritableLambert-Eaton MyTypicallyCause serotonin syndromeMedicationsRestlessZikaDamageVagus nerveRett SyndromePremenstrual syndromeNeural crestNeuromuscular
- The new weakness appears to be due to disintegration of the distal nerve terminals of the surviving motor neurons whose soma has been stressed for years to maintain large motor units via excessive distal sprouting. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In this study, the scientists suggest that the autism in Timothy syndrome patients is caused by a gene mutation that makes calcium channels in neuron membranes defective, interfering with how those neurons communicate and develop. (healthcanal.com)
- We developed a way of taking skin cells from humans with Timothy syndrome and converting them into stem cells, then converting those stem cells into neurons," said Dolmetsch. (healthcanal.com)
- Here, some of them formed three-dimensional, brainlike spheres whose cells later migrated outward and matured into neurons. (healthcanal.com)
- The neurons grown from Timothy-syndrome iPS cells showed larger-than-normal spikes in calcium levels, suggesting the calcium channels lost their ability to shut off. (healthcanal.com)
- In Timothy syndrome cell cultures, the proportion of neurons of specific layers differed from that in normal brains - additional biological evidence for the disorder. (healthcanal.com)
- The neurons grown from the Timothy syndrome cells were less characteristic of lower-level neurons, which include neurons that bridge the left and right halves of the brain via the bundle of fibers known as the corpus callosum. (healthcanal.com)
- Pasca and Dolmetsch had an "aha" moment when they realized the neurons grown from Timothy syndrome cells were making too much of the enzyme most critical for producing dopamine and norepinephrine, which play an important role in sensory processing and social behavior. (healthcanal.com)
- Your neurons (nerve cells) lose speed and flexibility as you age. (goop.com)
- Researchers from the University of California, Irvine have identified intrinsic cell properties that influence the fate of neural stem cells, affecting what type of brain cell they will form: neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes. (news-medical.net)
- Neurofibromatosis affects the nervous system, including the development and growth of neurons (nerve cells). (cancer.ca)
- Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology in Martinsried and the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cellular Biology and Genetics in Dresden have now succeeded in demonstrating that mature neurons of the central nervous system no longer have an active centrosome and that new microtubules can form in these cells independently of the centrosome. (healthcanal.com)
- These range from almost spherical yeast cells to neurons with thousands of branched projections or dendrites. (healthcanal.com)
- To answer this question, the Max Planck scientists in Martinsried and Dresden used cell cultures to examine the sites where microtubules form in neurons. (healthcanal.com)
- The nerve pathway affected in Horner syndrome is divided into three groups of nerve cells (neurons). (mayoclinic.org)
- Malfunctions of enteric neurons are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). (frontiersin.org)
- Activity of human submucous neurons in response to electrical nerve stimulation and local application of nicotine or a mixture of histamine, serotonin, tryptase, and TNF-α (IBS-cocktail) was recorded in biopsies from 17 HC and 35 IBS patients with the calcium-sensitive-dye Fluo-4 AM. The concentrations of the mediators resembeled those found in biopsy supernatants or blood. (frontiersin.org)
- The seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain send out the wrong signals. (wm.edu)
- As a result of this development, changes are often observed in the brain neurons or brain nerve cells. (news-medical.net)
- The authors report that although there are stem cells which theoretically could develop into spinal motor neurons, this has not been seen yet in any primates. (skally.net)
- We have absolutely no idea about how to induce stem cells in the spinal cord to regenerate any kind of neuron, and certainly not motor neurons. (skally.net)
- The brain of the adult human can sometimes compensate for damage quite well, by making new connections among surviving nerve cells (neurons). (skally.net)
- Current data suggest that stem cells probably make new neurons in another part of the human brain and also reside, albeit dormantly, in additional locations. (skally.net)
- If the immune system attacked killed the neurons cell body axons dendrites nerves throughout the body is it possible and what diagnosis would this be? (healthtap.com)
- It functions as a neurotransmitter, which is a substance that sends messages between between nerve cells (neurons) in the brain and throughout the body. (wikihow.com)
- Poliovirus attacks specific neurons in the brainstem and the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, generally resulting in the death of a substantial fraction of the motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles . (wikipedia.org)
- In an effort to compensate for the loss of these neurons, surviving motor neurons sprout new nerve terminals to the orphaned muscle fibers. (wikipedia.org)
- Early in development, vagal (hindbrain) neural crest cells (NCC) migrate into the foregut, colonize the entire length of the gut, and differentiate into enteric neurons and glia. (lww.com)
- Studies have suggested that enteric neurons can respond to the changing intestinal environment by changing their expression of receptors and/or neurotransmitters, or their associations with other cell types. (lww.com)
- The ENS consists of an extensive network of neurons and glia cells that are arranged in interconnected plexuses (myenteric or Auerbach's plexus, and submucosal or Meissner's plexus) distributed between the smooth muscle layers of the gut wall. (lww.com)
- Although mutations in the MECP2 gene disrupt the normal function of nerve cells, it is unclear how these mutations lead to the signs and symptoms of PPM-X syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
- It is unclear how MECP2 gene mutations lead to the signs and symptoms of PPM-X syndrome, but misregulation of genes in the brain likely plays a role. (medlineplus.gov)
- In females, who have two copies of the X chromosome, one altered copy of the gene in each cell can lead to less severe features of the condition or may cause no signs or symptoms at all. (medlineplus.gov)
- In this article, we cover the causes and symptoms that doctors associate with serotonin syndrome. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Serotonin syndrome refers to a collection of symptoms that develop when too much serotonin accumulates in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Doctors do not know the exact prevalence and incidence of serotonin syndrome because the condition causes a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Symptoms of serotonin syndrome usually begin 1-6 hours after ingesting the medication and almost always within 24 hours. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A doctor can diagnose serotonin syndrome by reviewing a person's medical history, symptoms, and current medications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- They can also use one or more laboratory tests to rule out conditions that cause similar symptoms to serotonin syndrome, such as hormonal imbalances and infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- While 8% to 10% of Americans have some symptoms of RLS, "about 3% of adults have restless legs syndrome that impacts their quality of life enough to seek treatment," says Bell. (webmd.com)
- The symptoms of restless legs syndrome vary widely. (webmd.com)
- These symptoms of restless legs syndrome can range from "barely noticeable to almost incapacitating," according to Buchfuhrer. (webmd.com)
- A child with Rett syndrome may not have every symptom listed below, and their symptoms can change as they get older. (www.nhs.uk)
- Rett syndrome is described in 4 stages, although symptoms will often overlap between each stage. (www.nhs.uk)
- The virus attacks cells in the spinal cord and causes symptoms of fever, sore throat, headache, vomiting, and stiffness of the neck. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Horner syndrome is a combination of signs and symptoms caused by the disruption of a nerve pathway from the brain to the face and eye on one side of the body. (mayoclinic.org)
- But too much of it can lead to extreme nerve cell activity and dangerous symptoms. (webmd.com)
- Serotonin syndrome symptoms often begin hours after you take a new medication that affects your serotonin levels or after you raise your dose of a current drug. (webmd.com)
- If symptoms of compartment syndrome develop, remove or loosen any constricting bandages. (orthoinfo.org)
- The link between psychological disorders and chronic fatigue syndrome is problematic because so many of the symptoms overlap. (umm.edu)
- A number of conditions overlap or coexist with chronic fatigue syndrome and have similar symptoms. (umm.edu)
- The main symptoms of Tourette syndrome are motor tics (sudden, uncontrollable movements such as eye blinking, grimacing, head jerking, or shoulder shrugging) or vocal tics (such as throat clearing, sniffing, or humming). (kidshealth.org)
- While there is no cure for Tourette syndrome, doctors can prescribe medicines to help control symptoms that interfere with schoolwork or daily life. (kidshealth.org)
- What are symptoms of serotonin syndrome? (healthtap.com)
-   The diagnosis is usually made based on the signs and symptoms, through the exclusion of alternative causes, and supported by tests such as nerve conduction studies and examination of the cerebrospinal fluid . (wikipedia.org)
- The first symptoms of Guillain-Barré syndrome are numbness, tingling , and pain, alone or in combination. (wikipedia.org)
