Formation of new blood vessels originating from the retinal veins and extending along the inner (vitreal) surface of the retina.
New blood vessels originating from the corneal veins and extending from the limbus into the adjacent CORNEAL STROMA. Neovascularization in the superficial and/or deep corneal stroma is a sequel to numerous inflammatory diseases of the ocular anterior segment, such as TRACHOMA, viral interstitial KERATITIS, microbial KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS, and the immune response elicited by CORNEAL TRANSPLANTATION.
A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.
Visualization of a vascular system after intravenous injection of a fluorescein solution. The images may be photographed or televised. It is used especially in studying the retinal and uveal vasculature.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.
Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
Injury to any part of the eye by extreme heat, chemical agents, or ultraviolet radiation.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.
Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.
The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.
The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.
The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.
A highly caustic substance that is used to neutralize acids and make sodium salts. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The inner layer of CHOROID, also called the lamina basalis choroideae, located adjacent to the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM; (RPE) of the EYE. It is a membrane composed of the basement membranes of the choriocapillaris ENDOTHELIUM and that of the RPE. The membrane stops at the OPTIC NERVE, as does the RPE.
The single layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA, situated closely to the tips (outer segments) of the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. These epithelial cells are macroglia that perform essential functions for the photoreceptor cells, such as in nutrient transport, phagocytosis of the shed photoreceptor membranes, and ensuring retinal attachment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.
A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. This family includes alpha 1-antitrypsin, angiotensinogen, ovalbumin, antiplasmin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, thyroxine-binding protein, complement 1 inactivators, antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen inactivators, gene Y protein, placental plasminogen activator inhibitor, and barley Z protein. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES, and some serpins occur in plants where their function is not known.
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGICAL). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in PATHOLOGICAL ANGIOGENESIS.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
A 180-kDa VEGF receptor found primarily in endothelial cells that is essential for vasculogenesis and vascular maintenance. It is also known as Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1). A soluble, alternatively spliced isoform of the receptor may serve as a binding protein that regulates the availability of various ligands for VEGF receptor binding and signal transduction.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Small breaks in the elastin-filled tissue of the retina.
The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).
Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.
Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A form of RETINAL DEGENERATION in which abnormal CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION occurs under the RETINA and MACULA LUTEA, causing bleeding and leaking of fluid. This leads to bulging and or lifting of the macula and the distortion or destruction of central vision.
A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Inflammation of the cornea.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The application of a caustic substance, a hot instrument, an electric current, or other agent to control bleeding while removing or destroying tissue.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
An extracellular matrix glycoprotein from platelets and a variety of normal and transformed cells of both mesenchymal and epithelial origin. Thrombospondin-1 is believed to play a role in cell migration and proliferation, during embryogenesis and wound repair. Also, it has been studied for its use as a potential regulator of tumor growth and metastasis.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
An angiopoietin that is closely related to ANGIOPOIETIN-1. It binds to the TIE-2 RECEPTOR without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of ANGIOPOIETIN-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of BLOOD VESSEL branching and sprouting.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Excessive axial myopia associated with complications (especially posterior staphyloma and CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION) that can lead to BLINDNESS.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The finer blood vessels of the vasculature that are generally less than 100 microns in internal diameter.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Angiostatic proteins that are formed from proteolytic cleavage of COLLAGEN TYPE XVIII.
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.
Venous vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry oxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the FETUS via the PLACENTA. In humans, there is normally one umbilical vein.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Abnormal intravascular leukocyte aggregation and clumping often seen in leukemia patients. The brain and lungs are the two most commonly affected organs. This acute syndrome requires aggressive cytoreductive modalities including chemotherapy and/or leukophoresis. It is differentiated from LEUKEMIC INFILTRATION which is a neoplastic process where leukemic cells invade organs.
A form of secondary glaucoma which develops as a consequence of another ocular disease and is attributed to the forming of new vessels in the angle of the anterior chamber.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Proteins that specifically inhibit the growth of new blood vessels (ANGIOGENESIS, PHYSIOLOGIC).
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Partial or total replacement of all layers of a central portion of the cornea.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
A specialized transport barrier, in the EYE, formed by the retinal pigment EPITHELIUM, and the ENDOTHELIUM of the BLOOD VESSELS of the RETINA. TIGHT JUNCTIONS joining adjacent cells keep the barrier between cells continuous.
Blockage of the RETINAL VEIN. Those at high risk for this condition include patients with HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; and other CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.
Inflammation of the choroid.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus without a thymus and with depressed or absent T-cell function. This strain of rats may have a small amount of hair at times, but then lose it.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The macroglial cells of EPENDYMA. They are characterized by bipolar cell body shape and processes that contact BASAL LAMINA around blood vessels and/or the PIA MATER and the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Diseases of the cornea.
Circulating 38-kDa proteins that are internal peptide fragments of PLASMINOGEN. The name derives from the fact that they are potent ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS. Angiostatins contain four KRINGLE DOMAINS which are associated with their potent angiostatic activity.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
A non-fibrillar collagen found in BASEMENT MEMBRANE. The C-terminal end of the alpha1 chain of collagen type XVIII contains the ENDOSTATIN peptide, which can be released by proteolytic cleavage.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Central retinal vein and its tributaries. It runs a short course within the optic nerve and then leaves and empties into the superior ophthalmic vein or cavernous sinus.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.
A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that binds with high affinity to EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB3 RECEPTOR; and EPHB4 RECEPTOR. Expression of ephrin-B2 occurs in a variety of adult tissues. During embryogenesis, high levels of ephrin-B2 is seen in the PROSENCEPHALON; RHOMBENCEPHALON; developing SOMITES; LIMB BUD; and bronchial arches.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
A calcium-activated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP to yield AMP and orthophosphate. It can also act on ADP and other nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. EC
An eph family receptor found in a variety of adult and embryonic tissues. Unlike the majority of proteins in this class there is little or no expression of EphB4 receptor in the BRAIN. It has been found at high levels in developing mammary glands and in invasive mammary tumors.
A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Colloid or hyaline bodies lying beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. They may occur either secondary to changes in the choroid that affect the pigment epithelium or as an autosomal dominant disorder of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.

VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. (1/6752)

We employed two independent approaches to inactivate the angiogenic protein VEGF in newborn mice: inducible, Cre-loxP- mediated gene targeting, or administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, a soluble VEGF receptor chimeric protein. Partial inhibition of VEGF achieved by inducible gene targeting resulted in increased mortality, stunted body growth and impaired organ development, most notably of the liver. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, which achieves a higher degree of VEGF inhibition, resulted in nearly complete growth arrest and lethality. Ultrastructural analysis documented alterations in endothelial and other cell types. Histological and biochemical changes consistent with liver and renal failure were observed. Endothelial cells isolated from the liver of mFlt(1-3)-IgG-treated neonates demonstrated an increased apoptotic index, indicating that VEGF is required not only for proliferation but also for survival of endothelial cells. However, such treatment resulted in less significant alterations as the animal matured, and the dependence on VEGF was eventually lost some time after the fourth postnatal week. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG to juvenile mice failed to induce apoptosis in liver endothelial cells. Thus, VEGF is essential for growth and survival in early postnatal life. However, in the fully developed animal, VEGF is likely to be involved primarily in active angiogenesis processes such as corpus luteum development.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (2/6752)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. (3/6752)

Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration.  (+info)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis is associated with enhanced endothelial cell survival and induction of Bcl-2 expression. (4/6752)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell mitogen and permeability factor that is potently angiogenic in vivo. We report here studies that suggest that VEGF potentiates angiogenesis in vivo and prolongs the survival of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) in vitro by inducing expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Growth-factor-enriched and serum-deficient cultures of HDMECs grown on collagen type I gels with VEGF exhibited a 4-fold and a 1.6-fold reduction, respectively, in the proportion of apoptotic cells. Enhanced HDMEC survival was associated with a dose-dependent increase in Bcl-2 expression and a decrease in the expression of the processed forms of the cysteine protease caspase-3. Cultures of HDMECs transduced with and overexpressing Bcl-2 and deprived of growth factors showed enhanced protection from apoptosis and exhibited a twofold increase in cell number and a fourfold increase in the number of capillary-like sprouts. HDMECs overexpressing Bcl-2 when incorporated into polylactic acid sponges and implanted into SCID mice exhibited a sustained fivefold increase in the number of microvessels and a fourfold decrease in the number of apoptotic cells when examined 7 and 14 days later. These results suggest that the angiogenic activity attributed to VEGF may be due in part to its ability to enhance endothelial cell survival by inducing expression of Bcl-2.  (+info)

Endometrial microvascular growth in normal and dysfunctional states. (5/6752)

