Treatments which are undergoing clinical trials or for which there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on health outcomes; coverage for such treatments is often denied by health insurers.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
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A neoplasm originating from thymic tissue, usually benign, and frequently encapsulated. Although it is occasionally invasive, metastases are extremely rare. It consists of any type of thymic epithelial cell as well as lymphocytes that are usually abundant. Malignant lymphomas that involve the thymus, e.g., lymphosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease (previously termed granulomatous thymoma), should not be regarded as thymoma. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
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Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An extranodal neoplasm, usually possessing an NK-cell phenotype and associated with EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. These lymphomas exhibit a broad morphologic spectrum, frequent necrosis, angioinvasion, and most commonly present in the midfacial region, but also in other extranodal sites.
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.
A leukemia affecting young children characterized by SPLENOMEGALY, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, and hemorrhages. Traditionally classed as a myeloproliferative disease, it is now considered a mixed myeloproliferative-mylelodysplastic disorder.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
An independent agency within the Executive Branch of the United States Government. It administers a national social insurance program whereby employees, employers, and the self-employed pay contributions into pooled trust funds. Part of the contributions go into a separate hospital insurance trust fund for workers at age 65 to provide help with medical expenses. Other programs include the supplemental social security income program for the aged, blind, and disabled and the Old Age Survivors and Disability Insurance Program. It became an independent agency March 31, 1995. It had previously been part of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, later the Department of Health and Human Services. (From United States Government Manual, 1994-95)
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.

Differential diagnostic significance of the paucity of HLA-I antigens on metastatic breast carcinoma cells in effusions. (1/3999)

Distinction between benign reactive mesothelial cells and metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells in effusions from patients with a known prior history of breast cancer is not the easiest task in diagnostic pathology. Here, we report the usefulness of testing the expression of class I HLA antigens (HLA A, B, C) in this respect. Cytospins were prepared from effusions of patients without the history of breast cancer (5 cases) and from effusions of patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma (11 cases). Three effusions from cancerous patients were not malignant cytologically. The expression of HLA-A, B, C, HLA-DR and beta2-microglobulin as well as the macrophage antigen, CD14, was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. In 10 of 11 effusions the cytologically malignant cells expressed very weak or undetectable HLA-A,B,C as compared to the mesothelial cells and macrophages. The paucity of expression of HLA-A, B, C was detectable in those 3 cases where a definitive cytological diagnosis of malignancy could not be established. In contrast, mesothelial cells and macrophages from all samples were uniformly and strongly positive for both HLA-A, B, C and beta2-microglobulin. We conclude that the paucity of HLA-I antigens provides a marker helpful in distinguishing metastatic breast carcinoma cells from reactive mesothelial cells in effusions.  (+info)

Cytokine treatment or accessory cells are required to initiate engraftment of purified primitive human hematopoietic cells transplanted at limiting doses into NOD/SCID mice. (2/3999)

Little is known about the cell types or mechanisms that underlie the engraftment process. Here, we have examined parameters affecting the engraftment of purified human Lin-CD34+CD38- normal and AML cells transplanted at limiting doses into NOD/SCID recipients. Mice transplanted with 500 to 1000 Lin-CD34+CD38- cord blood (CB) or AML cells required the co-transplantation of accessory cells (ACs) or short-term in vivo cytokine treatment for engraftment, whereas transplantation of higher doses (>5000 Lin-CD34+CD38- cells) did not show these requirements suggesting that ACs are effective for both normal and leukemic stem cell engraftment in this model. Mature Lin+CD34- and primitive Lin-CD34+CD38+ cells were capable of acting as ACs even though no repopulating cells are present. Cytokine treatment of NOD/SCID mice could partially replace the requirement for co-transplantation of AC. Furthermore, no difference was seen between the percentage of engrafted mice treated with cytokines for only the first 10 days after transplant compared to those receiving cytokines for the entire time of repopulation. Surprisingly, no engraftment was detected in mice when cytokine treatment was delayed until 10 days posttransplant. Together, these studies suggest that the engraftment process requires pluripotent stem cells plus accessory cells or cytokine treatment which act early after transplantation. The NOD/SCID xenotransplant system provides the means to further clarify the processes underlying human stem cell engraftment.  (+info)

Autologous transplantation of chemotherapy-purged PBSC collections from high-risk leukemia patients: a pilot study. (3/3999)

We have recently demonstrated that the combination of the alkylating agent nitrogen mustard (NM) and etoposide (VP-16) is capable of eliminating, ex vivo, leukemic cells contaminating PBSC collections and this is associated with a significant recovery of primitive and committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. Based on these data a pilot study on autologous transplantation of NM/VP-16 purged PBSC for high-risk leukemic patients was recently initiated. Twelve patients (seven females and five males) with a median age of 46 years (range 18-57) have been treated. Two patients had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) resistant to conventional induction treatment, four patients had secondary AML in I complete remission (CR), one patient was in II CR after failing a previous autologous BM transplantation, while two additional AML individuals were in I CR achieved after three or more cycles of induction treatment. Two patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in I CR and one patient with mantle cell lymphoma and leukemic dissemination were also included. Eight patients showed karyotypic abnormalities associated with a poor clinical outcome. The mobilizing regimens included cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone with (n = 6) or without fludarabine (n = 3) followed by subcutaneous administration of G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day until the completion of PBSC collection) and G-CSF alone (n = 3) (15 microg/kg/day). A median of two aphereses (range 1-3) allowed the collection of 7.2 x 10(8) TNC/kg (range 3.4-11.5), 5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (range 2.1-15.3) and 9.2 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (0.3-236). PBSC were treated with a constant dose of 20 microg of VP-16/ml and a median individual-adjusted dose (survival < or = 5% of steady-state BM CFU-GM) of NM of 0.7 microg/ml (range 0.25-1.25). Eleven patients were reinfused after busulfan (16 mg/kg) and Cy (120 mg/kg) conditioning with a median residual dose of 0.3 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (0-11.5). The median time to neutrophil engraftment (>0.5 x 10(9)/l) for evaluable patients was 25 days (range 12-59); the median time to platelet transfusion independence (>20 and >50 x 10(9)/l) was 40 days (18-95) and 69 days (29-235), respectively. Hospital discharge occurred at a median of 25 days (18-58) after stem cell reinfusion. Four individuals are alive in CR (n = 3) or with residual nodal disease (n = 1 lymphoma patient) with a follow-up of 32, 26, 3 and 14 months, respectively. Seven patients died due to disease progression or relapse (n = 5) or extrahematological transplant toxicity (n = 2). Our data suggest that pharmacological purging of leukapheresis collections of leukemic patients at high-risk of relapse is feasible and ex vivo treated cells reconstitute autologous hematopoiesis.  (+info)

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin's disease derives from post-germinal center B cells. (4/3999)

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated Hodgkin's disease (HIV-HD) displays several peculiarities when compared with HD of the general population. These include overrepresentation of clinically aggressive histologic types and frequent infection of Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Recently, we have reported that the histogenesis of HD of the general population may be assessed by monitoring the expression pattern of BCL-6, a transcription factor expressed in germinal center (GC) B cells, and of CD138/syndecan-1 (syn-1), a proteoglycan associated with post-GC, terminal B-cell differentiation. In this study, we have applied these two markers to the study of HIV-HD histogenesis and correlated their expression status to the virologic features of this disease. We have found that RS cells of all histologic categories of HIV-HD consistently display the BCL-6(-)/syn-1(+) phenotype and thus reflect post-GC B cells. Although BCL-6(-)/syn-1(+) RS cells of HIV-HD express CD40, they are not surrounded by CD40 ligand-positive (CD40L+) reactive T lymphocytes, which, in HD of the general population, are thought to regulate the disease phenotype through CD40/CD40L interactions. Conversely, RS cells of virtually all HIV-HD express the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), which, being functionally homologous to CD40, may contribute, at least in part, to the modulation of the HIV-HD phenotype.  (+info)

An alternatively spliced form of CD79b gene may account for altered B-cell receptor expression in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (5/3999)

Several functional anomalies of B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells may be explained by abnormalities of the B-cell receptor (BCR), a multimeric complex formed by the sIg homodimer and the noncovalently bound heterodimer Igalpha/Igbeta (CD79a/CD79b). Because the expression of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b has been reported to be absent in the cells of most CLL cases, we have investigated the molecular mechanisms that may account for this defect. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 50 patients and two cell lines (MEC1, MEC2) obtained from the PBL of one of them were studied. MEC1, MEC2, and 75% of CLL cases did not express detectable levels of the extracellular Ig-like domain of CD79b, which was nevertheless present in greater than 80% CD19(+) cells from normal donors. In healthy subjects the expression of CD79b was equally distributed in CD5(+) and CD5(-) B-cell subsets. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of CD79b RNA from all patients and from MEC1 and MEC2 cell lines consistently yielded two fragments of different size (709 bp and 397 bp). The 709-bp band corresponds to CD79b entire transcript; the 397-bp band corresponds to an alternatively spliced form lacking exon 3 that encodes the extracellular Ig-like domain. Both fragments were also visible in normal PBL. The expression of the 397-bp fragment was increased in normal activated B cells, while no difference was seen between CD5(+) and CD5(-) B cells. To obtain a more accurate estimate of the relative proportions of the two spliced forms, a radioactive PCR was performed in 13 normal and 22 B-CLL samples and the results analyzed using a digital imager. The mean value of the CD79b to the CD79b internally deleted ratio was 0.64 +/- 0.20 SD in normal donors and 0.44 +/- 0.27 SD in B-CLL (P =.01). Direct sequencing of 397-bp RT-PCR products and of genomic DNA corresponding to exon 3 from MEC1, MEC2, their parental cells, and five fresh B-CLL samples did not show any causal mutation. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exon 3 performed in 18 additional B-CLL cases showed a single abnormal shift corresponding to a TGT --> TGC polymorphic change at amino acid 122. We propose a role for the alternative splicing of CD79b gene in causing the reduced expression of BCR on the surface of B-CLL cells. As normal B cells also present this variant, the mechanism of CD79b posttranscriptional regulation might reflect the activation stage of the normal B cell from which B-CLL derives.  (+info)

Feasibility of immunotherapy of relapsed leukemia with ex vivo-generated cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hematopoietic system-restricted minor histocompatibility antigens. (6/3999)

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a common treatment of hematologic malignancies. Recurrence of the underlying malignancy is a major cause of treatment failure. Donor-derived cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for patients' minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) play an important role in both graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) reactivities. mHags HA-1 and HA-2 induce HLA-A*0201-restricted CTLs in vivo and are exclusively expressed on hematopoietic cells, including leukemic cells and leukemic precursors, but not on fibroblasts, keratinocytes, or liver cells. The chemical nature of the mHags HA-1 and HA-2 is known. We investigated the feasibility of ex vivo generation of mHag HA-1- and HA-2-specific CTLs from unprimed mHag HA-1- and/or HA-2-negative healthy blood donors. HA-1 and HA-2 synthetic peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were used as antigen-presenting cells (APC) to stimulate autologous unprimed CD8(+) T cells. The ex vivo-generated HA-1- and HA-2-specific CTLs efficiently lyse leukemic cells derived from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) patients. No lytic reactivity was detected against nonhematopoietic cells. Sufficient numbers of the CTLs can be obtained for the adoptive immunotherapy purposes. In conclusion, we present a feasible, novel therapy for the treatment for relapsed leukemia after BMT with a low risk of GVHD.  (+info)

Evaluation of trisomy 12 by fluorescence in situ hybridization in peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes of patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (7/3999)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Trisomy 12 is the most common numerical chromosomal aberration in patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has improved the detection of this cytogenetic abnormality and has made detection possible in all phases of the cell cycle. The presence of the trisomy 12 positive (+12) cell population has generally been investigated in leukemic cells obtained from the peripheral blood of CLL patients. To ascertain whether trisomy 12 is expressed homogeneously in cells of different hemopoietic tissues, we applied FISH to lymph node, peripheral blood and bone marrow samples obtained simultaneously from 23 untreated B-CLL patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-three newly diagnosed patients with B-CLL, 15 in stage B and 8 in stage C, were included in the present study. Peripheral blood smears, bone marrow aspirate smears and lymph node touch imprints were collected from each patient at diagnosis. Cytologic preparations were examined by light microscopy in order to assess the lymphocyte morphology. Immunophenotyping was performed by cytofluorimetric analysis of the peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymph node mononuclear cell suspensions. The diagnosis was supported in all cases by histologic findings in bone marrow biopsy and lymph node biopsy specimens. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on smears of blood and aspirated bone-marrow and lymph node touch imprints obtained by fresh tissue apposition. RESULTS: In 6 of the 23 cases (26%) trisomy 12 was clearly present in all tissues examined. A comparative analysis of the three different hemopoietic tissues was performed. A higher percentage of leukemic CD5+CD23+ cells was detected in lymph nodes than in peripheral blood and bone marrow. A significantly higher proportion of trisomic cells was observed in lymph nodes samples than in peripheral blood or bone marrow smears of trisomy 12 positive CLL patients. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Several previous reports show that only a proportion of malignant B-CLL cells carry trisomy 12 when analyzed by interphase FISH. The higher proportion of +12 cells in lymph nodes than in peripheral blood or bone marrow of CLL patients with trisomy 12 could reflect different cell distributions in different tissues, or lymph node specific tropism, or proliferative advantage in selected tissue. At present, the role of trisomy 12 in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disorders is unclear.  (+info)

Time sequential chemotherapy for primary refractory or relapsed adult acute myeloid leukemia: results of the phase II Gemia protocol. (8/3999)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: High-dose cytarabine (HDAra-C), mitoxantrone and etoposide are the mainstay of several active regimens against relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We designed a phase II study to assess the efficacy and side effects of a time sequential application of mitoxantrone plus intermediate-dose Ara-C followed by HDAra-C plus etoposide (GEMIA) in adult patients with refractory or relapsed AML. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients with refractory or relapsed AML were eligible for GEMIA salvage therapy, which comprised mitoxantrone 12 mg/m2/day on days 1-3, Ara-C 500 mg/m2/day as a 24-hour continuous infusion on days 1-3, followed by HDAra-C 2 g/m2/12-hourly on days 6-8 and etoposide 100 mg/m2/12-hourly on days 6-8. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was started on day 14. In patients above the age of 55 the dose of Ara-C in the first sequence (days 1-3) was reduced to 250 mg/m2. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included, of whom 12 achieved complete remission after GEMIA (60%, 95% CI 40-80%), one was refractory and five died early from infection. Two additional patients achieved partial remission after GEMIA and complete remission after consolidation chemotherapy, for a final CR rate of 70% (95% CI 48-88%). Neutrophils recovered at a median of 27 days (range, 22-43) and platelets 46 days (range, 25-59) after the start of treatment. The median duration of remission was 133 days (range, 36-417+) whereas overall survival time lasted for a median of 153 days (range, 13-554+). Treatment-associated toxicity was comprised predominantly of infection, mucositis and diarrhea that reached World Health Organization grades III-V in 40%, 40% and 30% of patients, respectively. Despite the intention to rapidly proceed to a hematopoietic stem cell transplant in patients in remission, only five patients reached the transplant. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The GEMIA time sequential chemotherapy regimen appears effective in obtaining remissions in refractory and relapsed adult AML. The high toxicity seen, however, suggests that its design is amenable to further improvements, especially in more elderly patients. Since remissions are short-lived, more innovative post-remission strategies are needed.  (+info)