- Many people with Guillain-Barré syndrome have experienced the signs and symptoms of an infection in the 3-6 weeks prior to the onset of the neurological symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
- An increasing number of patients with Down syndrome manifest symptoms of autism. (news-medical.net)
- Children with Down syndrome who also have autism often develop a different pattern of symptoms compared to those with a single diagnosis of autism. (news-medical.net)
- FINDINGS: Injecting the small protein insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) into the bloodstream reduces Rett syndrome symptoms in mice, including lethargy, breathing and heart rhythm irregularities, reduced brain size, and stalled nerve cell development. (newswise.com)
- This study in mice shows that injecting a small derivate of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) into the bloodstream relieves Rett syndrome symptoms. (newswise.com)
- In a study appearing in the February issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , researchers showed that daily injections of an active fragment of IGF-1 in mice that expressed Rett-syndrome like symptoms could significantly reduce movement and respiratory irregularities. (newswise.com)
- This is the first realistic way for a drug-like molecule injected into the bloodstream to relieve Rett syndrome symptoms," says Whitehead Member Rudolf Jaenisch, whose lab collaborated with the lab of MIT and Picower scientist Mriganka Sur in the research. (newswise.com)
- Such mice lack the MeCP2 gene and at four to six weeks display symptoms quite similar to those in girls with Rett Syndrome, including difficulty walking, lethargy, and breathing and heart rhythm irregularities. (newswise.com)
- Adie syndrome presents with three main symptoms, namely at least one abnormally dilated pupil (mydriasis) which does not constrict in response to light, loss of deep tendon reflexes, and abnormalities of sweating. (disabled-world.com)
- In Adie syndrome, muscles that cause the pupil of the person's eye to contract or dilate remain tensed, creating the symptoms people experience. (disabled-world.com)
- Symptoms of the disorders below may be similar to those of Adie Syndrome. (disabled-world.com)
- The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy are produced by disease of a single nerve, or many nerves at the same time. (disabled-world.com)
- medical citation needed] The signs and symptoms of activated PI3K Delta Syndrome are consistent with the following: Immunodeficiency Lymphadenopathy Sinopulmonary infections Bronchiectasis In terms of genetics, activated PI3K Delta Syndrome is autosomal dominant, a mutation in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform is the reason for this condition (located at chromosome 1p36. (wikipedia.org)
- In this syndrome the brain and the spinal cord is inflammated and it is manifested through a number of symptoms. (onlinecancerguide.com)
- Signs and symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system can develop relatively quickly, often over days to weeks. (mayoclinic.org)
- Signs and symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system often begin even before a cancer is diagnosed. (mayoclinic.org)
- A question that arises, of course, is whether replacing faulty immune cells with healthy microglia through bone marrow transplant would arrest or ameliorate already existing symptoms in humans. (innovations-report.com)
- There isn't a specific diagnostic test for Tourette syndrome - instead, the health care provider diagnoses it after taking a family history, medical history, looking at the symptoms, and doing a physical exam. (kidshealth.org)
- Sometimes, imaging tests like magnetic resonance imaging tests (MRIs) , computerized tomography (CT) scans, electroencephalograms (EEGs) , or blood tests can rule out other conditions that might cause symptoms similar to Tourette syndrome. (kidshealth.org)
- If your symptoms do not dissipate after a few days, you have been taking the medications that caused the serotonin syndrome for an extended period of time, or you are having any symptoms worrisome for severe serotonin syndrome (very high blood pressure, mental status changes, etc.), you need to seek medical attention immediately. (wikihow.com)
- The symptoms of Down's syndrome can affect a person in many different ways. (hse.ie)
- A neurologist is a doctor with specialized training in diagnosing, treating and managing disorders of the brain and nervous system such as multiple sclerosis, restless legs syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, narcolepsy, and stroke. (eurekalert.org)
- Topically placing drops of a 10% liquid cocaine into the eyes blocks the parasympathetic nerves so the sympathetic nervous system can be evaluated. (encyclopedia.com)
- Horner syndrome is caused by damage to a certain pathway in the sympathetic nervous system. (mayoclinic.org)
- Your body makes serotonin to help your brain cells and other nervous system cells communicate with each other. (webmd.com)
- Researchers say the stress of abuse may trigger the condition through its effects on the central nervous system, immune system, and neuroendocrine system (which is related to both nerves and hormones). (umm.edu)
- Sodium channels play a crucial role in regulating the activity of the nervous system to help nerve cells communicate. (webwire.com)
- Guillain-Barré syndrome ( GBS ) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
- Tourette syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system. (wm.edu)
- P110δ has a presence in transformed epithelial cells and cell adhesion molecules (airway inflammation), and research has been done on the possibility of P110δ in the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
- Gangliosides lipids occur mainly in the ganglion cells of the nervous system. (genengnews.com)
- Paraneoplastic syndromes are neurological disorders that arise as the "remote effect" of a cancer that does not directly involve the nervous system. (brighamandwomens.org)
- The underlying cause of such syndromes is not certain, but it is theorized that these syndromes arise as a result of the body launching an immunological attack against the cells of the nervous system. (brighamandwomens.org)
- The purpose of such a procedure is to "cleanse" the blood of anti-tumor antibodies which have become directed against the cells of the nervous system. (brighamandwomens.org)
- This is a syndrome of the nervous system that can occur in patients of cancer. (onlinecancerguide.com)
- Restless leg syndrome (RLS) is a nervous system disorder. (achievesolutions.net)
- Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system are a group of uncommon disorders that develop in some people who have cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
- Paraneoplastic syndromes of the nervous system occur when cancer-fighting agents of the immune system also attack parts of the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves or muscle. (mayoclinic.org)
- Depending on where the nervous system is affected, paraneoplastic syndromes can cause problems with muscle movement or coordination, sensory perception, memory or thinking skills, or even sleep. (mayoclinic.org)
- PHOX2B controls the development of nerve cells that are part of the involuntary (autonomic) nervous system. (socialstyrelsen.se)
- Is the virus somehow linked to Guillain-Barre syndrome, which can cause temporary paralysis? (npr.org)
- AIZENMAN: Because the fact that a person's body fluids are in one of these tubes means there's a good chance that right now that person is suffering the excruciating effects of Guillain-Barre syndrome. (npr.org)
- CHICAGO (Reuters) - Top Zika investigators now believe that the birth defect microcephaly and the paralyzing Guillain-Barre syndrome may be just the most obvious maladies caused by the mosquito-borne virus. (reuters.com)
- Invited commentary: Influenza vaccine and Guillain-Barre syndrome-is there a risk? (cdc.gov)
- Risk of confirmed Guillain-Barre syndrome following receipt of monovalent inactivated influenza A (H1N1) and seasonal influenza vaccines in the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, 2009-2010. (cdc.gov)
- You don't have to be pregnant to experience the virus's other possible complication, Guillain-Barre syndrome. (lifehacker.com.au)
- Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare condition where a person's immune system attacks their nerve cells. (lifehacker.com.au)
Different types of paraneoplastic syndromes2
- Global health officials are alarmed because of its potential link to brain defects in infants as well as a rare syndrome that can lead to paralysis. (pressherald.com)
- Most people recover fully from it, but others experience long-term nerve damage or paralysis. (pressherald.com)
- Numbness or paralysis are late signs of compartment syndrome. (orthoinfo.org)
- Now, her face drooped on one side due to a paralysis of the facial nerve. (canada.com)
- Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare disorder where the body's immune system damages nerve cells, causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis. (cdc.gov)
- Guillain-Barré syndrome is an uncommon disorder in which a person's immune system damages nerve cells, causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis. (cdc.gov)
- Involvement of the anterior horn cells can produce muscular weakness, cranial nerve palsies, diaphragmatic paralysis, neurogenic bladder, and colonic pseudo-obstruction. (medscape.com)
- The locked-in syndrome consists of almost complete paralysis. (merckmanuals.com)
- Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that specialized cells in the brain, spinal cord, and intestines produce. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Patients with polio can have long-term weakness of muscles as a result of the damaged cells in the spinal cord. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Not all nerve cells in the spinal cord are damaged by the poliovirus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A spinal fracture is type of fracture in the vertebrae of the spine that can cause bone fragments to damage the spinal cord or nerves in the spine. (hoffmannpersonalinjury.com)
