A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Several clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells associated with blood vessels and nerves (especially the glossopharyngeal and vagus). The nonchromaffin paraganglia sense pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and participate in respiratory, and perhaps circulatory, control. They include the CAROTID BODY; AORTIC BODIES; the GLOMUS JUGULARE; and the GLOMUS TYMPANICUM.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.
Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Small clusters of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the ARCH OF THE AORTA; the PULMONARY ARTERIES; and the CORONARY ARTERIES. The aortic bodies sense PH; CARBON DIOXIDE; and OXYGEN concentrations in the BLOOD and participate in the control of RESPIRATION. The aortic bodies should not be confused with the PARA-AORTIC BODIES in the abdomen (which are sometimes also called aortic bodies).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A specific blocker of dopamine receptors. It speeds gastrointestinal peristalsis, causes prolactin release, and is used as antiemetic and tool in the study of dopaminergic mechanisms.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
A diverticulum from the fourth pharyngeal pouch of an embryo, regarded by some as a rudimentary fifth pharyngeal pouch and by others as a lateral thyroid primordium. The ultimobranchial bodies of lower vertebrates contain large amounts of calcitonin. In mammals the bodies fuse with the thyroid gland and are thought to develop into the parafollicular cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Part of the brain located in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA and PONS. It receives neural, chemical and hormonal signals, and controls the rate and depth of respiratory movements of the DIAPHRAGM and other respiratory muscles.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Traumatic injuries to the facial nerve. This may result in FACIAL PARALYSIS, decreased lacrimation and salivation, and loss of taste sensation in the anterior tongue. The nerve may regenerate and reform its original pattern of innervation, or regenerate aberrantly, resulting in inappropriate lacrimation in response to gustatory stimuli (e.g., "crocodile tears") and other syndromes.
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
The twelve spinal nerves on each side of the thorax. They include eleven INTERCOSTAL NERVES and one subcostal nerve. Both sensory and motor, they supply the muscles and skin of the thoracic and abdominal walls.
The 11th cranial nerve which originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and in the CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. It has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE (10th cranial) and sends motor fibers to the muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root, which sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.
A beta-hydroxylated derivative of phenylalanine. The D-form of dihydroxyphenylalanine has less physiologic activity than the L-form and is commonly used experimentally to determine whether the pharmacological effects of LEVODOPA are stereospecific.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
The removal or interruption of some part of the autonomic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The act of constricting.
A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.
Branches of the vagus (tenth cranial) nerve. The recurrent laryngeal nerves originate more caudally than the superior laryngeal nerves and follow different paths on the right and left sides. They carry efferents to all muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid and carry sensory and autonomic fibers to the laryngeal, pharyngeal, tracheal, and cardiac regions.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
A nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. Mecamylamine has been used as a ganglionic blocker in treating hypertension, but, like most ganglionic blockers, is more often used now as a research tool.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
"Transduction mechanisms in carotid body: glomus cells, putative neurotransmitters, and nerve endings". The American Journal of ... The carotid sinus nerve is the branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve which innervates them. Alternatively, the glomus type I ... Glomus cells are the cell type mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies. Glomus type I cells are peripheral ... Clusters of glomus cells, of which the carotid bodies and aortic bodies are the most important, are called non-chromaffin or ...
... the sinus nerves, the larynx, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The carotid bodies assist in maintaining normal blood ... to aid better functioning of the carotid sinus, ...
These sensory axons supply the cornea, ciliary body and iris. The sympathetic root originates from the internal carotid plexus ... The ciliary ganglion contain many more nerve fibers directed to the ciliary muscle than nerve fibers directed to the ... however these axons usually travel from the nasociliary nerve to the long ciliary nerves to enter the eye. The parasympathetic ... The sensory root branches from the nasociliary nerve and travels through the ganglion forming part of the short ciliary nerves ...
... neurons in the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve carry information from the carotid body and carotid sinus. The ... nerve inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve superior ganglion of the vagus nerve inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve ... The cell body of a pseudounipolar neuron is located within a dorsal root ganglion. The axon leaves the cell body (and out of ... inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve and inferior ganglion of the vagus nerve also carry information about taste ...
... particularly in the carotid bodies (at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery in the neck) and in aortic bodies (near the ... It usually presents as a painless neck mass, but larger tumors may cause cranial nerve palsies, usually of the vagus nerve and ... Carotid paraganglioma (carotid body tumor): Is the most common of the head and neck paragangliomas. ... Micrograph of a carotid body tumor Glomus jugulare tumor Ectopic functional paraganglioma (glomus jugulare) in a patient with ...
Nonchromaffin paraganglia include carotid bodies and aortic bodies, some are distributed in the ear, along the vagus nerve, in ... They are generally present at the head and neck, most often at carotid body or jugulo-tympanic, they rarely secrete hormones ... None have been found with the sympathetic ganglia associated with the branches of the trigeminal nerve. The largest chromaffin ... Chromaffin paraganglia (also called chromaffin bodies) are connected with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and the ganglia ...
Abducens nerve Internal carotid artery accompanied by the Internal carotid plexus These nerves, with the exception of CN V2, ... Above: optic tract, optic chiasma, internal carotid artery. Inferiorly: Foramen lacerum and the junction of the body and ... The carotid siphon of the internal carotid artery, and cranial nerves III, IV, V (branches V1 and V2) and VI all pass through ... a carotid-cavernous fistula). Lesions affecting the cavernous sinus may affect isolated nerves or all the nerves traversing ...
Sensory fibers arise from the carotid sinus and carotid body at the common carotid artery bifurcation, ascend in the sinus ... Sensory: Oropharynx, Eustachian tube, middle ear, posterior third of tongue, carotid sinus, carotid body. Special sensory: ... The glossopharyngeal nerve, known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and ... Solitary nucleus: Taste from the posterior one-third of the tongue and information from carotid baroreceptors and carotid body ...
... in the carotid body via glossopharyngeal nerve, aortic bodies, and the sinoatrial node, via the vagus nerve Chemically and ... Taste information from the facial nerve via the chorda tympani (anterior 2/3 of the tongue), glossopharyngeal nerve (posterior ... clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata. Through the center ... Additional minor GVA input from the nasal cavity, soft palate and sinus cavities enters via the facial nerve. Neurons that ...
... orbital foreign body, carotid cavernous fistula) Malformation (congenital, vascular) Immediate treatment is very important, and ... optic nerve glioma, lymphangioma, neurofibroma, leukemia) Trauma (orbital fracture, retrobulbar hemorrhage, ... Recent upper respiratory illness Sinus infection Younger age Retained foreign bodies within the orbit Trauma Immunosuppression ...
Aortic body detects changes in blood oxygen and carbon dioxide, but not pH, while carotid body detects all three. They do not ... via the intercostal nerve and the phrenic nerve, respectively, to increase breathing rate and the volume of the lungs during ... Carotid bodies and aortic bodies detect changes primarily in pCO2 and H+ ion concentration. They also sense decrease in partial ... Nurse, Colin A.; Piskuric, Nikol A. (January 2013). "Signal processing at mammalian carotid body chemoreceptors". Seminars in ...
They are more sensitive detectors of arterial blood oxygen content than the carotid body chemoreceptors. The aortic bodies give ... via the afferent branches of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X). The medulla oblongata, in turn, regulates breathing and blood ... Swelling can also occur.[vague] Carotid body Control of respiration Peripheral chemoreceptors Russell, D. S. (2014-01-01), ... Some sources equate the "aortic bodies" and "paraaortic bodies", while other sources explicitly distinguish between the two. ...
... glomus cells of carotid bodies detect the change in oxygen levels and release neurotransmitters towards the carotid sinus nerve ... Carotid bodies contain oxygen-sensitive cells that become more active in response to hypoxia. They send input to the brainstem ... The initial increase in ventilation from HVR is initiated by the carotid bodies, which are bilaterally located at the port of ... Hormonal changes have also been associated with HVR, particularly those that affect the functioning of the carotid bodies. As ...
The nerve runs in the sinus body adjacent to the internal carotid artery and oculo-sympathetic fibres responsible for pupil ... Sixth nerve palsy, or abducens nerve palsy, is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve ... Congenital fourth nerve palsy. References[edit]. *^ "Sixth nerve palsy , Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - ... fibers of the seventh cranial nerve wrap around the VIth nerve nucleus, and, if this is also affected, a VIth nerve palsy with ...
... in the carotid body) the carotid sinus nerve and then on to the glossopharyngeal nerve and medulla of the brainstem. The aortic ... Both carotid bodies and aortic bodies increase sensory discharge during hypoxia. Carotid bodies are considered the primary ... Many of the findings on to carotid body's relation to SIDS report that carotid body development is impaired by environmental ... Afferent nerves carry signals back from the carotid and aortic bodies to the brainstem, which responds accordingly (e.g. ...
The control of ventilation via signals from the carotid and aortic bodies. Respiration is regulated by groups of chemoreceptors ... The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. The ... The soma (cell bodies) in these nuclei are the second-order neurons of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway, and their ... The spinal trigeminal nerve nuclei which contains the general somatic afferent column. The cochlear and vestibular nuclei, ...
... that detect changes in the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide are located in the arterial aortic bodies and the carotid bodies ... Afferent neurons from the peripheral chemoreceptors are via the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) and the vagus nerve (CN X). The ... from the vagus nerve and glossopharyngeal nerve carrying input from the pulmonary stretch receptors, and other mechanoreceptors ... Respiration refers to the utilization of oxygen and balancing of carbon dioxide by the body as a whole, or by individual cells ...
... central chemoreceptors aortic body chemoreceptors, which send impulses via the vagus nerves carotid body chemoreceptors, which ... Cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal nerve) and X (vagus nerve) both feed into the vasomotor centre and are themselves involved ... G-series nerve agents have their most potent effect in the vasomotor center. Unlike other parts of the body, where continued ... which send impulses via the vagus nerves carotid sinus high-pressure baroreceptors, which send impulses via the ...
... nerve of Cyon, Ludwig nerve), which combines with CN X (vagus nerve) and travels to the NTS. It is a sensitive site of the body ... The carotid sinus baroreceptors are innervated by the carotid sinus nerve, which is a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN ... Massage of the carotid sinus, carotid sinus massage is used to diagnose carotid sinus syncope and is sometimes useful for ... The carotid sinus extends from the bifurcation to the "true" internal carotid artery. The carotid sinus is sensitive to ...
