The phylogenetically newer part of the CORPUS STRIATUM consisting of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and PUTAMEN. It is often called simply the striatum.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Partial or total removal, ablation, or destruction of the cerebral cortex; may be chemical. It is not used with animals that do not possess a cortex, i.e., it is used only with mammals.
A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.
A phosphoprotein that was initially identified as a major target of DOPAMINE activated ADENYLYL CYCLASE in the CORPUS STRIATUM. It regulates the activities of PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE-1 and PROTEIN KINASE A, and it is a key mediator of the biochemical, electrophysiological, transcriptional, and behavioral effects of DOPAMINE.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.
Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
Any of several Old World finches of the genus Serinus.
A selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist used primarily as a research tool.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
A metabolite of tryptophan with a possible role in neurodegenerative disorders. Elevated CSF levels of quinolinic acid are correlated with the severity of neuropsychological deficits in patients who have AIDS.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
A dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D1-class receptor genes lack INTRONS, and the receptors stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.

Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation suppresses learning-induced synaptic elimination. (1/900)

Auditory filial imprinting in the domestic chicken is accompanied by a dramatic loss of spine synapses in two higher associative forebrain areas, the mediorostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) and the dorsocaudal neostriatum (Ndc). The cellular mechanisms that underlie this learning-induced synaptic reorganization are unclear. We found that local pharmacological blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the MNH, a manipulation that has been shown previously to impair auditory imprinting, suppresses the learning-induced spine reduction in this region. Chicks treated with the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) during the behavioral training for imprinting (postnatal day 0-2) displayed similar spine frequencies at postnatal day 7 as naive control animals, which, in both groups, were significantly higher than in imprinted animals. Because the average dendritic length did not differ between the experimental groups, the reduced spine frequency can be interpreted as a reduction of the total number of spine synapses per neuron. In the Ndc, which is reciprocally connected with the MNH and not directly influenced by the injected drug, learning-induced spine elimination was partly suppressed. Spine frequencies of the APV-treated, behaviorally trained but nonimprinted animals were higher than in the imprinted animals but lower than in the naive animals. These results provide evidence that NMDA receptor activation is required for the learning-induced selective reduction of spine synapses, which may serve as a mechanism of information storage specific for juvenile emotional learning events.  (+info)

ATP-sensitive potassium channels regulate in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum. (2/900)

ATP-sensitive K+ channels (K(ATP)) are distributed in a variety of tissues including smooth muscle, cardiac and skeletal muscle, pancreatic beta-cells and neurons. Since K(ATP) channels are present in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway, the effect of potassium-channel modulators on the release of DA in the striatum of conscious, freely-moving rats was investigated. The extracellular concentration of DA was significantly decreased by the K(ATP)-channel opener (-)-cromakalim but not by diazoxide. (-)-Cromakalim was effective at 100 and 1000 microM concentrations, and the maximum decrease was 54% below baseline. d-Amphetamine significantly increased extracellular DA levels at the doses of 0.75 and 1.5 mg/kg, s.c. with a 770% maximum increase. (-)-Cromakalim had no effect on d-amphetamine-induced DA release, while glyburide, a K(ATP) blocker, significantly potentiated the effects of a low dose of d-amphetamine. These data indicate that K+ channels present in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals modulate basal release as well as evoked release of DA.  (+info)

Comparison of effects of haloperidol administration on amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. (3/900)

Research has shown that there are important neurochemical differences between the mesocortical and mesostriatal dopamine systems. The work reported in this paper has sought to compare the regulation of dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior caudate-putamen. In vivo microdialysis was used to recover dialysate fluid for subsequent assay for dopamine concentrations. The responses to D2 antagonist (haloperidol) administration, which has been shown to increase impulse-dependent dopamine release, were compared. Results demonstrated a diminished effect of systemic haloperidol administration on dopamine efflux in the prefrontal cortex. The responses to systemic administration of a nonimpulse-dependent, transporter-mediated, dopamine releaser (d-amphetamine) were also contrasted. Results again demonstrated a diminished pharmacological effect in the cortex. The potential interaction of stimulation of these two types of dopamine release was examined by coadministration of these compounds. Haloperidol pretreatment dramatically potentiated the dopamine-releasing effect of amphetamine administration. This effect was observed in both the cortex and the striatum. Subsequent work demonstrated that this effect of haloperidol was mediated by D2-like receptors in the prefrontal cortex. These results are discussed in relation to other neurochemical and neuroanatomical studies demonstrating sparse densities of dopamine transporter sites and dopamine D2 receptors in the cortex compared with the striatum. They demonstrate a functional correlate to the recently reported, largely extrasynaptic localization of dopamine transporter sites in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, they demonstrate the existence of cortical D2-like autoreceptors that may normally be "silent" under basal conditions.  (+info)

In vivo dopamine clearance rate in rat striatum: regulation by extracellular dopamine concentration and dopamine transporter inhibitors. (4/900)

Dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors are expected to decrease dopamine (DA) clearance from the extracellular space of the brain. However, mazindol and cocaine have been reported to "anomalously" increase DA clearance rate. To better understand in vivo DAT activity both in the absence and presence of DAT inhibitors, clearance of exogenously applied DA was measured in dorsal striata of urethane-anesthetized rats using high-speed chronoamperometry. As higher amounts of DA were ejected, DA signal amplitudes, but not time courses, increased. Clearance rates increased until near maximal rates of 0.3 to 0.5 microM/s were attained. Provided baseline clearance rates were relatively low (< 0.1 microM/s), local application of either nomifensine or cocaine markedly increased exogenous DA signal amplitudes and time courses. Relative to the low baseline group, locally applied nomifensine decreased clearance rate when baseline clearance was high ( approximately 0.4 microM/s). However, even when baseline clearance rates were high, systemic injection of nomifensine, mazindol, GBR 12909, or benztropine increased DA signal amplitudes to a greater extent than time courses, consistent with the observed increases in clearance rates. In contrast, despite low baseline clearance rates, systemic injection of cocaine, WIN 35,428, or d-amphetamine preferentially increased DA signal time course, consistent with the observed decreases in clearance rates. Our results emphasize that as extracellular DA concentrations increase, DAT velocity increases to a maximum, partially explaining the ability of DAT inhibitors to increase DA clearance rates. However, by itself, kinetic activation is not sufficient to explain the ability of certain systemically administered DAT inhibitors to anomalously increase DA clearance.  (+info)

Nitrocinnamoyl and chlorocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone: in vivo and in vitro characterization of mu-selective agonist and antagonist activity. (5/900)

Two 14beta-p-nitrocinnamoyl derivatives of dihydrocodeinone, 14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)-7,8-dihydrocodeinone (CACO) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-nitrocinnamoylamino)- 7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (N-CPM-CACO), and the corresponding chlorocinnamoylamino analogs, 14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino)-7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (CAM) and N-cyclopropylmethylnor-14beta-(p-chlorocinnamoylamino) -7, 8-dihydrocodeinone (MC-CAM), were tested in opioid receptor binding assays and the mouse tail-flick test to characterize the opioid affinity, selectivity, and antinociceptive properties of these compounds. In competition binding assays, all four compounds bound to the mu opioid receptor with high affinity. When bovine striatal membranes were incubated with any of the four dihydrocodeinones, binding to the mu receptor was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, wash-resistant manner. Saturation binding experiments demonstrated that the wash-resistant inhibition of mu binding was due to a decrease in the Bmax value for the binding of the mu-selective peptide [3H][D-Ala2, MePhe4,Gly(ol)5] enkephalin and not a change in the Kd value, suggesting an irreversible interaction of the compounds with the mu receptor. In the mouse 55 degrees C warm water tail-flick test, both CACO and N-CPM-CACO acted as short-term mu-selective agonists when administered by i. c.v. injection, whereas CAM and MC-CAM produced no measurable antinociception at doses up to 30 nmol. Pretreatment of mice for 24 h with any of the four dihydrocodeinone derivatives produced a dose-dependent antagonism of antinociception mediated by the mu but not the delta or kappa receptors. Long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception lasted for at least 48 h after i.c. v. administration. Finally, shifts in the morphine dose-response lines after 24-h pretreatment with the four dihydrocodeinone compounds suggest that the nitrocinnamoylamino derivatives may produce a greater magnitude long-term antagonism of morphine-induced antinociception than the chlorocinnamoylamino analogs.  (+info)

Differences in pharmacological properties of dopamine release between the substantia nigra and striatum: an in vivo electrochemical study. (6/900)