- When the force or pressure is excessive, the injury can affect the spinal cord or nerve roots. (hoffmannpersonalinjury.com)
- Also referred to as anterior spinal artery syndrome , this type of injury is common in St. Louis car wrecks. (hoffmannpersonalinjury.com)
- If blood flow to either the left or the right side of the spinal cord gets affected, a victim is likely suffering Brown-Sequard Syndrome. (hoffmannpersonalinjury.com)
- Brown-Sequard-Syndrome (BSS) is also referred to as partial spinal sensory syndrome, hemisection of the spinal cord, spastic spinal monoplegia syndrome, and hemiparaplegic syndrome. (hoffmannpersonalinjury.com)
- A protein known to drive nerve cell survival in the brain and spinal cord might also protect failing hearts in children and young adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, according to preliminary research presented at the American Heart Association's Basic Cardiovascular Sciences Scientific Sessions, a premier global exchange of the latest advances in basic cardiovascular science. (news-medical.net)
- VHL syndrome affects blood vessels in the eyes, brain, spinal cord, adrenal glands or other parts of the body, making them grow abnormally. (cancer.ca)
- The nerve that carries the sympathetic innervation travels down the spinal cord from the brain (hypothalamus), emerges in the chest cavity, and then finds it way up the neck along with the carotid artery and jugular vein through the middle ear and into the eye. (encyclopedia.com)
- But the newly discovered brain and spinal cord infections are known to be caused by a different mechanism - a direct attack on nerve cells. (reuters.com)
- Horner syndrome is the result of another medical problem, such as a stroke, tumor or spinal cord injury. (mayoclinic.org)
- Fortunately, the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord have a great capacity to heal. (canada.com)
- Wider involvement of the spinal cord can produce Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, and myositis. (medscape.com)
- This syndrome refers to inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. (mayoclinic.org)
- This term refers to a syndrome of injury limited to the spinal cord. (mayoclinic.org)
- Our patients travel from the Boston area, New England region and across the United States to receive specialized care with peripheral nerve disorders. (massgeneral.org)
-  The underlying mechanism involves an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the peripheral nerves and damages their myelin insulation. (wikipedia.org)
- Lesions, usually degenerative, might happen in the peripheral nerves or nerve roots. (disabled-world.com)
- We describe a rare case of a 67-year old man who presented with an isolated ONP as the primary manifestation of a diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), exhibiting without palpated masses, enlarged lymph nodes or peripheral blood abnormalities. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Serotonin syndrome occurs when a person takes one or more drugs that cause excess levels of serotonin to accumulate in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The authors of one 2019 article believe that doctors may not be recording serotonin syndrome as often as it occurs due to a lack of awareness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Typically, serotonin syndrome occurs when people take one or more prescription medications, supplements, or illicit drugs that increase serotonin levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Guillain-Barré syndrome occurs when your own immune system damages nerve cells. (pressherald.com)
- Thus, damage that occurs anywhere along the course of this nerve's route from the brain to the eye can evoke this syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
- After waiting for 48 hours, other medications are used to determine where the nerve interruption occurs. (encyclopedia.com)
- Compartment syndrome is a painful condition that occurs when pressure within the muscles builds to dangerous levels. (orthoinfo.org)
- Compartment syndrome develops when swelling or bleeding occurs within a compartment. (orthoinfo.org)
- Compartment syndrome most often occurs in the anterior (front) compartment of the lower leg (calf). (orthoinfo.org)
- The development of compartment syndrome in this manner usually occurs in people who are neurologically compromised. (orthoinfo.org)
- Short bowel syndrome (SBS) occurs when a large portion of the small intestine and/or colon is removed. (neocate.com)
- Full blown" serotonin syndrome usually occurs when a patient taking one serotinergic drug is given an additional serotinergic drug. (healthtap.com)
- Serotonin syndrome occurs when there's excessive nerve cell activity, and it can be fatal. (healthline.com)
- Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) was the first paraneoplasia to be described and occurs in a wide range of different types of neoplasia such as lymphomas, carcinomas of the ovaries, uterus, breast, in addition to the most frequently culpable small cell carcinoma. (redorbit.com)
- Fragile X syndrome occurs when the repeats number more than 200. (bio-medicine.org)
- When this occurs, the median nerve, which controls feeling and movement in the hand, is compressed by surrounding tissue or excess fluid. (wholehealthmd.com)
- When it occurs as a paraneoplastic syndrome, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is typically associated with lung cancer. (mayoclinic.org)
- Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when tendons or ligaments in the wrist become enlarged, often from inflammation, after being aggravated. (geometry.net)
- Restoration of nerve function may occur in some fibers a second time, but eventually nerve terminals malfunction and permanent weakness occurs. (wikipedia.org)
- It's a temporary condition in which your immune system starts attacking your nerve cells. (npr.org)
- GBS happens because your immune system attacks nerve cells by mistake. (drugs.com)
- This was very likely due to desensitization to mediators constantly released by mucosal and immune cells in the gut wall of IBS patients. (frontiersin.org)
- Immune-mediated paraneoplasia (IMP) is a collection of cancer- associated syndromes that involve pathological immunological activity.1-3 Autoimmunity is implicated by reports of patients displaying abnormal antibody reactions focused on single antigens expressed within the affected organ. (redorbit.com)
- The autoantigens are organ and cell-specific, and in some cases surgical removal of the neoplasm has resulted in amelioration of immune-mediated paraneoplasia.2,14-18 Gammaglobulin treatment is reported to have beneficial results in some through processes that include anti-idiotype immunomodulation.19 Plasmapheresis and immuno- suppression may provide symptomatic relief in others,3,6,15,20 but no single immunomodulation is universally successful. (redorbit.com)
- To learn more about how and why Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome are associated (e.g., does Zika virus directly damage nerves, or does it overstimulate the immune system? (cdc.gov)
- Having found no evidence of the virus itself in the nerve tissue, the researchers suggest that antibodies (immune response) to the virus may be the trigger for Guillain-Barré syndrome. (cdc.gov)
- When the immune system in a human body is considerably altered by neoplasm, it can result into Paraneoplastic syndrome. (onlinecancerguide.com)
- The Paraneoplastic syndrome develops in a human when the cancer fighting agents present in human immune system also affect other organs such as brain, nerves etc in a negative way. (onlinecancerguide.com)
- A paper published online today in Nature describes the results of using bone marrow transplant (BMT) to replace faulty immune system cells in models of Rett Syndrome. (innovations-report.com)
- What began as intellectual curiosity," he explains, "has become an intense personal commitment to studying the correlation between neurological function and the immune system in Rett Syndrome. (innovations-report.com)
- Microglia are small glial cells that participate in the brain's immune response. (innovations-report.com)
- Because microglia are derived from immune progenitor cells, it is possible to replace them via a bone marrow transplant. (innovations-report.com)
- It will now be necessary to develop cellular assays to determine all the ways these immune cells are bolstering neuronal functions and whether they can be therapeutically harnessed. (innovations-report.com)
- if the immune system targeted specific nerves cells why would the body not be able to feel the process of those nerves cells being attacked? (healthtap.com)
- Could the immune system attack nerve cells and kill the nerves throughout the body? (healthtap.com)
- If the immune system targets and attacks and kills the nerves in the entire body after a viral infection what is this diagnosed as? (healthtap.com)
- If the immune system attacks and destroys nerves and nerve cells in entire body leaving the brain untouched would the human body just be a skeleton? (healthtap.com)
-  Finally, it has been proposed that the initial polio infection causes an autoimmune reaction , in which the body's immune system attacks normal cells as if they were foreign substances. (wikipedia.org)
- PPM-X syndrome is a condition characterized by psychotic disorders (most commonly bipolar disorder ), a pattern of movement abnormalities known as parkinsonism, and mild to severe intellectual disability with impaired language development. (medlineplus.gov)
- More than 99 percent of PPM-X syndrome cases occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. (medlineplus.gov)
- Despite the trivial-sounding name, this is a very real disorder," says Mark Buchfuhrer, MD, a nationally known expert on restless legs syndrome, who has treated hundreds of people with the condition over the past 15 years. (webmd.com)
- Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects brain development, resulting in severe mental and physical disability. (www.nhs.uk)
- Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that results in pigmentary dilution of the skin and the hair (silver hair), the presence of large clumps of pigment in hair shafts, and an accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. (medscape.com)
- Lethal white syndrome (LWS), also called overo lethal white syndrome (OLWS), lethal white overo (LWO), and overo lethal white foal syndrome (OLWFS), is an autosomal genetic disorder most prevalent in the American Paint Horse. (wikipedia.org)
- ST. PAUL, Minn. - A new study shows both obesity and a large belly appear to increase the risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS), a common sleep disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move your legs. (eurekalert.org)
- Previously it was thought that most of the effects of Down Syndrome occurred prenatally, but comparisons between toddlers and adults with the disorder revealed that changes in white matter levels in the brain are actively occurring during development. (georgetown.edu)
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is not a new disorder. (umm.edu)
- Carpal tunnel syndrome is a painful disorder of the wrist and hand that affects some 5 million Americans. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Newswise - Using injections of a small derivate of the protein insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), scientists at Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory have successfully treated a mouse model of the devastating neurological disorder Rett syndrome. (newswise.com)
- Outline: Adie syndrome, sometimes called the Holmes-Adie syndrome, is a neurologic disorder in where the ability of the pupil to constrict is impaired, usually in one eye. (disabled-world.com)
- Adie syndrome is a form of rare neurological disorder affecting the pupil of a person's eye. (disabled-world.com)
- Adie syndrome, also called Holmes-Adie syndrome or Adie's tonic pupil, is a neurological disorder characterized by a tonically dilated pupil that reacts slowly to light but shows a more definite response to accommodation. (disabled-world.com)
- Adie syndrome is a rare neurological disorder that usually affects the pupil of one eye or occasionally both eyes. (disabled-world.com)
- The diverse and complex female endocrine disorder polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 1 in 15 women worldwide, is a major economic health burden that is likely to expand together with obesity, conclude authors of a Seminar in this week's edition of The Lancet. (innovations-report.com)
- Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (hypo =low, ventilation = breathing) is a neurological disorder characterized by an inability to breathe spontaneously, especially during sleep. (socialstyrelsen.se)
- Tourette syndrome is a genetic disorder, which means it's the result of a change in genes that's either inherited (passed on from parent to child) or happens during development in the womb. (kidshealth.org)
- Many kids and teens with Tourette syndrome have other behavioral conditions like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) , obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) , l earning disabilities, or anxiety . (kidshealth.org)
- Down's syndrome is a genetic disorder that was named after John Langdon Down, the doctor who first recognised it as a distinct condition in 1866. (hse.ie)
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder, characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort in combination with disturbed bowel habits in the absence of identifiable organic cause. (frontiersin.org)
- MDS is a contiguous gene syndrome - a disorder due to the deletion of multiple gene loci adjacent to one another. (wikipedia.org)
- This syndrome should not be confused with Miller syndrome, an unrelated rare genetic disorder, or Miller Fisher syndrome, a form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
- MCT8-specific thyroid hormone cell transporter deficiency (THCT deficiency) is an inherited disorder that is characterized by severe intellectual disability, an impaired ability to speak, diminished muscle tone (hypotonia), and/or movement abnormalities. (rarediseases.org)
- It shares many features with chronic fatigue syndrome , but, unlike that disorder, it tends to be progressive and can cause loss of muscle strength. (wikipedia.org)
- Newswise - In a surprising finding using the standard animal model of Down syndrome (DS), scientists were able to correct the learning and memory deficits associated with the condition -- the leading genetic cause of cognitive disability and the most frequently diagnosed chromosomal disorder in the U.S. -- with drugs that target the body's response to cellular stresses. (newswise.com)
- Can one nerve balance inflammation, control every aspect of digestion, AND allow the body to be calm? (vagusnervesupport.com)
- Bell's palsy results from an acute inflammation of the facial nerve. (canada.com)
- What triggers inflammation of the nerve has always been a mystery. (canada.com)
- Inflammation resulting from carpal tunnel syndrome may be reduced by bromelain, an enzyme found in pineapple. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Motor neuron disease is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by degeneration and inflammation of the nerves innervating voluntary muscle. (brighamandwomens.org)
- The most common cause of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is inflammation of the tendons in the tunnel which can normally be attributed to repetitive use of the hand and/or wrist. (geometry.net)
- If these sympathetic impulses were blocked, the eye would have an overbalance of parasympathetic supply, which would result in a constriction of the pupil, relaxation of all the muscles around the eye and a sinking of the eye into the orbit - Horner's syndrome. (encyclopedia.com)
- Compartments are groupings of muscles, nerves, and blood vessels in your arms and legs. (orthoinfo.org)
- Because the fascia does not stretch, this can cause increased pressure on the capillaries, nerves, and muscles in the compartment. (orthoinfo.org)
- To reach the facial muscles the nerve must pass through a tiny, tortuous, bony passageway in the thick part of the skull just behind the ear. (canada.com)
- If the nerve system has suffered major attack it will result into problems in coordination of mind body action or use of muscles. (onlinecancerguide.com)
- This is a syndrome caused by disrupted communication between nerves and muscles. (mayoclinic.org)
- Magnesium is an essential mineral necessary for bone and teeth formation and for the normal function of nerves and muscles, states the Merck Manuals Online Medical Library. (livestrong.com)
- This action then regulates the activity of over-excited nerve cells, which may contribute to the control of seizures. (webwire.com)
- Name 4 anterior horn cell disorders. (brainscape.com)
- The incidence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or functional bowel disorders (FBD) after bacillary dysentery (BD) has not been extensively evaluated, and little is known of the pathogenesis of post-infective (PI) IBS. (bmj.com)
- The POEMS syndrome (coined to refer to polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein, and skin changes) is a rare variant of plasma cell disorders with multiple systemic manifestations. (hindawi.com)
- The POEMS syndrome (coined to refer to polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein, and skin changes) is well known to be associated with a variety of clinical presentations, including pulmonary manifestations, renal impairment, hematological disorders, and extravascular volume overload [ 1 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Monoclonal plasma cell proliferative disorders, such as plasma cell neoplasms and Castleman's disease, are known to be an underlying condition responsible for the syndrome [ 2 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- It includes what used to be known as Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders. (wm.edu)
- If investigators can learn how to induce existing stem cells to produce useful numbers of functional nerve cells in chosen parts of the brain, that advance could make it possible to ease any number of disorders involving neuronal damage and death - among them Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and disabilities that accompany stroke and trauma. (skally.net)
- People with Tourette syndrome may have other disorders like ADHD, depression, a learning disability and other disabilies. (smore.com)
- Regardless of the type of syndrome present, these disorders can best be managed by treating the cancer from which the syndrome arises. (brighamandwomens.org)
- Rett Syndrome, the most physically disabling of the autism spectrum disorders, is caused by random mutations in the gene MECP2. (innovations-report.com)
- Diabetes, thyroid problems, and other systemic disorders are also associated with discomfort from stressed nerves, as is the fluid accumulation that sometimes accompanies pregnancy. (geometry.net)
- Information sheet compiled by NINDS, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.Category Health Conditions and Diseases Carpal Tunnelcarpal tunnel syndrome information sheet compiled by the National Institute ofNeurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). (geometry.net)
Exact cause of Tourette syndrome2
- Third cranial nerve dysfunction, oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP), can result from lesions anywhere along the nerve between the midbrain and the orbit ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Cranial nerves and their surrounding leptomeninges and cavernous sinus are often known to be involved in lymphomas ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- A dilated ophthalmoscopic exam was unremarkable, including the remainder of the neurological exams, such as assessing for motor/sensory and other cranial nerves function, gait and co-ordination examinations, which were normal. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Constant signals coming from sensitive "hair cell movement sensors" that are compared and integrated/coordinated with our other sensory systems are what keep you balanced. (intermountainhealthcare.org)