As a tissue that exhibits rapid cyclical growth and shedding throughout the reproductive life of the female, human endometrium provides a good model for the study of normal physiological angiogenesis. The objective of this paper is to summarize recent data on endometrial vascular growth, present new data on regional variability in endothelial cell proliferation within the endometrium, and interpret this information in light of current knowledge of the mechanisms by which angiogenesis occurs. Conventional angiogenesis normally involves a series of steps which include endothelial cell activation, breakdown of the basement membrane, migration and proliferation of the endothelial cell, fusion of sprouts, and tube formation. Other mechanisms by which angiogenesis occurs include intussusception and vessel elongation. Using immunohistochemical techniques we have shown repeatedly that levels of endothelial cell proliferation within human endometrium do not show any consistent pattern across the different stages of the menstrual cycle, which is unexpected since significant vascular growth must occur during the proliferative phase, when the endometrium increases in thickness by up to 4-fold. There are two possible explanations for this; either there is no obligatory link between endometrial endothelial cell proliferation and new vessel formation, or there is significant variation in endothelial cell proliferation within different regions of the same uterus. Multiple samples from hysterectomy specimens subsequently demonstrated that the variability is due to real differences between individuals, as well as showing that the endothelial cell proliferation index is significantly elevated in functionalis compared with basalis. During these studies we observed that endothelial cell proliferation nearly always appeared inside existing endometrial vessels, rather than be associated with structures that could be identified as vascular sprouts. To explore further whether sprout formation occurs during endometrial angiogenesis, we investigated the immunohistochemical distribution of integrin alphavbeta3 on endometrial endothelial cells. As for endothelial cell proliferation, integrin alphavbeta3 immunostaining was seen only on endothelial cells that appeared within existing blood vessels. The results from these studies have major implications for our understanding of the mechanisms that control endometrial angiogenesis. The lack of correlation between menstrual cycle stage and endothelial cell proliferation index, or endothelial cell expression of integrin alphavbeta3, suggests that vascular growth is not under the overall control of oestrogen and progesterone.  (+info)

Angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor and the endometrium. (6/6752)

Angiogenesis is an essential component of endometrial renewal. The formation of new vessels depends on interactions between various hormones and growth factors, and this review focuses on the expression of angiogenic growth factors in the human endometrium. Peptide and non-peptide angiogenic factors interact during endometrial renewal, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factors (e.g. TGF-beta), platelet-derived endothelial growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase (PD-ECGF/TP), tumour necrosis growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Their role in the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells from pre-existing vessels is described, concentrating on VGEF and its receptors (VEG-R1 and -R2), and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. The actions of the products of the VEGF gene are outlined, and the hormonal and non-hormonal control of their localization in the human endometrium and biological actions on vasculature and coagulation are described. Finally, the role of VEGF in menorrhagia is assessed.  (+info)

Contribution of natural killer cells to inhibition of angiogenesis by interleukin-12. (7/6752)

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) inhibits angiogenesis in vivo by inducing interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and other downstream mediators. Here, we report that neutralization of natural killer (NK) cell function with antibodies to either asialo GM1 or NK 1.1 reversed IL-12 inhibition of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced angiogenesis in athymic mice. By immunohistochemistry, those sites where bFGF-induced neovascularization was inhibited by IL-12 displayed accumulation of NK cells and the presence of IP-10-positive cells. Based on expression of the cytolytic mediators perforin and granzyme B, the NK cells were locally activated. Experimental Burkitt lymphomas treated locally with IL-12 displayed tumor tissue necrosis, vascular damage, and NK-cell infiltration surrounding small vessels. After activation in vitro with IL-12, NK cells from nude mice became strongly cytotoxic for primary cultures of syngeneic aortic endothelial cells. Cytotoxicity was neutralized by antibodies to IFN-gamma. These results document that NK cells are required mediators of angiogenesis inhibition by IL-12, and provide evidence that NK-cell cytotoxicity of endothelial cells is a potential mechanism by which IL-12 can suppress neovascularization.  (+info)

PETA-3/CD151, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, is localised to the plasma membrane and endocytic system of endothelial cells, associates with multiple integrins and modulates cell function. (8/6752)

The Transmembrane 4 Superfamily member, PETA-3/CD151, is ubiquitously expressed by endothelial cells in vivo. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells PETA-3 is present on the plasma membrane and predominantly localises to regions of cell-cell contact. Additionally, this protein is abundant within an intracellular compartment which accounts for up to 66% of the total PETA-3 expressed. Intracellular PETA-3 showed colocalisation with transferrin receptor and CD63 suggesting an endosomal/lysosomal localisation which was supported by immuno-electronmicroscopy studies. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments investigating possible interactions of PETA-3 with other molecules demonstrated associations with several integrin chains including beta1, beta3, beta4, (alpha)2, (alpha)3, (alpha)5, (alpha)6 and provide the first report of Transmembrane 4 Superfamily association with the (alpha)6beta4 integrin. Using 2-colour confocal microscopy, we demonstrated similar localisation of PETA-3 and integrin chains within cytoplasmic vesicles and endothelial cell junctions. In order to assess the functional implications of PETA-3/integrin associations, the effect of anti-PETA-3 antibodies on endothelial function was examined. Anti-PETA-3 mAb inhibited endothelial cell migration and modulated in vitro angiogenesis, but had no detectable effect on neutrophil transendothelial migration. The broad range of integrin associations and the presence of PETA-3 with integrins both on the plasma membrane and within intracellular vesicles, suggests a primary role for PETA-3 in regulating integrin trafficking and/or function.  (+info)

Chabut D, Fischer Anne-Marie, Helley D, Colliec-Jouault Sylvia (2004). Low molecular weight fucoidan promotes FGF-2-induced vascular tube formation by human endothelial cells, with decreased PAI-1 release and ICAM-1 downregulation. Thrombosis Research, 113(1), 93-95. Publishers official version : , Open Access version : ...
Blood vessel networks expand inside a 2-step process that begins with vessel sprouting and is followed by vessel anastomosis. in zebrafish we now display that macrophages promote tip cell fusion downstream of VEGF-mediated tip cell induction. Macrophages consequently play a hitherto unidentified and unpredicted part as vascular fusion cells. Moreover we show that we now have striking molecular commonalities between your pro-angiogenic tissues macrophages essential for vascular development and those that promote the angiogenic switch in cancer including the expression of the cell-surface proteins Tie up2 PD173074 and NRP1. Our findings suggest that cells macrophages are a target for antiangiogenic therapies but that they could equally well become exploited to stimulate cells vascularization in ischemic disease. Intro Blood vessels are essential for cells homeostasis in all vertebrates and fresh vessel growth termed neo-angiogenesis is definitely therefore a critical process in wound restoration ...
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were first isolated as CD34+ mononuclear cells (MNCs) from adult peripheral blood.1,2 Tissue ischemia mobilizes EPCs from bone marrow to peripheral blood, and mobilized EPCs home specifically to sites of nascent neovascularization and differentiate into mature endothelial cells (ECs).3 The demonstrated role of EPCs in the physiological response to ischemia has led to the development of strategies of cell therapy for neovascularization in ischemic diseases. Intravenous transplantation of cultured human EPCs enhances neovascularization and improves limb salvage in nude mice with hindlimb ischemia.4 A similar strategy applied in a model of myocardial ischemia in the nude rat demonstrated that transplanted human EPCs incorporated into rat myocardial neovascularization, differentiated into mature ECs in ischemic myocardium, enhanced neovascularization, preserved left ventricular (LV) function, and inhibited myocardial fibrosis.5 Recently, Kocher et al6 attempted ...
The Sox family is fundamental for organogenesis and many Sox members frequently cooperate. Sox members cooperate variously depending on the context: redundantly, sequentially, or complementarily. The KAIST team led by Injune Kim unveils a novel cooperation of Sox members for angiogenesis, new blood vessel formation.. This vascular biology team found that loss of any two copies of Sox7 and Sox17 genes in mouse embryo resulted in angiogenic defects, suggesting that Sox7 and Sox17 belonging to the SoxF subgroup genetically cooperates for developmental angiogenesis. VEGF, one of the most powerful stimulators of angiogenesis, upregulated both Sox7 and Sox17 in angiogenic endothelial cells. Both Sox7 and Sox17 increased VEGFR2, the VEGF receptor expressed in endothelial cells. Thus, these results demonstrate that Sox7 and Sox17 jointly promote developmental angiogenesis with overlapping expression and function.. Interestingly, VEGF regulation of SoxF expression and SoxF regulation of VEGFR2 expression ...
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Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) were proved to take part in post-natal vasculogenesis and injury repair. The angiogenic properties of ECFCs could be influenced by various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a promising cytokine participating in angiogenesis. However, the mechanisms for EPOs proangiogenic effect still remain largely elusive. Here, we investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) signaling pathway in the proangiogenic effect of EPO in ECFCs. Human ECFCs were isolated from cord blood and cultured. EPO significantly enhanced the migration and tube formation capacities of ECFCs and markedly increased the expression of endothelial markers and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Further, EPO caused the phosphorylation of AMPK and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), in which process KLF2 was also up-regulated on both mRNA and protein levels. The up-regulation of KLF2 was blocked by ...
A growing population of patients who have exhausted current interventional and surgical approaches to treat coronary malperfusion depend on novel therapeutic approaches. One strategy potentially meeting the needs of the no option patient consists of therapeutic neovascularization via growth factors such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor (IGF), angiopoietin families among others. Earlier clinical studies using growth factor treatment of the ischemic region yielded mixed results, with singular studies improving the record by using advanced regional delivery (1,2) and vector (3) systems. The concept of therapeutic neovascularization requires angiogenesis (4), defined as capillary sprouting, as well as arteriogenesis (5,6) (e.g., enlargement of preexisting conductance vessels for improvement of tissue perfusion). Recent studies found a contribution of vasculogenesis (7,8)-using endothelial progenitor cells-to vessel growth in the ...
Figure 1. Schematic representation of secreted and membrane-bound MMPs and related ADAMs and ADAMTSs involved in angiogenesis. The proteins have various domains with specific functions in common. Key regulators of angiogenesis are indicated by the yellow squares. MT-MMP-1, -2, -3, and probably -5 enhance angiogenesis by their pericellular action (see Figure 4). Similarly MMP-2 and MMP-9 stimulate angiogenesis and can act pericellular by binding to membrane-anchored proteins. Pro-MMP-23 has a transmembrane domain, but this is removed during activation of the protease, making the active enzyme a soluble MMP. Part of the ADAM family members has proteolytic activity, of which ADAM-10,-15, and -17 are known to affect angiogenesis. ADAMTS-1 and the related ADAMTS-4 and -8 also can affect angiogenesis mainly via their thrombospondin (TSP) domains. The MMPs and MT-MMPs are depicted according to Sato50 with some modifications. ...
The data of the present article provide novel evidence that the class II HDAC9 is essential for angiogenic sprouting of endothelial cells in vitro and vessel formation in mice and zebrafish. The proangiogenic function of HDAC9 depends on its nuclear localization and the deacetylation domain, suggesting that HDAC9 transcriptionally controls angiogenesis-relevant genes. Indeed, HDAC9 represses the miR-17-92 cluster and thereby controls the expression of angiogenesis-relevant genes, such as Jak1.. The essential role of HDAC9 in angiogenesis was shown by several in vitro angiogenesis models and in vivo models. Silencing of HDAC9 profoundly reduced vascular growth of implanted human endothelial cells in vivo and disturbed vascular patterning in zebrafish. Furthermore, genetic deletion of HDAC9 impaired retinal vessel outgrowth and branching, as well as ischemia-induced neovascularization in mice. The function of HDAC9 is distinct from its close homolog HDAC5, which exhibits an antiangiogenic function ...