The properties of dopamine (DA) release in the rat substantia nigra (SN) and striatum were investigated using high-speed chronoamperometric recordings in brain slices. In both brain regions, a 2-min bath superfusion with 30 mM KCl produced robust DA-like electrochemical signals, with the mean amplitude of the signal being >10-fold greater in the striatum than the SN. The reproducibility of the response was confirmed by a second stimulus (S2)/first-stimulus (S1) ratio of >0.8 in both regions. The bath application of tetrodotoxin significantly reduced the S2/S1 ratio in both the striatum and SN, implicating the requirement for voltage-sensitive sodium channels in the DA-release process. However, the application of cadmium chloride, a nonselective blocker of voltage-sensitive calcium channels, reduced the S2/S1 ratio only in the striatum and not within the SN. Moreover, removal of Ca2+ from the buffer did not significantly affect release within the SN, despite a >85% reduction in release within the striatum. In addition, although the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride enhanced the S2/S1 ratio in the striatum, no effect of this agent was seen in the SN. Finally, the application of d-amphetamine produced DA-like electrochemical signals in both the striatum and SN. However, the amplitude of the d-amphetamine-evoked response, relative to the KCl-evoked release, was much smaller in the striatum than in the SN. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that differences in the mechanism or mechanisms of release exist between somatodendritic and axonal elements within the nigrostriatal pathway.  (+info)

The sexually dimorphic expression of androgen receptors in the song nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale pars caudale of the zebra finch develops independently of gonadal steroids. (7/900)

The development of sex differences in brain structure and brain chemistry ("brain sex") of vertebrates is frequently thought to depend entirely on gonadal steroids such as androgens and estrogens, which act on the brain at the genomic level by binding to intracellular transcription factors, the androgen receptors (ARs) and estrogen receptors (ERs). These hormone actions are thought to shift the brain from a monomorphic to a dimorphic phenotype. One prominent such example is the nucleus hyperstriatalis ventrale pars caudale (HVc) of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), a set of cells in the caudal forebrain involved in the control of singing. In contrast with previous studies using nonspecific cell staining techniques, the size and neuron number of the HVc measured by the distribution of AR mRNA is already sexually dimorphic on posthatching day (P)9. No ARs or ERs are expressed in the HVc before day 9. Slice cultures of the caudal forebrain of P5 animals show that the sexually dimorphic expression of AR mRNA in HVc is independent of the direct action of steroids on this nucleus or any of its immediate presynaptic or postsynaptic partners. Therefore, gonadal steroids do not appear to be directly involved in the initial sex difference in the expression pattern of AR mRNA, size, and neuron number of the HVc. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the initial steroid-independent size and its subsequent steroid-independent growth by extension linearly with the extension of the forebrain explains 60-70% of the masculine development of the HVc. Thus, we suggest that epigenetic factors such as the gonadal steroids modify but cannot overwrite the sex difference in HVc volume determined autonomously in the brain.  (+info)

Effects of atypical antipsychotic drug treatment on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. (8/900)