- Sensory neuropathy refers to the degeneration of nerve cells specialized for the appreciation of sensations from the body surface. (brighamandwomens.org)
- Therefore, people with this paraneoplastic syndrome typically experience: numbness, abnormal burning or tingling sensations in the distal extremities (paresthesia), severe pain, and an impairment of one's position sense (sensory ataxia). (brighamandwomens.org)
- No sensory nerves. (healthtap.com)
- If there are no sensory nerve endings in that part of the body, then no sensations are detected, so thus the brain receives no information (and so we don't 'feel' anything going on). (healthtap.com)
- What is a paraneoplastic syndrome? (brighamandwomens.org)
- Not many people are aware of Paraneoplastic syndrome as it is a rare one that can occur due to cancer. (onlinecancerguide.com)
- When such a situation is manifested, it is divided in certain classes of Paraneoplastic syndrome. (onlinecancerguide.com)
- Mutations in the MECP2 gene cause PPM-X syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some MECP2 gene mutations that cause PPM-X syndrome disrupt attachment (binding) of the MeCP2 protein to DNA, and other mutations alter the 3-dimensional shape of the protein. (medlineplus.gov)
- In males, who have only one X chromosome, a mutation in the only copy of the gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
- Almost all cases of Rett syndrome are caused by a mutation (a change in the DNA ) in the MECP2 gene, which is found on the X chromosome (one of the sex chromosomes ). (www.nhs.uk)
- The gene abnormality prevents nerve cells in the brain from working properly. (www.nhs.uk)
- In Griscelli syndrome type 1, a defect in the myosin Va gene leads to the pigment dilution and neurological sequelae. (medscape.com)
- Children with a defect in the MYO5A gene (Griscelli syndrome type 1) develop neurologic problems but no immunologic problems. (medscape.com)
- Griscelli syndrome type 2 is caused by a defect in the RAB27A gene, which affects a melanosome-anchoring complex in melanocytes, affecting release of cytolytic granules from T cells and natural killer cells. (medscape.com)
- The third form of Griscelli syndrome, whose expression is restricted to the characteristic hypopigmentation, results from mutation in the gene that encodes melanophilin, MLPH , the ortholog of the gene mutated in leaden mice. (medscape.com)
- Also, the relationship of mast cells to neurone specific enolase (NSE), substance P (SP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), or calcitonin gene related peptide positive nerve fibres was observed using double staining with alcian blue and neuropeptide antibodies. (bmj.com)
- Researchers at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have created a massive database of the changes in gene activity of individual cells in the cerebellum during embryonic development and immediately after birth. (news-medical.net)
- Recently, a study from the Boston University Medical Center claimed to have identified differences in gene expression that are found in people with Down Syndrome. (georgetown.edu)
- Increased inflammasome activity resulting from gene mutations is related to monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes. (sebbm.es)
- The key exception was the disease-causing gene, which becomes inactivated to cause the disease, and did not get turned back on in the iPS cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- The fragile X gene, called FMR1, remains active until cells begin to differentiate in preparation for forming different tissues and organs. (bio-medicine.org)
- To study the FMR1 gene silencing in embryonic stem cells, they established embryos affected by the fragile X condition in collaboration with Lis Maternity Hospital in Tel Aviv. (bio-medicine.org)
- The fragile X gene may be one of the first genes to resist the reprogramming process that transforms adult tissue cells into iPS cells, but it's likely not the last, said the researchers. (bio-medicine.org)
- In approximately 85% of girls with Rett syndrome, the disease is caused by loss of function of the MeCP2 gene, which is highly expressed during nerve cell maturation. (newswise.com)
- Activated PI3K delta syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency disease caused by activating gain of function mutations in the PIK3CD gene. (wikipedia.org)
- A rare nerve disease was successfully treated using stem cell gene therapy in two patients in Hannover, Germany. (medindia.net)
- Exploring the function of microglia deficient in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2), the protein encoded by the "Rett gene," principal investigator Jonathan Kipnis, Ph.D. and his team at the University of Virginia School of Medicine uncovered a completely novel approach to this devastating neurological syndrome. (innovations-report.com)
- In germinal centres (GC) mature B cells undergo intense proliferation and immunoglobulin gene modification before they differentiate into memory B cells or long-lived plasma cells (PC). (sebbm.es)
- The gene most frequently associated with the syndrome is located on chromosome 4 (4p12) and is known as PHOX2B . (socialstyrelsen.se)
- MDS is a microdeletion syndrome involving loss of the gene PAFAH1B1 on chromosome 17 which is responsible for the syndrome's characteristic sign of lissencephaly. (wikipedia.org)
- The loss of another gene, YWHAE, in the same region of chromosome 17 increases the severity of the lissencephaly in patients with Miller-Dieker syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
- Perhaps the biggest obstacle to research into autism and other psychiatric and neurological diseases is that scientists can't get living brain cell samples from people with these conditions, for obvious reasons. (healthcanal.com)
- Daley's team has turned patient cells back into stem cells for a range of diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
- In rare, hereditary storage diseases such as Sandhoff's disease or Tay-Sachs syndrome, the metabolic waste from accumulating gangliosides cannot be properly disposed of in the nerve cells because key enzymes are missing. (genengnews.com)
- Some of these antibodies, however, become directed against nerve cells, thus giving rise to the host of diseases which constitute the paraneoplastic syndromes. (brighamandwomens.org)
- Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome affects how different parts of the body grow. (cancer.ca)
- Horner syndrome usually affects only one side of the face. (mayoclinic.org)
- In preclinical studies, Vimpat has also been shown to bind to the collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2), an important target that affects the way that nerves differentiate and grow. (webwire.com)
- supplements we recommend for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Foods high in vitamin B6 may reduce discomfort from swelling that affects the hands and wrists of people who suffer from carpal tunnel syndrome. (wholehealthmd.com)
- RELEVANCE: Rett syndrome is an inherited neurological disease that affects one out of 10,000 girls born. (newswise.com)
- This affects the SLITRK1 protein the one responsible for the development of nerve cells. (smore.com)
- About 1 in every 550 live births in Ireland is affected by Down's syndrome .Down's syndrome affects all ethnic groups equally. (hse.ie)
Tarsal tunnel s2
- Differential diagnosis includes dermotrichic syndrome , hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia, keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID syndrome) and keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans (see these terms). (nih.gov)
- A diagnosis of Adie syndrome can be achieved by using dilute pilocarpine - a drug in the form of eye drops, to test the pupil's reaction to light. (disabled-world.com)
- This test will reveal whether nerve cells are missing and can help make the diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease. (kidshealth.org)
- In Sweden there are 15-20 children with the syndrome, but there may be additional cases in which the infant died before the diagnosis could be established. (socialstyrelsen.se)
- If the syndrome exists from birth (congenital), it is typically noted around the age of two years with the presence of a variation in the color of the iris and the lack of a crease in the drooping eye. (encyclopedia.com)
- Children who are diagnosed with Horner's syndrome of a congenital origin may undergo surgical correction to strengthen the muscle of the eyelid and give it an appearance similar to the unaffected eye. (encyclopedia.com)
- Ondine's curse" is a name for the disease that refers to a mediaeval myth, and the preferred term today is congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, or the abbreviated form CCHS. (socialstyrelsen.se)
- Approximately 1,000 children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome have been described in the international medical literature. (socialstyrelsen.se)
- The cause of congenital central hypoventilation syndrome is a mutation in one of the genes involved in the development of the nerve cells that control breathing. (socialstyrelsen.se)
- Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome is usually caused by a new mutation. (socialstyrelsen.se)
- This condition increases the risk of having children with congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. (socialstyrelsen.se)
- In congenital central hypoventilation syndrome children retain some degree of spontaneous breathing, but during sleep they ventilate poorly and, in the worst cases, they may even stop breathing. (socialstyrelsen.se)
- About 15% of children with Down's syndrome will die during the first year, usually from a complication that arises from congenital heart disease. (hse.ie)
- Miller-Dieker syndrome, Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome (MDLS), and chromosome 17p13.3 deletion syndrome is a micro deletion syndrome characterized by congenital malformations. (wikipedia.org)