Postnatal neovascularization is the process of new blood vessel formation from preexisting endothelial cells.10 However, the origin of endothelial cells incorporated into the newly formed blood vessels has been the subject of intensive scrutiny. Emerging data have suggested that a subpopulation of BM-derived CEPs may contribute to new blood vessel formation.5 11 12 13 It has been shown that CEPs have the capacity of being recruited into ischemic tissues or growing tumors.4 13 14 15 In the present study, we have extended these observations by demonstrating that vascular trauma induces a very rapid but transient mobilization of a significant number of BM-derived VEGFR2+AC133+ cells.. Given the rapid entry of the CEPs into the peripheral circulation, it has been suggested that the chemocytokines released as a result of the vascular injury may induce mobilization of CEPs. Among the known chemocytokines, VEGF has been shown to be effective in mobilizing CEPs into the peripheral circulation.3 Indeed, ...
The SIRT1 deacetylase is the closest mammalian homologue of yeast Sir2, which regulates life span in response to caloric restriction. A previous study from our laboratory identified SIRT1 as a key regulator of endothelial angiogenic functions during blood vessel growth. To more precisely characterize the molecular nature of the defects in blood vessel formation associated with SIRT1 deficiency, we performed time lapse microscopy in SIRT1-deficient zebrafish embryos focusing on intersegmental vessel development using the tg(fli1:eGFP) line. Compared to the highly organized process of blood vessel development in the control embryos, we observed pathfinding defects and vascular regression in the SIRT1 zebrafish morphants due to dysregulated endothelial tip cell activity and a failure of endothelial stalk cells to maintain vessel growth. Conditional deletion of SIRT1 in the endothelial lineage of mice (Tie2Cretg;SIRT1flox/-) led to a remarkably similar vascular phenotype in the developing retina ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Therapeutic angiogenesis. T2 - Protein and gene therapy delivery strategies. AU - Rosengart, Todd K.. AU - Patel, Shailen R.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - Angioplasty and surgical bypass, the primary interventional therapies for the treatment of atherosclerosis, are limited by the development over time of native vessel restenoses and graft occlusions. Furthermore, these therapies are not options for a significant number of individuals in whom the extent of vascular pathology is especially severe or widespread. Angiogenesis, the growth of new vasculature, is a critical biological response to ischemia that provides collateralization, or ‘biological revascularization’ of vascular obstructions. Therapeutic angiogenesis is a strategy whereby one of several known ‘angiogens’, mediators that induce angiogenesis, can be administered to augment the native angiogenic processes and enhance the formation of a collateral vasculature. This ...
In an experiment that could have applications in treating heart disease and strokes, researchers have taken certain cells from the blood and used them to grow entire networks of blood vessels in mice.. Whats really significant about our study is that we are using human cells that can be obtained from blood or bone marrow rather than removing and using fully developed blood vessels, said Harvards Joyce Bischoff, who led the study.[Reuters]. In the study, published in the journal Circulation Research [subscription required], researchers did not use controversial stem cells that can grow into any kind of specialized cell; they used the progenitor cells found in blood and bone marrow that can grow into several different types of cells. The progenitor cells were implanted in mice, and within seven days, a vigorous network of new vessels formed, joined up with the host animals blood vessels and started transporting blood [BBC News].. Researchers say the ability to grow extra blood vessels ...
A required role for MT1-MMP in neovessel formation, endothelial cell invasion, and collagenolytic activity. (A) Aortic vessel explants isolated from MT1-MMP-
In vitro cultures of endothelial cells are a widely used model system of the collective behavior of endothelial cells during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. When seeded in a extracellular matrix, endothelial cells can form blood vessel-like structures, including vascular networks and sprouts. Endothelial morphogenesis depends on a large number of chemical and mechanical factors, including the compliancy of the extracellular matrix, the available growth factors, the adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix, cell-cell signaling, etc. Although various computational models have been proposed to explain the role of each of these biochemical and biomechanical effects, the mechanisms underlying in vitro angiogenesis are still poorly understood. Most explanations focus on predicting the whole vascular network or sprout from the underlying cell behavior, and ignore the intermediate organizational levels of the system. Here we show, using a hybrid Cellular Potts and finite-element computational ...
Anti-VEGF treatments are a group of medicines which reduce new blood vessel growth or oedema (swelling). They can be used to treat a number of eye conditions which cause new blood vessel growth or swelling under the macula area of your retina.
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CANSSUFIVE is also based on the technology platform of angiogenesis screening assays. These unique assays screen for angiogenesis which is the process of new blood vessels formation from pre-existing blood vessels. Angiogenesis is an essential natural process in the body for healing and reproduction. The human body produces a precise balance of growth and inhibitory factors in healthy tissues to control angiogenesis. When this balance is altered, the result is either excessive or insufficient angiogenesis. The abnormal angiogenesis is a common denominator in many conditions including cancer, Alzheimers disease, diabetic blindness, wet age related macula degeneration, obesity and rheumatoid arthritis ...
The sprouting and development of blood vessels affects numerous processes in the body, and excessive or insufficient angiogenesis can exacerbate a variety of disease states. Therefore, precise regulation of angiogenesis is crucial to an organisms survival. Studies knocking down Dicer and Drosha implicated miRNAs in regulation of angiogenesis, and subsequent studies revealed roles for miR-126, the miR17~92 cluster, miR378, miR-210, miR-296, and others in various settings such as neoangiogenesis in response to injury, developmental angiogenesis, and tumor angiogenesis. (1, 5). Over the past year, significant progress has been made in discovering which miRNAs drive this process in both normal physiology and in various disease states. Due to these studies and others, a clearer picture of the miRNA network governing angiogenesis is starting to emerge. This review spans some of the most significant recent discoveries that have contributed to our understanding of angiomiR function in vascular ...
The formation of the vascular system begins in the embryo with the process of vasculogenesis, involving endothelial precursors known as angioblasts that give rise to a primitive network of simple endothelial cells defining tubes lacking a lumen. When the heart starts beating, the erythrocytes entry into the bloodstream establishes a circulation, and the developing vessels undergo morphological and functional changes. Meanwhile, the vasculature expands through angiogenesis, the process of vessel formation from pre-existing ones. Yet, this vascular network is just a rough draft that must undergo extensive remodeling to give rise to mature and stable vessels able to sustain a functional circulatory system. Changes in hemodynamic forces, as well as cellular processes, molecular signals, and metabolic rewiring drive vessel remodeling and maturation. Aberrant vessel growth and remodeling contribute to the pathogenesis of several human disorders. Extending our knowledge of the mechanisms governing vessel
Current therapies for ARMD and DR aim to inhibit cytokines that mediate the vasoproliferative response or to destroy the tissue that is creating the increased metabolic demand. A more rational therapeutic approach would be to relieve the hypoxia or to replace or normalize the cells that underlie the fibrotic response to injury. Our increased understanding of the angiogenic process has led to the identification of effector molecules, their cellular receptors, intracellular signaling cascades, and post-transcriptional regulators; this knowledge has translated into the use of compounds that can inhibit the pathological angiogenesis associated with tumors and neovascular eye diseases (90). Understanding of cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions that affect angiogenesis at the tissue level has also improved, and more recently a role for circulating cells in the regulation of vascular homeostasis in the adult organism has been identified in a number of organs, including the eye (91). In addition to the ...
Angiogenesis is the process of new blood vessel growth. In malignant tumors this process is essential for the delivery of needed nutrients and oxygen for the continued growth and survival of cancer cells. Thus the process of angiogenesis and the subsequent development of therapies that inhibit the process have generated great interest since Judah Folkmans original hypothesis
Results: In vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays showed inhibition of capillary-like network formation of microvascular endothelial cells and neovascularization under dorsal skin of nude mice, respectively. We observed inhibition of intracerebral tumorigenesis and s.c. solid tumor formation in nude mice after treatment with combination of hTERT siRNA and IFN-γ. Western blotting of solid tumor samples showed significant downregulation of the molecules that regulate cell invasion, angiogenesis, and tumor progression ...
A team of investigators from the Argonne National Laboratory have identified a set of genes that might be responsible for cancer-related capillary formatio
Though zebrafish do not have placental arterioles and mice do not have a structural equivalent to the PAV, our developmental studies indicate that netrin signaling has evolved to ensure the formation of specific subsets of vessels. Thus, in contrast to VEGF signaling, which has profound effects on virtually all endothelial cells and vascular beds during developmental angiogenesis (Ferrara et al., 2003), guidance cues in general and UNC5B specifically, may provide an additional level of regulation to coordinate the spatial and temporal organization of tissue-specific vascular beds during embryogenesis. Because the first vital requirement for UNC5B is during mid-gestation, the reagents used in this study were unable to ascertain a function in later stages of development or within the adult. Such an assessment requires the use of alternative mutagenesis schemes, which we are vigorously pursuing.. A role for UNC5B in embryonic angiogenesis was originally postulated because of its vascular-specific ...
The spatial and temporal development of nascent capillary networks plays a major role in determining tissue patterning and function and it is important to understand how various cellular and molecular cues interact with migrating cells throughout angiogenic responses. The growth and differentiation of the mammalian neural retina-a process that depends upon the formation of a multi-layered, interconnected vascular supply-provides an excellent in vivo system for investigating angiogenesis and represents an exquisitely balanced objective for mathematical modelling.. The governing migratory mechanisms have been considered in a previously reported one-dimensional study of retinal angiogenesis [36]. However, this approach was, by definition, unable to generate spatial information for the entire retinal surface, and a more realistic two-dimensional hybrid PDE-discrete model has been derived here in order to track the migration of individual astrocyte and endothelial tip cells towards the outer retinal ...
Publications, Research Grants, Scientific Experts, Research Topics, Species, Genomes and Genes about physiologic neovascularization
Our angiogenesis assay, using iPSC-derived vascular endothelial cells, allows for the assessment of drug effects on blood vessel formation in disease.