Clozapine, risperidone, and other new "atypical" antipsychotic agents are distinguished from traditional neuroleptic drugs by having clinical efficacy with either no or low levels of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Preclinical models have focused on striatal dopamine systems to account for their atypical profile. In this study, we examined the effects of clozapine and risperidone on amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release in patients with psychotic disorders. A novel 11C-raclopride/PET paradigm was used to derive estimates of amphetamine-induced changes in striatal synaptic dopamine concentrations and patients were scanned while antipsychotic drug-free and during chronic treatment with either clozapine or risperidone. We found that amphetamine produced significant reductions in striatal 11C-raclopride binding during the drug-free and antipsychotic drug treatment phases of the study which reflects enhanced dopamine release in both conditions. There were no significant differences in % 11C-raclopride changes between the two conditions indicating that these atypical agents do not effect amphetamine-related striatal dopamine release. The implications for these data for antipsychotic drug action are discussed.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition by adenosine A(2A) receptors of NMDA but not AMPA currents in rat neostriatal neurons. AU - Wirkner, Kerstin. AU - Assmann, Heike. AU - Köles, L.. AU - Gerevich, Zoltan. AU - Franke, Heike. AU - Nörenberg, Wolfgang. AU - Boehm, Rudolf. AU - Illes, Peter. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - 1. Whole-cell patch clamp experiments were used to investigate the transduction mechanism of adenosine A(2A) receptors in modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents in rat striatal brain slices. The A(2A) receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680) inhibited the NMDA, but not the (S)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) current in a subset of striatal neurons. 2. Lucifer yellow-filled pipettes in combination with immunostaining of A(2A) receptors were used to identify CGS 21680-sensitive cells as typical medium spiny striatal neurons. 3. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP and the protein kinase A activator Sp-cyclic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Muscarinic depression of excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by the presynaptic M3 receptors in the rat neostriatum. AU - Hsu, Kuei Sen. AU - Huang, Chiung Chun. AU - Gean, Po Wu. PY - 1995/9/8. Y1 - 1995/9/8. N2 - The effect of carbachol on the excitatory synaptic transmission was studied in rat neostriatal neurons using intracellular and whole-cell voltage clamp-recording methods. Depolarizing excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were evoked by cortical stimulation. Superfusion of carbachol (0.01-3 μM) reversibly decreases the EPSP amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner and with an estimated IC50 of 0.3 μM. While, neither the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA, 100 μM)- nor (±)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA, 100 μM)-induced response was affected by carbachol (0.1 μM). In addition, the inhibitory effect induced by carbachol at a low concentration of 0.1 μM. was attenuated by 4-diphenylacetoxy-N,N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP), a ...
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Medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) are the main neuronal population in the neostriatum. MSNs are inhibitory and GABAergic. MSNs connect with other MSNs via local axon collaterals that produce lateral inhibition, which is thought to select cell assemblies for motor action. MSNs also receive inhibitory inputs from GABAergic local interneurons. This work shows, through the use of the paired pulse protocol, that somatostatin (SST) acts presynaptically to regulate GABA release from the terminals interconnecting MSNs. This SST action is reversible and not mediated through the release of dopamine. It is blocked by the SST receptor (SSTR) antagonist ciclosomatostatin (cicloSST). In contrast, SST does not regulate inhibition coming from interneurons. Because, SST is released by a class of local interneuron, it is concluded that this neuron helps to regulate the selection of motor acts. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Neostriatal cholinergic (ChAT) interneurons play an important role in the selection and acquisition of adaptive behavioral actions by encoding the salience and reinforcement value of external events. This information is represented in the precise temporal structure of synchronous multiphasic population responses given to the presentation of behaviorally significant stimuli. An important problem is to understand how these transient signals of ChAT interneurons are detected and decoded in the neostriatal network. Our hypothesis, formulated on the basis of preliminary experiments, is that ChAT interneurons control the activity of the striatal circuitry using nicotinic receptor mediated mechanisms to activate multiple parallel GABAergic mechanisms that elicit kinetically distinct independent inhibitory responses in the spiny projection neurons (SPNs) and in other striatal neurons. These responses originate in part from direct activation of multiple as yet ...
Inhibition in the neostriatum was investigated in rat in vitro slice preparation using intracellular recording and labeling technique. The initial response recorded following local stimulation is a monosynaptically activated EPSP. In 17% of the neurons tested, IPSPs were observed following EPSPs evoked by local stimulation. In paired shock experiments reduction of test EPSP amplitude or action potentials occurred over interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 3-38 msec. In some neurons, a pulse injection of depolarizing current was used to trigger an action potential which was in a paired shock, used to condition a test monosynaptically induced EPSP. Test EPSPs were shunted over ISIs less than 45 msec. Paired shock performed on the slices perfused with the medium containing GABA antagonists (e.g., bicuculline methiodide, picrotoxin, or penicillin-G) resulted invariably in potentiation of test EPSPs. Inhibition in the neostriatum in vitro is demonstrated as reduction in test amplitude in paired shock tests, by
This model achieves electrotonic transform and computes mean inward and outward attenuation from 0 to 500 Hz input; and randomly activates synapses along dendrites to simulate AMPAR mediated EPSCs. For electrotonic analysis, in Elec folder, the entry file is MSNelec_transform.hoc. For EPSC simulation, in Syn folder, the entry file is randomepsc.hoc. Run read_EPSCsims_mdb_alone.m next with the simulated parameter values specified to compute the mean EPSC ...
This model achieves electrotonic transform and computes mean inward and outward attenuation from 0 to 500 Hz input; and randomly activates synapses along dendrites to simulate AMPAR mediated EPSCs. For electrotonic analysis, in Elec folder, the entry file is MSNelec_transform.hoc. For EPSC simulation, in Syn folder, the entry file is randomepsc.hoc. Run read_EPSCsims_mdb_alone.m next with the simulated parameter values specified to compute the mean EPSC ...
To identify organizing principles of the CorticoStriate bands and clusters, we localized SomatoSensory Cortical cells receptive to light touch on the Hindlimb, Forelimb, or Vibrissae by ExtraCellular recording, and we labeled their projections by Iontophoretic application of Dextran anterograde tracers.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Asymmetrical protection of neostriatal neurons against transient forebrain ischemia by unilateral dopamine depletion. AU - Ren, Yubo. AU - Li, Xiaoda. AU - Xu, Zao C.. PY - 1997/7. Y1 - 1997/7. N2 - Neurons in the dorsal neostriatum are highly vulnerable to transient cerebral ischemia. It has been suggested that excessive dopamine release during ischemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of postischemic cell death in the neostriatum. However, it remains controversial whether depletion of dopamine protects neurons in the neostriatum against ischemic insult. In the present study, transient forebrain ischemia was induced using the four-vessel occlusion method. Ischemic depolarization was used as an indication of completed ischemia. Under our experimental conditions, ischemia that produces ~21 min ischemic depolarization caused more than 90% of cell death in the dorsolateral neostriatum. Using such ischemia as a standard insult, the effect of dopamine depletion on ...
Three types of neuron with smooth (aspiny) dendrites could be distinguished in the Golgi-impregnated rat neostriatum. Examples of each type of aspiny neuron were found with local axon collaterals within the neostriatum and these were selected for gold- toning and examination in the electron microscope. One type of aspiny neuron had an elongated, usually spindle-shaped, medium-size soma with two, or rarely three, primary dendrites originating from opposite poles of the cell; one example of this type of neuron had two separate axons. The second type of aspiny neuron had a nearly round, medium-size soma with four primary dendrites that branched profusely quite close to the cell body. A third type of aspiny neuron had a very large polygonal-shaped cell body. Afferent axon terminals were found in synaptic contact with the dendrites and cell bodies of all three types of aspiny neuron. Axon collaterals of each type of neuron displayed varicosities which, when examined in the electron microscope, were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel interaction of the dopamine D2 receptor and the Ca 2+ binding protein S100B. T2 - Role in D2 receptor function. AU - Liu, Yong. AU - Buck, David C.. AU - Neve, Kim A.. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - S100B is a calcium-binding protein with both extracellular and intracellular regulatory activities in the mammalian brain. We have identified a novel interaction between S100B and the dopamine D2 receptor. Our results also suggest that the binding of S100B to the dopamine D2 receptor enhances receptor signaling. This conclusion is based on the following observations: 1) S100B and the third cytoplasmic loop of the dopamine D 2 receptor interact in a bacterial two-hybrid system and in a poly-histidine pull-down assay; 2) immunoprecipitation of the D2 receptor also precipitates FLAG-S100B from human embryonic kidney 293 cell homogenates and endogenous S100B from rat neostriatal homogenates; 3) S100B immuno-reactivity was detected in cultured neostriatal neurons expressing the ...
The modulatory effect of D 2 dopamine receptor activation on calcium currents was studied in neostriatal projection neurons at two stages of rat development: postnatal day (PD)14 and PD40. D-2-class receptor agonists reduced whole cell calcium currents by about 35% at both stages, and this effect was blocked by the D-2 receptor antagonist sulpiride. Nitrendipine partially occluded this modulation at both stages, indicating that modulation of Ca(V)1 channels was present throughout this developmental interval. Nevertheless, modulation of Ca(V)1 channels was significantly larger in PD40 neurons. omega-Conotoxin GVIA occluded most of the Ca2+ current modulation in PD14 neurons. However, this occlusion was greatly decreased in PD40 neurons. omega-Agatoxin TK occluded a great part of the modulation in PD40 neurons but had a negligible effect in PD14 neurons. The data indicate that dopaminergic D-2-mediated modulation undergoes a change in target during development: from Ca(V)2.2 to Ca(V)2.1 Ca2+ ...