Since the first evidence for cancer stem cells in leukemia, experimentalists have sought to identify tumorigenic subpopulations in solid tumors. In parallel, scientists have argued over the implications of the existence of this subpopulation. On one side, the cancer stem cell hypothesis posits that a small subset of cells within a tumor are responsible for tumorigenesis and are capable of recapitulating the entire tumor on their own. Under this hypothesis, a tumor may be conceptualized as a series of coupled compartments, representing populations of progressively differentiated cell types, starting from stem cells. The allure of this model is that it elegantly explains our therapeutic failures: we have been targeting the wrong cells. Alternatively, the stochastic model states that all cells in a tumor can have stem-like properties, and have an equally small capability of forming a tumor. As tumors are, by nature, heterogeneous, there is ample evidence to support both hypotheses. We propose a ...
Introduction to Brain Tumor Stem Cells -- Isolation and Culture of Glioblastoma Brain Tumor Stem Cells -- Establishment and Culture of Patient-Derived Primary Medulloblastoma Cell Lines -- Bioinformatic Strategies for the Genomic and Epigenomic Characterization of Brain Tumors -- Detecting Stem Cell Marker Expression Using the NanoString nCounter System -- Flow Cytometric Analysis of Brain Tumor Stem Cells -- In Vitro Self-Renewal Assays for Brain Tumor Stem Cells -- Differentiation of Brain Tumor Initiating Cells -- The Study of Brain Tumor Stem Cell Migration -- The Study of Brain Tumor Stem Cell Invasion -- Cell Cycle Dynamics in Glioma Cancer Stem Cells -- Embryonic Stem Cell Models of Human Brain Tumors -- Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Protocols for the Cancer and Developmental Biology Laboratory -- EPH Profiling of BTIC Populations in Glioblastoma Multiforme Using CyTOF -- Pooled Lentiviral CRISPR-Cas9 Screens for Functional Genomics in Mammalian Cells -- In Vitro Assays for ...
The gene, HER2, causes cancer stem cells to multiply and spread, explaining why HER2 has been linked to a more aggressive type of breast cancer and to metastatic disease, in which the cancer has spread beyond the breast, the researchers say.. Further, the drug Herceptin, which is used to treat HER2-positive breast cancer, was found to target and destroy the cancer stem cells. This work suggests that the reason drugs that target HER2, such as Herceptin and Lapatanib, are so effective in breast cancer is that they target the cancer stem cell population. This finding provides further evidence for the cancer stem cell hypothesis, says study author Max S. Wicha, M.D., Distinguished Professor of Oncology and director of the U-M Comprehensive Cancer Center.. The cancer stem cell hypothesis says that tumors originate in a small number of cells, called cancer stem cells, and that these cells are responsible for fueling a tumors growth. These cells represent fewer than 5 percent of the cells in a ...
Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cell Culture Extra-cellular Differentiation Matrix is essential for Differentiation of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cell Cultures. This product requires Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cell Culture Media Cat#M36103-30 and Cells Cat# 36103-30. Also available Products ...
Accumulating experimental and clinical evidence indicated that breast cancer may arise from mammary stem/progenitor cells that posses the features like the ability of self-renewal and tumor generation from very few cells, slow cell division, differentiation into different lineages, selective resistance to radio- and chemo-therapy, constitutive activation of anti-apoptotic pathways and induction of angiogenesis, the ability to migrate and spread in metastasis. Many signaling pathways involved in regulation of normal mammary stem cells including Hedgehog, Bmi-1, Wnt, NOTCH, HER-2, p53 and PTEN/Akt/β-catenin pathways have been identified to play roles in breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. However, the involvement of estrogen signaling, a major signaling pathway in breast cancer development, in regulation of breast cancer stem/progenitor cells has not been well established, mainly because expression of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) in breast cancer stem/progenitor cells remains controversial. ...
Intratumor genetic heterogeneity is a key mechanism underlying tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. The prevailing model for explaining intratumor diversity, the clonal evolution model, has recently been challenged by proponents of the cancer stem cell hypothesis. To investigate this issue, we performed combined analyses of markers associated with cellular differentiation states and genotypic alterations in human breast carcinomas and evaluated diversity with ecological and evolutionary methods. Our analyses showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity both within and between distinct tumor cell populations that were defined based on markers of cellular phenotypes including stem cell-like characteristics. In several tumors, stem cell-like and more-differentiated cancer cell populations were genetically distinct, leading us to question the validity of a simple differentiation hierarchy-based cancer stem cell model. The degree of diversity correlated with clinically relevant breast tumor ...
2009) Pancreatic cancer stem cells: insights and perspectives. profiling analysis showed that CSLCs (CD44+/CD133+/EpCAM+) exhibit differential expression of more than 1,600 mRNAs, including (2,C4). A large number of studies have shown clear evidence in support of the presence of CSLCs and their clinical implications because the rare subpopulations of CSLCs have been recognized from most tumors, such as prostate, lung, breast, pancreas, brain, gastric, and colorectal tumors. These CSLCs are involved in cell growth, migration/invasion, and apoptosis resistance, attributing to treatment resistance and metastasis, leading to poor clinical end result (2,C4). However, the pathogenesis of CSLCs during tumorigenesis and tumor progression has not been well documented. Although significant improvements have been made in the fight against cancers, pancreatic malignancy (PC) remains one of the most aggressive and lethal malignant diseases in the world, and remains the 4th leading cause of cancer-related ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemosensitization and inhibition of pancreatic cancer stem cell proliferation by overexpression of microRNA-205. AU - Chaudhary, Amit Kumar. AU - Mondal, Goutam. AU - Kumar, Virender. AU - Kattel, Krishna. AU - Mahato, Ram I. PY - 2017/8/28. Y1 - 2017/8/28. N2 - Treatment of pancreatic cancer with gemcitabine (GEM) is limited due to its rapid plasma metabolism and development of chemoresistance. MicroRNA (miRNA) regulates cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance and induces chemoresistance in cancer cells. In this study, we observed differential downregulation of miR-205 (miR-205-5p) in human pancreatic cancer tissues and cells. Compared to GEM-sensitive MIA PaCa-2 cells, miR-205 was highly downregulated in GEM-resistant MIA PaCa-2R cells. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of miR-205 inhibits MIA PaCa-2R cell proliferation after GEM-treatment. Further investigation confirmed that miR-205 alone significantly reduces the proliferation of CSCs and tumor growth in mouse models. However, ...
Gene expression studies in Cancer provide an insight into the global functioning of tumor and their pathways. In our previous studies on Retinoblastoma tumors, using a two parameter analysis (size and phenotype), we observed a FSClo/SSClo population that was CD133-CD44+ CD90- and expressed primitive stem cell markers, lacking the expression of differentiation markers (Balla et al. 2009). Since, CD44 and CD90 expression was absent in Y79 cell line, we used CD133 to sort the cells and analysed for various stem cell assays. This study highlights gene expression signature specific to putative cancer stem cells in Y79 cell line.. ...
Neovascularization is required for solid tumor maintenance, progression, and metastasis. The most described contribution of cancer cells in tumor neovascularization is the secretion of factors, which attract various cell types to establish a microenvironment that promote blood vessel formation. The cancer stem cell hypothesis suggests that tumors are composed of cells that may share the differentiation capacity of normal stem cells. Similar to normal stem cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have the capacity to acquire different phenotypes. Thus, it is possible that CSCs have a bigger role in the process of tumor neovascularization. In this study, we show the capacity of a specific population of ovarian cancer cells with stem-like properties to give rise to xenograft tumors containing blood vessels, which are lined by human CD34+ cells. In addition, when cultured in high-density Matrigel, these cells mimic the behavior of normal endothelial cells and can form vessel-like structures in 24h. ...
The application of our prostate epithelium-specific Cre/loxP system to inactivate tumor suppressor genes had resulted in successful development of mouse models of prostate cancer. We further increased the efficiency of the conditional Pten deletion model of prostate adenocarcinoma by combining it with either a conditional luciferase or EGFP reporter line. The growth kinetics of the androgen dependent cancer (AD-Ca) and androgen-depletion independent recurrent cancer (ADI-Ca) could be followed non-invasively in live animals by bioluminescence imaging. We expect that such an investigation will be facilitated by timing the collection of tumorsat specific growth or re-growth points, an advantage that is provided by the model. The EGFP model can provide an opportunity to locate tumors or to isolate enriched populations of cancer cells from tumor tissues via fluorescence-based technologies. Previous studies have shown a small cell subpopulation with Lin-Sca-1+CD49f+ (LSC) cell surface marker ...
Cancer stem cell theory: therapeutic implications for nanomedicine Ke Wang,1 Xianguo Wu,2 Jianwei Wang,3 Jian Huang1,31Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Intervention, National Ministry of Education; Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Medical Sciences), 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, 3Department of Oncology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Evidence continues to accumulate showing that tumors contain a minority population of cells responsible for tumor initiation, growth, and recurrence. These are termed "cancer stem cells" (CSCs). Functional assays have identified the self-renewal and tumor-initiation capabilities of CSCs. Moreover, recent studies have revealed that these CSCs is responsible for chemotherapy resistance within a tumor. Several mechanisms of chemoresistance have been proposed, including increased Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling, as well as high
In this report, we have identified a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cancer cells within human pancreatic adenocarcinomas using a xenograft model in which primary human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells were implanted in immunocompromised mice. These highly tumorigenic cancer cells were identified by expression of the cell surface markers CD44, CD24, and ESA. These cells displayed several features typically seen in stem cells, including the ability to both self-renew and generate differentiated progeny, the ability to differentiate to recapitulate the phenotype of the tumor from which they were derived, and activation of developmental signaling pathways.. We chose to examine expression of the markers CD44, CD24, and ESA based on studies in breast cancer, in which CD44+CD24−/low ESA+ cells were identified as putative cancer stem cells ( 5). We found that cells that expressed CD44, CD24, and ESA represented the most highly tumorigenic population of pancreatic cancer cells, with injection of as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abstract 1114: IGFBP7 reduces acute myeloid leukemia stem cell survival without affecting normal hematopoiesis. AU - Cil, Meyram. AU - Vermue, Eline. AU - Zweegman, Sonja. AU - Smit, Marjon. AU - Schuurhuis, Gerrit Jan. AU - Klootwijk, Louise L. de Vos. AU - Menezes, Renee X.. AU - Tsui, Mei-Ling. AU - Smit, Linda. AU - Rutten, Arjo. AU - Gils, Noortje van. AU - Brocco, Fabio. AU - Roemer, Margaretha G.. AU - Ossenkoppele, Gert J.. AU - Verhagen, Han J.. AU - Rhenen, Anna van. AU - Janssen, Jeroen J.. AU - Denkers, Fedor. AU - Heukelom, Stan. PY - 2018/8/17. Y1 - 2018/8/17. U2 - 10.1158/1538-7445.am2018-1114. DO - 10.1158/1538-7445.am2018-1114. M3 - Article. VL - 78. SP - 1114. EP - 1114. JO - Cancer Research. JF - Cancer Research. SN - 0008-5472. IS - 13 Supplement. ER - ...
Full Text - Gomisin M2 isolated from Schisandra viridis A. C. Smith has potential anti-tumor effects on certain cancers, including breast cancer. However, only a few investigations have been conducted on the effects of Gomisin M2 on breast cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have the ability to self-renew and differentiate, as a possible strategy to resolve cancer cell resistance to apoptosis and to improve treatments. It is essential to investigate the effects of Gomisin M2 on breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). In this study, we enriched breast cancer stem cells with CD44+/CD24- from MDA-MB-231 and HCC1806 cells through magnetic-activated cell sorting and cultured these in serum-free medium. The ability of Gomisin M2 to kill breast cancer stem cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Gomisin M2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of the triple-negative breast cancer cell lines and mammosphere formation in breast CSCs and downregulated the Wnt/β-catenin self-renewal pathway.
Researchers have discovered how prostate cancer stem cells evolve as the disease progresses, a finding that could help point the way to more highly targeted therapies.
Adult stem cells are found in numerous tissues of the body and play a role in tissue development, replacement and repair. Evidence shows that breast stem cells are multipotent and can self renew, which are key characteristics of stem cells, and a single cell enriched with cell surface markers has the ability to grow a fully functional mammary gland in vivo. Many groups have extrapolated the cancer stem cell hypothesis from the haematopoietic system to solid cancers, where using in vitro culture techniques and in vivo transplant models have established evidence of cancer stem cells in colon, pancreas, prostate, brain and breast cancers. In the report we describe the evidence for breast cancer stem cells; studies consistently show that stem cell like and breast cancer initiating populations can be enriched using cell surface makers CD44+/CD24- and have upregulated genes which include Notch. Notch signalling has been highlighted as a pathway involved in the development of the breast and is frequently
TY - JOUR. T1 - Medulloblastoma-derived tumor stem-like cells acquired resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and radiosensitivity. AU - Yu, Cheng Chia. AU - Chiou, Guang-Yuh. AU - Lee, Yi Yen. AU - Chang, Yuh Lih. AU - Huang, Pin I.. AU - Cheng, Yi Wei. AU - Tai, Lung Kuo. AU - Ku, Hung Hai. AU - Chiou, Shih Hwa. AU - Wong, Tai Tong. PY - 2010/7/1. Y1 - 2010/7/1. N2 - Objects Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most malignant primary brain tumor in early childhood that contains cellular and functional heterogeneity. Recent evidence has demonstrated that the tumor stem cells (TSC) may explain the radiochemoresistance of brain tumors, including MB. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible role of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in viability and tumorigenicity of MB cells and MB-derived TSC. Methods MB-associated TSC were isolated and cultured by serum-free medium with bFGF and EGF. The parental MB cells and MB-TSC cells were treated with TRAIL in different concentrations ...
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) shows great cellular heterogeneity, with pronounced epithelial and mesenchymal cancer cell populations. However, the cellular hierarchy underlying PDAC cell diversity is unknown. Here we identify the tetraspanin CD9 as a marker of PDAC tumour-initiating cells. CD9high cells had increased organoid formation capability, and generated tumour grafts in vivo at limiting dilutions. Tumours initiated from CD9high cells recapitulated the cellular heterogeneity of primary PDAC, whereas CD9low cells produced only duct-like epithelial progeny. CD9 knockdown decreased the growth of PDAC organoids, and heterozygous CD9 deletion in Pdx1-Cre; LSL-KRasG12D; p53F/F mice prolonged overall survival. Mechanistically, CD9 promoted the plasma membrane localization of the glutamine transporter ASCT2, enhancing glutamine uptake in PDAC cells. Thus, our study identifies a PDAC subpopulation capable of initiating PDAC and giving rise to PDAC heterogeneity, suggesting that the ...
There is more and more evidence for the cancer stem cell hypothesis which believes that cancers are driven by a cellular subcomponent that has stem cell properties which is self-renewal, tumorigenicity and multilineage differentiation capacity. Cancer stem cells have been connected to the initiation of tumors and are even found to be responsible for relapses after apparently curative therapies have been undertaken. This hypothesis changes our conceptual approach of oncogenesis and shall have implications in breast cancer prevention, detection and treatment, especially in metastatic breast cancer for which no curative treatment exists. Given the specific stem cell features, novel therapeutic pathways can be targeted. Since the value of vaccinia virus as a vaccination virus against smallpox was discovered by E. Jenner at 18th century, it plays an important role in human medicine and molecular biology. After smallpox was successfully eradicated, vaccinia virus is mainly used as a viral vector in ...
I have written about cancer stem cells several times in this blog, but many oncologists and cancer researchers still see cancer stem cells mainly as hypothetical entities whose relevance if not very-existence is questionable. A recent article in Gen points out that a number of pharmaceutical companies are betting big on cancer therapies based on going after cancer stem cells.. As I wrote in my July 2009 post On cancer stem cells, most cancer therapies are based on killing cancer cells - as many cells as possible. But cancers frequently and persistently recur after bouts of radiation or chemotherapy. The culprit is thought to be cancer stem cells, where any surviving ones simply go about making new cancer cells. A new therapeutic concept is therefore to focus on killing the cancer stem cells. While normal stem cells are essential for development, play a key role in tissue maintenance, and aid in repair, cancer stem cells are believed responsible for tumorigenesis, metastases, and cancer ...
  In a recent review, Emory brain cancer specialists Erwin Van Meir and Costas Hadjipanayis write:. The “cancer stem cell†hypothesis has invigorated the neuro-oncology field with a breath of fresh thinking that may end up shaking the foundation of old dogmas, such as the widely held belief that glioblastoma tumors are incurable because of infiltrative disease. If the infiltrated cells are in fact differentiated tumor cells, their dissemination beyond the surgical boundary may not be the primary cause of tumor recurrence.. Van Meir, the editor of a new book on brain cancer, adds this comment:. Clearly a lot more work needs to be done to understand the precise cause of glioblastoma recurrence after surgery and chemotherapy and how to prevent it.  The possibility of developing therapeutics that can specifically target the brain cancer stem cells is an exciting new development but will have to proceed with caution to spare normal stem cells in the brain. Developing new imaging tools ...