Blood vessel growth; Sprouting angiogenesis; Computational modeling; Particle-continuum coupling; 3D; Matrix-bound VEGF; Extracellular matrix; ...
Using tumour models to study tumour angiogenesis is an advance on assays such as the CAM assay, as it allows study of the uptake and distribution of a drug
Nanoengineers at the University of California San Diego have 3D printed a lifelike, functional blood vessel network that could pave the way toward artificial organs and regenerative therapies.
Definition of angiogenic gene therapy in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is angiogenic gene therapy? Meaning of angiogenic gene therapy as a finance term. What does angiogenic gene therapy mean in finance?
Pericytes, surrounding the endothelium, fulfill diverse functions that are crucial for vascular homeostasis. The loss of pericytes is associated with pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy and Alzheimers disease. Thus, there exists a need for an experimental system that combines pharmacologic manipulation and quantification of pericyte coverage during sprouting angiogenesis. Here, we describe an in vitro angiogenesis assay that develops lumenized vascular sprouts composed of endothelial cells enveloped by pericytes, with the additional ability to comparatively screen the effect of multiple small molecules simultaneously. For automated analysis, we also present an ImageJ plugin tool we developed to quantify sprout morphology and pericyte coverage. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human brain vascular pericytes were coated on microcarrier beads and embedded in fibrin gels in a 96-well plate to form lumenized vascular sprouts. After treatment with pharmacologic compounds, sprouts were fixed,
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists, which have been used as insulin sensitizers in diabetic patients, may improve functions of endothelial cells (ECs). We investigated the effect of PPARγ on angiogenic activities of murine ECs and bone marrow-derived proangiogenic cells (PACs). PACs were isolated from bone marrow of 10-12 weeks old, wild type, db/db and PPARγ heterozygous animals. Cells were cultured on fibronectin and gelatin coated dishes in EGM-2MV medium. For in vitro stimulations, rosiglitazone (10 μmol/L) or GW9662 (10 μmol/L) were added to 80% confluent cell cultures for 24 hours. Angiogenic potential of PACs and ECs was tested in vitro and in vivo in wound healing assay and hind limb ischemia model. ECs and PACs isolated from diabetic db/db mice displayed a reduced angiogenic potential in ex vivo and in vitro assays, the effect partially rescued by incubation of cells with rosiglitazone (PPARγ activator). Correction of diabetes by administration of rosiglitazone
Primary Tumor Cell-derived endothelial cells can be used for a variety of purposes (e.g., assays of cell-cell adhesion, migration, vascular tube formation, angiogenesis assays and many other applications) Standard biochemical procedures can be performed using endothelial cell cultures include RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, or immunofluorescent staining or flow cytometry, et al.. Primary Tumor Cell-derived endothelial cells from Cell Biologics are distributed for research purposes only. Our products are not authorized for human use. Transfer or resale of any Cell Biologics cells or products from the purchaser to other markets, organizations, or individuals is prohibited by Cell Biologics without the express written consent of the company. Cell Biologics Terms and Conditions must be accepted before submitting an order.. Question 9: How much does isolation of Tumor Cell-derived endothelial cells cost? ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combination of three angiogenic growth factors has synergistic effects on sprouting of endothelial cell/mesenchymal stem cell-based spheroids in a 3D matrix. AU - Kim, Sook Kyoung. AU - Lee, Jaeyeon. AU - Song, Myeongjin. AU - Kim, Mirim. AU - Hwang, Soon Jung. AU - Jang, Hwanseok. AU - Park, Yongdoo. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Combinations of angiogenic growth factors have been shown to have synergistic effects on angiogenesis and natural wound healing in various animal models. Each growth factor has unique roles during angiogenesis; vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role during the initial step of angiogenesis, whereas PDGF functions in the maturation of blood vessels. We used a combination of three angiogenic growth factors to increase angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We chose VEGF as a basic factor and added platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to induce angiogenesis in three in vitro and in vivo models: 3D ...
Angiogenesis is critically reliant on endothelial cell-specific transcriptional mechanisms. rules and indicate that histone chaperones could be new focuses on for angiogenesis therapy. between days 8.5 and 9.0 (6) because of a lack of organized vasculature. Because deletion of the VEGFR1 tyrosine kinase website is compatible with normal vascular development (8), it appears that VEGFR1 functions like a decoy receptor for VEGFA during embryogenesis. However, several lines of evidence also suggest that function of VEGFR1 during angiogenesis is not limited to its VEGF trapping mechanism. Activation of VEGFR1 by VEGF induces migration of endothelial cells lacking VEGFR2 (9). VEGFR1 loss is definitely associated with decreased vascular sprout formation and vascular branching (10). This phenotype was also observed manifestation are mainly unfamiliar. Our earlier studies with mouse yolk sac endothelial cells (YSECs) and human being umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) showed that transcription is ...
Angiogenesis is an essential process whereby new blood vessels are formed from pre-existing vessels and occurs under both normal and pathophysiological conditions. growth element receptor 1 (sVEGFR-1). Therefore, FoxC1 appears to control angiogenesis by regulating two unique and opposing mechanisms; if so, vascular development could be identified, at least in part, Elvitegravir by a competitive balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic FoxC1-controlled pathways. With this review, we describe the mechanisms by which FoxC1 regulates vessel growth and discuss how these observations could contribute to a more total understanding of the part of FoxC1 in pathological angiogenesis. Intro Under both physiological and pathological conditions, new blood vessels are created from pre-existing vessels through a process called angiogenesis, which is definitely exactly controlled by the balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Vascular endothelial growth element (VEGF)-A is perhaps ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pravastatin-induced proangiogenic effects depend upon extracellular FGF-2. AU - Shiota, Masayuki. AU - Hikita, Yuko. AU - Kawamoto, Yukiko. AU - Kusakabe, Hiromi. AU - Tanaka, Masako. AU - Izumi, Yasukatsu. AU - Nakao, Takafumi. AU - Miura, Katsuyuki. AU - Funae, Yoshihiko. AU - Iwao, Hiroshi. PY - 2012/9. Y1 - 2012/9. N2 - The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to exert several protective effects on the vasculature that are unrelated to changes in the cholesterol profile, and to induce angiogenesis. The proangiogenic effect exerted by statins has been attributed to the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in endothelial cells; however, it is unclear how statins activate this pathway. Pravastatin-mediated activation of Akt and MAPK occurs rapidly (within 10 min.) and at low doses (10 nM). Here, we hypothesized that FGF-2 contributes to the proangiogenic effect of statins. We found that pravastatin, a hydrophilic statin, induced phosphorylation of the FGF ...
Here we showed that Foxo1 is expressed in developing embryonic vasculature and complete disruption of Foxo1 resulted in embryonic lethality due to vascular defects. Thus, Foxo1 is an essential regulator in embryonic vessel formation. Formation of the embryonic vasculature has been separated into two major processes, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis (23). During the initial stages of vascular development, endothelial cell precursors form a network of homogeneous and primitive blood vessels (the primary vascular plexus) by the process of vasculogenesis. The primary vascular plexus is then remodeled through the process of angiogenesis by sprouting and pruning blood vessels and recruiting mural cells to establish the vascular structure. In Foxo1-null mutant embryos, vasculature stained by PECAM-1 can be seen at E9.5, although it is immature compared to wild-type embryos. This finding suggests that Foxo1 may not have a major role in the process of embryonic vasculogenesis. However, the failure to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stereolithographic modeling of the deep circumflex iliac artery and its vascular branching. T2 - A further advance in computed tomography-guided flap planning. AU - Rozen, Warren M.. AU - Ting, Jeannette W.C.. AU - Baillieu, Charles. AU - Leong, James. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. UR - U2 - 10.1097/PRS.0b013e31825903d1. DO - 10.1097/PRS.0b013e31825903d1. M3 - Comment / Debate. VL - 130. JO - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. JF - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. SN - 0032-1052. IS - 2. ER - ...
Basement matrices such as Matrigel™ and Geltrex™ are used in a variety of cell culture assays of anchorage-dependent differentiation including endothelial cell tube formation assays. The volumes of matrix recommended for these assays (approximately 150 μl/cm2) are costly, limit working distances for microscopy, and require cell detachment for subsequent molecular analysis. Here we describe the development and validation of a thin-layer angiogenesis (TLA) assay for assessing the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells that overcomes these limitations. Geltrex™ basement matrix at 5 μl/cm2 in 24-well (10 μl) or 96-well (2 μl) plates supports endothelial cell differentiation into tube-like structures in a comparable manner to the standard larger volumes of matrix. Since working distances are reduced, high-resolution single cell microscopy, including DIC and confocal imaging, can be used readily. Using MitoTracker dye we now demonstrate, for the first time, live mitochondrial dynamics and
Primary endothelial cells can be used for a variety of purposes (e.g., assays of cell-cell adhesion, migration, vascular tube formation, angiogenesis assays and many other applications) Standard biochemical procedures can be performed using endothelial cell cultures include RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, or immunofluorescent staining or flow cytometry, et al.. Primary endothelial cells from Cell Biologics are distributed for research purposes only. Our products are not authorized for human use. Transfer or resale of any Cell Biologics cells or products from the purchaser to other markets, organizations, or individuals is prohibited by Cell Biologics without the express written consent of the company. Cell Biologics Terms and Conditions must be accepted before submitting an order.. Question 10: How much does isolation of endothelial cells cost? ...