- People with moderate-to-severe restless legs syndrome can become totally disabled," says Buchfuhrer. (webmd.com)
- Griscelli syndrome type 2 is the most common type and has the most severe presentation, if left untreated. (medscape.com)
- In particular, one report describes a Griscelli syndrome type 1 patient alive at age 21 years with motor retardation and severe mental retardation and two patients with Griscelli syndrome type 3, healthy at ages 21 and 24 years, manifesting merely with silvery grey eyebrows, eyelashes, and hair, as well as pigmentary dilution in the skin. (medscape.com)
- In severe cases, serotonin syndrome can be life-threatening. (webmd.com)
- Acute compartment syndrome usually develops after a severe injury, such as a car accident or a broken bone. (orthoinfo.org)
- However, she eventually died of respiratory failure and an autopsy revealed the presence of smoldering plasma cell myeloma and multiple organomegaly in addition to severe PH. (hindawi.com)
- The autopsy revealed the presence of smoldering plasma cell myeloma and multiple organomegaly in addition to severe PH, apparently caused by plasma cell myeloma affecting the pulmonary vasculature. (hindawi.com)
- Previously called stiff man syndrome, this syndrome is characterized by progressive, severe muscle stiffness or rigidity, mainly affecting your spine and legs. (mayoclinic.org)
- Down syndrome is a condition in which a person is born with an extra copy of chromosome 21. (wm.edu)
- Either chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis can be used early in a pregnancy to obtain a small sample of cells from the developing embryo for chromosome studies. (wikipedia.org)
- The vast majority of the field has been focusing on individual genes on chromosome 21 to figure out which ones are causally related to Down syndrome and its pathologies. (newswise.com)
- The researchers discovered that hippocampal cells in DS mice had activated what's known as the integrated stress response (ISR), a biological circuit that detects when something's awry -- the presence of an extra chromosome, for example, in the case of DS -- and engages a protective response that activates machinery to tamp down protein production. (newswise.com)
- And by a stroke of pure luck, the researchers were able to obtain a tissue sample from a person with DS in whom some cells carried the expected third copy of chromosome 21, while others were genetically normal -- the ISR, however, was only active in the cells with the extra chromosome. (newswise.com)
- Tourette syndrome usually emerges in childhood or adolescence and is more common in boys. (kidshealth.org)
- It's common for people with Tourette syndrome to have other conditions too, such as ADHD , OCD , learning disabilities, or sleep problems. (kidshealth.org)
- Tourette syndrome is a neurological condition, not a psychological one. (kidshealth.org)
- Students with Tourette syndrome face a significantly higher risk of being bullied. (kidshealth.org)
- Counselors and Tourette syndrome organizations can help you and your students learn how to explain the tics to others. (kidshealth.org)
- Students with Tourette syndrome can participate in school sports, phys-ed, and extracurricular activities. (kidshealth.org)
- If you have Tourette syndrome, you make unusual movements or sounds, called tics. (wm.edu)
- 1 out of every 360 people in the united states suffers Tourette syndrome. (smore.com)
- Psychotherapy ( talk therapy )- Helping you cope with Tourette syndrome and other problems like ADHD, obsession, depression and anxiety. (smore.com)
- You can inherit this if you have a family history of Tourette syndrome or if you are a male. (smore.com)
- The tics associated with Tourette syndrome tend to get milder or go away entirely as kids grow into adulthood. (kidshealth.org)
- In rare cases, people with Tourette syndrome might have a tic that makes them harm themselves, such as head banging. (kidshealth.org)
- This can make it hard for kids with Tourette syndrome to have a conversation or pay attention in class. (kidshealth.org)
- To be diagnosed with Tourette syndrome, a child must have several different types of tics - specifically, multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic - for at least a year. (kidshealth.org)
- Just as Tourette syndrome is different for every person, treatment can be different, too. (kidshealth.org)
- While there isn't a cure for Tourette syndrome, most tics don't get in the way of day-to-day life. (kidshealth.org)
- Tourette syndrome is not a psychological condition, but doctors sometimes refer kids and teens to a psychologist or psychiatrist. (kidshealth.org)
- The researchers also found brain cells grown from individuals with Timothy syndrome resulted in fewer of the kind of cells that connect both halves of the brain, as well as an overproduction of two of the brain's chemical messengers, dopamine and norepinephrine. (healthcanal.com)
- free radicals induce damage to cells, DNA, and proteins in a process called oxidative stress if you don't have antioxidant countermeasures in place (like vitamins A, C, and E). Your hippocampus (the part of your brain involved in memory creation and emotional control) may shrink, especially if you're stressed. (goop.com)
- On top of that, excess stress kills brain cells by increasing production of beta-amyloid, which puts the brain at risk for Alzheimer's disease. (goop.com)
- By observing individual brain cells of mice, scientists at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory are understanding how a sound can incite fear. (news-medical.net)
- One promising area of research is in receptors on the surfaces of brain cells that help sense growth factors. (news-medical.net)
- Innovative research aimed to possibly rejuvenate brain cells will be explored by six international researchers with the goal of discovering effective drugs for people with early stage Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. (news-medical.net)
- Understanding a mysterious type of brain cell in the hopes of shedding new light on Alzheimer's disease. (news-medical.net)
- Scientists trying to identify the roots of sudden infant death syndrome, the leading cause of death in U.S. infants between 1 month and 1 year old, have increasingly turned their attention to the neurotransmitter serotonin and the brain cells that produce it. (news-medical.net)
- Scientists have created an elaborate map of more than a billion brain cell connections, helping to shed light on how memories are formed and recalled. (news-medical.net)
- The suspicion that Zika acts directly on nerve cells began with autopsies on aborted and stillborn fetuses showing the virus replicating in brain tissues. (reuters.com)
- People with Down Syndrome have defects in their oligodendrocytes , a type of brain cell that forms white matter. (georgetown.edu)
- Can you have perm brain/cns damage or neurlogical damage from serotonin syndrome left untreated or not recognized and left on drugs. (healthtap.com)
- The pathological process involves the immunological inhibition and loss of specific brain cells. (redorbit.com)
- If some brain chemicals are too low, the brain's nerve cells work slower. (aafp.org)
- The mouse brain samples above are stained for a key protein (green) that directly promotes nerve cell maturation. (newswise.com)
- While researchers in Sur's lab had discovered that increased brain levels of IGF-1 promoted maturation of synapses, the connections between nerve cells that are the basis for brain functions, Emanuela Giacometti, a graduate student in Jaenisch's laboratory, was theorizing that IGF-1 might also increase the nerve cell spines in the lab's mouse model of Rett syndrome. (newswise.com)
- IF an aspect of polio fatigue is related to brain damage which is now expressing itself as some think, then, if we could find a way to activate stem cells in that polio damaged area there is a possibility of helping PPS patients. (skally.net)
- Contrary to dogma, the human brain does produce new nerve cells in adulthood. (skally.net)
- The absolute number of new cells is low relative to the total number in the brain. (skally.net)
- This is the loss of nerve cells in the area of the brain that controls muscle functions and balance (cerebellum). (mayoclinic.org)
- Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. (innovations-report.com)
- The brain is largely comprised of several types of glial cells, which have diverse and complex functions that include sustaining a healthy environment for neuronal growth and maintenance. (innovations-report.com)
- After stress, nerve cells in the brain produced more oxytocin in females but not in males. (eurekalert.org)
- Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is caused by the degeneration of nerve cells in the brain. (dailyrecord.co.uk)
- An upset in the balance of neurotransmitters (chemicals in the brain that carry nerve signals from cell to cell) might play a role. (kidshealth.org)
- MRI facilitates early detection of this syndrome in children by revealing a "smooth brain" image, also called lissencephaly. (wikipedia.org)
- Paraneoplastic syndromes are caused by antibodies directed against the body's nerve cells. (brighamandwomens.org)
- These cases helped researchers determine that PPM-X syndrome has an X-linked pattern of inheritance. (medlineplus.gov)
- Researchers believe that the 'post-polio syndrome' may be caused by failure of these overworked nerve cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In the new study in the May 7 Cell Stem Cell the researchers m. (bio-medicine.org)
- In the new study in the May 7 Cell Stem Cell , the researchers made iPS cells from the skin cells of three patients with fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited mental retardation in boys. (bio-medicine.org)
- Urbach and co-first author Ori Bar-Nur, a graduate student in Benvenisty's lab first created fragile X iPS cells from the skin cells of two affected patients and related lung cells from a 22-week-old fetus with fragile X, testing them extensively to assure themselves and other researchers of their stem-cell qualities. (bio-medicine.org)