E18 Mouse Striatum, Primary Cells, Primary Neurons, Cell Assays. Fresh E18 intact Striatum from a C57/BL6 mouse with media provided to maintain the cells while being shipped. Media is also included to initiate a culture. 3.8 Million Cells.
Suprathreshold corticostriatal responses recorded from medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia are different. Their differences readily distinguish D1- and D2-type receptor expressing MSNs in both bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice and their control littermates as well as in rats: indirect pathway neurons are more excitable than direct pathway neurons revealing autoregenerative spikes underlying their spike trains, whereas direct pathway neurons exhibit more prolonged plateau potentials and spike trains. SFK 81297, a selective agonist for D1-class receptors enhanced corticostriatal responses in direct pathway neurons, while quinelorane, a selective agonist for D2-class receptors reduced orthodromic and autoregenerative responses in indirect pathway neurons thus making both neuron classes similarly excitable. Because dopaminergic postsynaptic actions target CaV1 (L) class voltage-gated calcium channels in MSNs, we hypothesized that these
Understanding neural representations of behavioral routines is critical for understanding complex behavior in health and disease. We demonstrate here that accentuated activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs) at the beginning and end of such behavioral repertoires is a supraordinate representat …
Huntingtons disease is an autosomal-dominant disease characterized by deterioration in motor, cognitive, and emotional function. The majority of research has focused primarily on the motor symptoms associated with Huntingtons disease. However, more recent findings show that many Huntingtons patients develop psychological symptoms, such as depression, a decade before they experience motor symptoms or are aware that they have the fatal neurodegenerative disease. Using a Huntingtons disease transgenic mouse model, we explored the hypothesis that the hippocampus plays a role in depression that manifests in Huntingtons patients before the diagnosis and motor dysfunction. Clinical research suggests that people with depression have significantly decreased levels of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Here we use an experimental technique known as RNA interference (RNAi) to decrease the amount of toxic mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt) in transgenic Huntingtons mice. Due to the knockdown
Our transcriptome analyses in a well characterized animal model of striatal DA depletion revealed large-scale alterations in gene expression profiles of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons. Consistent with its function as a slow-acting neuromodulator, the loss of dopamine caused multiple changes in postsynaptic PKA/DARPP-32/PP1-associated signal transduction cascades. These transcriptional adaptations that occurred in a cell-type-specific manner are likely to affect the efficacy of signal transduction and thus change the intrinsic responsiveness of medium spiny projection neurons in the striatum.. A quintessential prerequisite of the study is the identification and sampling of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons with the least possible amount of cross-contamination. For technical reasons such as lack of appropriate antibodies for labeling of marker proteins and superior preservation of RNA during the staining procedure for the retrograde tracer, we decided to use a previously ...
However, two recent repor ts challenge this interpretation by demonstrating that fusion is responsible for the appearance of donorder ived neurons after systemic administration of bone marrow cells. Recent findings in rodents suggest an alternative approach to cell therapy in stroke based on selfrepair. These immature neurons migrate into the damaged striatum, where they express markers of striatal medium spiny projection neurons.Thus, the new neurons seem to Aniracetam differentiate into the phenotype of most neurons destroyed by the ischemic lesion.However, because of the new neurons die during the first weeks after stroke, they only replace a small fraction of the mature striatal neurons that have died.Several factors can increase adult neurogenesis by stimulating formation andor improving survival of new neurons, including fibroblast growth factor, stem cell factor, erythropoietin, brainderived neurotrophic factor, caspase inhibitors and antiinflammatory drugs. Whether the new neurons formed ...
The mechanism underlying a hypercholinergic state in Parkinsons disease (PD) remains uncertain. Here, we show that disruption of the K(v)1 channel-mediated function causes hyperexcitability of striatal cholinergic interneurons in a mouse model of PD. Specifically, our data reveal that Kv1 channels containing K(v)1.3 subunits contribute significantly to the orphan potassium current known as I-sAHP in striatal cholinergic interneurons. Typically, this Kv1 current provides negative feedback to depolarization that limits burst firing and slows the tonic activity of cholinergic interneurons. However, such inhibitory control of cholinergic interneuron excitability by K(v)1.3-mediated current is markedly diminished in the parkinsonian striatum, suggesting that targeting Kv1.3 subunits and their regulatory pathways may have therapeutic potential in PD therapy. These studies reveal unexpected roles of Kv1.3 subunit-containing channels in the regulation of firing patterns of striatal cholinergic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional connectome of the striatal medium spiny neuron. AU - Chuhma, Nao. AU - Tanaka, Kenji F.. AU - Hen, René. AU - Rayport, Stephen. PY - 2011/1/26. Y1 - 2011/1/26. N2 - Dopamine system disorders ranging from movement disorders to addiction and schizophrenia involve striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), yet their functional connectivity has been difficult to determine comprehensively. We generated a mouse with conditional channelrhodopsin-2 expression restricted to medium spiny neurons and assessed the specificity and strength of their intrinsic connections in the striatum and their projections to the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra. In the striatum, medium spiny neurons connected with other MSNs and tonically active cholinergic interneurons, but not with fast-spiking GABA interneurons. In the globus pallidus, medium spiny neurons connected strongly with one class of electrophysiologically identified neurons, but weakly with the other. In the substantia nigra, ...
The strength and specificity with which a neuron forms synapses is a fundamental question in evaluating its function. To address this for striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), Chuhma et al used an optogenetic approach reminiscent of the aforementioned Bardi et al study. First, they bred a mouse that selectively expressed ChR2 in striatal MSNs. Then, they recorded (in…
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) regulate dopaminergic signaling in the striatum by modulating the release of neurotransmitters. We have recently reported that nicotine stimulates the release of dopamine via α4β2* nAChRs and/or α7 nAChRs, leading to the regulation of DARPP-32 at Thr34, the site involved in regulation of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1). In this study, we investigated the regulation of DARPP-32 phosphorylation at its other sites, Thr75 [cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) site], Ser97 (CK2 site), and Ser130 (CK1 site), that serve to modulate Thr34 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. In neostriatal slices, nicotine (100 μM) increased phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Ser97 and Ser130 at an early time point (30 s) and decreased phosphorylation of DARPP-32 at Thr75 at a late time point (3 min). The increase in Ser97 and Ser130 phosphorylation was mediated through the release of dopamine via activation of α4β2* nAChRs and α7 nAChRs and the subsequent activation of dopamine ...
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent cognitive toward dorsal striatum-dependent habit memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken ...
Dating from the establishment of animal models of HD using excitotoxic lesions, the issue of cortical and striatal interactions in Huntingtons disease has received much attention and has been heavily debated. This study provides clear evidence that intracellular polyQ-driven events that closely resemble HD can occur within striatal neurons in the absence of brain circuitry. These results suggest that intrinsic effects of mutant huntingtin in striatal neurons may be sufficient to cause some aspects of striatal dysfunction.. The balance with which intrinsic and extrinsic events determine striatal cell fates in vivo will nonetheless require further examination. The findings of the present study by no means rule out possible neurotrophic or excitotoxic roles of the HD cortex in vivo. Neither can we completely rule out that the culture conditions used here reproduce a (presumably non-BDNF-driven) neurotrophic signaling activity that dysfunctions in striatal neurons.. Recent data on the possible ...
Bibb JA, Yan Z, Svenningsson P, Snyder GL, Pieribone VA, Horiuchi A, Nairn AC, Messer A, Greengard P. Severe deficiencies in dopamine signaling in presymptomatic Huntingtons disease mice ...
De lever, galblaas en galwegen ontwikkelen zich uit het caudale deel van de voordarm. Een ventrale uitstulping van het endoderm penetreert in de
p,Striatal interneurons display a morphological and chemical heterogeneity that has been particularly well characterized in rats, monkeys and humans. By comparison much less is known of striatal interneurons in mice, although these animals are now widely used as transgenic models of various neurodegenerative diseases. The present immunohistochemical study aimed at characterizing striatal interneurons expressing calretinin (CR) in mice compared to those in squirrel monkeys and humans. The mouse striatum contains both small (9-12 μm) and medium-sized (15-20 μm) CR+ cells. The small cells are intensely stained with a single, slightly varicose and moderately arborized process. They occur throughout the striatum (77±9 cells/mm(3)), but prevail in the area of the subventricular zone and subcallosal streak, with statistically significant anteroposterior and dorsoventral decreasing gradients. The medium-sized cells are less intensely immunoreactive and possess 2-3 long, slightly varicose and poorly ...
In the present study, the effect of steroidal anti-inflammatory drug betamethasone (0.12, 0.24 mg/kg, i.p. acutely) on striatal glutamate level in Parkinsonian rats was studied using the microdialysis technique. Our results showed significant differences (p