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Dysregulation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R)/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was shown to correlate with breast cancer disease progression. Cancer stem cells are a subpopulation within cancer cells that participate in tumor initiation, radio/chemoresistance and metastasis. In breast cancer, breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were identified as CD24-CD44+ cells or cells with high intracellular aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH+). Elucidation of the role of IGF-1R in BCSCs is crucial to the design of breast cancer therapies targeting BCSCs. IGF-1R expression in BCSCs and noncancer stem cells sorted from xenografts of human primary breast cancers was examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), western blot analysis and immunoprecipitation. The role of IGF-1R in BCSCs was assessed by IGF-1R blockade with chemical inhibitor and gene silencing. Involvement of PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) as the downstream pathway was studied by their
Activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling pathway reportedly enriches for highly tumorigenic stem-like cancer cells (45,46) and PI3K inhibition promotes differentiation, potentially reducing the self-renewal potential of cancer stem cells within tumours. The different isoforms of the PI3K catalytic subunit, p110α, β and δ, have been suggested to have differential roles in pathway activation, and differential effects on proliferation, migration and differentiation. Based on the de-differentiated, self-renewing nature of glioblastoma cancer stem cells, we hypothesised that isoform-specific PI3K inhibition might specifically target components of cancer stem cell activity as has been found for embryonic stem cells (47). We looked at activity of the PI3K catalytic subunits in two different GBM cancer stem cell models, using specific inhibitors to look first at any role in cancer stem cell proliferation, and secondly in the acquisition of a stem-like phenotype. The origin of the GBM CSC is ...
Abstract. Curcumin has been shown to have numerous cytotoxic effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs). This is due to its suppression of the release of cytokines, particularly interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and IL-1, which stimulate CSCs, and also to its effects at multiple sites along CSC pathways, such as Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog and FAK. In spite of its multiple actions targeting CSCs, curcumin has little toxicity against normal stem cells (NSCs). This may be due to curcumins different effects on CSCs and NSCs. The use of cytotoxic therapies remains the standard treatment for patients with metastatic cancer. The efficacy of these treatments is limited, with recurrence common. According to the cancer stem cell paradigm, cancers contain distinct subpopulations of cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSCs) characterized by self-renewal mechanisms and resistance to conventional treatments (1-3). When CSCs are transferred to an immune-deficient mouse, these cells can reconstitute the original cancer in the animal ...
An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. ... Read the…
An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence.
Cancer Drug Resistance is an open access journal, focusing on pharmacological aspects of drug resistance and its reversal, molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and drug classes, etc. Both clinical and experimental aspects of drug resistance in cancer are included.
The ability of cancer to adapt renders it one of the most challenging pathologies of all time. It is the most dreaded pathological entity because of its capacity to metastasize to distant sites in the body, and 90% of all cancer-related deaths recorded to date are attributed to metastasis. Currently, three main theories have been proposed to explain the metastatic pathway of cancer: the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) hypothesis (1), the cancer stem cell hypothesis (2), and the macrophage-cancer cell fusion hybrid hypothesis (3). We propose a new hypothesis, i.e., under the effect of particular biochemical and/or physical stressors, cancer cells can undergo nuclear expulsion with subsequent macrophage engulfment and fusion, with the formation of cancer fusion cells (CFCs). The existence of CFCs, if confirmed, would represent a novel metastatic pathway and a shift in the extant dogma of cancer; consequently, new treatment targets would be ...
Trichostatin A (TSA) possess histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory potential, can reverse the deactivation of tumor suppressor genes and inhibit tumor cell proliferation. We evaluated the effect of TSA on HDAC expression, tumor cell proliferation, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) activities in pancreatic ductal adenocarnoma (PDAC) cells. The PDAC cell lines MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 were distinctly sensitive to TSA, with enhanced apoptosis, compared to SAHA. TSA or SAHA inhibited vimentin, HDACs 1, 7 and 8, upregulated E-cadherin mRNA and protein levels in the PDAC cells, and time-dependently downregulated Oct-4, Sox-2, and Nanog, as well as inhibited PDAC tumorsphere formation. TSA also induces accumulation of acetylated histones, while increasing histone 3 lysine 4 or 9 dimethylation levels in PDAC cellsand enhancing the epigenetic activity of SAHA. The anti-CSCs effect of TSA was like that obtained by silencing HDAC-1 or 7 using siRNA, and enhances Gemcitabine activity. Our study highlights the ...
001). Our results present synergic performance for erlotinib-cyclopamine association and offer a ideal in vitro model to explore medication combos on GBM cells. gene amplifications are often connected with GBM, producing this tyrosine kinase receptor a putative focus on for therapy.3,4 Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous in their cell structure.5 Lately, a array of tumors, including GBM, possess been found to consist of cancer stem-like cells (CSC).6,7 It has lately been suggested that GBM derive from neural originate or progenitor cells, and CSCs might perform a central part in the distribution of several malignancy types.7 Thus, signaling paths taking part in a key part in old fashioned sensory cells might also be needed in tumorigenesis of glial tumors. 8C11 CSCs possess also been demonstrated to become accountable for a common radioresistance and chemoresistance.12 The hedgehog path is of crucial importance during embryonic advancement13 and is also activated in sensory stem cells14 and GBM ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The scavenger cell hypothesis of apoptosis. T2 - Apoptosis redefined as a process by which a cell in living tissue is destroyed by phagocytosis. AU - Liao, D. Joshua. N1 - Funding Information: I wish to thank Dr. Liang Xu at the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan and Dr. Fazlul H. Sarkar at the Department of Pathology, Wayne State University, for their valuable discussions and comments of the manuscript. This work was supported by NIH Grant RO1 CA10086 and Komen Breast Cancer Foundation Grant BCTR02-1648 to Dr. D.J. Liao.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Current literature on the definition and description of apoptosis is very confusing and erratic, due to voluminous studies in recent decades using cell culture technique. Apoptosis has evolved as a programmed mechanism of cell demise to get rid of the cells that are no longer needed by the body. The most important reason for a creature to use this mechanism to kill cells is to avoid inflammatory response that ...
This is a major breakthrough in immunotherapy research because we were able to use purified cancer stem cells to generate a vaccine, which strengthened the potency of antibodies and T cells that selectively targeted cancer stem cells, said Qiao Li, Ph.D., a research assistant professor of surgery at the University of Michigan Medical School.. Cancer stem cells are tumor cells that remain present, and ultimately resistant, after chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Scientists disagree on whether these cells have unique properties, but those who support the uniqueness idea have argued that these cells regenerate the tumors that lead to relapse.. Despite the similar name, cancer stem cells are distinct from embryonic stem cells, and the two avenues of research are separate.. For the current study, Li and colleagues extracted cancer stem cells from two immunocompetent mouse models and used them to prepare the vaccine.. We found that these enriched cancer stem cells were immunogenic and far more ...
Human Colon Cancer Stem Cell Culture Extra-cellular Differentiation Matrix is essential for Differentiation of Human Colon Cancer Stem Cell Cultures. This product requires Human Colon Cancer Stem Cell Culture Media Cat#M36112-39 and Cells Cat# 36112-39. Also available Products ...
A Short Region of Connexin43 Reduces Human Glioma Stem Cell Migration, Invasion, and Survival through Src, PTEN, and FAK The authors showed that a cell-penetrating peptide based on CX43 inhibited c-Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and upregulated phosphatase and tensin homolog in glioma stem cells derived from patients. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article BAG3 Promotes Stem Cell-Like Phenotype in Breast Cancer by Upregulation of CXCR4 via Interaction with its Transcript Scientists reported that BAG3 was induced under specific floating culture conditions that enrich breast CSC-like cells in spheres. Ectopic BAG3 overexpression increased CD44+/CD24− CSC subpopulations, first-generation and second-generation mammosphere formation, indicating that BAG3 promotes CSC self-renewal and maintenance in breast cancer. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article Aptamer-Mediated Survivin RNAi Enables 5-Fluorouracil to Eliminate Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells Researchers showed that EpCAM-aptamer-guided survivin RNAi ...
It is postulated that breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs) mediate disease recurrence and drive formation of distant metastases - the principal cause of mortality in breast cancer patients. Therapeutic targeting of bCSCs, however, is hampered by their heterogeneity and resistance to existing therapeutics. In order to identify strategies to selectively remove bCSCs from breast cancers, irrespective of their clinical subtype, we sought an apoptosis mechanism that would target bCSCs yet would not kill normal cells. Suppression of the apoptosis inhibitor cellular FLICE-Like Inhibitory Protein (c-FLIP) partially sensitizes breast cancer cells to the anti-cancer agent Tumour Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand (TRAIL). Here we demonstrate in breast cancer cell lines that bCSCs are exquisitely sensitive to the de-repression of this pro-apoptotic pathway, resulting in a dramatic reduction in experimental metastases and the loss of bCSC self-renewal. Suppression c-FLIP was performed by siRNA (FLIPi) in
The relationships between cancer and stemness have a long history that is traced here. From the mid-19th century when the first theory on the embryonic origin of cancer was formulated to works on embryonal carcinoma cells in the mid-20th century, many steps have been crossed leading to the current cancer stem cell theory postulating that tumor growth is supported by a small fraction of the tumoral cells that have stem-like properties. However, in the last fifteen years, many works regularly encourage us to revise the concept of cancer stem cell. This article mentions key results that lead to a new perspective where cancer stem cells are primarily seen as cells exhibiting increased epigenetic plasticity and increased gene expression variability. This perspective suggests new therapeutical interventions consisting in stabilizing gene expression to control cancer cell proliferation and prevent stochastic gene expression variations that could lead to therapeutic resistance.
Title:Curcumin Targets Circulating Cancer Stem Cells by Inhibiting Self-Renewal Efficacy in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma. VOLUME: 17 ISSUE: 6. Author(s):Sheefa Mirza, Aakanksha Vasaiya, Hemangini Vora, Nayan Jain and Rakesh Rawal*. Affiliation:Department of Life Science, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, Department of Zoology, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, Division of Immunohistochemistry & Flow Cytometry, Department of Cancer Biology, The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, Department of Life Science, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, Division of Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacogenomics, Department of Cancer Biology, The Gujarat Cancer & Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Keywords:Cancer stem cells, curcumin, comet assay, DNA damage, lung cancer stem cells, self-renewal.. Abstract:Background: The ultimate goal of the study was to find a role of curcumin in targeting lung cancer stem cells ...
A cancer grows from a single cell, thereby constituting a large cell population. In this work, we are interested in how mutations accumulate in a cancer cell population. We provide a theoretical framework of the stochastic process in a cancer cell population and obtain near exact expressions of allele frequency spectrum or AFS (only continuous approximation is involved) from both forward and backward treatments under a simple setting; all cells undergo cell division and die at constant rates, b and d, respectively, such that the entire population grows exponentially. This setting means that once a parental cancer cell is established, in the following growth phase, all mutations are assumed to have no effect on b or d (i.e., neutral or passengers). Our theoretical results show that the difference from organismal population genetics is mainly in the coalescent time scale, and the mutation rate is defined per cell division, not per time unit (e.g., generation). Except for these two factors, the ...
Human (Parental) Lung Cancer Stem Cell (Plated cells are also available). 120 Population doublings or up to 12 passages. One million viable cells upon thawing of frozen cells, frozen vial of cells shipped in dry-ice. Cell Cultures from single donors, 1000 different cell cultures available, please indicate which lots you require from the 1000 donors. Source: Human (Parental) Lung Cancer tissue Positive Markers: S100, CEA, CD15, CD20, Chromogranin A (CgA), bcl2, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), CD133 (3-5%) For non-academic use please inquire for pricing. Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Creative Bioarray Media and Creative Bioarray Extra Cellular Matrix for appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment ...
As regards their morphology and biology, tumours consist of heterogeneous cell populations. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis assumes that a tumour is hierarchically organized and not all of the cells are equally capable of generating descendants, similarly to normal tissue. The only cells being able to self-renew and produce a heterogeneous tumour cell population are cancer stem cells. CSCs probably derive from normal stem cells, although progenitor cells may be taken into consideration as the source of cancer stem cells. CSCs reside in the niche defined as the microenvironment formed by stromal cells, vasculature and extracellular matrix. The CSC assays include FACS sorting, xenotransplantation to immunodeficient mice (SCID), incubation with Hoechst 33342 dye, cell culture in non-adherent conditions, cell culture with bromodeoxyuridine. CSCs have certain properties that make them resistant to anticancer therapy, which suggests they may be the target for potential therapeutic ...
Image via Wikipedia A new drug combination tested in mice may target the cells responsible for driving some pancreatic tumors. The combination of gemcitabi
Gastric and colorectal cancers have a high incidence and mortality worldwide. The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within the tumor mass has been indicated as the main reason for tumor relapse, metastasis and therapy resistance, leading to poor overall survival. Thus, the elimination of CSCs became a crucial goal for cancer treatment. The identification of these cells has been performed by using cell-surface markers, a reliable approach, however it lacks specificity and usually differs among tumor type and in some cases even within the same type. In theory, the ideal CSC markers are those that are required to maintain their stemness features. The knowledge that CSCs exhibit characteristics comparable to normal stem cells that could be associated with the expression of similar transcription factors (TFs) including SOX2, OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and c-Myc, and signaling pathways such as the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog (Hh), Notch and PI3K/AKT/mTOR directed the attention to the use of these similarities to
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality, such that it the second most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide. Due to its heterogeneous composition and aggressive behavior, it is resistant to conventional therapies and also Sorafenib and Regorafenib which are FDA-approved multikinase inhibitors targeting pathways involved in angiogenesis and proliferation. The mechanisms behind the acquired resistance to Sorafenib were described as activation of compensatory pathways such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR, JAK-STAT, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), microenvironment and presence of cancer stem cells. Liver cancer stem cells originate from damaged and transformed hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) which are found responsible for chemo-resistance, tumor relapse, and metastasis. For this reason, the effects of PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors, Sorafenib and DNA intercalators on the enrichment of LCSCs were investigated. CD133+/EpCAM+ population from HCC cells were ...
Wnt signaling through β-catenin and the lymphoid-enhancing factor 1/T-cell factor (LEF1/TCF) family of transcription factors maintains stem cell properties in both normal and malignant tissues; however, the underlying molecular pathway involved in this process has not been completely defined. Using a microRNA microarray screening assay, we identified the let-7 miRNAs as downstream targets of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Expression studies indicated that Wnt/β-catenin pathway suppresses mature let-7 miRNAs but not the primary transcripts, which suggests a posttranscriptional regulation of repression. Furthermore, we identified Lin28, a negative let-7 biogenesis regulator, as a novel direct downstream target of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Loss of function of Lin28 impairs the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-mediated let-7 inhibition and breast cancer stem cell expansion; enforced expression of let-7 blocks the Wnt/β-catenin pathway-stimulated breast cancer stem cell phenotype. Finally, we demonstrated that ...