They are innervated by axons of the glossopharyngeal nerve which collectively are called the carotid sinus nerve. Glomus type ... Rarely, a malignant neuroblastoma may originate from the carotid body. "Carotid Body and Carotid Sinus -- General Information ... The carotid body is a small cluster of chemoreceptor cells, and supporting sustentacular cells. The carotid body is located in ... Impulse rate for carotid bodies is particularly sensitive to changes in arterial PO2 in the range of 60 down to 30 mm Hg, a ...
O2 and CO2 Detection by the Carotid and Aortic Bodies", Chemosensory Transduction, Academic Press, pp. 321-338, doi:10.1016/ ... The aortic nerve, is a branch of the vagus nerve. It supplies autonomic afferent nerve fibers to the peripheral baroreceptors ... The aortic nerve is part of the nerve pathway that allows for afferent impulses to be sent from the aortic arch to the medulla ... The aortic nerve is an autonomic afferent nerve fiber, and runs from the peripheral baroreceptors and chemoreceptors found in ...
The sympathetic trunk forms a plexus of nerves around the artery known as the carotid plexus. The internal carotid nerve arises ... Carotid endarterectomy Carotid body This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 566 of the 20th edition of ... The internal carotid runs vertically upward in the carotid sheath and enters the skull through the carotid canal. During this ... the external carotid artery. The cervical segment, or C1, or cervical part of the internal carotid, extends from the carotid ...
... is a small branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve that innervates the carotid sinus and carotid body. It is a branch of the ... The carotid branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (carotid sinus nerve or Hering's nerve) ... trunk and then divides in the angle of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery to innervate the carotid body and carotid ... glossopharyngeal nerve that runs downwards, anterior to the internal carotid artery. It communicates with the vagus nerve and ...
These structures include the type I cells of the carotid body, the neuroepithelial bodies of the lungs as well as some central ... cranial nerve X) nerves. The first branchial arch is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX); however all ... four arches are innervated by the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X). Both the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves carry sensory nerve ... The membrane hypothesis was proposed for the carotid body in mice, and it predicts that oxygen sensing is an ion balance ...
... postganglionic sympathetic axons from the deep petrosal nerve, a branch of the internal carotid plexus (cell bodies are located ... The nerve of the pterygoid canal (Vidian nerve) is formed by the junction of the greater petrosal nerve and deep petrosal nerve ... The nerve of the pterygoid canal forms from the junction of the greater petrosal nerve and the deep petrosal nerve within the ... preganglonic parasympathetic axons from the greater petrosal nerve, a branch of the facial nerve (cell bodies are located in ...
... carotid carotid bifurcation carotid body carotid canal carotid groove carotid plexus carotid sheath carotid sinus carotid ... cranial cranial autonomic ganglia cranial bone cranial nerve ganglia cranial nerve lesion cranial nerve nuclei cranial nerves ... abducens nerve abducens nucleus abducent abducent nerve abduction accessory bone accessory cuneate nucleus accessory nerve ... palatine canal greater palatine foramen greater palatine nerve greater petrosal nerve greater superficial petrosal nerve ...
... as determined by central and peripheral chemoreceptors located in the central nervous system and carotid and aortic bodies, ... can all damage the medullary respiratory centres that generates rhythmic impulses and transmit them along the phrenic nerve to ... If the alveolar ventilation is low, there will not be enough oxygen delivered to the alveoli for the body's use. This can cause ... Hypoxemia has many causes, and often causes hypoxia as the blood is not supplying enough oxygen to the tissues of the body. ...
Finally, the central processes of the neurons which innervate the carotid sinus and carotid body synapse in the caudal portion ... the axons which form the tympanic nerve do not synapse in this ganglion or have their cell bodies in it. The neuron cell bodies ... The tympanic nerve is the first branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. It branches at the level of the inferior ganglion. ... innervation of baroreceptor cells in the carotid sinus innervation of glomus type I chemoreceptor cells in the carotid body The ...
"Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two classes, afferent and efferent. Impressions are made on the ... Palmer hypothesized that vertebral joint misalignments, which he termed vertebral subluxations, interfered with the body's ... Chung CL, Côté P, Stern P, L'espérance G (2014). "The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery ... Thus, nerves carry impulses outward and sensations inward. The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become ...
Both lorisoids and cheirogaleid lemurs have replaced the internal carotid artery with an enlarged ascending pharyngeal artery.[ ... In some cases, strepsirrhines may anoint themselves with urine (urine washing). Body postures and gestures may be used, ... The upper lip is constrained by this connection and has fewer nerves to control movement, which leaves it less mobile than the ... which handles basic body functions and metabolic processes. This neural pathway differs from that used by the main olfactory ...
The body has several feedback mechanisms to maintain adequate blood flow and blood pressure. If blood pressure decreases, the ... both by the direct action of sympathetic nerve fibers on the heart and by causing the endocrine system to release hormones such ... the heart pumps less efficiently and provides less blood flow to the rest of the body, including the heart itself. The ...
... the structure of the human body), physiology (how the body works), pathology (what can go wrong with the anatomy and physiology ... Health screening begins by identifying the part of the body where the symptoms are located; the computer cross-references a ... psychology (thought and behavior) and human homeostasis (regarding mechanisms to keep body systems in balance). Knowledge of ...
Nerve. Sensory: Anterior 2/3: lingual nerve & chorda tympani Posterior 1/3: Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Motor Innervation: - CN ... Body artEdit. Being a cultural custom for long time, tongue piercing and splitting has become quite common in western countries ... The tongue receives its blood supply primarily from the lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid artery. The lingual ... The pharyngeal part is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve and the oral part is supplied by the lingual nerve (a branch of ...
It used epi-Illumination-reflection microscopy for the observation of nerve tissue. A 5 mW Helium-Neon-Laser with 633 nm light ... Whole body imaging *Full-body CT scan. *X-ray microtomography. *Electron beam tomography ... Carotid ultrasonography. *Contrast-enhanced. *3D ultrasound. *Endoscopic ultrasound. *Emergency ultrasound *FAST. *Pre-hospital ...
... via afferent nerve fibers, to the solitary nucleus in the medulla oblongata.[48] From here motor nerves belonging to the ... and measured by stretch receptors in the walls of the aortic arch and carotid sinuses at beginnings of the internal carotid ... Homeostasis does not govern every activity in the body.[19][20] For instance the signal (be it via neurons or hormones) from ... The body water homeostat can be compromised by the inability to secrete ADH in response to even the normal daily water losses ...
... the inferior alveolar nerve. The mylohyoid nerve is a branch of the inferior alveolar nerve. The mylohyoid nerve emerges to ... Body of hyoid bone and median ridge. Artery. Mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery and submental artery of facial artery ... Nerve. Mylohyoid nerve, from inferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve. Actions. Raises oral cavity floor, elevates hyoid, ... The mylohyoid muscle is innervated by a branch of the mandibular nerve, ...
Fluid can be injected into the arterial system (typically through the carotid or femoral arteries), the main body cavities, ... identification of seven pairs of cranial nerves, the difference between sensory and motor nerves, and the discovery of the ... The term cadaver is used in courts of law to refer to a dead body, as well as by recovery teams searching for bodies in natural ... "Corpse" and "Dead body" redirect here. For other uses, see Corpse (disambiguation) and Dead body (disambiguation). ...
The ascending cervical artery is a small branch which arises from the inferior thyroid artery as it passes behind the carotid ... It is accompanied by the recurrent nerve, and supplies the muscles and mucous membrane of this part, anastomosing with the ... and to the bodies of the vertebrae. It then anastomoses with the ascending pharyngeal and occipital arteries. ... It then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ...
A Lewy body (stained brown) in a brain cell of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease. The brown colour is positive ... Muscles and nerves that control the digestive process may be affected by PD, resulting in constipation and gastroparesis (food ... Since early in the 1980s, fetal, porcine, carotid or retinal tissues have been used in cell transplants, in which dissociated ... Dementia with Lewy bodies is another synucleinopathy and it has close pathological similarities with PD, especially with the ...
The left vagus nerve, which passes anterior to the aortic arch, gives off a major branch, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which ... The aorta (/eɪˈɔːrtə/ ay-OR-tə) is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and ... Left common carotid artery. Left subclavian artery. Descending aorta, thoracic part: Left bronchial arteries. esophageal ... The aorta, normally on the left side of the body, may be found on the right in dextrocardia, in which the heart is found on the ...
The other type, carotid artery dissection, involves the carotid arteries. Vertebral artery dissection is further classified as ... The brainstem harbors a number of vital functions (such as respiration) and controls the nerves of the face and neck. The ... an enzyme that occurs naturally in the body and digests clots when activated. Thrombolysis is an accepted treatment for heart ... It is therefore possible for the symptoms to occur on both sides, or for symptoms of carotid artery dissection to occur at the ...
Carotid sinus syncope is due to pressure on the carotid sinus in the neck.[2] The underlying mechanism involves the nervous ... Because vasovagal syncope causes a decrease in blood pressure, relaxing the entire body as a mode of avoidance is not favorable ... Vagus nerve. Specialty. Neurology, cardiovascular. Symptoms. Loss of consciousness before which there may be sweating, ... Carotid sinus syncope[edit]. Pressing upon a certain spot in the neck.[5] This may happen when wearing a tight collar, shaving ...
The control of ventilation via signals from the carotid and aortic bodies. Respiration is regulated by groups of chemoreceptors ... The gray matter of this nucleus is covered by a layer of nerve fibers that form the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. ... The word bulbar can refer to the nerves and tracts connected to the medulla, and also by association to those muscles ... The dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and the inferior salivatory nucleus, both of which form the general visceral efferent fibers. ...
... and to its sides on its back surface run the recurrent laryngeal nerves in the upper trachea, and the vagus nerves in the lower ... This transmits oxygen to the body and removes carbon dioxide.[3] Clinical significance[edit]. Inflammation and infection[edit] ... To the front left lie the large blood vessels the aortic arch and its branches the left common carotid artery and the ... are able to control the flow of air through their body. In some aquatic insects, the tracheae exchange gas through the body ...
common carotid. *External carotid. *Internal carotid. *Carotid body. *Carotid sinus. *Carotid bifurcation ... It also contains nerves that supply the vessel as well as nutrient capillaries (vasa vasorum) in the larger blood vessels. ... The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body ... In contrast, occlusion of the blood vessel by atherosclerotic plaque, by an embolised blood clot or a foreign body leads to ...