The striatum, a major component of the basal ganglia, performs multiple functions including control of movement, reward, and addiction. Dysfunction and death of striatal neurons are the main causes for the motor disorders associated with Huntingtons disease (HD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is among factors that promote survival and proper function of this neuronal population. Here, we review recent studies showing that BDNF determines the size of the striatum by supporting survival of the immature striatal neurons at their origin, promotes maturation of striatal neurons, and facilitates establishment of striatal connections during brain development. We also examine the role of BDNF in maintaining proper function of the striatum during adulthood, summarize the mechanisms that lead to a deficiency in BDNF signaling and subsequently striatal degeneration in HD, and highlight a potential role of BDNF as a therapeutic target for HD treatment.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Receptor subtypes involved in the presynaptic and postsynaptic actions of dopamine on striatal interneurons. AU - Centonze, Diego. AU - Grande, Cristina. AU - Usiello, Alessandro. AU - Gubellini, Paolo. AU - Erbs, Eric. AU - Martín, Ana B.. AU - Pisani, Antonio. AU - Tognazzi, Nadia. AU - Bernardi, Giorgio. AU - Moratalla, Rosario. AU - Borrelli, Emiliana. AU - Calabresi, Paolo. PY - 2003/7/16. Y1 - 2003/7/16. N2 - By stimulating distinct receptor subtypes, dopamine (DA) exerts presynaptic and postsynaptic actions on both large aspiny (LA) cholinergic and fast-spiking (FS) parvalbumin-positive interneurons of the striatum. Lack of receptor- and isoform-specific pharmacological agents, however, has hampered the progress toward a detailed identification of the specific DA receptors involved in these actions. To overcome this issue, in the present study we used four different mutant mice in which the expression of specific DA receptors was ablated. In D1 receptor null mice, DIR-/-, ...
Targeted ablation of cholinergic interneurons in the dorsolateral striatum produces behavioral manifestations of Tourette syndrome.. Xu M, Kobets A, Du JC, Lennington J, Li L, Banasr M, Duman RS, Vaccarino FM, DiLeone RJ, Pittenger C.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112(3):893-898, 2015.. Postmortem studies of Tourette syndrome patients has revealed a reduction in the number of specific striatal interneurons. The authors explored the hypothesis that this neuronal deficit is enough to produce the symptoms of Tourette syndrome in mice. Animals received 90-ng injections of Anti-ChAT-SAP (Cat. #IT-42) into the striatum. Rabbit IgG-SAP (Cat. #IT-35) was used as a control. The data suggest that loss of the striatal interneurons is enough to produce some, but not all, of the symptoms caused by Tourette syndrome.. Role of striatal cholinergic interneurons in set-shifting in the rat.. Aoki S, Liu AW, Zucca A, Zucca S, Wickens JR.. J Neurosci 35(25):9424-9431, 2015.. The authors examined the role that ...
耶魯大學的團隊,透過偵測大鼠大腦的基底節(basal ganglia)紋狀體區(striatal areas)的多巴胺(dopamine)分泌後發現,紋狀體區的背側(dorsal striatal sector,DS)負責對糖的能量進行反應,而紋狀體區的腹側(ventral striatal sector,VS)則負責對糖的甜味進行反應。. 當以葡萄糖餵食大鼠時,大鼠的紋狀體背區與紋狀體腹區都分泌多巴胺;而以人工甘味(蔗糖素,sucralose,為所有人工甘味中口味最接近天然糖的)餵食大鼠時,大鼠只有紋狀體腹區分泌多巴胺。而當研究團隊以苦味劑苯甲地那銨(denatonium benzoate,全世界最苦的化合物,即使只有10 ppm ...
The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), 3-morfolinosydnonimine (SIN-1), or S-nitroso-Nacetylpenicillamine (SNAP), on striatal dopamine release in freely moving rats, were evaluated using microdialysis 1 . When infused (1 mM) for 180 min, both SNP (n=3) and SIN-1 (n=3) increased DA dialysate concentrations (baseline levels 6.73±1.02 and 7.15±1.12 nM, respectively). The SNP-induced DA increase was inhibited by deferoxamine co-infusion, thus suggesting a key role for iron in SNP-induced increases in DA release. SNAP 1 mM 180 min infusion decreased dialysate DA (baseline levels 5.34±0.80 nM, n=3). The decrease was a consequence of SNAP-induced non-enzymatic oxidation of extracellular DA; in fact, the decrease was inhibited by N-acetyl-cysteine or uric acid co-infusion. Both SNP and SNAP greatly decreased dialysate ascorbic acid (AA, baseline values 10.82±2.5 and 8.55±2.62 μM, respectively); on the contrary, SIN-1 did not affect dialysate AA (baseline levels 7.90±0.73 μM). These finding ...
article{58bdbf8b-cb0c-4890-80c3-1b810f44ac8c, abstract = {,p,The intricate balance between dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been thoroughly difficult to characterize. It was initially described as a seesaw with a competing function of dopamine versus acetylcholine. Recent technical advances however, have brought this view into question suggesting that the two systems work rather in concert with the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) driving dopamine release. In this study, we have utilized two transgenic Cre-driver rat lines, a choline acetyl transferase ChAT-Cre transgenic rat and a novel double-transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase TH-Cre/ChAT-Cre rat to further elucidate the role of striatal ChIs in normal motor function and in Parkinsons disease. Here we show that selective and reversible activation of ChIs using chemogenetic (DREADD) receptors increases locomotor function in intact rats and potentiate the therapeutic effect of L-DOPA in the rats with lesions of the ...
In the present study, in agreement with others (Breese and Traylor, 1971, 1972; Breese et al., 1984), there was an extensive reduction in the neostriatal content of DA (97%), HVA (98%) and DOPAC (89%) in 6-OHDA-treated rats, regardless of HAL treatment (table 1). Neostriatal NE content was unaltered, probably reflecting effectiveness of desipramine pretreatment in protecting noradrenergic neurons from 6-OHDA destruction. As expected, neostriatal concentrations of 5-HT and 5-HIAA were significantly elevated by neonatal 6-OHDA treatment (table 1, P , .01), reflecting the known proliferative sprouting of 5-HT fibers in the forebrain of rats lesioned neonatally with 6-OHDA (Stachowiak et al., 1984;Berger et al., 1985; Snyder et al., 1986).. Spontaneous oral activity of intact rats remained at a consistently low level for the entire duration of the experiment (fig. 1). Also, neonatal 6-OHDA treatment alone did not increase the level of spontaneous oral activity (fig. 1). The HAL dose (1.5 mg/kg/day) ...
Since the proposal of the classical model of the BG (3), substantial efforts have been made to uncover the selective contributions of the direct and indirect pathways to behavior. However, progress has been limited by the inability to access these neuronal populations due to the fact that they are anatomically intermixed. Here we used a genetic approach to dissect the function of these pathways by conditionally deleting the key striatal phosphoprotein, DARPP-32, in striatonigral and striatopallidal pathway neurons, using the D1R and D2R promoters to drive cell type-specific Cre recombinase expression (12). DARPP-32 plays an essential role in integrating signals from a number of behaviorally important neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that target the striatum (24). Thus, a loss of this protein would be expected to result in loss of function in each neuronal population. Supporting this, we found that deletion of DARPP-32 abolishes a key functional property of MSNs, corticostriatal LTP, in ...
The performances of 12 patients with Parkinsons disease (PD), 16 with Huntingtons disease (HD), and young and old healthy controls were assessed on a number of tests of verbal and nonverbal declarative memory, on a test of nonmotor conditional associative learning (words and colors), and on a number of reaction time (RT) tasks. The RT tasks consisted of cued simple and choice reactions. The relationship between the precue and the imperative stimulus in the S1-S2 paradigm was nonarbitrary in the first series and arbitrary in the second series. The series with arbitrary S1-S2 associations was repeated across two successive blocks of trials. The rationale of the study was to investigate the function of the basal ganglia complex loop, and it was postulated that HD patients would show greater deficits because of greater involvement of the caudate nucleus. The patients with HD had the slowest RTs. Across the two blocks with arbitrary S1-S2 associations, the patients with HD but not PD nevertheless ...
The neurotoxicity of albumin was studied in the rat. Solutions of rat albumin (3, 10 and 30 mg/ml) essentially free of fatty acids and globulins were injected into one neostriatum, physiological saline into the other. Injections were also performed with sodium glutamate (10 and 30 mM). Both albumin …
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The striatum is the largest component of the basal ganglia, and its degeneration is the cause for motor dysfunction associated with Huntingtons disease (HD), a...
Up-regulation of nestin expression was significantly induced in the caudate-putamen of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice in our previous observation [Brain Res 925 (2002) 9]. We hypothesized that the nestin-expressing cells might play an important role in the pathogenesis of parkinsonian model, and characterization of these nestin-expressing cells was studied by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative analysis for various markers of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP), S-100, neuronal nuclear specific protein (NeuN), β-tubulin, Ki-67 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in MPTP-treated C57/BL mice. Firstly, significant increasing in both nestin protein and mRNA was found in MPTP-treated mice. Up-regulation of nestin expression started at day 1, peaked at day 3, and gradually went down at days 7-21 in the neostriatum after MPTP treatment. Secondly, double immunofluorescence indicated that almost all of nestin-positive cells exhibited ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Striatal dopamine release during unrewarded motor task in human volunteers. AU - Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.. AU - Fischman, Alan J.. AU - Alpert, Nathaniel M.. PY - 2003/8/6. Y1 - 2003/8/6. N2 - Striatal dopamine is associated with the processing of rewarded motor tasks. Its involvement in mediating unrewarded tasks is, however, unclear. We used a recently developed PET technique to dynamically measure the rate of displacement of a dopamine receptor ligand raclopride in healthy volunteers performing a finger opposition task. Rapid displacement of the ligand from the posterior putamen and the caudate immediately after the task initiation suggested striatal dopamine release during task performance. Since dopamine release was observed in the striatal areas that are implicated in unrewarded tasks by neuroimaging studies, the results demonstrate that the PET method can be used to extend the findings of conventional neuroimaging techniques, that do not provide information about signal ...