Tissue homeostasis requires rigorous control mechanisms for stem cell division and maintenance of a stable stem cell niche. Cancer stem cells are a subgroup of cancer cells that possess stem cell-like properties, including self-renewal and differentiation, but have subverted the control apparatus. We have identified that the tumor suppressor miR-34a, a noncoding small RNA targeting Notch, plays an important role regulating the division of colon cancer stem cells (CCSCs) and, in turn. controls the bimodality of heterogeneous population of colonic tumors. Moreover, we find out miR-34a directly suppresses the canonical cell fate determinant Numb to form an incoherent feedforward loop (iFFL) that enhances bimodality of CCSC cell fate determination. Integrative high-throughput analysis suggests that CCSCs and non-CCSCs might globally adopt reprogrammed metabolic functions leading to differential epigenetic regulation. In the normal intestine stem cell (ISC) niche, ISCs and Paneth cells form a stable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Semaphorin signaling via MICAL3 induces symmetric cell division to expand breast cancer stem-like cells. AU - Tominaga, Kana. AU - Minato, Hiroshi. AU - Murayama, Takahiko. AU - Sasahara, Asako. AU - Nishimura, Tatsunori. AU - Kiyokawa, Etsuko. AU - Kanauchi, Hajime. AU - Shimizu, Seiichiro. AU - Sato, Ayaka. AU - Nishioka, Kotoe. AU - Tsuji, Ei ichi. AU - Yano, Masao. AU - Ogawa, Toshihisa. AU - Ishii, Hideshi. AU - Mori, Masaki. AU - Akashi, Koichi. AU - Okamoto, Koji. AU - Tanabe, Masahiko. AU - Tada, Kei ichiro. AU - Tojo, Arinobu. AU - Gotoh, Noriko. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All Rights Reserved. Copyright: Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2019/1/8. Y1 - 2019/1/8. N2 - Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are expanded in the CSC niche by increased frequency of symmetric cell divisions at the expense of asymmetric cell divisions. The symmetric division of CSCs is important for the malignant properties of cancer; however, ... San Diego, California., June 8, 2020 - Researchers at the Human BioMolecular Research Institute and ChemRegen, Inc., have reported on a small molecule p53 Activator Wnt Inhibitor-2 (PAWI-2) that potently inhibits human pancreatic cancer stem cells. Writing June 8, 2020 in the journal Scientific Reports, the team describes how they tested PAWI-2, a synthetic, drug-like compound that can be used to decrease human pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer remains a major health problem in the United States and soon will be the second most common cause of mortality due to cancer. A majority of pancreatic cancer patients are often resistant to clinical therapies. Thus, it remains a challenge to develop an efficacious clinically useful pancreatic cancer therapy said Jiongjia Cheng, Ph.D., lead author of the study. Using a non-toxic small molecule to decrease pancreatic cancer is very attractive.. Medicinal chemistry leads to safe anti-cancer ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Withaferin A (WFA) inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by targeting ovarian cancer stem cells. AU - Kakar, Sham S.. AU - Parte, Seema. AU - Carter, Kelsey. AU - Joshua, Irving G.. AU - Worth, Christopher. AU - Rameshwar, Pranela. AU - Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was support by a grant from NIH/NCI CA124630 (SSK), Authors are thankful to Dr. Seda Ayer for her technical help.. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of deaths due to cancer among women in the United States. In 2017, 22,440 women are expected to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer and 14,080 women will die with it. Currently used chemotherapies (Cisplatin or platinum/taxane combination) targets cancer cells, but spares cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are responsible for tumor relapse leading to recurrence of cancer. Aldehyde dehydrogenase I (ALDH1) positive cancer stem cells are one of the major populations in ovarian tumor and have been related to tumor ...
Canine mammary carcinoma is the most common cancer among female dogs and is often fatal due to the development of distant metastases. In humans, solid tumors are made up of heterogeneous cell populations, which perform different roles in the tumor economy. A small subset of tumor cells can hold or acquire stem cell characteristics, enabling them to drive tumor growth, recurrence and metastasis. In veterinary medicine, the molecular drivers of canine mammary carcinoma are as yet undefined. Here we report that putative cancer stem cells (CSCs) can be isolated form a canine mammary carcinoma cell line, REM134. We show that these cells have an increased ability to form tumorspheres, a characteristic of stem cells, and that they express embryonic stem cell markers associated with pluripotency. Moreover, canine CSCs are relatively resistant to the cytotoxic effects of common chemotherapeutic drugs and ionizing radiation, indicating that failure of clinical therapy to eradicate canine mammary cancer may be due
Recently various compounds and drugs that selectively target cancer stem-like cells have been discovered. These agents include microbial-derived and plant-derived biomolecules, small molecule inhibitors targeting key components of intrinsic signaling pathways of cancer stem-like cells, antibodies directed against cancer stem-like specific cell surface molecules and some classical drugs that have been used for benign disease [21]. In particular salinomycin have been demonstrated to induce apoptosis and overcome apoptosis resistance in human cancer cell [22], suggesting possibility of salinomycin as an anticancer drug. Recent study by An et al. [23] demonstrated that salinomycin possesses anti-tumor activity and inhitibts breast cancer stem-like cells via an apoptosis-independent pathway and it downregulates NANOG, OCT4, and SOX2. In addition, a study in China showed that salinomycin can suppress the metastasis and invasion of bladder cancer cells by inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition ...
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess high tumor-initiating capacity and have been reported to be resistant to therapeutics. Vice versa, therapy-resistant cancer cells seem to manifest CSC phenotypes and properties. It has been generally assumed that drug-resistant cancer cells may all be CSCs although the generality of this assumption is unknown. Here, we chronically treated Du145 prostate cancer cells with etoposide, paclitaxel and some experimental drugs (i.e., staurosporine and 2 paclitaxel analogs), which led to populations of drug-tolerant cells (DTCs). Surprisingly, these DTCs, when implanted either subcutaneously or orthotopically into NOD/SCID mice, exhibited much reduced tumorigenicity or were even non-tumorigenic. Drug-tolerant DLD1 colon cancer cells selected by a similar chronic selection protocol also displayed reduced tumorigenicity whereas drug-tolerant UC14 bladder cancer cells demonstrated either increased or decreased tumor-regenerating capacity. Drug-tolerant Du145 cells demonstrated low
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) possess high tumor-initiating capacity and have been reported to be resistant to therapeutics. Vice versa, therapy-resistant cancer cells seem to manifest CSC phenotypes and properties. It has been generally assumed that drug-resistant cancer cells may all be CSCs although the generality of this assumption is unknown. Here, we chronically treated Du145 prostate cancer cells with etoposide, paclitaxel and some experimental drugs (i.e., staurosporine and 2 paclitaxel analogs), which led to populations of drug-tolerant cells (DTCs). Surprisingly, these DTCs, when implanted either subcutaneously or orthotopically into NOD/SCID mice, exhibited much reduced tumorigenicity or were even non-tumorigenic. Drug-tolerant DLD1 colon cancer cells selected by a similar chronic selection protocol also displayed reduced tumorigenicity whereas drug-tolerant UC14 bladder cancer cells demonstrated either increased or decreased tumor-regenerating capacity. Drug-tolerant Du145 cells demonstrated low
TY - JOUR. T1 - Blockade of Stearoyl-CoA-desaturase 1 activity reverts resistance to cisplatin in lung cancer stem cells. AU - Pisanu, M. E.. AU - Noto, A.. AU - Vitis, C. De. AU - Morrone, S.. AU - Scognamiglio, G.. AU - Botti, G.. AU - Venuta, F.. AU - Diso, D.. AU - Jakopin, Z.. AU - Padula, F.. AU - Ricci, A.. AU - Mariotta, S.. AU - Giovagnoli, M. R.. AU - Giarnieri, E.. AU - Amelio, I.. AU - Agostini, M.. AU - Melino, G.. AU - Ciliberto, G.. AU - Mancini, R.. N1 - LR: 20170921; CI: Copyright (c) 2017; JID: 7600053; 0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Biomarkers, Tumor); 0 (MF 438); 0 (Pyridazines); 0 (Thiadiazoles); EC (SCD1 protein, human); EC (Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase); Q20Q21Q62J (Cisplatin); OTO: NOTNLM; 2017/05/23 00:00 [received]; 2017/07/27 00:00 [revised]; 2017/07/30 00:00 [accepted]; 2017/08/12 06:00 [pubmed]; 2017/09/22 06:00 [medline]; 2017/08/12 06:00 [entrez]; ppublish. PY - 2017/10/10. Y1 - 2017/10/10. N2 - Poor prognosis in lung cancer has been attributed to the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting treatment-resistant breast cancer stem cells with FKBPL and Its peptide derivative, AD-01, via the CD44 pathway. AU - McClements, Lana. AU - Yakkundi, Anita. AU - Papaspyropoulos, Angelos. AU - Harrison, Hannah. AU - Ablett, Matthew P.. AU - Jithesh, Puthen V.. AU - McKeen, Hayley D.. AU - Bennett, Rachel. AU - Donley, Christopher. AU - Kissenpfennig, Adrien. AU - McIntosh, Stuart. AU - McCarthy, Helen O.. AU - ONeill, Eric. AU - Clarke, Robert B.. AU - Robson, Tracy. PY - 2013/7/15. Y1 - 2013/7/15. N2 - Purpose: FK506-binding protein like (FKBPL) and its peptide derivative, AD-01, have already shown tumor growth inhibition and CD44-dependent antiangiogenic activity. Here, we explore the ability of AD-01 to target CD44-positive breast cancer stem cells (BCSC). Experimental Design: Mammosphere assays and flow cytometry were used to analyze the effect of FKBPL overexpression/knockdown and AD-01 treatment ± other anticancer agents on BCSCs using breast cancer cell lines ...
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is commonly used as a marker to identify cancer stem-like cells. The three ALDH1A isoforms have all been individually implicated in cancer stem-like cells and in chemoresistance; however, which isoform is preferentially expressed varies between cell lines. We sought to explore the structural determinants of ALDH1A isoform selectivity in a series of small-molecule inhibitors in support of research into the role of ALDH1A in cancer stem cells. An SAR campaign guided by a cocrystal structure of the HTS hit CM39 (7) with ALDH1A1 afforded first-in-class inhibitors of the ALDH1A subfamily with excellent selectivity over the homologous ALDH2 isoform. We also discovered the first reported modestly selective single isoform 1A2 and 1A3 inhibitors. Two compounds, 13g and 13h, depleted the CD133+ putative cancer stem cell pool, synergized with cisplatin, and achieved efficacious concentrations in vivo following IP administration. Compound 13h additionally synergized ...
Glioblastoma Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive and lethal form of brain cancer with an extremely dismal prognosis. Despite advances in the molecular characterization of GBM and new targeted therapeutic approaches, the average patient survival remains only between 12 to 15 months [1]. GBM tumors are highly heterogeneous and are comprised of multiple differentiated cell types and a small subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). The CSCs are believed to be responsible for tumor heterogeneity [2,3], are relatively resistant to treatment, and are responsible for the aggressive nature of the disease [4,5]. Therefore, in order to design new targeted therapeutic approaches it is imperative to identify and characterize the signaling pathways involved in the formation, maintenance and regulation of CSCs. Recent reports on the dedifferentiation of GBM cell lines into more CSC-like cells may have added a new layer of complexity into treating GBM [5,6]. Therefore, in GBM it is critical to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stem cell theory for the pathogenesis of endometriosis. AU - Maruyama, Tetsuo. AU - Yoshimura, Yasunori. PY - 2012/6/1. Y1 - 2012/6/1. N2 - Proposed hypothetical causes of endometriosis include retrograde menstruation, lymphatic and vascular metastasis, iatrogenic direct implantation, coelomic metaplasia, embryonic rest, and mesenchymal cell differentiation (induction). Each theory, individually, fails to account for all types of endometriotic lesions, thereby implicating combined and/or type-specific mechanisms. Recent evidence supports the presence of endometrial stem/progenitor cells and their possible involvement in eutopic endometrial regeneration and differentiation. Thus an additional novel mechanism for the origin of endometriotic lesions is that they arise from ectopic endometrial stem/progenitor cells.. AB - Proposed hypothetical causes of endometriosis include retrograde menstruation, lymphatic and vascular metastasis, iatrogenic direct implantation, coelomic ...
ESMO is a Swiss-registered not-for-profit organisation. All funding for this site is provided directly by ESMO or via grants from the sponsors and supporters.. Via L. Taddei 4, 6962 Viganello - Lugano - CH © Copyright 2017 European Society for Medical Oncology All rights reserved worldwide.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting glioblastoma stem cells with 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) potentiates radiation-induced unfolded protein response (UPR). AU - Shah, Sumedh S.. AU - Rodriguez, Gregor A.. AU - Musick, Alexis. AU - Walters, Winston M.. AU - de Cordoba, Nicolas. AU - Barbarite, Eric. AU - Marlow, Megan M.. AU - Marples, Brian. AU - Prince, Jeffrey S.. AU - Komotar, Ricardo J.. AU - Vanni, Steven. AU - Graham, Regina M.. PY - 2019/2/1. Y1 - 2019/2/1. N2 - Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, and despite optimized treatment options, median survival remains dismal. Contemporary evidence suggests disease recurrence results from expansion of a robustly radioresistant subset of GBM progenitor cells, termed GBM stem cells (GSCs). In this study, we utilized transmission electron microscopy to uncover ultrastructural effects on patient-derived GSC lines exposed to supratherapeutic radiotherapy levels. Elevated autophagosome formation and increased ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cancer stem cell marker CD90 inhibits ovarian cancer formation via β3 integrin. AU - Chen, Wei Ching. AU - Hsu, Hui Ping. AU - Li, Chung Yen. AU - Yang, Ya Ju. AU - Hung, Yu Hsuan. AU - Cho, Chien Yu. AU - Wang, Chih Yang. AU - Weng, Tzu Yang. AU - Lai, Ming Derg. PY - 2016/11/1. Y1 - 2016/11/1. N2 - Cancer stem cell (CSC) markers have been identified for CSC isolation and proposed as therapeutic targets in various types of cancers. CD90, one of the characterized markers in liver and gastric cancer, is shown to promote cancer formation. However, the underexpression level of CD90 in ovarian cancer cells and the evidence supporting the cellular mechanism have not been investigated. In the present study, we found that the DNA copy number of CD90 is correlated with mRNA expression in ovarian cancer tissue and the ovarian cancer patients with higher CD90 have good prognosis compared to the patients with lower CD90. Although the expression of CD90 in human ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in virtually all biological processes, including stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and development. The dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with many human diseases including cancer. We have identified a set of miRNAs differentially expressed between human breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and non-tumorigenic cancer cells. In addition, these miRNAs are similarly upregulated or downregulated in normal mammary stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we mainly describe the miRNAs that are dysregulated in human breast CSCs directly isolated from clinical specimens. The miRNAs and their clusters, such as the miR-200 clusters, miR-183 cluster, miR-221-222 cluster, let-7, miR-142 and miR-214, target the genes and pathways important for stem cell maintenance, such as the self-renewal gene BMI1, apoptosis, Wnt signaling, Notch signaling, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, the current evidence shows that metastatic breast CSCs acquire a phenotype that is
Nanoparticles packed with a clinically used chemotherapy drug and coated with an oligosaccharide derived from the carapace of crustaceans might effectively target and kill cancer stem-like cells, according to a recent study led by researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center -- Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute.
Cancer stem cells are an attractive target for immunotherapeutic approaches to glioblastoma. However, an immune inhibitory phenotype of cells currently classified as glioma-initiating cells (GIC) might counteract recognition by immune effector cells. Here, we investigate the contribution of the non-classical MHC molecule HLA-E to the immunosuppressive phenotype of GIC. HLA-E is expressed in GIC lines and its expression is reduced upon differentiation of GIC in serum-containing culture conditions. Constitutive HLA-E inhibits natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis of GIC since small-interfering RNA-mediated HLA-E gene silencing enhances the immunogenicity of GIC. Increased GIC lysis was observed both in the CD133+ and in the CD133- compartment. Furthermore, the use of interferon-γ as a possible agent to boost an immune response against glioblastoma cells might be limited by the concurrent upregulation of HLA-E. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Visualization and targeting of LGR5 + human colon cancer stem cells. AU - Shimokawa, Mariko. AU - Ohta, Yuki. AU - Nishikori, Shingo. AU - Matano, Mami. AU - Takano, Ai. AU - Fujii, Masayuki. AU - Date, Shoichi. AU - Sugimoto, Shinya. AU - Kanai, Takanori. AU - Sato, Toshiro. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/5/11. Y1 - 2017/5/11. N2 - The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory highlights a self-renewing subpopulation of cancer cells that fuels tumour growth. The existence of human CSCs is mainly supported by xenotransplantation of prospectively isolated cells, but their clonal dynamics and plasticity remain unclear. Here, we show that human LGR5 + colorectal cancer cells serve as CSCs in growing cancer tissues. Lineage-tracing experiments with a tamoxifen-inducible Cre knock-in allele of LGR5 reveal the self-renewal and differentiation ...
In the quest for effective new immunotherapies, one cell population continues to be resistant: cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs dont respond to traditional therapies and are often responsible for tumor repopulation and metastasis. These cells have long been elusive, with only recent characterization of reliable markers that may differ by primary tumor site. A new study by Ames et al. demonstrates that NK cells may preferentially target CSCs by virtue of their natural ability to home to nondividing cells, in contrast to other cytotoxic cells, which target dividing cells. The authors sorted CSCs aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) from pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and sarcoma cell lines. Sorted bright cells (high ALDH1 expression) versus dim cells were then exposed to NK cells, which promptly killed ALDH1bright cells more effectively than the ALDH1dim ones. This preferential targeting was confirmed with fresh human tumor specimens in single-cell suspension and allogeneic NK cells. To examine ...