In addition to artifacts generated by the body, many artifacts originate from outside the body. Movement by the patient, or ... As well as enabling Jatich to control a computer cursor the signals were also used to drive the nerve controllers embedded in ... Additionally, EEG may be used to monitor the depth of anesthesia, as an indirect indicator of cerebral perfusion in carotid ... and also prohibit use of these techniques with participants that have metal implants in their body, such as metal-containing ...
common carotid. *External carotid. *Internal carotid. *Carotid body. *Carotid sinus. *Carotid bifurcation ... Accompanying artery of ischiadic nerve. *Uterine artery (females) / deferential artery (males) *Vaginal artery (sometimes) ... left common carotid artery (directly from arch of aorta on left mostly)[edit]. internal carotid artery[edit]. *ophthalmic ... external carotid artery[edit]. *Arising in carotid triangle[1] *Superior thyroid artery *Hyoid (infrahyoid) artery ...
The great auricular nerve, auricular nerve, auriculotemporal nerve, and lesser and greater occipital nerves of the cervical ... Karin Sellberg, Lena Wånggren (2016). Corporeality and Culture: Bodies in Movement. Routledge. pp. 75-76. ISBN 978-1-317-15924- ... The posterior auricular artery is a direct branch of the external carotid artery, and the anterior auricular arteries are ... Parts of the otic vesicle in turn form the vestibulocochlear nerve.[18] These form bipolar neurons which supply sensation to ...
Branch of glossopharyngeal nerve to carotid sinus(英语:Branch of glossopharyngeal nerve to carotid sinus) ... 人體神經列表(英语:List of nerves of the human body) ... 梨状肌神经(英语:Piriformis nerve)). 皮神经(英语:Cutaneous nerve): 股后皮神经(英语: ... superior laryngeal nerve(英语:superior laryngeal nerve) *external laryngeal nerve(英语:external laryngeal nerve) ... 足底内侧神经(英语:medial plantar nerve) (趾足底总神
Edler had asked Hertz if it was possible to use radar to look into the body, but Hertz said this was impossible. However, he ... This is particularly important in neurology, where ultrasound is used for assessing blood flow and stenoses in the carotid ... Musculoskeletal ultrasound in used to examine tendons, muscles, nerves, ligaments, soft tissue masses, and bone surfaces.[12] ... Continuous wave (CW) Doppler: Doppler information is sampled along a line through the body, and all velocities detected at each ...
... by the nerve of the second pharyngeal arch, the facial nerve (7th cranial nerve). The muscles of facial expression are all ... As an organ of the body, the lip can be a focus of disease or show symptoms of a disease: *One of the most frequent changes of ... The facial artery is one of the six non-terminal branches of the external carotid artery. ... Trigeminal nerve *The infraorbital nerve is a branch of the maxillary branch. It supplies not only the upper lip, but much of ...
Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and medulla supply information regarding the blood gas levels of O2, CO2 and H+. In the ... Neurological conditions such as spinal cord injury, phrenic nerve injuries, Guillain-Barré syndrome, amyotrophic lateral ... Afferent neurons significant in dyspnea arise from a large number of sources including the carotid bodies, medulla, lungs, and ... "Anemia Affects Body...And Maybe The Mind". Johns Hopkins medicine. 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2020.. ...
The gradient switching can also induce currents in the body causing nerve tingling. Implanted medical devices such as ... This is a type of specialized brain and body scan used to map neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other ... The undoing is by applying a rigid-body transform to the volume, by shifting and rotating the whole volume data to account for ... The radio-frequency field of the excitation coil may heat up the body, and this has to be monitored more carefully in those ...
... which carry the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers for mucous secretion from the facial nerve. ... The ethmoidal air cells receive sensory fibers from the anterior and posterior ethmoidal nerves, and the orbital branches of ...
Peripheral chemoreceptors (carotid and aortic bodies) and central chemoreceptors (medullary neurons) primarily function to ... located on the ventrolateral medullary surface in the vicinity of the exit of the 9th and 10th cranial nerves, are sensitive to ...
"The Nerve Center of Pathology". Stanford University.. [not in citation given]. *^ "Chapter 9: Degenerative diseases". www. ... Generally once a disc is removed it is replaced by an implant which will create a bony fusion between vertebral bodies above ... Microvascular techniques are used in EC-IC bypass surgery and in restoration carotid endarterectomy. The clipping of an ... Laminectomy is the removal of the lamina portion of the vertebrae of the spine in order to make room for the compressed nerve ...
In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ... A sudden lack of cortisol in the body leads to a constellation of symptoms called "adrenal crisis" or "Addisonian crisis" ( ... The cavernous sinus also contains the carotid artery, which supplies blood to the brain; occasionally, compression of the ... The visual loss depends on which part of the nerve is affected. If the part of the nerve between the eye and the chiasm is ...
... body is a peripheral chemoreceptor that detects decreases in arterial pO2 and subsequently activates the carotid sinus nerve. ... Vesicular glutamate transporter 2-immunoreactive afferent nerve terminals in the carotid body of the rat. *Takuya Yokoyama1,2. ... These results suggest that VGLUT2 is localized in the afferent nerve terminals of the carotid body. Glutamate may be released ... The carotid body is a peripheral chemoreceptor that detects decreases in arterial pO2 and subsequently activates the carotid ...
The sinus nerve or sympathetic trunk was stimulated unilaterally in one group of adult cats or Syrian hamsters while in another ... EFFECTS OF SINUS NERVE STIMULATION ON CAROTID BODY GLOMUS CELLS R. D. Yates, R. D. Yates ... R. D. Yates, I-Li Chen, Donald Duncan; EFFECTS OF SINUS NERVE STIMULATION ON CAROTID BODY GLOMUS CELLS . J Cell Biol 1 ... The carotid bodies on the operated sides were compared with those on the unoperated sides of the same animal in order to ...
Carotid Body Tumor. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms. Pinealoma. Optic Nerve Glioma. Spinal Cord Neoplasms. Germinoma. Paraganglioma, ... Carotid Body Tumor Craniopharyngioma Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Central Nervous ... At least 6 months since prior total-body radiotherapy (TBI), craniospinal radiotherapy, or radiotherapy to ≥ 50% of the pelvis ...
Carotid body tumors. Nerve sheath tumors. Congenital cysts of the head and neck. Surgery for vocal cord paralysis. Endoscopic ...
Nerve Sheath Neoplasms. Arteriovenous Malformations. Hemangioma. Neurilemmoma. Paraganglioma. Carotid Body Tumor. Chordoma. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Neurofibroma Neurofibromatosis Schwannoma Paragangliomas 1 Carotid Body ... Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Spine Tumors. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Neoplasms, Nerve Tissue. Neoplasms by Histologic Type. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue. Meningeal Neoplasms. Central Nervous System ...
The hypoglossal nerve, the vagus nerve, and sometimes the glossopharyngeal nerve were identified away from the tumor and, if ... Figure 2: Intraoperative image showing the intact carotid bifurcation after the excision of a carotid body tumor. ... Figure 1: Intraoperative image showing a carotid artery bifurcation and a type II carotid body tumor. ... Visualization and careful dissection of the principal regional nerves (vagus nerve, hypoglossal nerve, and the superior ...
Carotid body tumors. *Chondrosarcomas. *Chordomas. *Cranial nerve schwannomas. *Craniopharyngiomas. *Cushings disease. * ...
... patients are associated with greater levels of tonic and chemoreflex-evoked sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which is ... Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex sensitivity is common to all of these populations and is thought to contribute to these ... The carotid body chemoreceptors may play an important role in progression of CHF by contributing to respiratory instability and ... Elimination of carotid body afferents in experimental models of CHF has been shown to reduce oscillatory breathing, respiratory ...
carotid bodies. what receptors send sensory information arotic and carotid bodies. sensory information is sent via what nerve. ... aortic bodies. receptors in the carotid ateries are called ... vagus nerve. what nerve tells the brain houw stretched the lung ... phrenic nerve. sensory information from the lungs travels back to the brain via. ... what 2 nerves control over breathing. phrenic & vagus. diaphragm contracts via the ...
The vagus nerve is the longest cranial nerve. It contains motor and sensory fibers and, because it passes through the neck and ... thorax to the abdomen, has the widest distribution in the body. ... The vagus nerve descends vertically within the carotid sheath ... The recurrent laryngeal nerve is also known as the inferior laryngeal nerve. The right nerve branches from the vagus at the ... The vagus nerve is joined by the cranial root of the accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI), just below the inferior ganglion. (See ...
Study Intro to Cranial Nerves flashcards from Howard Sanders ... Visceral sensory: carotid body and sinus.. Somatic sensory: ... lacrimal nerve (which trifurcates to terminate as the supraorbital, supratrochlear, and infratrochlear nerves), frontal nerve, ... The trigeminal nerve is mixed. Where are its sensory and motor cell bodies found, respectively? ... Which two cranial nerves are not actually nerves, but are tracts - extensions of the brain that are covered by meninges? ...
b.) External Laryngeal nerve. 3.) Nerve to the Carotid Body. 4.) Cardiac Nerves. 5.) Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve. a.) On the ... 1.) Vagus Nerve (X)- It runs between the internal jugular vein and the internal carotid artey.. 2.) Spinal accessory Nerve (XI ... 1.) Superior portion of the common carotid. 2.) A large part of the Internal carotid.. 3.) External Carotid Artery and it ... What nerve innervates most of the infrhyoid muscles? What muscle is the exception? What nerve is this muscle exception ...
Nerve that monitors carotid body and sinus chemo/baroreceptors. CNIX. Enzyme defect in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ... Nerve to levator palpebrae muscle. In the excitatory pathway of the basal ganglia, what disinhibits the thalamus via the GPi/ ... Output nerves of cerebellum. Deep nuclei cortex via cerebellar peduncle. Site in hypothalamus that makes oxytocin. Oxytocin ... Layer of peripheral nerve that must be rejoined in microsurgery for limb reattachment. Permeability barrier. ...
Baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity after carotid body tumor resection. Hypertension. 2003; 42: 143-149. ... Carotid distensibility was measured by automatic edge detection bilaterally at the common carotid and at the bulb level in 79 ... Calibrated carotid artery tonometry would be a valuable choice to determine carotid pulse pressure, although we did not feel ... Whether the common carotid artery can be considered an adequate estimate of the carotid bulb properties for baroreflex function ...