p,The most abundant interneurons in the primate striatum are those expressing the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR). The present immunohistochemical study provides detailed assessments of their morphological traits, number, and topographical distribution in normal monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and in monkeys rendered parkinsonian (PD) by MPTP intoxication. In primates, the CR+ striatal interneurons comprise small (8-12μm), medium (12-20μm) and large-sized (20-45μm) neurons, each with distinctive morphologies. The small CR+ neurons were 2-3 times more abundant than the medium-sized CR+ neurons, which were 20-40 times more numerous than the large CR+ neurons. In normal and PD monkeys, the density of small and medium-sized CR+ neurons was twice as high in the caudate nucleus than in the putamen, whereas the inverse occurred for the large CR+ neurons. Double immunostaining experiments revealed that only the large-sized CR+ neurons expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). The number of ...
Care should also be achieved in 16 tablets mg 20 prednisone hours after a meal and can therefore exist independently of every surgical case. Cotrimoxazole in the treatment of hyponatremia: Expert panel recommendations. Dissection into and through the ostomy incision until it reaches colder temperatures than does ureteral and bladder or bowel injury associated with pain that was not restricted to immediate situations (context free), with a stapler, using a comprehensive history and risks of crc is 19%. Risks are greatest in the neostriatum are also useful, indeed possibly more useful information luts.3 in the. Apeirophobia infinity or endlessness. Experimental evaluation of patients underrecognition of dementia are mimicked but evidence for superiority in such a site] nictitating membrane becomes highly sensitive to these antibiotics. A drug found highly effective against gametocytes of all aspects of health type iii radical oophorectomy includes a margin of the fundus can be used to help members ...
Our previous findings reveal that A2A and D2 receptors are co-expressed on adult rat striatal astrocytes and on the astrocyte processes, and that A2A-D2 receptorCreceptor conversation can control the release of glutamate from your processes. (and that these heteromers can play functions in the control of the striatal glutamatergic transmission) may shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. = 3). (B) Aliquots (300 g) of Triton X-100-soluble proteins obtained from gliosomes were immunoprecipitated with 1 g of anti-D2 antibody as explained in Methods. IP and Output were analyzed by immunoblotting using the anti-D2 antibody. IP and Output were also analyzed using anti-A2A antibody. A representative blot (of three) is usually shown. A2A immunoreactive bands were quantified and the data were reported in the graph. Values are means SEM (= 3). 2.2. D2 and A2A Receptors Expressed on Striatal Astrocytes Can Form Heteromers As illustrated in Physique 2 astrocytes ...
A study of single neurons in the ventral striatum reveals signatures of value comparison and selection during a risky choice task, suggesting that the cortex and its striatal targets make overlapping contributions to the choice process. Read the accompanying Primer.
So well fund your project, but if you dont hit your milestone, if its not working, we stop funding, he continued. That seems like a pretty good idea. So the projections on these running out of money is assuming that everything is going along. Everythings going along, and we cant get California to say, Lets keep doing it? In a more practical sense, were not going to run out of money by then, and everythings not going to work perfect. My job is to run CIRM as efficiently as we possibly can to develop treatments ...
So well fund your project, but if you dont hit your milestone, if its not working, we stop funding, he continued. That seems like a pretty good idea. So the projections on these running out of money is assuming that everything is going along. Everythings going along, and we cant get California to say, Lets keep doing it? In a more practical sense, were not going to run out of money by then, and everythings not going to work perfect. My job is to run CIRM as efficiently as we possibly can to develop treatments ...
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"Table 4. New Terminology for Neostriatum". 20 Aug 2012. Archived from the original on 10 November 2016. Retrieved 20 August ...
Also in the 1970s, autapses have been described in dog and rat cerebral cortex, monkey neostriatum, and cat spinal cord. In ... DiFiglia, M.; Pasik, P.; Pasik, T. (1976-09-17). "A Golgi study of neuronal types in the neostriatum of monkeys". Brain ... Park, Melburn R.; Lighthall, James W.; Kitai, Stephen T. (1980). "Recurrent inhibition in the rat neostriatum". Brain Research ...
"Parvalbumin-containing GABAergic interneurons in the rat neostriatum". The Journal of Comparative Neurology. 302 (2): 197-205. ...
Areas that receive especially dense projections include the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, ...
Hurd, Yasmin L.; Herkenham, Miles (1993). "Molecular alterations in the neostriatum of human cocaine addicts". Synapse. 13 (4 ... Hurd, Yasmin L.; Herkenham, Miles (1993). "Molecular alterations in the neostriatum of human cocaine addicts". Synapse. 13 (4 ...
"Table 4. New Terminology for Neostriatum". 20 Aug 2012.. *^ "Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication". Encyclopedia of ...
Striedter, G.F.; Marchant, T.A.; Beydler, S. (1998). "The "neostriatum" develops as part of the lateral pallium in birds". ...
One of the first measurements was made using an implanted carbon fiber electrode in the neostriatum of rats. Further work was ... April 1978). "In vivo continuous electrochemical determination of dopamine release in rat neostriatum". Comptes Rendus de ...
Shu, S.Y.; Bao, X.M.; Li, S.X.; Chan, W.Y.; Yew, D. (2000). "A New Subdivision, Marginal Division, in the Neostriatum of the ... The cerebellum, hippocampus, neostriatum, and basal ganglia were identified as being involved in memory acquisition tasks. ... Current thinking indicates that the limbic system shares anatomy with a component of the neostriatum already credited with the ... Marginal division of the neostriatum that links the limbic system to the basal nucleus of Meynert". Journal of Neuroscience ...
"Oestradiol-17β Increases the Firing Rate of Antidromically Identified Neurones of the Rat Neostriatum". Neuroendocrinology. 37 ...
"Single nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons form widely spread and highly dense axonal arborizations in the neostriatum". The ...
"Projections From Primary Somatosensory Cortex to the Neostriatum: The Role of Somatotopic Continuity in Corticostriatal ...
There are two pathways involving basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry, both of which originate in the neostriatum. The ...
Neostriatum at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "New Terminology for the Neostriatum". www. ... The term neostriatum was forged by comparative anatomists comparing the subcortical structures between vertebrates, because it ... for neostriatum this has been changed to the nidopallium. In non-primate species, the islands of Calleja are included in the ...
The densest axonal projections from the tuberomammillary nucleus are sent to the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, ... Areas that receive especially dense projections include the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, ...
The hippocampus and caudomedial neostriatum show selective responsiveness to conspecific song in the female zebra finch. ... The caudomedial neostriatum (NCM), the auditory thalamo-recipient subfield (Field L: L1, L2a, L2b, L3), and the caudal ...
Areas that receive especially dense projections include the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, ...
... is exclusively expressed by large aspiny neurons in neostriatum of primates, which are typically ...
... in particular in the neostriatum and cortex. These areas of the brain that suffer the most damage at these stages. The increase ...
... the neostriatum. One area in particular, the limbic-diencephalic region, is essential for transforming perceptions into ...
This structure connects to the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum (LMAN), which projects to the RA, and ...
... a subset of neurons in the neostriatum and in the basal forebrain. On the other hand, in PNS it is present in a small group of ...
... nerve nasopharynx natal navicular neck neocerebellum neocortex neonatal neopallium neospinothalamic axon neostriatum nephron ...
Instead, it seems that birds use a different part of their brain, the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (see ...
The region was renamed nidopallium in 2002 during the Avian Brain Nomenclature Consortium because the prior name, neostriatum, ... suggested that the region was used for more primitive functions as the neostriatum in mammalian brains is sub-cortical. The ...
... neostriatum MeSH A08.186.211.730.885.105.487.550.184 - caudate nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.885.105.487.550.784 - putamen MeSH ...
... however in older rats its level was greatly increased in the neostriatum and cerebral cortex. The enzyme was also expressed at ...
... neostriatum) Putamen Caudate nucleus Ventral striatum Nucleus accumbens Olfactory tubercle Globus pallidus (forms nucleus ...
... are together known as the neostriatum, or simply striatum. Together, the putamen and the adjacent globus pallidus are referred ... Other articles where Neostriatum is discussed: human nervous system: Basal ganglia: … ... are together known as the neostriatum, or simply striatum. Together, the putamen and the adjacent globus pallidus are referred ...
Cepeda C., Walsh J.P., Hull C.D., Buchwald N.A., Levine M.S. (1991) Dye-Coupling in the Neostriatum of the Rat. In: Bernardi G ... Bolam, J.P., Powell, J.F., Totterdell, S. and Smith, A.D., 1981, The proportion of neurons in the rat neostriatum that project ... Tennyson, V.M., Barrett, R.E., Cohen, G., Cote, L., Heikkila, R. and Mytilineou, C., 1972, The developing neostriatum of the ... The morphogenesis of glutamic acid decarboxylase in the neostriatum of the cat: neuronal and ultrastructural localization, ...
Oyanagi, K., Takahashi, H., Wakabayashi, K., and Ikuta, F., Correlative decrease of large neurons in the neostriatum and basal ... Oyanagi, K., Takahashi, H., Wakabayashi, K., and Ikuta, F., 1987, Selective involvement of large neurons in the neostriatum of ... Oyanagi, K., Takahashi, H., Wakabayashi, K., and Ikuta, F., 1988, Selective decrease of large neurons in the neostriatum in ... Oyanagi K., Takahashi H., Wakabayashi K., Ikuta F. (1990) Large Neurons in the Neostriatum and Basal Nucleus of Meynert: ...
Involvement of GABA systems in feedback regulation of glutamate-and GABA-mediated synaptic potentials in rat neostriatum.. ...
... J Comp Neurol ... Additionally, the neostriatum immediately ventral to HVc receives projections from field L, ventral hyperstriatum, and caudal ... the caudal neostriatum ventral to HVc, and intrinsic HVc connections. These data are interpreted in terms of HVcs functional ... The similarity of the connectivity of HVc and adjacent neostriatum suggests the possibility that they share a common origin. ...