High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity characterizes a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell (CSC) properties in several malignancies. To clarify whether ALDH can be used as a marker of cervical cancer stem cells (CCSCs), ALDH high and ALDH low cells were sorted from 4 cervical cancer cell lines and 5 primary tumor xenografts and examined for CSC characteristics. Here, we demonstrate that cervical cancer cells with high ALDH activity fulfill the functional criteria for CSCs: (1) ALDH high cells, unlike ALDH low cells, are highly tumorigenic in vivo; (2) ALDH high cells can give rise to both ALDH high and ALDH low cells in vitro and in vivo, thereby establishing a cellular hierarchy; and (3) ALDH high cells have enhanced self-renewal and differentiation potentials. Additionally, ALDH high cervical cancer cells are more resistant to cisplatin treatment than ALDH low cells. Finally, expression of the stem cell self-renewal-associated transcription factors OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and BMI1 is ...
Bhaskar Chanda Stem Cell Liau et al. find that glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) reversibly transition to a slow-cycling, persister-like state following RTK inhibitor treatment. The persister state is marked by redistribution of repressive chromatin, upregulation of neurodevelopmental programs, and dependency on KDM6. Thus, cancer cells may hijack chromatin reorganization for proliferation, adaptation, and tolerance.. from Cell Stem Cell ...
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) regulates diverse cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and is frequently activated during tumorigenesis. Recently, putative glioblastoma stem cells (GBM-SCs) were isolated and characterized. These cells …
Radioresistant glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) contribute to tumor recurrence and identification of the molecular targets involved in radioresistance mechanisms is likely to enhance therapeutic efficacy. This study analyzed the DNA damage response following ionizing radiation (IR) in 10 GSC lines derived from patients. DNA damage was quantified by Comet assay and DNA repair effectors were assessed by Low Density Array. The effect of RAD51 inhibitor, RI-1, was evaluated by comet and annexin V assays. While all GSC lines displayed efficient DNA repair machinery following ionizing radiation, our results demonstrated heterogeneous responses within two distinct groups showing different intrinsic radioresistance, up to 4Gy for group 1 and up to 8Gy for group 2. Radioresistant cell group 2 (comprising 5 out of 10 GSCs) showed significantly higher RAD51 expression after IR. In these cells, inhibition of RAD51 prevented DNA repair up to 180 min after IR and induced apoptosis. In addition, RAD51 protein expression
miR-500a-3p has been demonstrated to be involved in the development, progression and metastasis in several human cancers. Constitutive activation of JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway has been reported to play an important role in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).The purpose of this study was to determine the biological roles and clinical significance of miR-500a-3p in HCC and to identify whether miR-500a-3p has an effect on the activity of JAK/STAT3 signaling in HCC. miR-500a-3p expression was examined by real-time PCR in 8 paired HCC tissues and individual 120 HCC tissues respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to explore the clinical correlation between miR-500a-3p expression and clinicopathological features and overall and relapse-free survival in HCC patients. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed to investigate the biological roles of miR-500a-3p in HCC. The bioinformatics analysis, real-time PCR, western blot and luciferase reporter assay were performed to
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) induce molecular remission in the majority of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), but the persistence of CML stem cells hinders cure and necessitates indefinite TKI therapy. We report that CML stem cells upregulate the expression of pleiotrophin (PTN) and require cell-autonomous PTN signaling for CML pathogenesis in BCR/ABL+ mice. Constitutive PTN deletion substantially reduced the numbers of CML stem cells capable of initiating CML in vivo. Hematopoietic cell-specific deletion of PTN suppressed CML development in BCR/ABL+ mice, suggesting that cell-autonomous PTN signaling was necessary for CML disease evolution. Mechanistically, PTN promoted CML stem cell survival and TKI resistance via induction of Jun and the unfolded protein response. Human CML cells were also dependent on cell-autonomous PTN signaling, and anti-PTN antibody suppressed human CML colony formation and CML repopulation in vivo. Our results suggest that targeted inhibition of PTN ...
Human Breast Cancer Stem Cell (Plated cells are also available). 120 Population doublings or up to 12 passages. One million viable cells upon thawing of frozen cells, frozen vial of cells shipped in dry-ice. Cell Cultures from single donors, 1000 different cell cultures available, please indicate which lots you require from the 1000 donors. Source: Human Breast Cancer tissue Positive Markers: CD133, CD44, SSEA3/4, Oct4, Tumorigenicity (,1000 cells), Alkaline Phosphatase, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, Telomerase For non-academic use, please inquire for pricing. Cells are only guaranteed with purchase of Creative Bioarray Media and Creative Bioarray Extra Cellular Matrix for appropriate cell culture, for 30 days from the date of shipment ...
Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered how exposure to arsenic can turn normal stem cells into cancer stem cells and spur tumor growth. Inorganic arsenic, which affects the drinking water of millions of people worldwide, has been previously shown to be a human carcinogen. A growing body of evidence suggests that cancer is a stem-cell based disease. Normal stem cells are essential to normal tissue regeneration, and to the stability of organisms and processes. But cancer stem cells are thought to be the driving force for the formation, growth, and spread of tumors.. Michael Waalkes, Ph.D., and his team at the National Toxicology Program Laboratory, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of NIH, had shown previously that normal cells become cancerous when they are treated with inorganic arsenic. This new study shows that when these cancer cells are placed near, but not in contact with normal stem cells, the normal stem cells very rapidly acquire the ...
The colon cancer stem cell microenvironment holds keys to future cancer therapy.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Purpose: We investigate the unknown tumor-killing activity of Cytokine-Induced Killer (CIK) cells against autologous metastatic melanoma (mMel) and the elusive subset of putative cancer stem cells (mCSCs). Experimental Design: We developed a preclinical autologous model using same patient-generated CIK cells and tumor targets to consider the unique biology of each patient/tumor pairing. In primary tumor cell cultures we visualized and immunophenotipically defined a putative mCSC subset using a novel gene-transfer strategy that exploited their exclusive ability to activate the promoter of stemness gene Oct4.. ...
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) induce molecular remission in the majority of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), but persistence of CML stem cells hinders cure and necessitates indefinite TKI therapy. We report that CML stem cells upregulate expression of pleiotrophin (PTN) and require cell-autonomous PTN signaling for CML pathogenesis in BCR/ABL+ mice. Constitutive PTN deletion substantially reduced the numbers of CML stem cells capable of initiating CML in vivo. Hematopoietic cell-specific deletion of PTN suppressed CML development in BCR/ABL+ mice, suggesting that cell-autonomous PTN signaling was necessary for CML disease evolution. Mechanistically, PTN promoted CML stem cell survival and TKI resistance via induction of Jun and the unfolded protein response. Human CML cells were also dependent on cell-autonomous PTN signaling and anti-PTN antibody suppressed human CML colony formation and CML repopulation in vivo. Our results suggest that targeted inhibition of PTN has ...
The identification of brain tumor stem-like cells (BTSCs) has implicated a role of biological self-renewal mechanisms in clinical brain tumor initiation and propagation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor-forming capacity of BTSCs, however, remain unknown. Here, we have generated molecular signatures of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) using gene expression profiles of BTSCs and have identified both Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling-dependent and -independent BTSCs and their respective glioblastoma surgical specimens. BTSC proliferation could be abrogated in a pathway-dependent fashion in vitro and in an intracranial tumor model in athymic mice. Both SHH-dependent and -independent brain tumor growth required phosphoinositide 3-kinase-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. In human GBMs, the levels of SHH and PTCH1 expression were significantly higher in PTEN-expressing tumors than in PTEN-deficient tumors. In addition, we show that hyperactive SHH-GLI signaling in PTEN-coexpressing human GBM is
We report for the first time that the fraction of ALDH1A1-expressing putative stem-like cells in colorectal adenoma epithelium is correlated among synchronous adenomas in individual patients, and that the presence of a larger subpopulation of these adenoma stem-like cells is associated with increased risk for the patient to have a metachronous adenoma at another location in the large bowel at follow-up. Of note, the association between percentage of ALDH1A1-expressing adenoma cells and risk of a metachronous adenoma is independent of both the adenoma and clinical characteristics previously reported to be associated with increased risk (i.e., villous architecture, high-grade dysplasia, and size of the baseline adenoma, and age and male sex of the study subjects). Our findings raise the possibility that a larger stem-like cell subpopulation in a baseline adenoma may serve as a quantifiable biomarker for the propensity of a patient to develop a subsequent colorectal neoplasm. If corroborated, this ...
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most aggressive cancers and is highly resistant to current treatments. ESCC harbors a subpopulation of cells exhibiting cancer stem-like cell (CSC) properties that contribute to therapeutic resistance including radioresistance, but the molecular mechanisms in ESCC CSCs are currently unknown. Here, we report that ribosomal S6 protein kinase 4 (RSK4) plays a pivotal role in promoting CSC properties and radioresistance in ESCC. RSK4 was highly expressed in ESCC CSCs and associated with radioresistance and poor survival in patients with ESCC. RSK4 was found to be a direct downstream transcriptional target of ΔNp63α, the main p63 isoform, which is frequently amplified in ESCC. RSK4 activated the β-catenin signaling pathway through direct phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9. Pharmacologic inhibition of RSK4 effectively reduced CSC properties and improved radiosensitivity in both nude mouse and patient-derived xenograft models. Collectively, our ...
Title: Interferon alpha for Treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Bengt Simonsson, Henrik Hjorth-Hansen, Ole Weis Bjerrum and Kimmo Porkka. Affiliation:Department of Hematology 50C, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, 75185 Sweden.. Keywords:Interferon-alpha, chronic myeloid leukemia, imatinib, combination therapy, chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells, BCR, BCR-ABL1, CML cell, fluorescent in situ hybridization, allogeneic stem cell transplantation, allogeneic SCT, poietic stern cells, leukemic effect in CML, psychosis, autoimmune disorders, thyreoiditis. Abstract: Treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with interferon-alpha (IFN-α) was introduced in the early 1980s. Several clinical trials showed a survival advantage for patients treated with IFN-α compared to conventional chemotherapy. Some patients achieved longstanding complete cytogenetic remissions (i.e. > 2 log tumor mass reduction). IFN-α was then recommended as first line medical treatment until ...
Researchers used a mouse model to replicate pancreatic cancer as it appears in humans. They also studied pancreatic cancer tissue samples and samples of pre-invasive pancreatic lesions. They found ATDC was expressed in a subset of the pre-invasive cells, and played a role in the development of pancreatic cancer stem cells, the small number of cells in a tumor that fuel its growth and spread. They also discovered that ATDC appears to be involved in helping cancer cells change state - a process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, or EMT, which results in cells being more loosely associated, allowing them to migrate more easily. Therefore, they suggest ATDC encourages a tumors invasiveness and spread in the early course of pancreatic cancer ...
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an aggressive disease with currently no satisfying treatment option available. GBM cells with stem cell properties are thought to be respo...
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Background Self-renewing chemoresistant breasts malignancy stem cells are believed to contribute significantly to malignancy invasion migration and patient relapse. breast cancer cells were modulated with AHR ligands shRNA or AHR-specific inhibitors and phenotypic genomic and functional stem cell-associated characteristics were evaluated. The data demonstrate that (1) ALDHhigh cells express elevated levels of and and or expression (as a surrogate marker for AHR activity) and expression of stem cell- and invasion/migration-associated gene units is seen with genomic data obtained from 79 human breast malignancy cell lines and over 1 850 main human breast cancers (5) the AHR interacts directly with expression in SB 216763 vivo. Conclusions These data suggest that the AHR plays an important role in advancement of cells with cancers stem cell-like characteristics which environmental AHR ligands may exacerbate breasts cancer by improving appearance of the properties. Electronic supplementary materials ...
Sonic hedgehog (SHH) medulloblastoma (MB) subtype is normally motivated by a proliferative Compact disc15+ tumor propagating cell (TPC), also taken into consideration in the literature as a putative cancer stem cell (CSC). mouse model are similar to the SHH individual MB subgroup genomically. The outcomes offer the initial proof that PTEN performs a function in MB TPC signaling and biology and that PI-3T inhibitors focus on and suppress the success and growth of cells within the mouse and individual Compact disc15+ cancers control cell area. In comparison, Compact disc15+ TPCs are resistant to cisplatinum, temozolomide and the SHH inhibitor, NVP-LDE-225, realtors used in treatment of medulloblastoma currently. These research validate the healing efficiency of griddle PI-3T inhibitors in the treatment of Compact disc15+ TPC reliant medulloblastoma and recommend a sequential mixture of PI-3T inhibitors and chemotherapy will possess increased effectiveness in the treatment of this disease. Intro ...
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) contains a subpopulation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) believed to underlie tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance. stemness properties. CXCR2 silencing in CSCs abolished the tumor-promoting effects of ECs in vivo, confirming a critical role for this signaling pathway in GMB pathogenesis. Together, our results reveal synergistic interactions between ECs and CSCs that promote the malignant properties of CSCs in an IL-8-dependent manner. Furthermore, our findings underscore the relevance of tissue-engineered cell culture platforms to fully analyze signaling mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment. and and experiments. Animal Studies Animal studies were performed according to approved protocols by the Cornell University Animal Care and Use Committee. Male, 6C8 week old, CB17 SCID mice (Charles River Labs) were anesthetized and incisions made to the dorsal infrascapular skin. A subcutaneous pocket was created, irrigated with sterile PBS, cell-seeded PLG scaffolds ...
Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of cells within tumors with stem cell property. Increased evidence suggest that CSCs could be responsible for chemoresistance and recurrence in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, a reliable therapeutic target on CSCs is still lacking. Here we describe a two-step strategy to generate CSC targets with high selectivity for colon stem cell markers, specific proteins that are interacted with CSC markers were selected and subsequently validated in a survival analysis. TMEM17 protein was found and its biological functions in CRC cells were further examined. Finally, we utilized the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) to investigate the potential mechanisms of TMEM17 in CRC. By combining protein-protein interaction (PPI) database and high-throughput gene profiles, network analysis revealed a cluster of colon CSCs related genes. In the cluster, TMEM17 was identified as a novel CSCs related gene. The results of in-vitro functional study demonstrated that TMEM17
"Quantification of crypt and stem cell evolution in the normal and neoplastic human colon". Cell Rep. 8 (4): 940-7. doi:10.1016/ ... If the stem cells at the base of the crypt express ERCC4 (XPF), generally all several thousand cells of the crypt will also ... There are 5 to 6 stem cells at the bases of the crypts. There are about 10 million crypts along the inner surface of the ... Nuclei of cells in the lamina propria, cells which are below and surround the epithelial crypts, largely show hematoxylin blue- ...
"Quantification of crypt and stem cell evolution in the normal and neoplastic human colon". Cell Rep. 8 (4): 940-7. doi:10.1016/ ... measuring the number of cells in a small number of crypts reported a range of 1,500 to 4,900 cells per colonic crypt. Cells are ... of the cells arising from those stem cells form a white segment in the cross cut area. Overall, the percent of crypts deficient ... As seen in panel B, a portion of the stem cells of three crypts appear to have a mutation in CCOI, so that 40% to 50% ...
"Quantification of crypt and stem cell evolution in the normal and neoplastic human colon". Cell Reports. 8 (4): 940-7. doi: ... A stem cell at the base of a colonic crypt that was largely MT-COI-deficient may compete with the other 4 or 5 stem cells to ... of the cells arising from those stem cells form a white segment in the cross-cut area. In humans, the percent of colonic crypts ... a cell with MT-COI-deficient homoplasmy). There are about 100 to 700 mitochondria per cell, depending on cell type. Furthermore ...
"Quantification of crypt and stem cell evolution in the normal and neoplastic human colon". Cell Rep. 8 (4): 940-7. doi:10.1016/ ... There are 5 to 6 stem cells at the bases of the crypts. If the stem cells at the base of the crypt express PMS2, generally all ... Nuclei of cells in the lamina propria (cells which are below and surround the epithelial crypts) largely show hematoxylin blue- ... In the absence of p53, PMS2-deficient and PMS2-proficient cells are still capable of arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M ...
"The adult stem cell marker Musashi-1 modulates endometrial carcinoma cell cycle progression and apoptosis via Notch-1 and ... Kanemura Y, Sakakibara S, Okano H (2002). "Identification of Musashi1-positive cells in human normal and neoplastic ... "Expression of Musashi-1 in human normal colon crypt cells: a possible stem cell marker of human colon epithelium". Digestive ... a neural RNA-binding protein putatively expressed in CNS stem cells and neural progenitor cells". Genomics. 52 (3): 382-4. doi: ...