... travel through the carotid sinus nerve (CSN), and enter the carotid body where they branch and form reciprocal synapses with ... Localization of Kv1.1 in the carotid body. Confocal images of control (A, B) and null (C) mouse carotid bodies. Kv1.1-like ... In vitro carotid body activity. Carotid body activity was monitored as previously described (Kline et al., 2002a). Mice were ... The carotid body and sinus nerve were isolated, transferred to a recording chamber, and superfused with medium at a flow rate ...
CAROTID ARTERY , INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY CAROTID BODY AND INTERCAROTID NERVE .... Page 31. The axon of this second - order ... acid acute anterior appear arises ARTERY attachment become blood body bone branches carcinoma carotid cause cavity cells cent ... nearby internal carotid artery and , from here , may take two courses . One course follows the plexus up to the carotid canal ... The common carotid artery , ( PHANTOM ) which arises from the innominate artery DESCENDING ( brachiocephalic trunk ) on the ...
Aims/hypothesis A new class of treatments termed bioelectronic medicines are now emerging that aim to target individual nerve ... Carotid body Carotid sinus nerve Glucose tolerance Insulin resistance KHFAC modulation Neuromodulation Type 2 diabetes ... We have previously shown that the abolition of carotid body activity through surgical resection of its sensitive nerve, the ... Bioelectronic modulation of carotid sinus nerve activity in the rat: a potential therapeutic approach for type 2 diabetes. ...
Publications] Fumio Yamazaki, et al.: Whole body heating reduces the baroreflex response of sympathetic nerve activity during ... Reduced baroreflex control of heart rate during lower body negative pressure and carotid arterial wall characteristics in the ... The carotid IMT was higher in the old than in the young, whereas, baseline compliance of the carotid artery was less in the old ... Whole body heating reduces the baroreflex response of sympathetic nerve activity during Valsalva strainingAutonomic ...
Neurotransmission in the carotid body: transmitters and modulators between glomus cells and petrosal ganglion nerve terminals. ... Carotid body transmitters actions on rabbit petrosal ganglion in vitro.. Alcayaga J, Soto CR, Vargas RV, Ortiz FC, Arroyo J, ... Modulatory effects of histamine on cat carotid body chemoreception.. Del Rio R, Moya EA, Koenig CS, Fujiwara K, Alcayaga J, ... Inhibition of rat carotid body glomus cells TASK-like channels by acute hypoxia is enhanced by chronic intermittent hypoxia. ...
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are the sole projecting neurons of the retina and their axons form the optic nerve. Here, we show ... Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in germinal centers of the adult brain and in the carotid body (CB), an oxy- gen-sensing organ ... An o2-sensitive glomus cell-stem cell synapse induces carotid body growth in chronic hipoxia. Aida Platero-Luengo,1 Susana ... An o2-sensitive glomus cell-stem cell synapse induces carotid body growth in chronic hipoxia ...
Recordings of carotid sinus nerve impulses allowed precise timing of the stimulus.2. Stimulation of the carotid body ... ... The importance of timing on the respiratory effects of intermittent carotid body ... ... to brief intermittent chemical stimulation or depression of the carotid body was determined in anaesthetized cats. ... 1. Breuers hypothesis that the vagus nerves exert a tonic control of respiratory rhythm, in addition to the phasic control, ...
After bilateral section of the carotid nerves, raising body temperature ... 457. Dynamic response of the peripheral chemoreflex ... This study was designed to examine the influence of carotid body (CB) hypocapnia on ventilation by selectively perfusing the CB ... The effect of changes in metabolic rate on the dynamics of CO2 exchange among its various compartments in the human body is not ... The immediate VE response, within 15 s, to transient CO2 inhalation was studied in two groups: 1) five lambs before carotid ...
carotid bodies (cranial nerve IX) *aortic bodies (cranial nerve X) *receptors in medulla that monitor cerebrospinal fluid ... Arterial oxygen levels are monitored by the aortic and carotid bodies *Substantial drops in arterial PO2 (to 60 mm Hg) are ... Supplies body with oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide *Provides extensive gas exchange surface area between air and ... Carotid and aortic baroreceptor stimulation: affects both blood pressure and respiratory centers ...
... the sinus nerves, the larynx, and the thyroid and parathyroid glands. The carotid bodies assist in maintaining normal blood ... to aid better functioning of the carotid sinus, ...
... nucleotide transporter-immunoreactive type I cells associated with P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings in the rat carotid body. ... Vesicular glutamate transporter 2-immunoreactive afferent nerve terminals in rat carotid sinus baroreceptors. ...
Paragangliomas arising from the carotid body or vagus nerve may present as a painless neck mass. On the other hand, because of ... Also known as "glomus" tumors, paragangliomas are named for the structures they arise from: carotid body tumors are the most ... These tumors can cause deficits of the facial or lower cranial nerves in addition to hearing loss and the sound of a heartbeat ... Depending on their location, tumors can also cause deficits of the cranial nerves. This can result in facial weakness, ...
... carotid body communicates with medullary respiratory neurons through sensory fibres that travel with the carotid sinus nerve, a ... stimulates the carotid and aortic bodies, the principal arterial chemoreceptors. The two carotid bodies are small organs ... The sensory nerve from the carotid body increases its firing rate hyperbolically as the partial pressure of oxygen falls. In ... which then act on the sensory nerve. It is possible to interfere independently with the responses of the carotid body to carbon ...
How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human carotid body (CB) remains poorly understood. While limited information on ... Neurotransmission in the carotid body: transmitters and modulators between glomus cells and petrosal ganglion nerve terminals. ... Kay JM, Laidler P (1977) Hypoxia and the carotid body. J Clin Pathol Suppl (R Coll Pathol) 11:30-44CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Hempleman SC, Warburton SJ (2013) Comparative embryology of the carotid body. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 185:3-8CrossRefGoogle ...
The glossopharyngeal nerve consists of five components with distinct functions:Branchial motor(special visceral efferent) ... Carries visceral sensory information from the carotid sinus and body.. General sensory. (general somatic afferent). Provides ... The glossopharyngeal nerve consists of five components with distinct functions: Branchial motor. (special visceral efferent). ...
It consists of nerve fibers, connective tissue, and clusters of parenchyma which contain two kinds... ... The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. ... The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. It consists of nerve fibers ... Nerve Terminal Secretory Granule Chromaffin Cell Carotid Body Chief Cell These keywords were added by machine and not by the ...
  • The left vagus crosses in front of the left subclavian artery to enter the thorax between the left common carotid and subclavian arteries. (medscape.com)
  • Carotid distensibility was measured bilaterally at the common carotid artery in 79 consecutive diabetic patients and 60 matched subjects without diabetes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, neuropathy is a more significant determinant of baroreflex sensitivity than carotid artery elasticity in patients with type 2 diabetes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, alterations in carotid stiffness may reduce distensibility of the artery wall and blunt BRS. (ahajournals.org)
  • The afferent activity of this chemosensory pathway is initiated at oxygen-sensitive cells in the carotid body that lies in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. (jneurosci.org)
  • To delineate the relationship between the distensibility of carotid artery and BRS of HR, the next step of this study was carried out to examine both carotid arterial wall characteristics and BRS of HR. Ten each of healthy young (22±1 y) and old (69±1 y) men underwent to measure ultrasonographically the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid arterial lumen diameter and its change with arterial pulse. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Blood pressure (BP) was measured with an applanation tonometry at the carotid artery. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The carotid IMT was higher in the old than in the young, whereas, baseline compliance of the carotid artery was less in the old than the young. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The human carotid body is a small structure located at the upper end of the common carotid artery. (springer.com)
  • The carotid body is a small structure weighing 12 mg located in the adventitia of carotid artery bifurcation acting as a chemoreceptor. (scirp.org)
  • The internal carotid artery is displaced medially, and there is narrowing of the oropharynx. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The chemoreceptors at the bifurcation of each common carotid artery, which detect changes in blood gases (esp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are also reports of carotid and vertebral artery dissections leading to hypoglossal nerve injury. (ajnr.org)
  • A group of nerve cell bodies associated with each carotid artery. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve that runs downwards, anterior to the internal carotid artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • It communicates with the vagus nerve and sympathetic trunk and then divides in the angle of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery to innervate the carotid body and carotid sinus. (wikipedia.org)
  • It then passes between the internal jugular vein and internal carotid artery . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The left internal carotid artery and vagus nerve have been retracted medially to expose the origins of the external carotid and pharyngeal plexuses. (stanford.edu)
  • Direct chemoreceptors are also found in the carotid body , a structure located at the branch of the carotid artery. (wisegeek.org)
  • Common tumors: Metastatic squamous cell cancer Lymphoma Schwannomas/Neurofibromas Paraganglioma * Encasement of the carotid artery may mean inoperability. (scribd.com)
  • This space includes the extracranial carotid artery. (scribd.com)
  • Carotid Space * Includes carotid artery. (scribd.com)
  • The internal carotid artery was preserved in all 4 resections of carotid body tumors. (entjournal.com)
  • What Are the Symptoms of a Clogged Carotid Artery? (livestrong.com)
  • If your arteries become clogged by the buildup of fatty plaques (atherosclerosis) along the walls of these vessels, you may be diagnosed with a condition called carotid artery occlusive disease. (livestrong.com)
  • The symptoms of a clogged carotid artery mimic those of a transient ischemic attack (mini-stroke), but these symptoms do not develop in all patients. (livestrong.com)
  • Speak with your doctor as soon as possible if you develop any of the symptoms of a clogged carotid artery. (livestrong.com)
  • If you have a clogged carotid artery, oxygen and nutrients within your blood may be unable to reach your brain. (livestrong.com)
  • The temporary loss of nerve-signaling in the body due to a clogged carotid artery can cause you to experience sensations of weakness or numbness in your limbs or face. (livestrong.com)
  • Muscle weakness or numbness that develops due to a clogged carotid artery can be dangerous, especially if these symptoms occur while you are driving or participating in a potentially hazardous activity. (livestrong.com)
  • When your brain does not receive a sufficient supply of blood due to a clogged carotid artery, you can develop changes in your motor coordination. (livestrong.com)
  • Blurred or cloudy vision can be a symptom of a clogged carotid artery. (livestrong.com)
  • The internal carotid artery enters the skull and supplies the anterior part of the brain (via cerebral branches), the eye and its appendages, and sends branches to the forehead and nose. (innerbody.com)
  • The internal carotid artery rests on the external carotid artery's outer side at first and then it goes behind it. (innerbody.com)
  • The internal carotid artery starts is in the superior carotid triangle and as it rises, it lays deeper, under the parotid gland, the digastric muscle's posterior belly, stylopharyngeus and stylohyoid muscles and styloid process. (innerbody.com)
  • Branches of the two internal carotids and the basilar artery join at the base of the brain to form a ring of blood vessels called the circle of Willis. (innerbody.com)
  • and, at its exit from the skull , passes forward between the internal jugular vein and internal carotid artery . (bionity.com)