ABSTRACT. Vascular formation in vivo involves several processes and signal cascades subsequently occurring in the embryo. Several models by ES cells have been reported for analysis in vitro. We show here a 3D culture system using collagen gel (AteloCell) as a simple and useful system for investigating vascular formations and analyzing the roles of factors in vivo. Although VEGF and PDGF are growth factors with multi-potentials for vascular formation, their sequential roles have not been elucidated. We investigated the effects of VEGF and PDGF B signals for vascular formation by a 3D culture system that embedded embryoid bodies (EBs) from ES cells into a collagen gel. After embedding EBs in the collagen gel with a medium containing VEGF, EBs gave off CD105 immunopositive vessels as the initial step of vasculogenesis. When the factor in the culture medium for EBs was switched from VEGF to PDGF B after 5 days of culture, the morphological features of vessels varied, suggesting the occurrence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Homeobox D1 regulates angiogenic functions of endothelial cells via integrin β1 expression. AU - Park, Hyojin. AU - Choi, Hyun Jung. AU - Kim, Jihye. AU - Kim, Minhyung. AU - Rho, Seung Sik. AU - Hwang, Daehee. AU - Kim, Young Myeong. AU - Kwon, Young Guen. PY - 2011/4/29. Y1 - 2011/4/29. N2 - Homeobox (HOX) family genes, major transcription factors for embryonic development, have been also implicated in vascular development and angiogenesis, particularly with regulation of genes involved in cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions. However, the cellular and molecular functions of HOXD1 in endothelial cells (ECs) are yet to be explored. We here report that HOXD1 is prominently expressed in human ECs and regulates angiogenic activities. Knockdown of HOXD1 in ECs resulted in significant inhibition of migration and adhesion as well as tube like structure formation. These effects were correlated with the reduced expression of integrin β1 (ITGB1), an important ...
We have previously demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), when injected into rodent hearts following myocardial infarction (MI), enhance myocardial rep...
Three dimensional time-lapse imaging is time-consuming and labor intensive, but the resulting data provide rich dynamic information that may yield new insights into mechanisms of growth and development. Analysis of developmental dynamics does not replace but augments standard morphometric analyses. Our new method is useful not only for analysis of angiogenic sprouting in zebrafish, but also for analysis of angiogenic sprouting in other systems and for other similar events such as analysis of neurite growth dynamics in axonal pathfinding.. Automated extraction of meaningful information from digital images is a complex problem because time-lapse data acquired from living organisms frequently has a low signal and high noise. The human visual cortex is excellent for extracting information from such images but cannot yet be entirely replaced by computer vision. We tested software tools in FIJI ImageJ and in IMARIS that refined manually selected points to a nearby point of local maximum signal ...
There is a growing body of evidence on the importance of hemodynamic forces (i.e. blood flow and pressure) in regulating endothelial cell behavior and blood vessel formation. I was part of a recent discovery published in Nature Cell Biology that identified a new type of membrane protrusion-called inverse blebbing-at the apical membrane of endothelial cells. These inverse blebs drive the expansion of the lumen, which is a structure that allows blood to flow through the vessels. This process is therefore important in the formation of functional blood vessels ...
Scientists have discovered that cotton candy may help grow replacement tissue. It can be used for making networks of blood vessels in laboratory grown skin, muscle, bone or fat. Dr. Jason Spector of Cornell Medical Center in New York and Leon Bellan of Cornell University presented their research in a paper for Soft Matter. A thick liquid chemical is poured over a chunk of the sugary stuff. After it solidifies, it is placed in warm water to dissolve the candy. What is left is a piece of material with tiny channels which are lined with cells to create the blood…
There has been little work on the regulation of adipose tissue angiogenesis in obese subjects, although evidence implicates angiogenesis in the development of adipose tissue. Our study shows that adipose tissue from obese adult subjects grafted on CAM was able to induce angiogenesis with recruitment of vascular cells of both human and host (avian) origin. Although the expression of several angiogenic genes differed slightly between SAT and VAT, the expression of the main angiogenic factors, and notably VEGF, was similar in SAT and VAT. SAT and VAT also had similar angiogenic potencies on CAM, and inhibition of VEGF strongly inhibited angiogenesis in both tissues.. Adipose tissue is highly vascularized (2,3,5,9), and many angiogenic factors are secreted by adipose tissue, including VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor, placental growth factor (PlGF), angiopoietins, FGFs, TNF-α, PAI-1, and metalloproteases (2,8,9,18,32,33). Adipose tissue contains mature adipocytes and many other cell types known as ...
Im very excited on starting a new phase and new treatment approach. I have been searching on how to increase angiogenesis or blood vessel formation in the scalp. VEGF is one thing that increases that and there are several pathways that are involved in ang
Coordination between the vascular system and forming organs is essential for proper embryonic development. The vasculature expands by sprouting angiogenesis, during which tip cells form filopodia that incorporate into capillary loops. Although several molecules, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa), are known to induce sprouting, the mechanism that terminates this process to ensure neovessel stability is still unknown. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) has been shown to mediate interaction between endothelial and mural cells during vascular maturation. In vitro studies have identified S1P1 as a pro-angiogenic factor. Here, we show that S1P1 acts as an endothelial cell (EC)-autonomous negative regulator of sprouting angiogenesis during vascular development. Severe aberrations in vessel size and excessive sprouting found in limbs of S1P1-null mouse embryos before vessel maturation imply a previously unknown, mural cell-independent role for S1P1 as an anti-angiogenic factor. ...
INTRODUCTION Stimulation of coronary collateral vessel growth by therapeutic angiogenesis (TA) offers an alternative treatment option for patients with refractory angina. Several TA modalities, including delivery to the heart of angiogenic growth factors (proteins or genes) and cells have been tested in clinical trials in the past two decades, but so far none of them resulted in significant therapeutic efficacy in large scale studies. This review attempts to identify the main obstacles hindering clinical success and recommends measures to overcome them in the future. AREAS COVERED After stating the medical need and rational for TA, and listing and briefly discussing past and current TA clinical trials, three main areas of obstacles are described: conceptual questions, technical limitations and clinical design uncertainties. Based on scientific and technical advances and lessons learned in past clinical trials, potential solutions to overcome some of these obstacles are proposed. EXPERT OPINION
Endothelial tubulogenesis is a crucial step in the formation of functional blood vessels during angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Here, we use in vivo imaging of living zebrafish embryos expressing fluorescent fusion proteins of beta-Actin, alpha-Catenin, and the ERM family member Moesin1 (Moesin a), to define a novel cord hollowing process that occurs during the initial stages of tubulogenesis in intersegmental vessels (ISVs) in the embryo. We show that the primary lumen elongates along cell junctions between at least two endothelial cells during embryonic angiogenesis. Moesin1-EGFP is enriched around structures that resemble intracellular vacuoles, which fuse with the luminal membrane during expansion of the primary lumen. Analysis of silent heart mutant embryos shows that initial lumen formation in the ISVs is not dependent on blood flow; however, stabilization of a newly formed lumen is dependent upon blood flow. Zebrafish moesin1 knockdown and cell transplantation experiments demonstrate ...
One of the key challenges in the field of blood vessel engineering is the in vitro production of small and large diameter vessels. Considering that a combi
New blood vessel growth, or angiogenesis, is critical for cancer to grow and spread throughout the body. Drugs that target vascular endothelial growth factor -- a key driver of angiogenesis -- are now approved for the treatment of several metastatic cancers. However, not all patients respond and many more eventually become resistant after initial treatment benefits.
Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from existing vessels, plays an important role in normal physiology (Tonnesen et al., 2000), as well as in many pathological conditions including cancer (Folkman, 1971; Papetti and Herman, 2002), macular degeneration (Ahmad et al., 2011), and various vascular diseases (Khurana et al., 2005). Strikingly, increased angiogenesis is observed in many types of human cancers (Bergers and Benjamin, 2003; Dvorak, 2003), whereas angiogenesis is decreased in age-associated vascular diseases (Ungvari et al., 2010). Therefore, diseases that are associated with increased angiogenesis, such as human cancers, can be treated by inhibiting angiogenesis (Folkman, 2007). In contrast, stimulation of angiogenesis could be beneficial in the treatment of coronary artery disease and other vascular diseases characterized by insufficient blood flow to target organs as a result of blocked or damaged blood vessels (Khan et al., 2002; Al Sabti, 2007). Many factors that ...
Tissue branching morphogenesis requires the hierarchical organization of sprouting cells into leading tip and trailing stalk cells [ [1] and [2]]. During new blood vessel branching (angiogenesis), endothelial tip cells (TCs) lead sprouting vessels, extend filopodia, and migrate in response to gradients of the secreted ligand, vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) [3]. In contrast, adjacent stalk cells (SCs) trail TCs, generate the trunk of new vessels, and critically maintain connectivity with parental vessels. Here, we establish that h2.0-like homeobox-1 (Hlx1) determines SC potential, which is critical for angiogenesis during zebrafish development. By combining a novel pharmacological strategy for the manipulation of angiogenic cell behavior in vivo with transcriptomic analyses of sprouting cells, we identify the uniquely sprouting-associated gene, hlx1. Expression of hlx1 is almost entirely restricted to sprouting endothelial cells and is excluded from adjacent nonangiogenic cells. ...
Abstract.It takes two to make blood vessels-endothelial cells and pericytes. While the endothelial cells are the better characterized of the two, pericytes are now coming into focus as important regulators of angiogenesis and blood vessel function, and as potential drug targets. However, pericytes are still surrounded by much controversy. They are difficult to define, they constitute a heterogeneous population of cells, and their ontogeny is not well understood. They are plastic and have the capacity to differentiate into other mesenchymal cell types, such as smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Recent interest in pericytes also stems from their potential involvement in diseases such as diabetic microangiopathy, tissue fibrosis, cancer, atherosclerosis and Alzheimers disease. The present review focuses on the role of pericytes in physiological angiogenesis. The currently favored view states that the initial endothelial tubes form without pericyte contact, and that subsequent acquisition of
Vascular networks are central to the functioning of most tissues. We use a two-cell approach to bioengineer human vascular networks in vivo. In our model, human blood-derived ECFCs are combined with human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in a biocompatible hydrogel and injected subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice where they form an organized vascular network that joins with the mouse vasculature. This model is ideally suited for studies on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of human vascular network formation and for developing strategies to vascularize tissues. ...
Angiogenesis is a multicellular morphogenesis process that expands vascular networks in tissue. Various biological components concertedly contribute to angiogenic morphogenesis. The most important cellular component is endothelial cells, which we use to reconstruct 3D angiogenic process in a extracellular matrix in response to angiogenic growth factors. In addition, perivascular pericytes, blood flow and extravascular tissue importantly serve as (sub)components that allow constructing more sophisticated vascular networks. However, a mechanistic understanding of how the individual components contribute to various angiogenic processes is largely missing. In this seminar, I will introduce a reconstitution angiogenesis assay system with a microfluidic device that allows dissecting the phenomenon in a bottom-up way by adding individual components to the essential one. I will discuss the roles of pericyte and intraluminal pressure on angiogenic morphogenesis based on recent unpublished data obtained ...