- Researchers have long wondered how glial cells, which help provide nutrition and maintain the immediate environment around nerve cells, modulate the activity of nerve cells. (medicalxpress.com)
- To identify proteostasis problems that might contribute to DS, the researchers turned to a common mouse model that captures most of the chromosomal, developmental and cognitive abnormalities that define the human version of the syndrome. (newswise.com)
- The combination of the inflamed tendons and the squeezed median nerve are responsible for the pain, tingling, numbness and weakness of the thumb and index and middle fingers characteristic of CTS. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Some people can also develop serotonin syndrome after taking a single medication that increases serotonin levels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Many people learned about restless legs syndrome from watching TV advertisements for medicines that treat RLS. (webmd.com)
- People with restless legs syndrome typically come to the doctor complaining of insomnia or fatigue . (webmd.com)
- The scientists studied cells from patients with Timothy syndrome, a rare genetic condition that is associated with one of the most penetrant forms of autism: In other words, most people with the Timothy syndrome mutation have autism as a symptom, among other problems. (healthcanal.com)
- I have, however, worked with many people, men and women, who have the syndrome and have reported back to me that various therapies have made their life more bearable. (angelfire.com)
-  Guillain-Barré syndrome is rare, at one or two cases per 100,000 people every year. (wikipedia.org)
-  In total, about a third of people with Guillain-Barré syndrome continue to be able to walk. (wikipedia.org)
- People with Down syndrome can have physical problems, as well as intellectual disabilities. (wm.edu)
- People with the syndrome may also have other health problems. (wm.edu)
- Most people fully recover from GBS, but some have permanent nerve damage. (cdc.gov)
- In the majority of people with Adie syndrome, the affected pupil is larger than usual all the time and does not constrict very much or at all in response to light stimulation. (disabled-world.com)
- Most people with Adie syndrome have poor or absent reflexes as well. (disabled-world.com)
- Restless leg syndrome can strike people of all ages and is more common in women. (achievesolutions.net)
- People with locked-in syndrome cannot move their lower face, chew, swallow, speak, move their limbs, or move their eyes from side to side. (merckmanuals.com)
- If caregivers do not notice the eye movements, people with locked-in syndrome may mistakenly be thought to be unaware of their surroundings and unable to think or communicate. (merckmanuals.com)
- People with this syndrome can learn to communicate by opening and closing their eyes in response to questions. (merckmanuals.com)
- If the cause is Guillain-Barré syndrome, people may improve over several months, but recovery is seldom complete. (merckmanuals.com)
- Because this syndrome can be mistaken for stupor or coma, doctors test people who do not move and appear unresponsive by asking them to open and close their eyes. (merckmanuals.com)
- Like people in a coma, people in a locked-in syndrome require comprehensive care. (merckmanuals.com)
- Some people with the syndrome have no nerve cells in the colon (Hirschsprung disease). (socialstyrelsen.se)
- There is also an association between this mutation and a particular type of tumour called neuroblastoma, which develops in some people with the syndrome. (socialstyrelsen.se)
- However, in general terms, people with Down's syndrome tend to have warm, gentle and cheerful personalities, despite the day-to-day problems they have to face. (hse.ie)
- People with Down's syndrome tend to have a number of typical physical features. (hse.ie)
- Some people with the syndrome only have a few of these features, while others are more severely affected. (hse.ie)
- People with Down's syndrome have an IQ of 25 to 80, with an average score of 50. (hse.ie)
- Genetic conditions which affect more than one physical trait-in the case of lethal white syndrome, both pigment cells and enteric nerve cells-are termed pleiotropic. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, nerve endings can release more neurotransmitter at the synapse. (mhra.gov.uk)
- Tricyclic antidepressants (with a 3-ring molecular structure) inhibit the reuptake of noradrenaline by nerve endings, leaving more noradrenaline at the synapse to act on the other nerve cell. (mhra.gov.uk)
- Blocking voltage-dependent potassium channels prolongs presynaptic cell membrane depolarization, which enhances calcium transport into nerve endings. (medscape.com)
- Increases intracellular calcium concentrations in nerve endings by blocking voltage-dependent potassium channels. (medscape.com)
- Dolmetsch and his colleagues figured out a solution to this dilemma, using a novel approach involving what are known as induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells. (healthcanal.com)
- As the name suggests, the stem cells of the neural crest are precursors to nerve cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are the very definition of being full of potential, given that they can become any type of cell in the body. (news-medical.net)
- But the reprogrammed cells, known as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are different from embryonic stem cells in their ability to model a human genetic disease, a new cell-to-cell comparison shows. (bio-medicine.org)
- This is the first example where we can clearly show induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells behave differently in a disease model," said co-senior author George Daley, Director of the Stem Cell Transplantation Program at Children's Hospital Boston. (bio-medicine.org)
- We thought it would be interesting to compare the two systems," said Urbach of the embryonic and induced fragile X stem cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- Remarkable "stem" cells account for much of this activity. (skally.net)
- Other stem cells yield the various constituents of the skin, the liver or the intestinal lining. (skally.net)
- But it cannot repair itself, because it lacks the stem cells that would allow for neuronal regeneration. (skally.net)
- The two boys were treated with their genetically altered hematopoietic stem cells so that the cells expressed the WAS protein. (medindia.net)
- Recent research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis demonstrated that mature cells in the stomach sometimes revert back to behaving like rapidly dividing stem cells. (medicalxpress.com)
- The MeCP2 protein may also control the production of different versions of certain proteins in nerve cells. (medlineplus.gov)
- Maquat wanted to learn why the children's marrow contained no beta-globin protein, which is necessary for the oxygen-carrying function of red blood cells. (rochester.edu)
- Microtubules are small protein tubes that give cells their structure and enable both their growth and division. (healthcanal.com)
- To this end, they dissected the protein tubes into their individual components and then observed their new development in the cells. (healthcanal.com)
- We show that the abundance of wild-type ANKRD11 is tightly regulated during the cell cycle, and that the ANKRD11 C-terminus is required for the degradation of the protein. (springer.com)
- We suggest that ANKRD11 C-terminus plays an important role in regulating the abundance of the protein, and a disturbance of the protein abundance due to the mutations leads to KBG syndrome. (springer.com)
- It's known that the fragile X protein regulates the expression of receptors at the synapse between nerve cells," Daley said. (bio-medicine.org)
- In the absence of the protein, nerve cells express too much of an excitatory receptor. (bio-medicine.org)
- The normal (left) and treated Rett syndrome model cells (right) have similar levels of this protein, whereas the untreated Rett syndrome model cells (middle) have much lower levels. (newswise.com)
- When something goes wrong, the cell responds by making less protein, which is usually a sound response to cellular stress. (newswise.com)
- Chronic compartment syndrome, also known as exertional compartment syndrome, is usually not a medical emergency. (orthoinfo.org)
- The pain and swelling of chronic compartment syndrome is caused by exercise. (orthoinfo.org)
- Athletes who participate in activities with repetitive motions, such as running, biking, or swimming, are more likely to develop chronic compartment syndrome. (orthoinfo.org)
- To diagnose chronic compartment syndrome, your doctor must rule out other conditions that could also cause pain in the lower leg. (orthoinfo.org)
- Welcome to the Healing Center for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Doctors have written about carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) for more than 100 years, but it took the emergence of computer keyboards for the condition to achieve national prominence. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Sometimes, however, carpal tunnel syndrome can begin without any apparent cause at all. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Carpal tunnel syndrome usually starts as repeated local irritations or different medical conditions that lead to swelling of the tendons and ligaments in the wrist. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Carpal tunnel refers to a passageway in the wrist, composed of bones and ligaments, through which a major nerve system passes from the forearm into the hand. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Women are far more susceptible than men are to carpal tunnel syndrome, in large part because more women perform the types of hand-intensive tasks (especially typing on computer keyboards) that put them at risk. (wholehealthmd.com)
- The sooner carpal tunnel syndrome is diagnosed, the easier it is to treat--and the better the prognosis. (wholehealthmd.com)