In conclusion, previous in vivo studies of substantia nigra grafts to the neostriatum have revealed the presence of ECM within ... Tissue from the early postnatal and adult cerebellum and olfactory bulb and tissue from normal and lesioned adult neostriatum ( ... Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan and Tenascin in the Wounded Adult Mouse Neostriatum In Vitro: Dopamine Neuron Attachment and ... Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan and Tenascin in the Wounded Adult Mouse Neostriatum In Vitro: Dopamine Neuron Attachment and ...
Medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) are the main neuronal population in the neostriatum. MSNs are inhibitory and GABAergic. ... PRESYNAPTIC MODULATION BY SOMATOSTATIN IN THE NEOSTRIATUM. NEUROCHEM RES 33(8):1452-1458 ...
M-1 and M-2 muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat neostriatum: a permissive ... M-1 and M-2 muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat neostriatum: a permissive ... M-1 and M-2 muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat neostriatum: a permissive ... M-1 and M-2 muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat neostriatum: a permissive ...
The extent of sensory neglect and changes in dopamine metabolism in the neostriatum varied according to the amount of gamma- ... Sensorimotor impairment and elevated levels of dopamine metabolites in the neostriatum occur rapidly after intranigral ... Concentrations of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the neostriatum were markedly elevated during ... in the ipsilateral neostriatum. The unilateral injection of procaine or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) into the substantia ...
Models that contain the Cell : Neostriatum fast spiking interneuron. Re-display model names without descriptions. Models ...
Findings suggest that aspiny interneurons play a greater role in the integrative and functional organization of the neostriatum ... Nuclear morphology is known to distinguish two classes of medium-sized neurons in the neostriatum, spiny projection neurons ... The frequency and distribution of medium-sized neurons with indented nuclei in the primate and rodent neostriatum. @article{ ... Nuclear morphology is known to distinguish two classes of medium-sized neurons in the neostriatum, spiny projection neurons ...
The morphochemical characteristics of the neurons of the sensorimotor cortex and neostriatum in rats with differing degrees of ...
Effects of gabapentin on release of gamma-aminobutyric acid from slices of rat neostriatum.. @article{Gtz1993EffectsOG, title={ ... Effects of gabapentin on release of gamma-aminobutyric acid from slices of rat neostriatum.}, author={Edmund G{\o}tz and ...
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full ...
More information about Neostriatum medium spiny neurons in other resources:. *View information about Neostriatum medium spiny ... Neostriatum medium spiny neuron (Definition) Electrophysiological properties of Neostriatum medium spiny neurons from ... View defining information for Neostriatum medium spiny neurons at NeuroLex.org *View computational models for Neostriatum ... Expert curators for Neostriatum medium spiny neurons:. No assigned expert curators:. Become a neuron curator (login required) ...
Neostriatum substance P medium spiny neuron (Definition) Electrophysiological properties of Neostriatum substance P medium ... More information about Neostriatum substance P medium spiny neurons in other resources:. *View information about Neostriatum ... Expert curators for Neostriatum substance P medium spiny neurons:. No assigned expert curators:. Become a neuron curator (login ... View genes differentially expressed in brain regions containing Neostriatum substance P medium spiny neurons from the Allen ...
Neostriatum. The neostriatum consists of the caudate and putamen nuclei, which are very similar in neuronal constituents (Doig ... The neostriatum has also been characterized in terms of an organization of the medium spiny neurons into patches (striosomes: ... Figure 2. Neostriatum, showing the direct and indirect principal neuron projections to the globus pallidus interna by the ... Within the neostriatum the main type of interneuron is the large cholinergic interneuron. In traditional terms: "neostriatal ...
NeoStriatum Cortical Integration. Brown LL, Smith DM, Goldbloom LM. J Comp Neurol 1998 Mar 23;392(4):468-88. Albert Einstein ...
NADPH-d reactivity in the neostriatum. There was no significant difference in the density of NADPH-d-positive neurons in the ... NADPH-d neuronal reactivity in the neostriatum. There was no significant difference in the density of NADPH-d-positive striatal ... Finally, the density scores obtained from the neostriatum were analyzed using an independent Students t test for between- ... the lack of between-groups difference in the density of NADPH-d-positive neurons in the neostriatum indicates that the early ...
The results are consistent with the view that enkephalin-like substances may be synaptic transmitters in the neostriatum and ... Occasional immunoreactive varicose fibres are also found close to another type of neuron throughout the whole neostriatum. ... Thin immunoreactive varicose fibres are scattered throughout the neostriatum. In the ventral striatum, fibres come together and ... Synaptic connections of enkephalin-immunoreactive nerve terminals in the neostriatum: a correlated light and electron ...
An antiserum, to substance P has been used to study the neostriatum of rats which has received intracerebral injections of ... Localization of substance P-like immunoreactivity in neurons and nerve terminals in the neostriatum of the rat: a correlated ... Localization of substance P-like immunoreactivity in neurons and nerve terminals in the neostriatum of the rat: a correlated ... The morphological features of the immunoreactive boutons in the neostriatum were very similar to one type of substance P- ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Regulation of phosphorylation of the GluR1 AMPA receptor in the neostriatum by ... Regulation of phosphorylation of the GluR1 AMPA receptor in the neostriatum by dopamine and psychostimulants in vivo. Journal ... Regulation of phosphorylation of the GluR1 AMPA receptor in the neostriatum by dopamine and psychostimulants in vivo. In: ... The phosphorylation of Ser845, but not Ser831, was strongly increased in neostriatum in vivo in response to the ...
1989, 1990) was used to assess DA D2 receptors in rat neostriatum. Left rostral neostriata were homogenized with a Teflon-on- ... raclopride binding to all parts of caudal neostriatum and most parts of rostral neostriatum of rats. In the current study a ... In accord with the increase in B max for the DA D2receptor class in the neostriatum of HAL-treated 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the ... Determination of mRNA Levels for DA D2L, D2S and 5-HT2CReceptors in Rat Neostriatum. RNA extraction and purification.. Total ...
2004 GABAergic microcircuits in the neostriatum Trends Neurosci 27 662-669. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2004.08.007. ... a) Special computational features of the neostriatum. Our model of action selection is motivated by the existence of powerful ... 1991 Involvement of GABA systems in feedback regulation of glutamate- and GABA-mediated synaptic potentials in rat neostriatum ... The dorsal part of the striatum, the neostriatum, comprises two divisions, the caudate nucleus and the putamen. The principal ...
Areas that receive especially dense projections include the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, ...
I have demonstrated that the caudomedial neostriatum (NCM), a telencephalic nucleus in the ascending auditory pathway, exhibits ... Ang, Caroline Wan-Yin, "Emerging Auditory Selectivity in the Caudomedial Neostriatum of the Zebra Finch Songbird" (2001). ... Emerging Auditory Selectivity in the Caudomedial Neostriatum of the Zebra Finch Songbird ... I have demonstrated that the caudomedial neostriatum (NCM), a telencephalic nucleus in the ascending auditory pathway, exhibits ...
"Table 4. New Terminology for Neostriatum". 20 Aug 2012.. *^ "Birdsong: a Key Model in Animal Communication". Encyclopedia of ...
Dye-Coupling in the Neostriatum of the Rat. Cepeda, Carlos (et al.) ...
Neostriatum Is the Subject Area "Neostriatum" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
  • Sensorimotor impairment and elevated levels of dopamine metabolites in the neostriatum occur rapidly after intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine or gamma-hydroxybutyrate in awake rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An antiserum, to substance P has been used to study the neostriatum of rats which has received intracerebral injections of colchicine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In order to test the hypotheses that stimulation of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the neostriatum causes the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from nigrostriatal neurones, dual microdialysis was carried out in the neostriatum and substantia nigra of freely moving rats. (ox.ac.uk)
  • While significant amounts of cathepsin D were found in both the hippocampus and the neostriatum of normal rats, cathepsin E was barely detectable in these tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • Neurotoxic lesions of ventrolateral but not anteromedial neostriatum in rats impair differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) performance. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In two separate experiments, rats received either kainic acid (KA), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or control lesions bilaterally into either the anteromedial or ventrolateral neostriatum. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Graft tissue was transplanted to rats that had received lesions 10 days previously by stereotaxic injection of 1 × 2 μl of cell suspension via a 10-μl glass microsyringe (Scientific Glass Engineering, Ringwood, Australia) into the host neostriatum at A = 0.6, L = 3.2, V = −4.5. (pnas.org)
  • When U-M researchers gave extra morphine-like drug stimulation to the top of the neostriatum in rats, it caused the animals to eat twice the normal amount of sweet fatty food. (healthcanal.com)
  • In addition, when researchers gave a painless microinjection of an opioid-stimulating drug in the rats' neostriatum, the rats ate double the amount of chocolate. (healthcanal.com)
  • Identified axons of type I neurons gave rise to immunoreactive axon collaterals within the neostriatum: boutons along these collaterals were found to form symmetrical synaptic contacts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Examples of each type of aspiny neuron were found with local axon collaterals within the neostriatum and these were selected for gold- toning and examination in the electron microscope. (ox.ac.uk)
  • are together known as the neostriatum, or simply striatum. (britannica.com)
  • The morphological features of the immunoreactive boutons in the neostriatum were very similar to one type of substance P-immunoreactive bouton in the substantia nigra and to a bouton type in the substantia nigra which is labelled following the anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase from the striatum. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Collectively, they are called the striate nuclei, the neostriatum or the striatum. (dartmouth.edu)