The ECM protein Del-1 is one of several novel ECM proteins that accumulate around angiogenic blood vessels in embryonic and tumor tissue and promote angiogenesis in the absence of exogenous growth factors. Del-1 expressed in mouse or rabbit ischemic hind-limb muscle by gene transfer rapidly promotes new blood vessel formation and restores muscle function. This angiogenic ECM protein initiates angiogenesis by binding to integrin αvβ5 on resting endothelium, thereby resulting in expression of the transcription factor Hox D3 and integrin αvβ3. Hox D3 converts resting endothelium to angiogenic endothelium by inducing expression of proangiogenic molecules such as integrin αvβ3. These findings provide evidence for an angiogenic switch that can be initiated in the absence of exogenous growth factors and indicate that the angiogenic matrix protein Del-1 may be a useful tool for the therapy of ischemic disease.. ...
The formation of new blood vessels is a complex multistep process. Endothelial cells resting in the parent vessels are activated by an angiogenic signal and stimulated to synthesize and release degradative enzymes, allowing endothelial cells to migrate, proliferate, and finally, differentiate to give rise to capillary tubules. Any of these steps may be a potential target for pharmacologic intervention (3). IB05204 antiangiogenic activity was firstly detected using the in vitro differentiation assay for endothelial cells. Our results show that IB05204 completely inhibits capillary-like tube formation by BAEC or HUVEC at concentrations (2 and 5 μmol/L, respectively) that are lower than those required for endothelial proliferation inhibition (IC50 = 14 and 17 μmol/L for BAEC and HUVEC, respectively). Furthermore, IB05204 antiproliferative effect does not seem to be endothelial cell specific because these IC50 values are similar or even higher to those obtained with tumor cells (IC50 = 4.2, and ...
During angiogenesis, the protein prohibitin-1 doesnt live up to its name. Instead of stopping some cellular process, it encourages new blood vessel growth by ensuring that mitochondria run efficiently, as Schleicher et al. reveal.. For lower organisms, prohibitin-1 is an asset. It keeps mitochondria functioning smoothly, and its loss pushes cells into the low-activity, slow-dividing state called senescence. The researchers suspected that prohibitin-1 would do a similar job in mammals and might be particularly important for vascular homeostasis, since mitochondrial maintenance is known to be important for vascular health-reactive oxygen species (ROS) that spill out from malfunctioning mitochondria can damage endothelial cells and prompt atherosclerosis.. The team knocked down the protein in mammalian endothelial cells and found that the cells ROS levels shot up and several signs of senescence became apparent. Without the protein, cells also moved less and wouldnt roll up into tubes, suggesting ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The reduction of oxygen occurring as a result of advanced vascular diseases poses severe clinical problems including massive cell death and resultant tissue loss. Compared to pharmacological methods of therapeutic angiogenesis, cell-based strategies represent a direct approach to generate a capillary network. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) are a subpopulation of endothelial progenitor cells that exhibit robust angiogenic potential under hypoxic conditions and can form functional vascular networks in vivo. Adipose- derived stem cells (ASCs) are a promising cell population for promoting angiogenesis and potentially stabilizing new vessels. However, the success of cell-based therapies is limited by rapid cell death due to apoptosis upon implanting cells into ischemic tissue environments, dramatically reducing the number of cells available to participate in vasculogenesis. Additionally, recent data suggest that cells derived from older donors are more ...
OBJECTIVE:Stem cell-based regenerative therapies have been intensively studied with the aim to define an ideal cell type for the treatment of myocardial infarction. We tested systemically delivered, platelet-targeted induced vascular progenitor cells (iVPCs) to study their potential to salvage damaged myocardium after ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS:Using a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury, we tested the potential of platelet-targeted iVPCs (1 × 106 targ-iVPCs) compared to non-targ-iVPCs and a saline control. Bioluminescence imaging, echocardiography, and histological analyses were performed. RESULTS:Four weeks after ischemia-reperfusion injury, systemic delivery of targ-iVPCs led to reduced fibrosis and infarct size (PBS: 25.7 ± 3.9 vs targ-iVPC: 18.4 ± 6.6 vs non-targ-iVPC: 25.1 ± 3.7%I/LV, P < 0.05), increased neovascularization, and restored cardiac function (PBS: 44.0 ± 4.2 vs targ-iVPC: 54.3 ± 4.5 vs non-targ-iVPC: 46.4 ± 3.8%EF, P < 0.01). Cell tracking experiments ...
The outgrowth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, called angiogenesis, is a crucial step in many physiological and pathological mechanisms, including wound healing and tumor growth. Angiogenesis is a topic of intensive experimental investigation so its phenomenology and many of the molecular signals contributing to it have been well characterized. Yet it is poorly understood how the biological components fit together dynamically to drive the outgrowth of blood vessels. Cell-based simulation models help analyze how cells assemble into embryonic structures, and how cell behavior is guided by signals from neighboring cells. With such cell-based simulation models, we have identified dynamic cell behaviors by which endothelial cells can form sprouts from existing blood vessels. In one of these, endothelial cells secrete a chemoattractant that attracts other endothelial cells. By itself this mechanism causes cells to aggregate into isolated clusters. But including experimentally observed ...
In the circulatory system, while larger features of the vasculature such as arteries and veins appear to be statically positioned for years of use, finer features in the human body and in biology relates to a continuous branching out of a circulatory network that is required for tissue growth. This process is related to biochemical pathways and is vital to be understood so that issues in health and disease can be better addressed. Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessels. A functional vascular network is established by balanced angiogenesis processes. While the activation of angiogenesis extends vascular networks crucial for tissue growth, angiogenic vessels should be stabilized to undertake necessary vascular functions. The Notch pathway is fundamental for allowing for vascular stabilization. It acts by preventing excessive angiogenesis. However, how this signaling pathway that is conserved in various biological processes can induce changes that are ...
Ebba Brakenhielm is an Editor at PeerJ. Bio: INSERM Tenured Researcher in the field of Cardiovascular Research, currently focusing on therapeutic angiogenesis with polymer-based targeted growth factor delivery. PhD in Tumor Biology (Pr Yihai Cao, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden), and expertise in Adipose tissue angiogenesis. Postdoc at UCLA (Pr Lily Wu) in molecular imaging and tumor lymphangiogenesis field. Member of European Vascular Biology Organisation, French society for Cardiovascular Research, French society for Angiogenesis Research.
The role of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on vascular repair and neovasculogenesis is impaired in diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of N-epsilon-carboxymethyl lysine (CML) on caspase-3 expression and morphology of early EPCs. After 7 days of culturing, primary cultures of early EPCs were randomly divided into four groups. One group is a normal group. Three groups were exposed to low (50 g/ml), medium (100 g/ml), and high (200 g/ml) doses of CML for an hour. The caspase-3 expression and morphology of early EPCs were evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscope. The caspase-3 expression of early EPCs increased in groups exposed to low and medium dose of CML, and decreased in group exposed to high dose of CML compared to normal. Exposure of CML changed the morphology of early EPCs including cells shrinkage, unclear margin between cytoplasm and nucleus, also oval-shape cells. Given that CML may contribute to the functional defects of the endothelium in diabetes by causing ...
... choroidal neovascularization) CNV (corneal neovascularization) NVD (neovascularization of the disc) "rubeosis iridis" at ... These blood vessels eventually go through a process called fibrosis which closes the normal physiologic anatomy of the angle. ... Once the neovascularization has been longstanding, the new vessels recruit fibrous tissue, and as this forms and contracts, the ... If caught early, the neovascularization can be reversed with prompt pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP), or injection of anti- ...
... neovascularization, physiologic MeSH G09.330.582.962 - ventricular function MeSH G09.330.582.962.800 - ventricular function, ...
... may play an important role in angiogenesis and neovascularization. For example, gelatinase B appears to be ... However, because of its physiologic function, it may be difficult to leverage Gelatinase B inhibition into cancer therapy ... involved in the remodeling associated with malignant glioma neovascularization. It is also a key regulator of growth plate ...
That is, studying the phenotypic and/or physiologic effects of expression decreases can reveal the role of a gene product. The ... Age-related macular degeneration, choroidal neovascularization. VEGFR1 Ocular and retinal disorders. PF-655. Diabetic macular ...
These failures suggested that either these are the wrong molecular targets to induce neovascularization, that they can only be ... though some papers show physiologic signaling via Tie-1 as well. These receptors are tyrosine kinases. Thus, they can initiate ... Vasculogenesis is the embryonic formation of endothelial cells from mesoderm cell precursors, and from neovascularization, ... Cao L, Mooney DJ (November 2007). "Spatiotemporal control over growth factor signaling for therapeutic neovascularization". ...
Repair or incomplete regeneration, refers to the physiologic adaptation of an organ after injury in an effort to re-establish ... Also called neovascularization, the process of angiogenesis occurs concurrently with fibroblast proliferation when endothelial ... Tong M, Tuk B, Hekking IM, Vermeij M, Barritault D, van Neck JW (2009). "Stimulated neovascularization, inflammation resolution ... impaired angiogenesis and neovascularization, high levels of metalloproteases, damage from reactive oxygen species and AGEs ( ...
Also called neovascularization, the process of angiogenesis occurs concurrently with fibroblast proliferation when endothelial ... refers to the physiologic adaptation of an organ after injury in an effort to re-establish continuity without regards to exact ... Tong M, Tuk B, Hekking IM, Vermeij M, Barritault D, van Neck JW (2009). "Stimulated neovascularization, inflammation resolution ... impaired angiogenesis and neovascularization, high levels of metalloproteases, damage from reactive oxygen species and AGEs ( ...
... may play an important role in angiogenesis and neovascularization. For example, MMP9 appears to be involved in the ... However, because of its physiologic function, it may be difficult to leverage Gelatinase B inhibition into cancer therapy ... remodeling associated with malignant glioma neovascularization. It is also a key regulator of growth plate formation- both ...