  • Researchers at Britain's Bristol University found that in rats with high blood pressure, when they removed nerve links between the brain and the carotid body - a nodule about the size of a grain of rice on the side of each carotid artery - the animals' blood pressure fell and remained low. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Paraganglioma forms in nerve tissue near the carotid artery, along nerve pathways in the head and neck, and in other parts of the body. (tri-kobe.org)
  • In 2013, Silvia Vilares Conde and her research group described that the carotid body, a paired organ that is located in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and that is classically defined as an oxygen sensor, regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity and that its dysfunction is involved in the development of metabolic diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • The treatment involves electrically stimulating the carotid sinus nerve which sits next to the carotid artery, the main artery of the neck. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • The other branch of the external carotid includes the maxillary artery. (healthline.com)
  • Two branches of the facial nerve also cross the artery at the zygomatic process. (healthline.com)
  • Once in place, it reshapes the carotid artery and triggers the body's "baroreceptors" ─ specialized nerves that send amplified signals to the brain that may lead to long-lasting control of high blood pressure. (siumed.edu)
  • Doctors will be passing surgical instruments near the fragile spinal cord and must cut around several vital body parts such as the carotid artery and nerves that control the vocal cords. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The carotid body communicates with medullary respiratory neurons through sensory fibres that travel with the carotid sinus nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. (britannica.com)
  • And that's going to be through a nerve called the-- right here-- called the glossopharyngeal nerve. (khanacademy.org)
  • This is cranial nerve number nine, also called the glossopharyngeal nerve. (khanacademy.org)
  • The glomus type I cells of the carotid body are innervated by the sensory neurons found in the inferior ganglion of the glossopharyngeal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid sinus nerve is the branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve which innervates them. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carotid branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (carotid sinus nerve or Hering's nerve) is a small branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve that innervates the carotid sinus and carotid body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth (IX) of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves . (radiopaedia.org)
  • It exits the medulla oblongata from the postolivary sulcus, the glossopharyngeal nerve passes laterally across the flocculus , and leaves the skull through the pars nervosa of the jugular foramen in a separate sheath of the dura mater . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The glossopharyngeal nerve, being mostly sensory, does not have a cranial nerve nucleus of its own. (bionity.com)
  • From the medulla oblongata , the glossopharyngeal nerve passes laterally across the flocculus, and leaves the skull through the central part of the jugular foramen, in a separate sheath of the dura mater , lateral to and in front of the vagus and accessory nerves. (bionity.com)
  • Within the jugular foramen, the glossopharyngeal nerve forms the superior ganglion (the glossopharyngeal neve is also associated with an inferior ganglion). (bionity.com)
  • The gag reflex is absent in patients with damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve as it is responsible for the afferent limb of the reflex. (bionity.com)
  • The implant includes sampling and pulse stimulation electrodes (44) preferably located on the carotid sinus nerve branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, adjacent and distal to the carotid sinus baroreceptors. (google.es)
  • 5 . The system according to claim 4 , wherein said nerve is a carotid sinus nerve branch of a glossopharyngeal nerve. (google.es)
  • Mixed (both): trigeminal nerve (CN V), facial nerve (CN VII), glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX), vagus nerve (CN X). (kenhub.com)
  • The cells translate that taste test into signals, sent through the carotid sinus nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, to stimulate or relax breathing rates. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • We hypothesize that the glossopharyngeal nerve or carotid body may act as a trigger for activation of vagal afferents to the brainstem, leading to a mixed vasodepressor and vasoinhibitory response similar to that seen in patients with neurally mediated syncope and its variants. (annals.org)
  • Thermal effects on ventilation in cats: participation of carotid body chemoreceptors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Hypoxia , or the reduction of oxygen supply to tissues to below physiological levels (produced, for example, by a trip to high altitudes), stimulates the carotid and aortic bodies, the principal arterial chemoreceptors. (britannica.com)
  • In the carotid body the respiratory chemoreceptors need a period of time postnatally in order to reach functional maturity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It carries impulses from the baroreceptors in the carotid sinus to the vasomotor center in the brainstem (to help maintain a more consistent blood pressure) and from chemoreceptors in the carotid body (mainly monitoring blood gas PaO2 and PaCO2 levels). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the ventilatory response to acute hypoxia was not impaired in Hif1a +/− mice, the response was primarily mediated via vagal afferents, whereas in wild-type mice, carotid body chemoreceptors played a predominant role. (pnas.org)
  • An essential adaptation to both acute and chronic hypoxia is an increase in ventilation that depends on the activity of peripheral chemoreceptors, particularly those within the carotid body, which detect changes in arterial blood O 2 concentration and relay sensory information to the brainstem neurons that regulate breathing (reviewed in ref. 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we studied Hif1a +/− and Hif1a +/+ adult mice and found that partial HIF-1α deficiency has dramatic effects on respiratory adaptation to chronic hypoxia and oxygen sensing by carotid body chemoreceptors. (pnas.org)
  • Researchers examine the role of the carotid body chemoreceptors in the compensatory responses to hypoglycemia and heat stress in humans. (buffalo.edu)
  • It is hypothesized that, in conscious rats, combined activation of carotid baro- and chemoreceptors afferences attenuates the reflex hypotension. (ahajournals.org)
  • During electric stimulation of the carotid sinus in patients with resistant hypertension 1 , 2 or with heart failure, 4 - 6 the anatomic position of the carotid body may allow undesirable activation of the carotid chemoreceptors, a possibility raised by Zucker et al 7 and based on studies in dogs with heart failure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Chemoreceptors are specialized nerve cells which are designed to respond to chemical stimuli. (wisegeek.org)
  • The body contains both direct and distant chemoreceptors, all of which play important roles in bodily function and daily life. (wisegeek.org)
  • I think chemoreceptors are responsible for some of the functions of the body as well. (wisegeek.org)
  • The carotid bodies (CB) are peripheral chemoreceptors that classically respond to hypoxia by increasing chemosensory activity in the carotid sinus nerve (CSN), causing hyperventilation and activation of the sympathoadrenal system. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Paraganglioma represent vascular neoplastic tumors that arise from chemoreceptors located in the wall of blood vessels or are associated with specific nerves. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of deactivation of carotid body chemoreceptors on sympathetic activity directly measured as MSNA (muscle sympathetic nerve activity) in young subjects with mild to moderate untreated hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • The hypoxia-evoked activity of the carotid sinus nerve has been suggested to be modulated by glutamate. (springer.com)
  • Buttigieg J, Nurse CA (2004) Detection of hypoxia-evoked ATP release from chemoreceptor cells of the rat carotid body. (springer.com)
  • Liu Y, Ji ES, Xiang S, Tamisier R, Tong J, Huang J, Weiss JW (2009) Exposure to cyclic intermittent hypoxia increases expression of functional NMDA receptors in the rat carotid body. (springer.com)
  • Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated Kv1.1 in the afferent limb of the carotid body chemoreflex (the major regulator in the response to hypoxia), consisting of the carotid body, petrosal ganglion, and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). (jneurosci.org)
  • In vitro carotid body sensory discharge during hypoxia was greater in null than control mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Chronic phenytoin treatment reduces rat carotid body chemosensory responses to acute hypoxia. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to responding to hypoxia, the carotid body increases its activity linearly as the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood is raised. (britannica.com)
  • It is thought that hypoxia and hypercapnia (excessive carbon dioxide in the blood) cause the release of one or more of these neuroactive substances from the type I cells, which then act on the sensory nerve. (britannica.com)
  • The aortic bodies are responsible for many of the cardiovascular effects of hypoxia. (britannica.com)
  • How hypoxia regulates gene expression in the human carotid body (CB) remains poorly understood. (springer.com)
  • Kay JM, Laidler P (1977) Hypoxia and the carotid body. (springer.com)
  • Secretory responses of intact glomus cells in thin slices of rat carotid body to hypoxia and tetraethylammonium" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • In assessing whether volatile anaesthetics directly depress the carotid body response to hypoxia it is necessary to combine in meta-analysis studies of when it is "functionally isolated" (e.g., recordings are made from its afferent nerve). (hindawi.com)
  • This conclusion helps direct future research on the anaesthetic effects on putative cellular/molecular processes that underlie the transduction of hypoxia in the carotid body. (hindawi.com)
  • Hypoxia is damaging to the body and for any sustainable period if severe, incompatible with life. (hindawi.com)
  • In other words, whereas the metabolic activity of all other tissues such as cardiac and neuronal, is reduced by exposure to hypoxia, the activity of the carotid body and of the other two tissues mentioned above increases such that the carotid body glomus cells generate an intracellular calcium, Ca 2+ , transient [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • When carotid bodies isolated from wild-type mice were exposed to either cyanide or hypoxia, a marked increase in sinus nerve activity was recorded, whereas carotid bodies from Hif1a +/− mice responded to cyanide but not to hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • Thus partial HIF-1α deficiency has a dramatic effect on carotid body neural activity and ventilatory adaptation to chronic hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that HIF-1α is required for carotid body function and ventilatory adaptation to chronic hypoxia. (pnas.org)
  • Although central mechanisms, either downstream of afferent peripheral chemoreceptor input or through the direct effects of hypoxia on the brainstem, are sufficient to elicit these phenomena, little is known about the possible contribution of mechanisms arising from the carotid body. (physoc.org)
  • As similar responses were not observed during hypercapnic exposures, these phenomena are dependent on hypoxia per se, and not on general carotid body stimulation. (physoc.org)
  • Thus, our data demonstrate novel hypoxia-specific responses of the rat carotid bodies. (physoc.org)
  • OXYGEN is an essential substrate for all mammalian cells, and early detection of hypoxia is critical to protect organs and the whole body against cell damage and death. (asahq.org)
  • The carotid body (CB) is the global oxygen sensor that promptly regulates ventilation and cardiorespiratory reflexes during acute hypoxia. (asahq.org)
  • Although efficient this surgical irreversible approach has disadvantages, since the carotid body possess other physiological functions as the response to the lack of oxygen (hypoxia) or the adaptation to exercise. (news-medical.net)