Liang et al.: "The quantitative trait gene latexin influences the size of the hematopoietic stem cell population in mice." ... So et al.: "Multiple tumor suppressor genes are increasingly methylated with age in non-neoplastic gastric epithelia." Cancer ... This particular motif suggests that it may increase cell-to-cell contact in cells which express TIG1 (Jing et al., 2002). TIG1 ... When highly malignant prostate cancer cells were transfected with TIG1, decreased in vitro invasiveness was measured using an ...
... but studies have shown cytotrophoblast cells function as stem cells and transform into malignant form. The neoplastic ... In addition, gene delivery tools using genetically engineered neural stem cells are presently being examined for the treatment ... is differentiated by low β-hCG levels because it is a neoplastic proliferation of intermediate trophoblastic cells. Urinalysis ... Engineered anticancer gene-expressing stem cells to selectively target choriocarcinoma". Oncology Letters. 17 (3): 2576-2582. ...
... aberrant expression of transcription factors and stem cell intestinalization". Gastric Cancer. 9 (3): 156-66. doi:10.1007/ ... Virmani V, Khandelwal A, Sethi V, Fraser-Hill M, Fasih N, Kielar A (August 2012). "Neoplastic stomach lesions and their ... In signet-ring cell carcinomas, the mucus remains inside the tumour cell and pushes the nucleus to the periphery, giving rise ... These may include extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MALT type) and to a lesser extent diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. ...
... s research is the neoplastic stem cell, also termed cancer stem cell in the context of cancer and leukemic stem cell in ... He found that mast cells form a unique lineage in the hematopoietic cell system. In subsequent studies, neoplastic mast cells ... Peter Valent (born 9 October 1962 in Vienna, Austria) is an Austrian hematologist and stem cell researcher. Since 1990 he leads ... various hematologic neoplasms and develops concepts predicting the step-wise development of these cells from normal stem cells ...
Others aim to target the highly resistant cancer stem cells.[71][122] Still others aim to affect the non-neoplastic stroma and ... Zhan HX, Xu JW, Wu D, Zhang TP, Hu SY (2015). "Pancreatic cancer stem cells: New insight into a stubborn disease". Cancer Lett ... The next most common type, acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas, arises in the clusters of cells that produce these enzymes, ... The pancreas has many functions, served by the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans and the exocrine acinar cells. ...
"Quantification of crypt and stem cell evolution in the normal and neoplastic human colon". Cell Rep. 8 (4): 940-7. doi:10.1016/ ... Intestinal glands contain adult stem cells referred to as intestinal stem cells. These cells have been used in the field of ... cup cells, tuft cells, and at the base of the gland, Paneth cells (secreting anti-microbial peptides) and stem cells. ... A Method to Characterize the Gastrointestinal Stem Cell Niche". Stem Cells International. 2016: 1-16. doi:10.1155/2016/3710836 ...
A mutant or epigenetically altered stem cell may replace the other nearby stem cells by natural selection. Thus, a patch of ... but their initiation and continued growth is usually dependent on a single population of neoplastic cells. These cells are ... such mutation or epigenetic alteration may occur so that a given stem cell acquires an advantage compared to other stem cells ... a field defect probably arises by natural selection of a mutant or epigenetically altered cell among the stem cells at the base ...
Nelson, Celeste M. (2004). "Cell shape, cytoskeletal tension, and RhoA regulate stem cell lineage commitment". Developmental ... and neoplastic transformation Nelson is married with one child. "CV" (PDF). Retrieved 2020-01-28. ... methods and protocols Cell shape, cytoskeletal tension, and RhoA regulate stem cell lineage commitment Of extracellular matrix ... Celeste Nelson publications from Europe PubMed Central Anon (2016). "Cell scientist to watch - Celeste Nelson". Journal of Cell ...
In situations where differentiation of stem cells into a cell of increased maturity is desired, inhibition of NR2F6 activity ... It was found that expression of NR2F6 was consistently upregulated in neoplastic tissues in leukemic, ovarian cancer and ... So, when inhibition of differentiation of stem cell is desired, inhibition of differentiation is achieved through induction of ... Ichim, C.V. and Ichim, T., (2015). Modulation of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation. U.S. Patent 20,150,299,712. Ichim, C ...
It is also a marker for mouse prostate stem cells. In addition, mast cells, melanocytes in the skin, and interstitial cells of ... Miettinen M, Lasota J (2006). "KIT (CD117): a review on expression in normal and neoplastic tissues, and mutations and their ... Mobilization is used clinically as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). ... KIT is a receptor tyrosine kinase type III, which binds to stem cell factor (a substance that causes certain types of cells to ...
Huels, D J; Sansom, O J (2015). "Stem vs non-stem cell origin of colorectal cancer". British Journal of Cancer. 113 (1): 1-5. ... 2005: Ras and ß-catenin/Tcf4 pathways induce synergistic activation of the GAST gene, contributing to possible neoplastic ... Another candidate is the G protein-coupled receptor 56 (GPCR56), expressed on both colon stem cells and cancer cells. While ... and Stem Cell in Response to Progastrin in Mice and HEK-293 Cells". Gastroenterology. 140 (2): 583-595.e4. doi:10.1053/j.gastro ...
These agents, however, cannot discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within ... and such research involves adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. ... Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. ... Stem cell chip. References[edit]. *^ Mahla RS (2016). "Stem cells application in regenerative medicine and disease threpeutics" ...
January 2009). "Autologous stem-cell transplantation as first-line therapy in peripheral T-cell lymphomas: results of a ... August 1996). "Hemophagocytosis as a para-neoplastic syndrome in NK cell leukemia". Int. J. Hematol. 64 (2): 135-42. doi: ... The cell of origin is believed to be an NK cell. Blastoid NK cell lymphoma appears to be a different entity and shows no ... July 2007). "Frontline autologous stem cell transplantation in high-risk peripheral T-cell lymphoma: a prospective study from ...
BMP6 is able to induce all osteogenic markers in mesenchymal stem cells. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a family of ... 1999). "Bone morphogenetic protein-6 is a marker of serous acinar cell differentiation in normal and neoplastic human salivary ... 2001). "Effect of bone morphogenetic protein-6 on haemopoietic stem cells and cytokine production in normal human bone marrow ... antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein signaling and endothelial cell differentiation". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (16): 5664-79. doi: ...
A mutant or epigenetically altered stem cell may replace the other nearby stem cells by natural selection. Thus, a patch of ... but their initiation and continued growth is usually dependent on a single population of neoplastic cells. These cells are ... such mutation or epigenetic alteration may occur so that a given stem cell acquires an advantage compared to other stem cells ... for B cell lesions) or T cell receptor gene (for T cell lesions). The demonstration of clonality is now considered to be ...
These agents, however, cannot discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within ... Fetal tissue implant Induced pluripotent stem cell Induced stem cells Stem cell chip Mahla RS (2016). "Stem cells application ... "Selling Stem Cells in the USA: Assessing the Direct-to-Consumer Industry". Cell Stem Cell. 19 (2): 154-157. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... and such research involves adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. On 23 January 2009, the ...
"Insights on neoplastic stem cells from gel-based proteomics of childhood germ cell tumors". Pediatric Blood & Cancer. 58 (5): ... "Critical appraisal of the side population assay in stem cell and cancer stem cell research". Cell Stem Cell. 8 (2): 136-47. doi ... They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and ... a critical review of sphere-formation as an assay for stem cells". Cell Stem Cell. 8 (5): 486-98. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2011.04. ...
"Normal and neoplastic nonstem cells can spontaneously convert to a stem-like state". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Scientists develop 'game changing' stem cell repair system. Stem Cells Portal Could this new stem cell become the game changer ... "Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Using Adult Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-780. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID ... Fusion of somatic cells with pluripotent stem cells and Transformation of somatic cells into stem cells, using the genetic ...
Juice of the stem and roots are used for medicinal purposes. Whole plant extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on neoplastic ... cell lines[citation needed]. Extract of the herb exhibited hepatoprotective activity[citation needed]. Khmer: Kanchait (កញ្ឆែត ...
... termed Cancer Stem Cell. Cancer stem cells may arise from transformation of adult stem cells or differentiated cells within a ... result in cancer through their effects on the population of neoplastic cells and their microenvironment. Mutant cells in ... and stem cells are the only cells that can transmit DNA from the zygote to cells late in life. Other cells, derived from stem ... These cells persist as a subcomponent of the tumor and retain key stem cell properties. They give rise to a variety of cells, ...
... deficient B cells exhibit selective growth disadvantage; therefore, it is rare for CD19 to be absent in neoplastic B cells ... which coincides during B lineage commitment from hematopoietic stem cell. Throughout development, the surface density of CD19 ... CD19 is a crucial BCR-independent regulator of MYC-driven neoplastic growth in B cells since the CD19-MYC axis promotes cell ... CAR-19 T cells are genetically modified T cells that express a targeting moiety on their surface that confers T cell receptor ( ...
2005). "Aquaporin-3 expression in human fetal airway epithelial progenitor cells". Stem Cells. 23 (7): 992-1001. doi:10.1634/ ... 2007). "Expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in normal and neoplastic lung tissues". Hum. Pathol. 38 (1): 171-8. doi:10.1016/j. ... It is found in the basolateral cell membrane of principal collecting duct cells and provides a pathway for water to exit these ... Based on these as well as cell culture studies, it is suggested that this overexpression contributes to the growth and spread ...
Rönnstrand L (2004). „Signal transduction via the stem cell factor receptor/c-Kit". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (19-20): 2535-2548 ... Miettinen M, Lasota J (2006). „KIT (CD117): a review on expression in normal and neoplastic tissues, and mutations and their ... the juxtamembrane region of c-Kit and is activated by stem cell factor in hematopoietic cell lines and normal progenitor cells ... Receptor faktora rasta mastocita/matičnih ćelija (engl. Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor - SCFR), takođe poznat kao proto- ...
A potential avenue for future research rests on the discovery that cannabinoids are able to attack the neoplastic stem cells of ... CD44 can also be used as a cancer stem cell marker in a subset of glioblastoma tumour cells. Glioblastoma cancer stem cells ... Glioblastoma cells with properties similar to progenitor cells (glioblastoma cancer stem cells) have been found in ... Glioblastoma cancer stem cells share some resemblance with neural progenitor cells, both expressing the surface receptor CD133 ...
"Prominin 1 marks intestinal stem cells that are susceptible to neoplastic transformation". Nature. 457 (7229): 603-607. doi: ... these cells are also called quiescent stem cells. The stem cell zone model states that the CBC stem cells reside in a stem-cell ... "The Intestinal Stem Cell Signature Identifies Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Predicts Disease Relapse". Cell Stem Cell. 8 (5 ... "Identifying the Stem Cell of the Intestinal Crypt: Strategies and Pitfalls". Cell Stem Cell. 11 (4): 452-460. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Cells can become anaplastic in two ways: neoplastic tumor cells can dedifferentiate to become anaplasias (the dedifferentiation ... causes the cells to lose all of their normal structure/function), or cancer stem cells can increase their capacity to multiply ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ...
All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells. ... Some are autoimmune, but many are neoplastic. Another way to categorize disorders of white blood cells is qualitatively. There ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ...
Roskams T (June 2006). "Liver stem cells and their implication in hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma". Oncogene. 25 (27): ... Schwartz LH, Coakley FV, Sun Y, Blumgart LH, Fong Y, Panicek DM (June 1998). "Neoplastic pancreaticobiliary duct obstruction: ... has suggested that the initial transformed cell that generates the primary tumor may arise from a pluripotent hepatic stem cell ... "Possible stem cell origin of human cholangiocarcinoma". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 10 (22): 3374-6. doi:10.3748/wjg.v10 ...
... monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy (for instance, stem-cell therapies). Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of ... For neoplastic disordersEdit. cytotoxic drugs, therapeutic antibodies, sex hormones, aromatase inhibitors, somatostatin ... and cell therapy (for instance, stem cell therapies). ... Anti-allergy: mast cell inhibitors. *Anti-glaucoma: adrenergic ... Later chemical libraries of synthetic small molecules, natural products or extracts were screened in intact cells or whole ...
... including stem cell therapy.[1] However, more research is required to determine if it is effective and safe.[1] ... but in middle age cardiovascular issues and neoplastic disorders become more prominent.[104] ... Rh blood type incompatibility can cause the mother's immune system to attack the baby's red blood cells.[1] ... stemming from an upper motor neuron lesion in the brain as well as the corticospinal tract or the motor cortex. This damage ...
... which are cell-cell adhesion molecules found in desmosomes). Underlying cancer or irreversible system impairment, seen in acute ... Zell JA, Chang JC (November 2005). "Neoplastic fever: a neglected paraneoplastic syndrome". 13 (11): 870-7. doi:10.1007/s00520- ... "Paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 15 (2): 201-209. doi:10.1007/s11940-013-0221-1 ... In contrast, these phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (such as hormones or cytokines) secreted by tumor cells or by an ...
JAK2 mutations are significant because JAK2 plays a role in controlling production of blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells ... Myelofibrosis is a clonal neoplastic disorder of hematopoiesis, the formation of blood cellular components. It is one of the ... which is a reduction in the number of all blood cell types: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells ... mature red blood cells in adults do not have a cell nucleus, and the presence of nucleated red blood cells suggests that ...
"X Chromosome Inactivation and Embryonic Stem Cells". In Meshorer E, Plath K. The Cell Biology of Stem Cells. Landes Bioscience ... July 2014). "The leiomyomatous stroma in renal cell carcinomas is polyclonal and not part of the neoplastic process". Virchows ... 2-4 cell stage[11] 2-8 cell stage[11] 2 Imprinted (paternal) X-inactivation 4-8 cell stage[10][12] Unclear if it takes place in ... deficient cells and normal cells,[6] depending on whether the inactivated X chromosome (in the nucleus of the red cell's ...
The mutations can be inherited or acquired, and most probably occur in the intestinal crypt stem cell.[37][38][39] The most ... which encompasses not only molecular and pathologic changes in pre-neoplastic cells but also influences of exogenous ... normally monitors cell division and kills cells if they have Wnt pathway defects. Eventually, a cell line acquires a mutation ... These genes are normally important for stem cell renewal and differentiation, but when inappropriately expressed at high levels ...
Newer stem cell transplant technologies may lead to gene based treatments of debilitating and fatal genetic immune deficiencies ... in which the immune system scans the body's cells and kills neoplastic ones. ... stem cell transplantation.The characteristics of lacking and/or impaired antibody functions can be related to illnesses such as ... T cell deficiency, often causes secondary disorders such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).[3] ...
Bone marrow produces both white blood cells and red blood cells from the same precursor stem cells. Therefore, the upregulation ... Anemia of chronic disease may also be due to neoplastic disorders and non-infectious inflammatory diseases. Neoplastic ... of white blood cells causes fewer stem cells to differentiate into red blood cells. This effect may be an important additional ... the effect of locking up iron stores is to reduce the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. These cells ...
"Divergent lncRNAs Regulate Gene Expression and Lineage Differentiation in Pluripotent Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 637-652. ... Li J, Witte DP, Van Dyke T, Askew DS (April 1997). "Expression of the putative proto-oncogene His-1 in normal and neoplastic ... "Single-cell RNA-Seq profiling of human preimplantation embryos and embryonic stem cells". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology ... June 2008). "Integration of external signaling pathways with the core transcriptional network in embryonic stem cells". Cell. ...
I61.3) Intracerebral haemorrhage in brain stem. *(I61.4) Intracerebral haemorrhage in cerebellum. *(I61.5) Intracerebral ... I78.1) Naevus, non-neoplastic *naevus araneus. *spider naevus. *stellar naevus. *(I78.8) Other diseases of capillaries ...
Haematopoietic stem cell transplant remains the only curative treatment for CMML. However, due to the late age of onset and ... An Atlas of Differential Diagnosis in Neoplastic Hematopathology. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-84214-247-X. Bennett ... Robert J. Soiffer (17 November 2008). Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Springer. ISBN 978-1-934115-05-3. Retrieved 23 ... as well as abnormal looking cells (dysplasia) in at least one type of blood cell. CMML shows characteristics of a ...
... stem cells require a certain level of copper in the media to start their differentiation into cells needed for repair. Thus, ... "Tripeptide in human serum which prolongs survival of normal liver cells and stimulates growth in neoplastic liver". Nature New ... Since p63 is considered to be an important marker of stem cell and anti-senescence protein, the authors concluded that GHK- ... However, when liver cells from old patients were incubated in the blood from the younger group, the older cells started ...
Cancer stem cells[edit]. Main article: Cancer stem cell. The first malignant cell, that gives rise to the tumor, is often ... "Cancer prevention strategies that address the evolutionary dynamics of neoplastic cells: simulating benign cell boosters and ... cancer stem cells are the only cells capable of tumorigenesis - initiation of a new tumor.[90] Cancer stem cell hypothesis ... The monoclonal model of cancer and the cancer stem-cell model are not mutually exclusive.[90] Cancer stem cell arises by clonal ...