... Summary. Summary: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS in restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION ... pathologic neovascularization*vascular endothelium*wound healing*cell proliferation*cell movement*angiogenesis inhibitors* ... VEGF-induced adult neovascularization: recruitment, retention, and role of accessory cells. Myriam Grunewald. Department of ... VEGF-induced adult neovascularization: recruitment, retention, and role of accessory cells. Myriam Grunewald. Department of ...
What is Neovascularization, physiologic? Meaning of Neovascularization, physiologic medical term. What does Neovascularization ... physiologic in the Medical Dictionary? Neovascularization, physiologic explanation free. ... neovascularization. (redirected from Neovascularization, physiologic). Also found in: Dictionary. neovascularization. [ne″o-vas ... Neovascularization, physiologic , definition of Neovascularization, physiologic by Medical dictionary https://medical- ...
collateral circulation; macrophages; microRNAs; neovascularization, physiologic; peripheral arterial disease. PMID:. 28356443. ... or signaling involved in miR93-mediated ischemic muscle neovascularization is not clear. Macrophages were best known to ...
... mononuclear bone marrow cells in patients with end-stage ischemic heart disease could safely promote neovascularization and ...
Neovascularization, Physiologic* * Organ Specificity * Pericardium / cytology* * Pericardium / embryology * Pericardium / ... Thymosin beta4 induces adult epicardial progenitor mobilization and neovascularization Nature. 2007 Jan 11;445(7124):177-82. ... source of vascular progenitors for continued renewal of regressed vessels at low basal level or sustained neovascularization ...
Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects * Neovascularization, Physiologic / physiology * Peroxisome Proliferator- ...
Proangiogenic cells enhanced persistent and physiologic neovascularization compared with m Proangiogenic cells enhanced ... Neovascularization, Physiologic / Mesenchymal Stem Cells / Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells / Ischemia / Animals Language ... persistent and physiologic neovascularization compared with macrophages Young-Eun CHOI; Young-Ryun CHA; Kyoung-min LEE; Hyun- ... PACs and Macs increased neovascularization activity in an in vitro co-culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and ...
... analyzed for each donor artery to determine which surgical procedure is most useful for the induction of neovascularization. In ... Neovascularization, Physiologic / physiology*. Postoperative Complications / radiography*. Treatment Outcome. From MEDLINE®/ ... Neovascularization (angiogenesis) after revascularization in moyamoya disease. Which technique is most useful for moyamoya ... The neovascularization after indirect revascularization using the 1) superficial temporal artery (skin), 2) middle meningeal ...
Neovascularization, Physiologic*. Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism. Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator. Skin / ...
Angiopoietin 2 expression in the retina: upregulation during physiologic and pathologic neovascularization. J. Cell. Physiol. ...
Neovascularization; Physiologic, Phenotype, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/pharmacology, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, ... 1. A quantitative in vivo avian neovascularization assay that allows live monitoring of neovascularization processes. Open this ... A quantitative in vivo avian neovascularization assay that allows live monitoring of neovascularization processes. Kilarski, ... 3. Neovascularization is directed by tensile forces generated during tissue remodelling. Open this publication in new window or ...
Neovascularization, Physiologic. 2. 2010. 1520. 0.120. Why? Naphthols. 1. 2011. 49. 0.120. Why? ...
Neovascularization, Physiologic Re-Epithelialization Skin Swine Time Factors Tissue Culture Techniques Tissue Engineering ...
Neovascularization Development of new blood vessels. This process can be physiologic or pathologic. ...
Angiopoietin 2 expression in the retina: upregulation during physiologic and pathologic neovascularization. J Cell Physiol 2000 ...
... physiologic processes that are highly dependent upon neovascularization. The growth of established human tumor xenografts ( ... AZD2171 treatment inhibited physiologic processes that are critically dependent upon VEGF signaling and angiogenesis. During ... Consequences of inhibiting VEGF signaling and physiologic angiogenesis in vivo: effect of AZD2171 on bone morphogenesis and ... The cyclic corpus luteum of the ovary is considered the site of strongest physiologic angiogenesis, with rapid luteal ...
Neovascularization, Physiologic (drug effects) *Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (biosynthesis, genetics, pharmacology) *Proto- ...
Neovascularization, Physiologic. *Neural Crest/cytology. *Regional Blood Flow. *Stromal Cells/cytology. Related in: MedlinePlus ...
Neovascularization, Physiologic*. *Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism*. Minor. *Cell Proliferation. *Cells, Cultured ...
Physiologic and pathologic neovascularization in other tissues may also be initiated by release of stored angiogenic factors ... These findings indicate that basement membranes of the cornea may serve as physiologic storage depots for an angiogenic ... Abnormal release of this growth factor could be responsible for corneal neovascularization in a variety of ocular diseases. ...
... images of Type 3 neovascularization (NV) and to characterize a st... ... It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis ( ... The Effect of Bevacizumab on Corneal Neovascularization. Eight patients with corneal neovascularization were treated with ... angiography (OCT-A) images of Type 3 neovascularization (NV) and to characterize a staging system for Type 3 NV based on the ...
Neovascularization, Physiologic; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/*physiology; Transcription Factors/chemistry/* ...
... representing a physiologic difference with the other breast. Appearance of neovascularization indicates new blood vessels being ... In order for a structural change to manifest and appear on a mammogram, there must be an underlying physiologic change. ... By attending to both physiologic and anatomic changes, we become far more accurate in evaluating breast health. ... we speak of thermographic information reflecting physiologic change, whereas mammograms reflect anatomic change. ...
These cells, shown to participate in physiologic as well as pathologic neovascularization, share with hematopoietic stem cells ... Because hindlimb neovascularization is inherently impaired in the athymic nude mouse, these mice typically develop extensive ... Transplantation of ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells for therapeutic neovascularization. Christoph Kalka, Haruchika ... Transplantation of ex vivo expanded endothelial progenitor cells for therapeutic neovascularization. Christoph Kalka, Haruchika ...
Homeostatic chemokines are constitutively produced and regulate physiologic trafficking of immune cells during hematopoiesis, ... are also defined as angiogenic or angiostatic based on their role in promoting or suppressing tissue neovascularization, ...
... leads to disordered angiogenesis growing into the vitreous as intravitreal neovascularization. Intravitreal neovascularization ... However, recurrent intravitreal neovascularization after anti-VEGF treatment occurs in clinic and animal studies.26,27 ... Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of childhood blindness.1,2 Initially, preterm birth interrupts physiologic ... Intraperitoneal genipin to reduce AVA reduces intravitreal neovascularization. (A) and (B) IVNV at p18 of OIR pups received ...
An increasing influx of MCs to the cervix during the pregnancy occurs that helps to the physiologic cervical ripening. While ... MMPs degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM), VEGF modulates neovascularization and histamine influences the embryo implantation ... including tryptase and chymase activate the precursors of MMP2 and MMP9 to mediate ECM degradation during the physiologic ...
... upregulation during physiologic and pathologic neovascularization. J. Cell Physiol. 184, 275-284. ... Angiopoietin/Tek interactions regulate MMP-9 expression and retinal neovascularization. Lab. Invest. 83, 1637-1645. ...
Angiopoietin 2 expression in the retina: upregulation during physiologic and pathologic neovascularization. Hackett, S.F., ... Angiopoietin 2 expression in the retina: upregulation during physiologic and pathologic neovascularization.. Vascular ... During development of the deep capillary bed or retinal neovascularization, other cells in the inner nuclear layer and ganglion ... is not known whether this is also required later during retinal vascular development or as part of retinal neovascularization ...