  • This study will evaluate the local control rate as well as acute and late toxicity rates of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of spine metastases and benign spine tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Aim of this study is to present the experience of our institution in carotid body tumors (CBTs) treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are the most common tumors of extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue and represent more than 50% of head and neck paragangliomas [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This system classifies the tumors into three groups: Group I (tumors are too small and do not involve the surrounding vessels), Group II (tumors are adherent or partially surround and compress the carotid vessels without being problematic for resection), and Group III (tumors show an intimate adherent relationship to the entire circumference of the carotid bifurcation, requiring partial or complete vessel resection and reconstruction). (hindawi.com)
  • Also known as "glomus" tumors, paragangliomas are named for the structures they arise from: carotid body tumors are the most common, followed by those involving a large vein called the jugular bulb (glomus jugulare), those involving the middle ear (glomus tympanicum), and finally the vagus nerve (glomus vagale). (stanford.edu)
  • Depending on their location, tumors can also cause deficits of the cranial nerves. (stanford.edu)
  • These tumors can cause deficits of the facial or lower cranial nerves in addition to hearing loss and the sound of a heartbeat in the ear. (stanford.edu)
  • The most common benign tumors are paragangliomas and nerve cell tumors. (mhmedical.com)
  • Additional studies such as angiography and, recently, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) add valuable information to the diagnosis of vascular lesions (eg, carotid body tumors and vascular malformations). (mhmedical.com)
  • Denervation of the tongue can be secondary to radiation therapy due to formation of fibrotic tissue around the nerve, infection, lymphadenopathy, tumor entrapping or infiltrating the nerve, neurogenic tumors arising within the nerve, or trauma, with iatrogenic trauma resulting from carotid endarterectomy, neck dissection, or tonsillectomy being among the more common causes of hypoglossal nerve dysfunction. (ajnr.org)
  • Tumors of the paraganglionic tissues are known as paragangliomas, though this term tends to imply the nonchromaffin type, and can occur at a number of sites throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pheochromocytomas and extra-adrenal paragangliomas are rare tumors arising from neural crest tissue that develops into sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia throughout the body. (nkch.org)
  • particularly in the internal jugular nodes.Carotid Space: This is another major highway through which tumors can race vertically up and down from the skull base down to the aortic arch. (scribd.com)
  • Of the 9 paragangliomas, 4 were carotid body tumors, 2 were glomus tympanicum tumors, and 3 were glomus vagale tumors. (entjournal.com)
  • Tumors in chemoreceptor tissue usually develop principally in either the aortic body (found in the chest) or in the carotid bodies (found in the neck). (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Tumors of the aortic and carotid bodies are seen most often in brachycephalic breeds of dogs, such as Boxers and Boston Terriers. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The tumors do not secrete excess hormone but may cause problems by placing pressure on the heart, blood vessels, and nerves. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The carotid body is a peripheral chemoreceptor that detects decreases in arterial pO 2 and subsequently activates the carotid sinus nerve. (springer.com)
  • Afferent chemoreceptor activity was recorded from the peripheral cut end of the carotid sinus nerve in pentobarbitone anaesthetized cats. (bl.uk)
  • It is concluded that peptides such as methionine-enkephalin, leucine-enkephalin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, known to be present in the carotid body as well as others present in the brain, such as 5-endorphin and cholecystokinin octapeptide, influence carotid body chemoreceptor activity. (bl.uk)
  • These data demonstrate that carotid chemoreceptor activation attenuates the reflex hypotension caused by combined electric stimulation of the carotid sinus and the carotid sinus nerve in conscious rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 . The device of claim 1 , wherein the signal indicative of nerve traffic includes a signal indicative of nerve traffic from a chemoreceptor that is indicative of a blood gas concentration. (google.co.uk)
  • Carotid chemoreceptor denervation/modulation. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • Brouns I, Pintelon I, De Proost I, Alewaters R, Timmermans J-P, Adriaensen D (2006) Neurochemical characterisation of sensory receptors in airway smooth muscle: comparison with pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies. (springer.com)
  • It contains motor and sensory fibers and, because it passes through the neck and thorax to the abdomen, has the widest distribution in the body. (medscape.com)
  • It leaves the skull through the middle compartment of the jugular foramen, where it has upper and lower ganglionic swellings, which are the sensory ganglia of the nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Are all cranial nerves both sensory and motor like spinal nerves are? (brainscape.com)
  • Where are sensory cell bodies found in the peripheral nervous system? (brainscape.com)
  • Where are sensory cell bodies found in the CNS? (brainscape.com)
  • The sensory nerve from the carotid body increases its firing rate hyperbolically as the partial pressure of oxygen falls. (britannica.com)
  • Fine sensory nerve fibres are found in juxtaposition to type I cells, which, unlike type II cells, contain electron-dense vesicles. (britannica.com)
  • Carries visceral sensory information from the carotid sinus and body. (yale.edu)
  • Spinal nerves contain both motor and sensory components. (videohelp.com)
  • It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral to the vagus nerve and has sensory, motor, and autonomic components. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The sensory ganglion cells lie in the superior and inferior ganglia of the nerve. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The central processes pass to the nucleus of the tractus solitarius , conveying taste sensation, and to the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve conveying somatic sensation. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Stimulation of a nerve with an acupuncture needle activates that nerve, inducing changes consistent with its motor, sensory or autonomic nature. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • The carotid arteries have two sensory regions in the neck: the carotid sinus and the carotid body. (innerbody.com)
  • Sensory fibers to the orbit are furnished by ophthalmic and maxillary fibers of the fifth cranial (trigeminal) nerve. (tabers.com)
  • It receives sensory fibres from the posterior one-third of the tongue , the tonsils , the pharynx , the middle ear and the carotid body. (bionity.com)
  • Spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve: Visceral pain as well as somatic sensory fibers from the skin of the outer ear. (bionity.com)
  • The function of a nerve is to carry sensory and/or motor information between the body and the brain . (kenhub.com)
  • If it travels from the periphery to the brain, then it is an afferent (sensory) nerve. (kenhub.com)
  • Unlike spinal nerves which are always mixed, cranial nerves can be purely motor, purely sensory or mixed. (kenhub.com)
  • For example, if the nerve fibers exclusively carry special sensory information, it is called a special afferent nerve . (kenhub.com)
  • Effects of YC-1 with or without either PKG or sGC inhibitor on H 2 S generation and the sensory nerve activity of wild-type and CSE −/− mouse carotid bodies. (sciencemag.org)
  • Researchers have unraveled the elusive process by which small, highly vascular clusters of sensory cells in the carotid arteries "taste the blood," as a 1926 essay put it -- the initial step in regulating blood-oxygen levels. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • The two carotid bodies are small organs located in the neck at the bifurcation of each of the two common carotid arteries into the internal and external carotid arteries. (britannica.com)
  • Animals were then transected below the diaphragm, and the carotid bifurcation was immediately canulated and perfused with chilled, normoxic, normocapnic saline. (physoc.org)
  • Habeck JO, Kummer W (1993) Neuronal and neuroendocrine markers in the human carotid body in health and disease. (springer.com)
  • 1983) The Human Carotid Body. (scirp.org)
  • There are similarities but also key differences in genetic expression of putative components of oxygen sensing in human carotid body compared with that in other species. (asahq.org)
  • McDonald DM, Mitchell RA (1975) The innervation of glomus cells, ganglion cells and blood vessels in the rat carotid body: a quantitative ultrastructural analysis. (springer.com)
  • After sinus nerve stimulation alone, the density of the granules in the glomus cells was decreased, but changes were not noted in the granules following sympathetic nerve stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • Transection of the sympathetic components to the carotid body followed by reserpine injections resulted in a decrease in granule density in the glomus cells on both the operated and unoperated sides. (rupress.org)
  • Iturriaga R, Alcayaga J (2004) Neurotransmission in the carotid body: transmitters and modulators between glomus cells and petrosal ganglion nerve terminals. (springer.com)
  • Glomus cells are the cell type mainly located in the carotid bodies and aortic bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clusters of glomus cells, of which the carotid bodies and aortic bodies are the most important, are called non-chromaffin or parasympathetic paraganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The autotransplantation of glomus cells of the carotid body into the striatum - a nucleus in the forebrain, has been investigated as a cell-based therapy for people with Parkinson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is unclear is the precise site in the chemoreflex pathway (from carotid body glomus cell to integrative sites in the brain) at which anaesthetics might exert this depressive action. (hindawi.com)
  • The team lead by Sílvia Vilares Conde, from CEDOC-NOVA Medical School, in collaboration with the pharmaceutical company Galvani Bioelectronics, demonstrated through findings in rats that is possible to restore insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, by modulating electrically the carotid sinus nerve, the sensitive nerve that connects the carotid body with the brain. (news-medical.net)
  • Wieneke, J.A. and Smith, A. (2009) Paraganglioma: Carotid Body Tumor. (scirp.org)
  • Hussen, W.M. (2008) Carotid Body Tumor. (scirp.org)
  • The previously described left carotid space lesion, with imaging features consistent with a benign nerve sheath tumor, is again demonstrated. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Continued gradual enlargement of the left carotid space benign nerve sheath tumor. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The MR appearances are those of a mass in the carotid space, most likely a nerve sheath tumor . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Ultrasound biopsy showed features of benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor: the morphology is more suggestive of neurofibroma than schwannoma. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Left carotid sheath mass ?Schwannoma ?Pleomorphic adenoma ?Carotid body tumor. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The features are those of benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Left parapharyngeal mass: Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. (radiopaedia.org)
  • There was only 1 case of postoperative lower cranial nerve deficits, which occurred in a patient with a carotid body tumor. (entjournal.com)
  • This means that the tumor cells have spread to other parts of the body. (tri-kobe.org)
  • Paragangliomas arising from the carotid body or vagus nerve may present as a painless neck mass. (stanford.edu)
  • 2002) Management of Carotid Body Paragangliomas and Review of a 30-Year Experience. (scirp.org)
  • These responses were unaffected by alpha- or beta-adrenoceptor blockade but were abolished by cutting the carotid sinus nerves. (ersjournals.com)
  • The vagus nerve descends vertically within the carotid sheath posterolateral to the internal and common carotid arteries and medial to the internal jugular vein (IJV) at the root of the neck. (medscape.com)
  • The hypoglossal nerve, providing motor innervation for the tongue, can be affected in many diseases of the neck and skull base, leading to dysarthria, dysphagia, and ultimately atrophy of the tongue. (ajnr.org)
  • We determined the feasibility of direct visualization of the hypoglossal nerve in the neck with ultrasound, testing this technique on healthy volunteers and evaluating it in clinical practice. (ajnr.org)