Ihor R. Lemischka, an internationally recognized stem cell biologist and stem cell research advocate[65] ... Aron Professor of Neoplastic Diseases and Chairman of Oncological Sciences ... stem cells meet systems biology". Nature Reports. Nature. Retrieved December 22, 2009.. ... Marek Mlodzik, Chair of the Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, Professor of Oncological Sciences and ...
Quantification of crypt and stem cell evolution in the normal and neoplastic human colon". Cell Rep. 8 (4): 940-7. PMC 4471679 ... "Cell host & microbe. 9 (5): 390-403. ISSN 1931-3128. PMC 3241010 . PMID 21575910. doi:10.1016/j.chom.2011.04.009.. ... "Microbial Cell Factories. 13 (Su): 1. ISSN 1475-2859. PMC 4155821 . PMID 25186128. doi:10.1186/1475-2859-13-S1-S4.. ... "Aging Cell. 9 (1): 96-9. PMC 2816353 . PMID 19878146. doi:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00531.x.. ...
Some patients who successfully respond to treatment also undergo stem cell transplantation to consolidate the response.[56] ... leukemia was the 12th most common class of neoplastic disease, and the 11th most common cause of cancer-related death.[60] ... Hairy cell[edit]. Further information: Hairy cell leukemia § Treatment. Decision to treat. Patients with hairy cell leukemia ... T-cell prolymphocytic[edit]. Further information: T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia § Treatment. Most patients with T-cell ...
The rows of cells develop from stem cells in the basal layer. Cellular mechanisms for regulating water and sodium levels (ENaCs ... Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) is an asymptomatic, benign neoplastic condition characterized by multiple white ... of its cells, but also contains melanocytes, Langerhans cells, Merkel cells,[6]:2-3 and inflammatory cells. Epidermal ... where the cells become flattened sacks with their nuclei located at one end of the cell. After birth these outermost cells are ...
RCD 2 involves neoplastic tissues that the lack of surface expression of usual T-cell markers.[109] *Increased expression of: ... brain stem dysfunction, myelopathy, mononeuritis multiplex, Guillain-Barré-like syndrome, and antiganglioside-positive ... Clonal T-cell expansion in RCD2 is not manageable with steroids (see: RCD 1) and sometimes manageable with chemotherapeutic ... RCD 1 involves precancerous tissues in which transformed T-cells continue to produce a response even though gluten is no longer ...
In these modified stem cells, the Xist-mediated gene silencing seems to reverse some of the defects associated with Down's ... 2014). "The leiomyomatous stroma in renal cell carcinomas is polyclonal and not part of the neoplastic process". Virchows Arch ... All mouse cells undergo an early, imprinted inactivation of the paternally-derived X chromosome in two-cell or four-cell stage ... imprinted X-inactivation is reversed in the cells of the inner cell mass (which give rise to the embryo), and in these cells ...
The CSF sample is examined for presence and types of white blood cells, red blood cells, protein content and glucose level.[8] ... Meningitis may occur as the result of several non-infectious causes: spread of cancer to the meninges (malignant or neoplastic ... Inflammation of the meninges may lead to abnormalities of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves arising from the brain stem ... When components of the bacterial cell membrane are identified by the immune cells of the brain (astrocytes and microglia), they ...
"The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Generates Cells with Properties of Stem Cells". Cell. 133 (4): 704-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... in the field of Biomedical Sciences and for his productive trajectory related to the genetic and molecular basis of neoplastic ... The retractions include one paper in Cell, one in Cancer Cell, two in Genes & Development and one in Cancer Research.[14][15][ ... Hanahan, D.; Weinberg, R. A. (2011). "Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation". Cell. 144 (5): 646-674. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
T-PLL has the immunophenotype of a mature (post-thymic) T-lymphocyte, and the neoplastic cells are typically positive for pan-T ... Some patients who successfully respond to treatment also undergo stem cell transplantation to consolidate the response. T-PLL ... Other names include T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, "knobby" type of T-cell leukemia, and T-prolymphocytic leukemia/T-cell ... A small cell variant comprises 20% of all T-PLL cases, and the Sézary cell-like (cerebriform) variant is seen in 5% of cases. ...
... and haemorrhagic cystitis in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Decoy cells can be seen in a urine sample through ... enlarged and altered nuclei as well as the irregular shape of the cell body can mimic the changes observed in neoplastic cells ... Decoy cells are virally infected epithelial cells that can be found in the urine. Decoy cells owe their name to their strong ... In our experience, these features make decoy cells different from tubular cells and transitional cells found in all other ...
... it seems appropriate to review critically some principal aspects of Cell. and tissue kinetics as they... ... Potmesil M., LoBue J., Goldfeder A. (1977) Stem Cells, Nonproliferating Cells, and Their Kinetics in Normal and Neoplastic ... Stem Cells, Nonproliferating Cells, and Their Kinetics in Normal and Neoplastic Tissues. ... and tissue kinetics as they relate to stem cells, to nonproliferating cells, and to Cell. recruitment into the mitotic cycle. ...
What remains unclear is whether cancer stem cells are the direct progeny of mutated stem cells or more mature cells … ... Cancer stem cells are remarkably similar to normal stem cells: both self-renew, are multipotent and express common surface ... unclear is whether cancer stem cells are the direct progeny of mutated stem cells or more mature cells that reacquire stem cell ... Although all neoplastic cells arose from Prom1(+) cells in these mice, only 7% of tumour cells retained Prom1 expression. Our ...
LSH-2002-1.2.4-2 - Optimised allogeneic stem cell transplantation for haematological and neoplastic diseases ... medical and health sciences/medical biotechnology/cells technologies/stem cells. */medical and health sciences/clinical ... of Immunotherapeutic Strategies to Treat Haematological and Neoplastic diseases on the Basis of Optimised Allogeneic Stem Cell ... In practice this process of immunotherapy involves an allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant, with subsequent delivery ...
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... which in turn give rise to postmitotic terminally differentiated cells. Although the existence of a transiently proliferating ... The stem cells of rapidly renewing tissues give rise to transiently proliferating cells, ... Prostate stem cell compartments: expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic cells ... of the terminally differentiated secretory cells. The normal basal cell compartment, believed to contain prostatic stem cells, ...
Statistically significant higher stem cell properties were found for the p75NTRHigh cells than for the p75NTRLow cells in all ... Several markers were successfully used to enrich for cells with stem cell-like properties in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC ... Cancer Stem Cell-Related Markers in Normal and Neoplastic Oral Mucosa. A study on human samples and experimental models. Type. ... OSCC-derived cells sorted for p75NTR expression were compared for stem cell properties using both in vivo and in vitro assays. ...
Hypoxia increases CSC fraction and promotes acquisition of a stem-cell-like state. Cancer stem cells are critically dependant ... Hypoxia increases CSC fraction and promotes acquisition of a stem-cell-like state. Cancer stem cells are critically dependant ... Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are stem-like tumor populations that are reported to contribute towards tumor growth, maintenance and ... Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are stem-like tumor populations that are reported to contribute towards tumor growth, maintenance and ...
Cell, Tumor, and Stem Cell Biology γ-Secretase-Dependent Proteolysis of CD44 Promotes Neoplastic Transformation of Rat ... Alteration of DRM-associated cell surface proteins during transformation. A, DRMs from cell surface biotin-labeled Rat-1 cells ... cells] were compared with DRMs from transformed cells (MEN2A- or AP-stimulated RET-Fv-expressing cells) and transformation- ... Top, cells expressing Ret-Fv were unstimulated or stimulated with AP as indicated. Ret-Fv- or MEN2A-expressing cells were ...
Cell, Tumor, and Stem Cell Biology The Gene Expression Program of Prostate Fibroblast Senescence Modulates Neoplastic ... To generate cells at replicative senescence, PSC27 cells were cultured until cell doubling time ,2 weeks (∼45 cell doublings). ... regulate the breakdown of cell-to-cell junctions, and stimulate the migration and invasion of single cells ( 43, 44). HGF ... Stimulation of neoplastic prostate epithelial cell proliferation by conditioned medium from senescent prostate fibroblasts. A, ...
The cancer stem cell niche: how essential is the niche in regulating stemness of tumor cells? Cell Stem Cell. 2015;16:225-238. ... Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:440-452. [PubMed]. 27. Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell. 2011;144: ... Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:2099-2112. [PubMed]. 35. Scaffidi P, Misteli T. In vitro generation of human cells with cancer stem cell ... Endothelial cell differentiation of human breast tumour stem/progenitor cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:309-319. [PMC free ...
Targeting A20 decreases glioma stem cell survival and tumor growth.  Eyler, C; Heddleston, J; Hjelmeland, AB; Lathia, JD; Lee ... Loss of PRDM1/BLIMP-1 function contributes to poor prognosis of activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.  Young, ... Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is stratified into prognostically favorable germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and ... MYC/BCL2 protein coexpression contributes to the inferior survival of activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ...
Buy Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood (5th Revised edition) by From WHSmith today! FREE delivery to store or FREE UK delivery on ... Stem Cell Processing and Purging.- Umbilical Cord Blood Banking and Transplanting.-. Product Details. * publication date: 31/07 ... Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood (5th Revised edition). By: John M. Goldman (editor), Peter H. Wiernik (editor), Robert A. Kyle ... the current World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is ...
Their advanced stages are often characterized by the accumulation of ascites, which leads to spreading of cancer cells outside ... Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell 2007; 131: 861-872. 14. Zhang X, Cruz ... Ascites can be considered as microenvironmental affection for cancer cells [2]. Neoplastic cells are presented as single cells ... Hypoxia- inducible factors, stem cells, and cancer. Cell 2007; 129: 465-472. 36. Kelly RD, Cowley SM. The physiological roles ...
Histone Modifications, Stem Cells and Prostate Cancer. Current Pharmaceutical Design. *The Clinical Applications of Curcumin: ... MicroRNAs in Cancer Stem Cells: New Regulators of Stemness. Current Pharmaceutical Design ... Beyond Cox-Inhibition: Side-Effects of Ibuprofen on Neoplastic Development and Progression. Author(s): Paulo Matos, Peter ... Paulo Matos and Peter Jordan, "Beyond Cox-Inhibition: Side-Effects of Ibuprofen on Neoplastic Development and Progression", ...
Arise from stem cells of neural crest origin that differentiate into. olfactory sensory cells; Homer Wright rosettes are ... Large cell and small cell.. Large cell - more common small cell responsive to radiation ... True/False: Cells undergoing DNA synthesis in the S phase are much more radiosensitiw: than cells in other. phases of the cell ... Which adnexal skin carcinoma ames from a pluripotential basal cell within or around the hair cells?. ...
Neoplasms, Plasma Cell. Leukemia, B-Cell. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Neoplastic Processes. Lymphoma. Syndrome. Leukemia. ... The donated stem cells may replace the patients immune cells and help destroy any remaining cancer cells (graft-versus-tumor ... Lymphoma, T-Cell, Cutaneous. Leukemia, T-Cell. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell. Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic. Lymphoma, T- ... Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse. Lymphoma, T-Cell. ...
The donated stem cells may replace the patients immune cells and help destroy any remaining cancer or abnormal cells (graft- ... B-cell, Chronic Lymphosarcoma Multiple Myeloma Follicular Lymphoma B-cell Lymphoma Mantle Cell Lymphoma Diffuse Large B-Cell ... Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematologic Cancer or Other Disease. The safety and ... Procedure: allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 10 days post drug intervention. Procedure: umbilical cord blood ...
Neoplastic Processes. Neoplasm Metastasis. Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, CNS. Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System. ... Biological: Human Neural Stem Cells Allogenic human Neural Stem Cells (hNSCs) in four different dosages (5, 10, 16 or 24 ... Experimental: Human Neural Stem Cells Suspension Intraventricular injections of Allogenic human Neural Stem Cells (hNSCs) in ... Safety Study of Human Neural Stem Cells Injections for Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Patients (NSC-SPMS). The safety ...
Neoplastic Processes. Pathologic Processes. Cyclophosphamide. Busulfan. Carmustine. Carboplatin. Immunosuppressive Agents. ... Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation as Adjuvant Treatment for Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients. The safety ... Since autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) allows the usage of higher doses of chemotherapy, which results ... Drug: Carmustine Drug: Cyclophosphamide Drug: Carboplatin Procedure: Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Drug: ...
... from stromal cells (CD140a+), with or without further enrichment for basal and luminal progenitor cells (CD49f+). These ... This is the first report describing a porcine model of mammary epithelial cell tumorigenesis that can be applied to the study ... Here we sought to establish a model for the efficient manipulation and transformation of porcine mammary epithelial cells (pMEC ... Populations of primary pMEC were then separated by FACS using markers to distinguish epithelial cells (CD140a-) ...
Marianne J. Hejermstad, et al. "Health-Related Quality of Life 1 Year After Allogeneic or Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation ... "Quality of life outcomes after primary radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the base of tongue." Start Printed Page ... "Adjuvant and Adjunctive Chemotherapy in the Management of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Region: A Meta-Analysis ... "Is Radiation Therapy a Preferred Alternative to Surgery for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Base of Tongue?" Journal of Clinical ...
Many cell types release extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles (MVs), and apoptotic bodies, which play ... Embryonic stem cell-derived microvesicles reprogram hematopoietic progenitors: evidence for horizontal transfer of mRNA and ... vesicles expressing malignancy-related markers are released in patients with various types of hematological neoplastic ... Expression of B-Cell surface antigens in subpopulations of exosomes released from B-Cell lymphoma cells. Clin Ther. 2014;36(6): ...
Pten and p53 converge on c-Myc to control differentiation, self-renewal, and transformation of normal and neoplastic stem cells ... and transformation of normal and neoplastic stem cells in glioblastoma. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Sort by ...
CD133 expression in normal and neoplastic tissues. Epithelial tissues and tumors: A) normal colon mucosa, B) colon adenoma, C) ... The cell layers are rods and cones (1), horizontal, bipolar and amacrine cells (2) and ganglion cells (3). A, B = ×400, scale ... Expression of the "stem cell marker" CD133 in pancreas and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.. Immervoll H1, Hoem D, ... Germ cell neoplasias of the testis: J) Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, K) seminoma, L) embryonal carcinoma. Note the apical/ ...
Bone Marrow and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417. Types of ... Chapter 13: Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders ... Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Specific Neoplastic ... Caring for the Child with Neoplastic Disorders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551. ...
The possibility of combining mesenchymal stem cells and scaffolds to create engineered tissues has brought attention to a large ... Human adipose tissue is officially recognized as an easily accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs), a significant ... In this study, we analyze the behavior of a clonal finite cell line derived from human adipose tissue seeded on poly(,i,ε,/i,- ... demonstrating that the selected biomaterial ensures cell colonization and the development of an extracellular mineralized ...
"Prominin 1 marks intestinal stem cells that are susceptible to neoplastic transformation". Nature. 457 (7229): 603-607. doi: ... these cells are also called quiescent stem cells. The stem cell zone model states that the CBC stem cells reside in a stem-cell ... "The Intestinal Stem Cell Signature Identifies Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells and Predicts Disease Relapse". Cell Stem Cell. 8 (5 ... "Identifying the Stem Cell of the Intestinal Crypt: Strategies and Pitfalls". Cell Stem Cell. 11 (4): 452-460. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Histone Modifications, Stem Cells and Prostate Cancer. Current Pharmaceutical Design. *The Clinical Applications of Curcumin: ... Reduction of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are, early tumorigenesis events also implicated in the invasive and metastatic ... Reduction of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are, early tumorigenesis events also implicated in the invasive and metastatic ... Specificity in killing neoplastic cells, while sparing healthy ones is therefore the only alternative approach, with several ...
Normal and Neoplastic Stem Cells. 10:15-12:45 Normal Stem Cell Biology Registered attendees can view abstracts starting on 09/ ... Targeting Cancer Stem Cell-Immune Cell Interactions in Glioblastoma. Wolf Ruprecht Wiedemeyer, Abbvie, USA Characterization and ... Single Cell Analysis on Liver Cancer. Erwei Song, Sun-Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, China Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Stem ... Role of Myeloid Cells in Regulating the Metastatic Cell Niche Wei Guo, University of Pennsylvania, USA Tumor-Derived Exosomes ...
Normal and Neoplastic Stem Cells. Following Session is for Neurogenesis during Development and in the Adult Brain (J2). ... Advances in pluripotent stem cells will be compared and contrasted with recent insights into the biology of neural stem cells, ... Tracking Neural Stem Cell Fate in vivo, One Cell at a Time ... Nobuko Uchida, StemCells, Inc., USA Use of Neural Stem Cells as ... Targeting Glioma Stem Cells through Combined BMI1 and EZH2 Inhibition Wen Gu, UT Southwestern Medical Center, USA N-MYC ...
  • Firstly, higher proliferation (Ki67) was observed in p75NTR+ cells in comparison to ALDH1+ or p75NTR+ALDH1+ cells. (