  • This study identifies Tbeta4 and AcSDKP as potent stimulators of coronary vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, and reveals Tbeta4-induced adult epicardial cells as a viable source of vascular progenitors for continued renewal of regressed vessels at low basal level or sustained neovascularization following cardiac injury. (
  • PACs caused an increase in healthy new vessels in in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis and enhanced long-term functional neovascularization activity in the hindlimb ischemia model, whereas Macs did not. (
  • Neovascularization (angiogenesis) after revascularization in moyamoya disease. (
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) is a pivotal stimulus of physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, including the sustained neovascularization required to support solid tumor growth ( 1 ). (
  • It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC). (
  • Overactivated VEGF signaling through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) leads to disordered angiogenesis growing into the vitreous as intravitreal neovascularization. (
  • Because hypericin inhibits intracellular signaling pathways that are believed to participate in the regulation of angiogenesis, we investigated the actions of hypericin and SJW in retinal neovascularization, using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). (
  • 4] The physiologic role of angiogenesis is pivotal during embryogenesis, where vasculogenesis creates new vessel formation during embryo development. (
  • Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is of key importance in a broad array of physiologic and pathologic conditions such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cancer. (
  • With Dr. Hartnett, Dr. Wang has addressed questions regarding both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, specifically of signaling pathways involving VEGF/VEGF receptor, erythropoietin (EPO)/EPO receptor, Rac1, CCR3 and Rap1 in regulating pathologic angiogenesis in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (
  • Because neovascularization under either physiologic or pathologic conditions is controlled by a balance of endogenous proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors, an important approach to develop therapeutic agents for cancers and other angiogenesis-driven diseases is to use endogenous antiangiogenic factors ( 3 ). (
  • Members of a subgroup of chemokines, the CXC family, also play a critical role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis, including in the context of chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and malignancy. (
  • In an oxygen-induced retinopathy model, we demonstrate that Notch3 is induced in hypoxia and interestingly, pathological neovascularization is decreased in retinas of Notch3-null mice. (
  • C57BL/6 neonatal mice were exposed to a 75% concentration of oxygen from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P12 and returned to room air from P12 to P17 to induce retinal neovascularization. (
  • Macrophage inhibition or knockout in mice results in impaired wound healing through reduced neovascularization, granulation tissue formation, and reepithelialization. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that by increasing the number of macrophages or monocytes in the wound site above physiologic levels via pullulan-collagen composite dermal hydrogel scaffold delivery, the rate of wound healing can be significantly accelerated in both wild-type and diabetic mice, with no adverse effect on the quality of repair. (
  • corneal neovascularization See pannus . (
  • Abnormal release of this growth factor could be responsible for corneal neovascularization in a variety of ocular diseases. (
  • Eight patients with corneal neovascularization were treated with subconjunctival injection of 1.25 mg bevacizumab and had a follow-up of at least 2 months. (
  • The goal of this current study is to prospectively evaluate the influence of a single subconjunctival aflibercept injection on the regression of corneal neovascularization. (
  • If this occurs, then surgical intervention is required to reduce the pressure (such as a glaucoma drainage implant) CNV (choroidal neovascularization) CNV (corneal neovascularization) NVD (neovascularization of the disc) "rubeosis iridis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Laatikainen L, Blach RK. (
  • However, whether H19 regulates the progression of corneal neovascularization (CNV) is unclear. (
  • However, corneal neovascularization (CNV) can occur under conditions of infection, inflammation, immune response, chemical injury, trauma and impaired corneal innervation [ 1-3 ], leading to corneal edema, lipid deposition, scar formation, persistent inflammation and a loss of visual acuity [ 4 ]. (
  • choroidal neovascularization (CNV) Abnormal growth of blood vessels, originating in the choriocapillaris, which pass through Bruch's membrane and then proliferate under the retinal pigment epithelium (type 1) and/or under the retina (type 2). (
  • Prognostic Tomographic Classification of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization. (
  • To investigate the prognostic value of the development of a hyperreflective envelopment of the neovascular tissue in myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) after the first intravitreal ranibizumab. (
  • Classification of Choroidal Neovascularization Using Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomographic Angiography. (
  • To evaluate if projection-resolved optical coherence tomographic angiography (PR-OCTA) reduces projection artifact with less attenuation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) flow signal compared to c. (
  • This study was undertaken to determine the influence of aging on the severity of neovascularization in a mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV). (
  • Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the major vision-threatening complication associated with several common retinal degenerative or inflammatory diseases, especially age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 1 2 3 4 5 pathologic myopia, angioid streaks, and ocular histoplasmosis. (
  • To investigate the transcriptional factors associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (
  • This study was designed to evaluate the importance of PLCγ1 and c-Cbl in experimental choroidal neovascularization (CNV). (
  • PACs and Macs increased neovascularization activity in an in vitro co-culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and MSCs and in an in vivo cotransplantation in Matrigel. (
  • The resident population of endothelial cells that is competent to respond to an available level of angiogenic growth factors, however, may potentially limit the extent to which cytokine supplementation enhances tissue neovascularization. (
  • 8 On the other hand, a central nervous system lymphoma does not usually show a prominent feature of neovascularization, though vascular abnormalities such as tumor invasion of endothelial cells and invasion even into the vessel lumen can often be seen. (
  • enhanced neovascularization in response to VEGF supplementation suggests that VEGF expression is indeed a critical determinant of postnatal blood vessel development. (
  • While MMPs degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM), VEGF modulates neovascularization and histamine influences the embryo implantation. (
  • If caught early, the neovascularization can be reversed with prompt pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP), or injection of anti-VEGF medications with subsequent PRP. (
  • The physiologic roles of VEGF in humans include neovascularization and endometrium implantation, and in pathological processes VEGF has been involved in the initation, growth, and metastasis of tumors. (
  • The critical role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of ocular neovascularization is well recognized. (
  • Standard of care for ROP including laser treatment and anti-angiogenic strategies, such as inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), intends to reduce IVNV, but is destructive or interferes with physiologic retinal vascular development. (
  • Results showed that mechanical strain produced by mandibular advancement induced neovascularization in the posterior condyle marked by the increased expression of VEGF. (
  • Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced imaging that provides noninvasive evaluation of tumor vascularity has been widely used to assess morphologic and physiologic information on brain tumor vascularity. (
  • The recent success of applying an antiangiogenic agent Avastin ( 1 ) in clinical settings for cancer treatment provided the first set of evidence to support the hypothesis that inhibition of tumor neovascularization can bring significant benefit to cancer therapy ( 2 ). (
  • MR imaging measurements of tumor hemodynamics are potentially useful in characterizing tumors because tumor aggressiveness and growth are associated with both endothelial hyperplasia and endothelial neovascularization ( 4 ). (
  • However, the cell-specific function, downstream mechanisms, or signaling involved in miR93-mediated ischemic muscle neovascularization is not clear. (
  • BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the hypothesis that transendocardial injections of autologous mononuclear bone marrow cells in patients with end-stage ischemic heart disease could safely promote neovascularization and improve perfusion and myocardial contractility. (
  • Proangiogenic cells (PACs) display surface markers and secrete angiogenic factors similar to those used by myelomonocytic cells , but, unlike myelomonocytic cells , PACs enhance neovascularization activity in experimental ischemic diseases . (
  • Indeed, the experiments performed to test this hypothesis have disclosed that not only is neovascularization of the ischemic hindlimb augmented, but that such enhanced perfusion is sufficient to increase the chance of successful limb salvage. (
  • Ocular neovascularization is a leading cause of blindness in ischemic retinopathies. (
  • These data suggest that hypericin and SJW reduce pathological retinal neovascularization and that administration of these agents could have clinical utility for treatment of ischemic retinopathies. (
  • In the current studies, we developed a novel in vivo model of neovascularization that is performed on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). (
  • Ex vivo expanded hEPCs may thus have utility as a "supply-side" strategy for therapeutic neovascularization. (
  • We therefore inferred that EPCs, as related descendents, might be isolated from peripheral blood in quantities sufficient to permit their harvest, and, after ex vivo expansion, be administered systemically for the purpose of enhancing neovascularization. (
  • However, the impact of hypericin or SJW on retinal neovascularization in vivo has not been examined previously. (
  • Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as diffusion, perfusion, and MR spectroscopic imaging, can provide important in vivo physiologic and metabolic information that may complement the histopathologic grade. (
  • Intravitreal neovascularization can cause retinal detachment by fibrovascular contraction of the underlying retina. (
  • Although much research in ROP has focused on molecular mechanisms involved in regulating uncontrolled endothelial cell migration and proliferation, 3 - 7 extending PRVD would not only reduce intravitreal neovascularization, but also enhance vision by expanding the visual field. (
  • The Hartnett laboratory studies two important sequential phases of ROP: delayed-physiologic retinal vascular development (delayed-PRVD) in phase I, which can lead to blindness from vasoproliferative, intravitreal neovascularization (IVNV) in phase II. (
  • Miller JW, Stinson WG, Folkman J. Regression of experimental iris neovascularization with systemic alphainterferon. (
  • Secondary angle closures are associated with other ocular diseases such as iris neovascularization, uveitis, trauma, or lens protein leakage. (
  • 1 , 2 Initially, preterm birth interrupts physiologic retinal vascular development (PRVD), and with additional stresses, compromises newly developed physiologic vascularity. (
  • iris neovascularization Abnormal formation of new blood vessels on the anterior surface of the iris. (
  • Rubeosis iridis, is a medical condition of the iris of the eye in which new abnormal blood vessels (formed by neovascularization) are found on the surface of the iris. (
  • This study was performed to reveal the differential neovascularization activities of PACs compared with those of myelomonocytic cells . (
  • These cells, shown to participate in physiologic as well as pathologic neovascularization, share with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) a common ancestral precursor-the putative hemangioblast ( 14 , 16 , 18 - 21 ). (
  • In conclusion, mechanical strain produced by mandibular advancement induces neovascularization and osteogenesis leading to adaptive growth of condyle in adult rats. (
  • The CAM model was validated by observations of neovascularization associated with healing of the injured mouse cornea. (
  • These findings indicate that basement membranes of the cornea may serve as physiologic storage depots for an angiogenic molecule. (
  • To study choriocapillaris (CC) flow in eyes with Type 3 neovascularization (NV) and age-related macular degeneration, using optical coherence tomography angiography analysis. (
  • The development of blood vessels in response to tissue ischemia constitutes a natural host defense intended to maintain tissue perfusion required for physiologic organ function. (
  • Physiologic and pathologic neovascularization in other tissues may also be initiated by release of stored angiogenic factors from the basement membrane. (
  • VEGI mRNA was found in many normal adult tissues, suggesting a physiologic role for this unique gene in the maintenance of the normal vasculature ( 6 ). (
  • We explored the effect of topical Nepafenac, an anti-inflammatory drug known to reach the retina when administered via eyedrops, on the development of early stages of diabetic retinopathy and on metabolic and physiologic abnormalities that contribute to the retinal disease. (
  • We address the hypothesis that uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), a cellular glucose regulator, delays physiologic retinal vascular development (PRVD) by interfering with glucose uptake through glucose transporter 1 (Glut1). (
  • The Hartnett laboratory long-term goal is to develop treatments to inhibit IVNV but not interfere with physiologic retinal vascular development and that are safe for developing preterm infants. (
  • In addressing Dr. Hartnett's overall research framework, Dr. Wang and Dr. Hartnett identified potential targets to safely reduce IVNV and not interfere with physiologic retinal vascular development. (
  • The neovascularization after indirect revascularization using the 1) superficial temporal artery (skin), 2) middle meningeal artery (dura mater), 3) deep temporal artery (temporal muscle) was analyzed. (
  • Tissue neovascularization in postnatal life occurs during post-traumatic tissue healing, neoplastic growth and in the endometrium during the reproductive cycle of females. (
  • Once the neovascularization has been longstanding, the new vessels recruit fibrous tissue, and as this forms and contracts, the angle can be permanently damaged, and will not respond to treatment. (
  • However, the induction of neovascularization from the superficial temporal artery was not always good in most pediatric and adult cases. (
  • The present study was designed to explore the relationship between neovascularization, hypertrophic cartilage and the microstructural properties of cancellous bone in adult rat's condyle in response to mechanical strain produced by mandibular advancement. (
  • To quantify the area of retinal neovascularization and vasoobliteration, we stained retinas with isolectin B4 at P17. (
  • 9 , 10 The rCBV derived from dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MR perfusion imaging can be used to identify and quantify areas of neovascularization and has been shown to correlate with the glioma grade. (
  • physiologic processes that are highly dependent upon neovascularization. (

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