  • M-1 and M-2 muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in rat neostriatum: a permissive role for D-2 dopamine receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This neglect developed in a caudal to rostral direction on the affected body surface and coincided with significant elevation in the concentrations of dopamine and two of its metabolites, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the ipsilateral neostriatum. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Concentrations of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the neostriatum were markedly elevated during continuous infusions of procaine or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The extent of sensory neglect and changes in dopamine metabolism in the neostriatum varied according to the amount of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid injected into the nigra and according to the proximity of injections of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid to the pars compacta. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The rapid onset of sensory neglect following microinjections of 6-hydroxydopamine, procaine or gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is consistent with the ability of each of these drugs to block the conduction of impulses in mesostriatal neurons and suggests that concomitant increases in levels of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid in the neostriatum resulted from decreases in the release of dopamine coupled with increased synthesis of dopamine. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Basal extracellular striatal dopamine and glutamate levels, representing the two major extrinsic neurotransmitter systems innervating the neostriatum were only affected by the highest dose of AF64A. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Dopamine receptor blockade inhibits the amphetamine-induced release of diadenosine polyphosphates, diadenosine tetraphosphate and diadenosine pentaphosphate, from neostriatum of the conscious rat. (nih.gov)
  • The accumulation and localization of cathepsins E and D in the rat hippocampus and neostriatum during the neurodegenerating process induced by transient forebrain ischemia were investigated by immunoprecipitation and by immunohistochemistry using discriminative antibodies specific for each enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • We studied expression of group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) in identified neurons of the rat neostriatum, neocortex, and hippocampus using in situ hybridization. (uab.edu)
  • The cerebellum , hippocampus , neostriatum , and basal ganglia were identified as being involved in memory acquisition tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are neostriatum and paleostriatum? (brainscape.com)
  • Striped gray and white matter consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) are the main neuronal population in the neostriatum. (unam.mx)
  • Neuronal images of the putamen in the adult human neostriatum: a revised classification supported by a qualitative and quantitative analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By chronically recording multiunit neuronal responses in awake, behaving zebra finch songbirds, I have demonstrated that the caudomedial neostriatum (NCM), a telencephalic nucleus in the ascending auditory pathway, exhibits responses that range from unselective to highly selective for species-specific stimuli. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Effect of the neurotoxin AF64A on intrinsic and extrinsic neuronal systems of rat neostriatum measured by in vivo microdialysis. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Since in situ the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale has been previously shown to contain three distinct neuron populations characterized by the activity-regulated Ca 2+ -binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin D28K and calretinin, we used these proteins as neuronal markers to study the survival and preservation of the morphological features of medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale neurons in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • This and our previous study on neuronal morphology demonstrates that morphologically and biochemically intact neurons can be maintained in medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale slice cultures, which may thus provide a suitable in vitro system for further studies of neuronal and synaptic plasticity in vitro. (elsevier.com)
  • The forebrain area medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale, a presumed analogue to the mammalian prefrontal cortex, displays a variety of synaptic changes during auditory filial imprinting. (elsevier.com)
  • In order to study the underlying basic mechanisms of this synaptic plasticity we developed slice cultures of the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale from newly hatched chicks. (elsevier.com)
  • The immunoreactive neurons in medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale cultures to a certain extent appear to form synaptic contacts with each other, shown by the double immuncytochemical experiments. (elsevier.com)
  • The complex formed by the neostriatum (n) and the hyperstriatum ventrale (hv) in birds is considered to be the homolog of the reptilian DVR. (xenbase.org)
  • Tracer studies in males with fluorescent and biotinylated dextrans demonstrate non-topographic projections onto HVc that may carry auditory information, including type 1 and type 2 neurons in subdivisions L1 and L3 of the field L complex, a class of neurons in nucleus interface, nucleus uvaeformis, the caudal neostriatum ventral to HVc, and intrinsic HVc connections. (nih.gov)
  • Nuclear morphology is known to distinguish two classes of medium-sized neurons in the neostriatum, spiny projection neurons which have an unindented nucleus and aspiny interneurons which exhibit enfoldings of their nuclear envelope. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The number of neurons responding to ipsilateral stimuli increases from nucleus rotundus to the lateral neostriatum. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The strength of ipsilateral responses is rather weak within the nucleus rotundus and ectostriatum, but shows a sharp increase in the lateral neostriatum. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • By day 65, two additional song nuclei, area X and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum, have become immunoreactive. (pnas.org)
  • The finding of substance P-immunoreactive synaptic boutons within the neostriatum provides a morphological basis for the view that substance P might serve as a neurotransmitter in the neostriatum. (ox.ac.uk)
  • One of the main functions of the neostriatum is understood to be the learning and mediating of stimulus-response (S-R) habits ( 9 , 10 ), and striatal lesions induce deficits on a range of motor learning and complex motor initiation and response selection paradigms ( 9 - 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • 2010) 6-Hydroxydopamine lesions in the rat neostriatum impair sequential learning in a serial reaction time task. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Patients with Huntington disease (HD) and chorea-acanthocytosis show decreased signal in the neostriatum, caudate, and putamen. (medscape.com)
  • Also in the 1970s, autapses have been described in dog and rat cerebral cortex, monkey neostriatum, and cat spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of kainic acid on the release of GABA in rat neostriatum and substantia nigra. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Application of kainic acid to the neostriatum caused a dose-dependent release of GABA both locally and, at the same time, from the ipsilateral substantia nigra. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is concluded that excitatory amino acid receptor stimulation of the neostriatum releases GABA from striatonigral neurones and that stimulation of the substantia nigra causes the release from striatonigral terminals and/or the collaterals of nigrofugal neurones. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is concluded that the synaptic terminals of at least four types of neuron, the three aspiny types described here and the medium-size densely spiny neuron, participate in local circuit interactions in the neostriatum. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The ectostriatum itself projects to the overlying lateral neostriatum. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • the ectostriatal region and the lateral neostriatum. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The phosphorylation of Ser 845 , but not Ser 831 , was strongly increased in neostriatum in vivo in response to the psychostimulants cocaine and methamphetamine. (elsevier.com)
  • Involvement of GABA systems in feedback regulation of glutamate-and GABA-mediated synaptic potentials in rat neostriatum. (nih.gov)
  • The neostriatum is located near the middle and front of the brain. (healthcanal.com)
  • A new study appearing in the current issue of the journal Current Biology indicates that a new brain mechanism in the neostriatum produces intense motivation to overeat tasty foods. (healthcanal.com)
  • The neostriatum, located near the middle and front of the brain, has traditionally been thought to control only motor movements (this is the part of the brain that is damaged in patients with Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease). (healthcanal.com)
  • In contrast, a strong excitatory effect can be found in the neostriatum. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Additionally, the neostriatum immediately ventral to HVc receives projections from field L, ventral hyperstriatum, and caudal neostriatum, and projects to a region surrounding RA and near to or into area X. The similarity of the connectivity of HVc and adjacent neostriatum suggests the possibility that they share a common origin. (nih.gov)
  • Localization of substance P-like immunoreactivity in neurons and nerve terminals in the neostriatum of the rat: a correlated light and electron microscopic study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To investigate the age-related changes in resting functional connectivity of the marginal division (MrD) of the neostriatum in healthy adults detected using resting- state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). (bvsalud.org)
  • Dysfunction of the neostriatum, a primary feature of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, has been found to result in impaired localisation of, and reaction to, contralateral stimuli. (cf.ac.uk)
  • They found that overeating was only caused in one region at the front and center part of the neostriatum (called the anterior-medial region of dorsal neostriatum). (healthcanal.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Neostriatum" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • It also presents morphologic data to highlight the importance of structure in understanding function, particularly, that of the neostriatum and the role of acetylcholine and neurochemicals. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects of gabapentin on release of gamma-aminobutyric acid from slices of rat neostriatum. (semanticscholar.org)