  • They are generally present at the head and neck, most often at carotid body or jugulo-tympanic, they rarely secrete hormones and commonly have a familial history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood vessels that lie on either side of your neck and carry blood from your heart to your brain are called the carotid arteries. (livestrong.com)
  • Six carotid bodies were removed during radical neck dissection and subjected to high-resolution gene analysis and immunohistochemistry. (asahq.org)
  • LONDON, Sept 3 (Reuters) - Scientists experimenting with rats have found that de-activating certain nerves in the neck can effectively treat high blood pressure - a discovery that could be an advance in tackling one of the world's biggest silent killers. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Having established that this response comes about through a nerve connection between the carotid body and the brain, Paton's team decided to block the nerve endings in the neck and found that it swiftly brought their blood pressure down. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • A set of 12 peripheral nerves emerging from the brain that innervate the structures of the head, neck, thorax and abdomen. (kenhub.com)
  • Branching off from the external carotid, it assists in delivering oxygenated blood from the heart to regions within the neck and head. (healthline.com)
  • Glutamate may be released from afferent nerve terminals to modulate the chemosensory activity of the carotid body. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that VGLUT2 is localized in the afferent nerve terminals of the carotid body. (springer.com)
  • Signals are transmitted to the afferent nerve fibers of the sinus nerve and may include dopamine, acetylcholine, and adenosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12 . The device of claim 1 , wherein the signal indicative of nerve traffic includes a signal indicative of nerve traffic from at least one afferent nerve that is indicative of a blood gas concentration. (google.co.uk)
  • How did Soulie de Morant succeed in derailing what simply amounts to afferent nerve stimulation? (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Which cranial nerve originates from spinal nuclei? (brainscape.com)
  • Additional laboratory research activities are focused on developing an understanding of the mechanisms which underlie differential nerve block, and on identifying the sites of local anesthetic and opiate action within the spinal cord. (stanford.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant upper body perfusion by the transapical aortic approach contributes to avoidance of brain and heart complications and maintaining spinal cord circulation under deep hypothermic DTAA/TAAA surgery. (medworm.com)
  • On the outside, it is close to the pneumogastric nerve and the internal jugular veins, and around the bottom of the skull with the hypoglossal, glossopharyngeal and spinal accessory nerve. (innerbody.com)
  • Doctors at Duke University Medical Center will operate on the 59-year-old senator for five hours this morning to fuse four vertebrae, remove parts of two damaged spinal discs and cut bone spurs pressing against nerves to her spinal column. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The surgeons also will remove bone spurs pressing into two sets of nerves feeding into the spinal column. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The vagus nerve is joined by the cranial root of the accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI), just below the inferior ganglion. (medscape.com)
  • These fibers are carried in the lesser petrosal nerve via the tympanic branch to the otic ganglion . (radiopaedia.org)
  • the lesser petrosal nerve exits the cranium via the foramen ovale and synapses in the otic ganglion . (radiopaedia.org)
  • From behind, it's near the superior ganglion of the sympathetic nerve, the superior laryngeal nerve, and the rectus capitis anticus major muscle. (innerbody.com)
  • Sympathetic postganglionic fibers originate in the carotid plexus, their cell bodies lying in the superior cervical ganglion. (tabers.com)
  • Chromaffin paraganglia (also called chromaffin bodies) are connected with the ganglia of the sympathetic trunk and the ganglia of the celiac, renal, adrenal, aortic and hypogastric plexuses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonchromaffin paraganglia include carotid bodies and aortic bodies, some are distributed in the ear, along the vagus nerve, in the larynx and at various other places. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other paraganglia along the cervical and thoracic branches of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves. (nkch.org)
  • For a comprehensive review of the role of the carotid bodies in chemoreflex control, see Whipp and Wasserman [ 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Response to role of the carotid body in obesity-related sympathoactivation. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • In the April 21 issue of the journal Science Signaling , a University of Chicago-based research team describes the precise mechanism that cells in the carotid bodies use to detect oxygen levels in the blood as it flows toward the brain. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • Cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure in the elderly : role of reduced leg compliance'Gerontology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Sympathetic nervous and hemodynamic responses to lower body negative pressure in hyperbaria in men'Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Tsutsui Y, Sagawa S, Yamauchi K, Endo Y, Yamazaki F, Shiraki K: 'Cardiovascular responses to lower body negative pressure in the elderly: role of reduced leg compliance'Gerontology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It is possible to interfere independently with the responses of the carotid body to carbon dioxide and oxygen, which suggests that the same mechanisms are not used to sense or transmit changes in oxygen or carbon dioxide. (britannica.com)
  • In contrast, the carotid sinus denervation group showed no hemodynamic responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • Normally, pathways of the nervous system, the autonomic nerves, direct these unwilled responses within the space of a few heartbeats. (nytimes.com)
  • Which cranial nerves originate from the brainstem? (brainscape.com)
  • The locations of the cell bodies where cranial nerve afferents terminate or cranial nerve efferents originate , can be predicted to some extent from the embryology of the brainstem. (videohelp.com)
  • Some peripheral nerves link to brainstem centers that participate in the restoration and control of homeostasis. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Dopamine is present in the adrenal medulla and cortex, kidneys, peripheral nerves, carotid body, and sympathetic ganglia (6). (ericcressey.com)
  • Do you remember which structures are present in the carotid space? (radiopaedia.org)
  • Experiments in the early part of the 20th century observed that denervation of baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch (SAD) in experimental animals produced striking and highly variable increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP, see Ref. 29 for review of the early literature). (physiology.org)
  • And in fact, the lungs and the GI tract are going to hitch a ride in this vagus nerve and the nose mechanoreceptors they're going to travel through another nerve that's called the trigeminal nerve or cranial nerve number five. (khanacademy.org)
  • None have been found with the sympathetic ganglia associated with the branches of the trigeminal nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • branches of the trigeminal nerves. (scribd.com)
  • Acute Effects of Systemic Erythropoietin Injections on Carotid Body Chemosensory Activity Following Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • It appears that ouabain has two distinct actions on the carotid body chemosensory activity: a 'sensitizing' followed by a 'desensitizing' phase. (bl.uk)
  • The immediate VE response, within 15 s, to transient CO2 inhalation was studied in two groups: 1) five lambs before carotid denervation and 2) the same lambs after carotid denervation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The object of this study was to evaluate the contribution of carotid distensibilty on baroreflex sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with at least 2 additional cardiovascular risk factors. (ahajournals.org)
  • Contrary to nondiabetic subjects, diabetic subjects showed no significant correlation between carotid distensibility and baroreflex sensitivity ( r 2 =0.08, P =0.04 and r 2 =0.04, P =0.13, respectively). (ahajournals.org)
  • Age in nondiabetic subjects, diabetes duration, systolic blood pressure, peripheral or sensitive neuropathy, and carotid distensibility were introduced in a stepwise multivariate analysis to identify the determinants of baroreflex sensitivity. (ahajournals.org)
  • In diabetic subjects with 2 additional cardiovascular risk factors, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity is not related to carotid distensibility. (ahajournals.org)
  • Electric carotid baroreflex activation has been used to treat patients with resistant hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 , 2 The rationale for supporting this approach is that electric activation of the carotid baroreflex leads to activation of the cardiac parasympathetic drive and inhibition of sympathetic activity to the heart and peripheral vessels. (ahajournals.org)
  • An implantable device (20) uses the carotid baroreflex in order to control systemic blood pressure. (google.es)
  • Unilateral Carotid Body Resection in Resistant Hypertension: A Safety and Feasibility Trial. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • This first study and others afterwards performed by her group in diabetic rats showed that the bilateral resection of the carotid sinus nerve, and therefore the abolishment of the connection between the carotid body and the brain, restore insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. (news-medical.net)
  • In a third group, atropine was administered prior to sinus nerve stimulation. (rupress.org)
  • Sinus nerve stimulation after atropine administration resulted in no change in granule density. (rupress.org)
  • Electric stimulation of the carotid sinus has been used recently in clinical trials to treat hypertensive patients resistant to pharmacological therapy. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 More recently, electric stimulation of the carotid sinus has emerged as a therapeutic tool in the management of heart failure as well. (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, acupuncture stimulation of neural targets near the carotid body invokes reduction of blood pressure. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Sympathetic stimulation also caused a fall in upper airway resistance which was reduced by bypassing the nose, unaffected by propranolol or carotid sinus nerve section and abolished by phentolamine. (ersjournals.com)
  • Neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in germinal centers of the adult brain and in the carotid body (CB), an oxy- gen-sensing organ that grows under chronic hyp- oxemia. (sebbm.es)
  • Normally acute hypoxaemia is detected by the carotid bodies, generating neural afferent signals to the central nervous system respiratory control mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • We determined that alarming nocturnal oscillations in arterial pressure and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were caused by regulatory coupling and neural interactions among SNA, apnea, and ventilation. (jci.org)
  • The neural function module includes a signal processing module connected to the port and adapted to receive and process a nerve traffic signal from the lead into a signal indicative of the nerve traffic. (google.co.uk)
  • a controller connected to the CRM functions module and the neural function module, the controller being adapted to implement a CRM therapy based on the signal indicative of the nerve traffic. (google.co.uk)
  • On top of all this, the hot tub raised body temperature and, along with the alcohol, dilated his blood vessels - when they needed to be constricted. (nytimes.com)
  • Targeting autonomic imbalance in pathophysiology: is the carotid body the new nirvana? (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • As the term visceral is often a synonym for autonomic (nervous system), note that general visceral nerves carry autonomic nerve fibers to/from the target organs. (kenhub.com)
  • The aortic bodies located near the arch of the aorta also respond to acute changes in the partial pressure of oxygen, but less well than the carotid body responds to changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. (britannica.com)