- While carpal tunnel syndrome is often considered a modern-day ailment, a stress injury caused by too many tense hours spent at a keyboard. (wholehealthmd.com)
- Can serotonin syndrome occur from just taking Viibryd (vilazodone hydrochloride)? (healthtap.com)
- Although these enteric precursors and other components of the neuromuscular apparatus (eg, smooth muscle cells, interstitial cells of Cajal [ICC]) are appropriately arranged by weeks 12 to 14 of human development, the first coordinated gut motility patterns do not occur until approximately birth. (lww.com)
- Both iPS and embryonic stem cell lines have the same mutation," said co-senior author Nissim Benvenisty, director of the Stem Cell Unit at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, whose lab established an embryonic stem cell model of fragile X syndrome three years ago at a time when such research was severely restricted in the United States. (bio-medicine.org)
- In these cases it is possible that one of the parents has the mutation in some cells (mosaicism). (socialstyrelsen.se)
- myofibrillar degeneration damage to selective cardiac cells when surrounding interstitial cells, nerves, and capillaries remain viable. (thefreedictionary.com)
- We analyzed DNA methylation levels of inflammasome-related genes in patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) and familial Mediterranean fever, 2 archetypical monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes. (sebbm.es)
- It may be a random event during the formation of reproductive cells or in early fetal development or due to familial chromosomal rearrangement called chromosomal translocation. (wikipedia.org)
- A federal advisory committee has recommended that the name of the condition be changed from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to myalgic encephalomyelitis or myalgic encephalopathy chronic fatigue syndrome (ME-CFS) to more accurately characterize the complex nature of the disease. (umm.edu)
- A federal advisory committee has recommended that the Department of Health and Human Services change the name of the condition from chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to myalgic encephalomyelitis or myalgic encephalopathy chronic fatigue syndrome (ME-CFS). (umm.edu)
- Mutations in ANKRD11 have recently been reported to cause KBG syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition characterized by intellectual disability (ID), behavioral problems, and macrodontia. (springer.com)
- While the exact cause of Adie syndrome remains unknown, it might be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. (disabled-world.com)
- Also known as Trisomy 21, Down syndrome is a genetic condition linked to delays in physical growth, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features. (news-medical.net)
- Post-mortem detection of six human herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6) in trigeminal and facial nerve ganglia by PCR. (medscape.com)
- Children with this syndrome may remain underdiagnosed because of rarity and the prevalence of facial features that appear to be dysmorphic. (wikipedia.org)
- It has also been shown that an identical phenotype to Griscelli syndrome type 3 results from the deletion of the MYO5A F-exon, an exon with a tissue-restricted expression pattern. (medscape.com)
- To understand the pathogenic mechanism that relates ANKRD11 mutations with the phenotype of KBG syndrome, we studied the cellular characteristics of wild-type ANKRD11 and the effects of mutations in humans and mice. (springer.com)
- Khalifa M, Stein J, Grau L, Nelson V, Meck J, Aradhya S, Duby J (2013) Partial deletion of ANKRD11 results in the KBG phenotype distinct from the 16q24.3 microdeletion syndrome. (springer.com)
- The syndrome shares distinct external features (phenotype) similar to more common syndromes. (wikipedia.org)
- Gail Mandel, Ph.D., whose Rett research focuses on astrocytes, another type of glial cell impaired by mutations in MECP2, comments, "A fascinating aspect of these findings is the data suggesting that deficits in the engulfing properties of microglia are a crucial aspect of Rett neuropathology. (innovations-report.com)
- While its cause is not fully understood, the syndrome often follows infection with a virus or bacteria. (cdc.gov)
- 1. Postmortem Findings in Patient with Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Zika Virus Infection , Emilio Dirlikov et al. (cdc.gov)
- Consequently, there is an inability to confront an infection, as well as early cell death. (wikipedia.org)
- 1, 2 A study in the UK indicated that during a one year follow up, the diagnostic rate of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was 4.4% in patients after an episode of bacterial gastroenteritis compared with a rate of 0.3% in the general population cohort. (bmj.com)
- The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is estimated to be around 10-20% throughout the world. (frontiersin.org)
- Medications are frequently used for the treatment of patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although their actual benefit is often debated. (frontiersin.org)
- Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. (mayoclinic.org)
- The initial pharmacotherapy for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is with agents that increase the transmission of acetylcholine (ACh) across the neuromuscular junction, either by increasing the release of ACh or by decreasing the action of acetylcholinesterase. (medscape.com)
- The project has immediate applications in treating a type of neurological disease called Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS). (psc.edu)
- Typically, Horner syndrome results in a decreased pupil size, a drooping eyelid and decreased sweating on the affected side of your face. (mayoclinic.org)
Cause serotonin syndrome4
- Medications usually cause serotonin syndrome, especially certain antidepressants . (webmd.com)
- Some recreational drugs, such as LSD and cocaine , and dietary supplements , including St. John's wort and ginseng, can also cause serotonin syndrome when you take them with these antidepressants. (webmd.com)
- If both are taken at once, it could cause serotonin syndrome . (healthline.com)
- Many antidepressants and other medications that cause serotonin syndrome have serious side effects if you stop taking them suddenly. (wikihow.com)
- Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS): Are You a Night Walker? (webmd.com)
- You may have restless legs syndrome. (webmd.com)
- For Walt Kowalski of Jackson, Mich., bedtime isn't the relaxing end to the day, but the beginning of another nerve-jangling night with restless legs syndrome . (webmd.com)
- Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an often misunderstood neurological condition. (webmd.com)
- So, is restless legs syndrome just a "made-up" disease? (webmd.com)
- Recent publicity has raised its profile, but "restless legs syndrome has been around for centuries,", says Georgianna Bell, executive director of the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation (www.rls.org). (webmd.com)
- Fortunately, restless legs syndrome does not lead to other neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease or neuropathy . (webmd.com)
- Restless leg syndrome is now named Willis Ekbom disease. (achievesolutions.net)
- Medicines are available to treat restless leg syndrome. (achievesolutions.net)
- Pardo wants to analyze the antibodies these patients have produced because he thinks that at the same time that those antibodies are fighting the virus, they're also latching onto nerve cells that have a component that look like Zika. (npr.org)
- That has prompted scientists to consider whether the Zika virus also may infect nerves directly in adults, as they already have suspected in fetuses. (reuters.com)
- In medical journals published last month, doctors described neurological syndromes in two patients that they attributed to Zika. (reuters.com)
- The vagus nerve can! (vagusnervesupport.com)
- Some children with Rett syndrome are affected more severely than others. (www.nhs.uk)
- At first, the child will appear to develop and grow normally for at least 6 months, although (especially with hindsight) there may be subtle signs of Rett syndrome before the child is recognised as having a problem. (www.nhs.uk)
- Stage 3 of Rett syndrome can begin as early as 2 years of age or as late as 10 years of age. (www.nhs.uk)
- Sur is also excited by the prospect of finding a drug treatment for Rett syndrome and other forms of autism. (newswise.com)
- The work was funded by the Rett Syndrome Research Trust and the Rett Syndrome Research Trust UK. (innovations-report.com)
- Kipnis was drawn to Rett Syndrome from his perspective as a neuroimmunologist. (innovations-report.com)
- Monica Coenraads, Executive Director of the Rett Syndrome Research Trust added, "I've been in almost daily contact with Dr. Kipnis since he brought his very original proposal to RSRT, and have been amazed to see the development of this brutal disease stopped in its tracks. (innovations-report.com)
- We do know of a case in which a girl with Rett Syndrome who was treated for leukemia gained considerable communication skills after a bone marrow transplant, and was able to converse with her mother for the first time in their lives. (innovations-report.com)
- Women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are more likely to get depression. (aafp.org)
- Another cell type that descends from neural crest cells are melanocytes, pigment-producing cells found in hair follicles and skin. (wikipedia.org)
- The purpose of this protocol is to apply specific neuromuscular, electrophysiological, histological, virological, and immunological tests to answer pertinent questions regarding the pathogenesis of the post-polio syndrome. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Lambert-Eaton syndrome (LES) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by the presence of antibodies directed against the terminals of nerves innervating voluntary muscle. (brighamandwomens.org)