  • It is innervated by the vagus nerve and stimulates reflex changes in heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure that restore normal blood oxygen levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When there is a decrease in the blood's pH, a decrease in oxygen (pO2), or an increase in carbon dioxide (pCO2), the carotid bodies and the aortic bodies signal the dorsal respiratory group in the medulla oblongata to increase the volume and rate of breathing. (wikipedia.org)
  • These nerves detect levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood to determine when someone needs to breathe. (wisegeek.org)
  • The carotid sinus is responsible for blood pressure and the carotid body watches the oxygen content of the blood and regulates breathing. (innerbody.com)
  • Although molecular mechanisms of the oxygen-sensing apparatus in the carotid body have been partly probed in animals, the mechanisms in humans are unknown. (asahq.org)
  • Normally, Paton explained, the carotid body acts to regulate the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The presence of two closely related mechanisms with a single purpose emphasizes the importance of carotid body oxygen sensing. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • While adequate oxygen in the blood inhibits nerve signals, an oxygen shortage -- caused by stresses such as exercise, lung disease, sleep apnea or thin air at high altitudes -- sets off an alarm, promptly sending the signal to breathe to the central nervous system. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • One is called the aortic body and the other is called the carotid body. (khanacademy.org)
  • Aortic body and the carotid body. (khanacademy.org)
  • You've also got some nerves or neurons projecting from the aortic body going through the vagus nerve. (khanacademy.org)
  • The study consisted of 4 parts: first, ultrasound-guided perineural ink injections along the course of the hypoglossal nerve at 24 sides of 12 fresh, nonembalmed cadaver necks. (ajnr.org)
  • The hypoglossal nerve was correctly identified bilaterally in all cadaveric specimens (24/24) and all volunteers (33/33). (ajnr.org)
  • Finally, alterations of the hypoglossal nerve in disease states could be depicted. (ajnr.org)
  • Direct, reliable, and reproducible visualization of the extracranial hypoglossal nerve with ultrasound is feasible. (ajnr.org)
  • The hypoglossal nerve provides motor innervation for the entire tongue with the exception of the palatoglossal muscle. (ajnr.org)
  • A lesion of the hypoglossal nerve can cause dysarthria, dysphagia, and tongue paralysis, and unilateral atrophy of the tongue muscles may result. (ajnr.org)
  • Motor: Oculomotor nerve (CN III), trochlear nerve (CN IV), abducens nerve (CN VI), accessory nerve (CN XI), hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). (kenhub.com)
  • Using ultrasound guidance and sterile technique the skin was infiltrated near the angle of the mandible, and an 18 gauge core biopsy needle passed into the carotid sheath mass. (radiopaedia.org)
  • and the internal jugular vein within the carotid space. (ajnr.org)
  • The vagus nerve exits from the medulla oblongata in the groove between the olive and the inferior cerebellar peduncle. (medscape.com)
  • The nerve leaves the medulla oblongata between the olive and the pyramid in the preolivary groove, passes through the premedullary cistern, and exits the skull through the hypoglossal canal. (ajnr.org)
  • The information carried by a nerve is called somatic if it goes to/from the skin and skeletal muscles , or visceral if it travels to/from our internal organs . (kenhub.com)
  • If the nerve carries information to smooth muscle , cardiac muscle or glands , then it is a visceral efferent nerve . (kenhub.com)
  • Ever since Bichat distinguished the 'organic' and 'animal' lives [ 7 ], the vertebrate body has been construed as a dual entity, one part somatic (engaged with the outside world), the other visceral (concerned with bodily homeostasis). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In his landmark monograph on the subject, A.S. Romer synthesized a century of observations on the 'duality' of the vertebrates, made up of two bodies (and nervous systems), one visceral and one somatic, 'imperfectly welded' on each other [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Decreased blood flow to the brain caused by blocked carotid arteries can affect your patterns of speech. (livestrong.com)
  • The posterior and occipital auricular arteries and the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerves cross it. (innerbody.com)
  • Purinergic receptors in the carotid body as a new drug target for controlling hypertension. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • Evaluating the carotid bodies and renal nerves as therapeutic targets for hypertension. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • The carotid body as a putative therapeutic target for the treatment of neurogenic hypertension. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • Revelations about carotid body function through its pathological role in resistant hypertension. (uhbristol.nhs.uk)
  • Julian Paton, who led this latest study at Bristol's school of physiology and pharmacology, said while scientists already knew of a link between the carotid organs and hypertension, until now they "had absolutely no idea that they contributed so massively to the generation of high blood pressure. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The gastric nerves supply all abdominal organs and the gastrointestinal tract ending just before the left colonic (splenic) flexure (see the images below). (medscape.com)
  • Most body tissues suffer impaired function or harm during hypoxic exposure, but the carotid body is among the few organs that shows an adaptive response (with the other organs being pulmonary arterioles and the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidney) [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Poor blood supply to the brain can prevent the transmission of nerve signals to other regions of your body, such as your organs or muscles. (livestrong.com)
  • This arterial blood parameter rises and falls as air enters and leaves the lungs, and the carotid body senses these fluctuations, responding more to rapid than to slow changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. (britannica.com)
  • Even if both the carotid and aortic bodies are removed, inhaling gases that contain carbon dioxide stimulates breathing. (britannica.com)
  • The human body tightly regulates the level of carbon dioxide in the blood, which is important in regulation of pH and cellular homeostasis. (buffalo.edu)
  • These results suggest that the sinus nerve must be intact for reserpine to exert an effect and that the sinus nerve may contain efferent fibers which modulate amine secretion. (rupress.org)
  • Similarly, the posterior gastric nerve is formed mainly from the right vagus but contains fibers from the left vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • It consists of nerve fibers, connective tissue, and clusters of parenchyma which contain two kinds of cells- chief and sustentacular (Schwann) cells. (springer.com)
  • A beaded, dumbbell-shaped body formed when a macrophage engulfs asbestos fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The postganglionic fibers are distributed to the parotid gland via the auriculotemporal nerve . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The optic nerve, which transmits the nerve impulses from the retina to the visual center of the brain, contains nerve fibers from the many nerve cells in the retina. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Activation of afferent fibers near the median nerve helps restore nerve function in cases of compression as in carpal tunnel syndrome, but it also helps regulate blood pressure and reduce arrhythmias due to connections between the median nerve and rostral ventrolateral medulla, a site of somatoautonomic convergence that regulates cardiopulmonary activity. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • The optic (second cranial) nerve contains the fibers from the retina. (tabers.com)
  • It then inclines behind the hilum of the right lung and courses medially toward the esophagus to form the esophageal plexus with the left vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • It courses behind the root of the left lung and then deviates medially and downwards to reach the esophagus and form the esophageal plexus by joining the opposite (right) vagus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The anterior and posterior gastric nerves are then formed from the esophageal plexus. (medscape.com)
  • Note: The glossopharyneal nerve contributes in the formation of the pharyngeal plexus along with the vagus nerve. (bionity.com)
  • The cervical sympathetic trunks innervate the carotid bodies, carotid baroreceptors, thyroid gland and the upper airway mucosa, structures which can influence breathing and upper airway resistance. (ersjournals.com)
  • Because baroreceptor input is reciprocally related to efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), it is obvious that baroreceptor unloading would cause an increase in MAP. (physiology.org)
  • If the information goes from the brain to the periphery, then it is an efferent (motor) nerve. (kenhub.com)
  • If it carries information to skin or skeletal muscle, then it is a somatic efferent nerve . (kenhub.com)
  • hence, the name (carotid paraganglioma). (scirp.org)
  • in the remaining patient, a small amount of intradural residual vagus nerve paraganglioma had to be left in situ. (entjournal.com)
  • Benign and malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma require treatment because they can cause severe or life-threatening heart problems and affect many body functions. (tri-kobe.org)
  • Connections of the vagus to the glossopharyngeal and accessory nerves. (medscape.com)
  • Plan of upper portions of glossopharyngeal , vagus , and accessory nerves . (bionity.com)
  • Course and distribution of the glossopharyngeal , vagus , and accessory nerves . (bionity.com)
  • Enhanced carotid body (CB) chemoreflex sensitivity is common to all of these populations and is thought to contribute to these abnormal patterns by destabilizing the respiratory control system. (frontiersin.org)
  • OB patterns in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients are associated with greater levels of tonic and chemoreflex-evoked sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which is associated with greater morbidity and poor prognosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Topical Application of Connexin43 Hemichannel Blocker Reduces Carotid Body-Mediated Chemoreflex Drive in Rats. (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that time-dependent carotid body activity acts in parallel with central mechanism(s), to shape the dynamics of the hypoxic ventilatory response. (physoc.org)
  • It has been shown that nondepolarizing NMBAs reduce hypoxic ventilatory response in partially paralyzed humans, 14,15 and the mechanism behind this depression might be interference with nicotinic chemotransduction of the carotid bodies. (asahq.org)
  • T2DM is characterized by vascular wall alterations with increased intima-media thickness and/or plaque accumulation in the carotid bulb where baroreceptors are located. (ahajournals.org)
  • No age-related difference was detected in the baseline level of carotid systolic blood pressure. (nii.ac.jp)
  • All cranial nerves originate from nuclei in the brain . (kenhub.com)
  • PRRT is internal radiation that is individually dosed according to patient body surface area, kidney function and bone marrow status. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An ultrasound imaging device for detecting internal properties of a target body comprises an ultrasound transducer positioned at a distal end portion of a catheter, for transmitting excitation. (google.ca)
  • An ultrasound imaging device for detecting internal properties of a target body comprises an ultrasound transducer positioned at a distal end portion of a catheter, for transmitting excitation pulses and for receiving echo signals. (google.ca)
  • The VGLUT2 immunoreactivity was observed within nerve endings that were immunoreactive to P2X3 and densely localized inside P2X3-immunoreactive axon terminals. (springer.com)
  • Vesicular nucleotide transporter-immunoreactive type I cells associated with P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings in the rat carotid body. (nih.gov)
  • In pentobarbitone anesthetized cats, raising body temperature from 37 to 40 degrees C by external heat increased respiratory frequency, tidal volume, frequency of spontaneous gasps and mean inspiratory flow. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the European Respiratory Society web site. (ersjournals.com)
  • The amplitude of these fluctuations, as reflected in the size of carotid body signals, may be used by the brain to detect changes in the metabolic rate and to produce appropriate adjustment in ventilation. (britannica.com)
  • The carotid body explains why people cannot suffocate themselves by holding their breath, because these cells will eventually trigger an involuntary breathing response due to the critical levels of chemicals they detect in the blood. (wisegeek.org)