  • Newly described small molecules that inhibit BET proteins BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4 reduce proliferation of NUT (nuclear protein in testis)-midline carcinoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. (
  • In this study, we sought to characterize the molecular alterations that occur during the process of prostate fibroblast senescence to identify factors in the aged tissue microenvironment capable of promoting the proliferation and potentially the neoplastic progression of prostate epithelium. (
  • Both direct coculture and conditioned medium from senescent prostate fibroblasts stimulated epithelial cell proliferation, 3-fold and 2-fold, respectively. (
  • Although it is well known that cancer epithelial cells and stromal cells interact extensively to form a critical network that sustains and regulates cancer growth, the development of cancer is generally attributed to clonal proliferation of transformed epithelial cells, resulting from accumulated genetic mutations of either somatic or adult stem cells. (
  • It is generally believed that mutational events lead to uncontrolled proliferation of epithelial cells and that stromal components of tumors are derived from the host's normal mesenchymal stroma or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Moreover, we show that the proliferation process and osteogenic activity of AMSCs are maintained on the biofilm, demonstrating that the selected biomaterial ensures cell colonization and the development of an extracellular mineralized matrix. (
  • Oncogenic transformation was confirmed in vitro by anchorage-independent growth, increased cell proliferation, and expression of CDKN2A, cyclin A2 and p53 alongside decreased phosphorylation of Rb. (
  • Here, we demonstrated that knockout of Cldn18, a claudin family member highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelium, leads to lung enlargement, parenchymal expansion, increased abundance and proliferation of known distal lung progenitors, the alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells, activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP), increased organ size, and tumorigenesis in mice. (
  • Inhibition of YAP decreased proliferation and colony-forming efficiency (CFE) of Cldn18-/- AT2 cells and prevented increased lung size, while CLDN18 overexpression decreased YAP nuclear localization, cell proliferation, CFE, and YAP transcriptional activity. (
  • These results establish CLDN18 as a regulator of YAP activity that serves to restrict organ size, progenitor cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis, and suggest a mechanism whereby TJ disruption may promote progenitor proliferation to enhance repair following injury. (
  • Both CD133+ and CD133- cells of A549 and H446 possessed stem cell characteristics and exposure to Hoechst 33342 affected the clonogenicity and proliferation of single A549 and H446 cell. (
  • Our in vitro studies determined specific particle type- and cell type-dependent NP-induced cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, apoptosis evasion, and increased cell migration and invasion. (
  • Evidence indicates that the etiology of panmyelosis is unregulated neoplastic proliferation. (
  • It has been demonstrated that excessive amounts of HSP are synthesized in tumour tissues, participating in the control processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, and programmed death, as well as contributing to the process of angiogenesis [3, 4]. (
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (
  • Regeneration of lost organ of Corti hair cells through forced cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells or through manipulation of stem cells, both avenues towards a permanent cure, require a more complete understanding of normal inner ear development, specifically the balance of proliferation and differentiation required to form and to maintain hair cells. (
  • Advanced biomaterials have significantly contributed to three-dimensional cell culture systems in recent decades, and more unique and complex biomaterials have been proposed for improving stem-cell proliferation and controlled differentiation. (
  • We showed that knockdown of ALDH1 expression reduced the cell migration ability of HeLa cells, whereas augmented expression of ALDH1 increased cell migration.However, there was no difference in the cellular proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and invasion.These results indicate that ALDH1 is directly involved in HeLa migration. (
  • In summary, REV-ERBβ is a known circadian regulatory protein that appears to be involved in neurogenesis via regulation of networks for cell proliferation and neural differentiation/maturation in adult NSCs. (
  • After metabolic reprogramming, many cancer cells become glutamine addicted, that is, they depend on a high consumption of this amino acid for their survival and proliferation. (
  • Cell viability and proliferation were analyzed and efficiency of survivin siRNAs was assessed using western blot analysis. (
  • The results showed that, in the human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and 5637, the natural PPAR-γ ligand 15d-PGJ2 significantly decreased cell proliferation and loci formation. (
  • PTLD results from the uncontrolled neoplastic proliferation of lymphoid or plasmacytic cells. (
  • Our data indicate that Prom1 marks stem cells in the adult small intestine that are susceptible to transformation into tumours retaining a fraction of mutant Prom1(+) tumour cells. (
  • Using a reversible Ret-dependent oncogenic conversion model and a restricted proteomic approach, we identified a positive correlation between the neoplastic transformation of Rat-1 cells and the expression of standard CD44. (
  • In support of this role, a significant and specific reduction in Ret-induced transformation of Rat-1 cells was observed following drug-mediated inhibition of γ-secretase. (
  • Here, we took advantage of this reversible transformation system of immortalized rodent fibroblastic cells and found in a restricted proteomic analysis that standard CD44 is one of the main up-regulated protein associated with detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) during the transformation process. (
  • To determine the role of polyploidy in tumor development, we examined the fate of normal mullerian epithelial cells during the immortalization and transformation process by tracing the expression of SV40 large T antigen. (
  • The kinesin-like factor 1 B (KIF1B) gene plays an important role in the process of apoptosis and the transformation and progression of malignant cells. (
  • Neoplastic transformation is mainly connected with the combination of many factors, including genetic, epigenetic and environmental, which translates to specific gene activation [7]. (
  • Here we sought to establish a model for the efficient manipulation and transformation of porcine mammary epithelial cells (pMEC) in vitro and tumor growth in vivo . (
  • Present study data showed that NPs were able to induce dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity, inflammation, fibrogenesis and neoplastic transformation of human lung cells, consistent with in vivo data. (
  • The origin of the stem cell transformation remains unknown. (
  • The reversible transformation of cells of one differentiated cell type to another is called metaplasia. (
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (
  • however, a role of TGF-β deficiency in BWS-associated neoplastic transformation is unexplored. (
  • Beyond primary cultures with their limitations in lifespan, interindividual heterogeneity and supply, few conditionally immortalized cell lines with limited applicability due to partial transformation or impaired differentiation capacity are available. (
  • Stem cell isolation and transplantation is the basis for regenerative medicine. (
  • Determine the efficacy of double umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation using a conditioning regimen comprising lower doses of busulfan and fludarabine phosphate and low-dose total body irradiation, in terms of stem cell engraftment at 60 days post transplantation, in patients with hematologic cancer or other diseases. (
  • Double umbilical cord blood (UCB) donor stem cell transplantation (SCT): Patients undergo double UCB donor SCT on day 0. (
  • Since autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) allows the usage of higher doses of chemotherapy, which results in higher cellular destruction with a decrease of hematological toxicity, it is proposed that this procedure is able to improve prognosis in TNBC patients with no pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (
  • Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a standard therapeutic intervention for hematological malignancies and several monogenic diseases. (
  • Barriga F, Ramírez P, Wietstruck A, Rojas N. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: clinical use and perspectives. (
  • Indications for autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: guidelines from the american society for blood and marrow transplantation. (
  • Immunobiology of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Norkin M, Wingard JR. Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Risk factors for acute GVHD and survival after hematopoietic cell transplantation. (
  • Henig I, Zuckerman T. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-50 years of evolution and future perspectives. (
  • Long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy compared with nontransplanted control patients. (
  • PURPOSE: Randomized phase III trial to determine the effectiveness of radiation therapy in treating patients who have relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and have undergone autologous stem cell transplantation. (
  • Compare the 3-year progression-free survival of patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with or without involved-field radiotherapy. (
  • Within 6-8 weeks after completion of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, patients are randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus-related post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are recognized as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a heterogeneous group of diseases occurring in the setting of transplantation of either hematopoietic stem cells (HSCT) or solid organs (SOT). (
  • Cell-based therapies require a reliable source of cells that can be easily grown, undergo directed differentiation, and remain viable after transplantation. (
  • Hence, in vitro induction of pluripotent cells into more restricted progenitor cells before transplantation might be necessary for their neuronal differentiation. (
  • Nevertheless, lack of directed neuronal differentiation as well as apoptotic cell death remain two major problems in cerebral transplantation. (
  • Here, using a constitutively active form of MEF2C (MEF2CA), we report the production and characterization of neuronally restricted progenitors derived from non-oncogene-transformed, murine embryonic stem (ES) cells, and their subsequent successful transplantation into a disease model of focal cerebral ischemia. (
  • Although controversies and unknown issues remain, epidermal stem cells possess an immune-privileged property in transplantation together with easy accessibility, which is favorable for future clinical application. (
  • Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is currently the only potentially curative treatment for advanced polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia. (
  • Such tumor cells, either "resting" or slowly cycling, may have an increased resistance to therapeutic agents, and some of them are probably potential stem cells. (
  • Autologous HSCT allows higher chemotherapy doses, which results in higher tumor cells destruction. (
  • Dysfunction of cell adhesion (metastasis) is characteristic for tumor cells and is regarded as a result of alternation in E-cadherin expression (encoded by CDH1). (
  • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas showed a varying degree of apical cell surface CD133 expression, and cytoplasmic staining in a few tumor cells was noted. (
  • Moreover, since CD133 was expressed in shed ductal cells of pancreatic tumors and was found on the surface of tumor cells in vessels, this molecule may have a potential as clinical marker in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) exhibit mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) features and represent a subpopulation of tumor cells that play an important role in tumor progression, chemotherapy resistance, recurrence and metastasis. (
  • Our metastatic cancer models, combined with noninvasive imaging techniques, constitute an integrated approach that could be applied to dissect the molecular mechanisms underlying the dissemination of metastatic CSCs (MCSCs) and to explore therapeutic strategies targeting MCSCs in general or to evaluate individual patient tumor cells and predict response to therapy. (
  • We hypothesized that early tree reconstruction can provide insights into the mobility phenotypes of tumor cells during their first few cell divisions. (
  • Tumors are clonal expansions that start from single progenitors, and their growth can be described with ancestral trees with billions of tips that represent present-day tumor cells ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Mutations that arise before tumor expansion are public and present in all tumor cells, whereas mutations that arise during growth are subclonal or private and present in a subset of tumor cells only. (
  • RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to damage tumor cells. (
  • Giving radiation therapy in different ways may kill more tumor cells. (
  • MYC-Induced miR-203b-3p and miR-203a-3p Control Bcl-xL Expression and Paclitaxel Sensitivity in Tumor Cells. (
  • At least two possibilities exist for generating CSC niches: either they are manufactured as nascent domains by tumor cells, or CSCs usurp existing tissue-specific stem cell niches. (
  • However, whether the combination of these two approaches can be developed as a rational regimen with enhanced efficiency in the inhibition of tumor cells remains to be determined. (
  • Recent advances in the study on tumor-initiating cells, a small subpopulation of tumor cells that contribute to tumor initiation, metastasis and drug-resistance ( 2 ), suggest that targeting these cells may lead to novel therapies that can be utilized in the reduction of risk of tumor recurrence. (
  • One of the hallmarks of tumor cells is the ability to evade apoptosis ( 12 ). (
  • Recent advances in mapping and sequencing of the human genome make possible an approach to the treatment of these diseases which exploits the genetic differences between individuals to produce targets through which the immune system can eliminate the diseased cells. (
  • Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood (5th R. (
  • Although it does not form the structural framework for the book's organization, the current World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues is covered in specific chapters. (
  • On November 27, 2001, we published "Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Hematological Disorders and Malignant Neoplastic Diseases" as an NPRM in the Federal Register ( 66 FR 59306 ). (
  • This NPRM proposed to revise the criteria in the Listing of Impairments (the listings) that we use to evaluate claims involving hematological disorders and malignant neoplastic diseases. (
  • Many cell types release extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles (MVs), and apoptotic bodies, which play a role in physiology and diseases. (
  • This review presents the perspectives of specific anti-adhesion molecule targeting as a possible therapeutic approach in neoplastic diseases. (
  • Konstantinos N. Syrigos and Anastasios J. Karayiannakis, " Adhesion Molecules as Targets for the Treatment of Neoplastic Diseases", Current Pharmaceutical Design (2006) 12: 2849. (
  • This review seeks to summarize the current, and rapidly expanding field of research on the broad potential uses of cannabinoids in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the skin. (
  • We have evaluated the usefulness of bilateral rather than unilateral posterior iliac spine trephine biopsies in searching for lymphoma and other neoplastic diseases in the bone marrow. (
  • BRUNNING RD, BLOOMFIELD CD, McKENNA RW, PETERSON L. Bilateral Trephine Bone Marrow Biopsies in Lymphoma and Other Neoplastic Diseases. (
  • Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, as well as to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes and heart disease . (
  • The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological diseases. (
  • Diseases and conditions where stem cell treatment is promising or emerging. (
  • [10] In addition to the functions of the cells themselves, paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome , has been found to be another mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative , auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. (
  • The Social Security Administration (SSA) covers malignant neoplastic diseases in Section 13 of the Blue Book. (
  • diseases share fact that they are clonal populations of malignant cells arising from transformed marrow derived cells (doesn't have to take place in marrow itself) -can be neoplasms of hematopoietic cells, lymphocytes, granulocytes, marrow derived -lukemia: malignancy of hematopoietic cells, involvement of blood/marrow. (
  • Epidermal stem cells play a critical role via cell replacement, and demonstrate significant translational potential in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases, including treatment for wound healing, peripheral nerve and spinal cord injury, and even muscle and bone remodeling. (
  • Secondly, the frequency of p75NTR+ cells was higher in OSCCs of small size (T1 & T2) and OSCCs with poor to moderate differentiation grade, and correlated with poor survival of patients clinically deemed as of better prognosis. (
  • De novo generation of p75NTRHigh or ALDH1High cells from their negative counterparts might indicate the existence of a dynamic equilibrium between cancer cells with different degrees of differentiation. (
  • when stem cells divide as a population they give rise to stem cells by self renewal, and progenitors by differentiation. (
  • PRDM1/BLIMP-1, a master regulator of plasma-cell differentiation, is frequently inactivated in activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. (
  • In particular, bone tissue engineering involves the transplant of an appropriate scaffolding biomaterial alone or in combination with cells, that is, osteoblast progenitors and/or growth factors capable of osteogenic differentiation necessary for bone repair and regeneration [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • These cycling stem cells regularly generate progeny, which subsequently exit the niche and pass through the "common origin of differentiation" around position +5, where they commit toward the various individual lineages. (
  • Origin, differentiation and renewal of the four main epithelial cell types in the mouse small intestine. (
  • Progenitors are obtained by so-called direct reprogramming or directed differentiation and are also called induced somatic stem cells. (
  • This meant that the cells can change their differentiation pathway. (
  • In Drosophila imaginal discs, cells have to choose from a limited number of standard discrete differentiation states. (
  • The fact that transdetermination (change of the path of differentiation) often occurs for a group of cells rather than single cells shows that it is induced rather than part of maturation. (
  • It is suggested that Müllerian epithelial stem cells possess a potentiality for differentiation into APUD cells. (
  • This study reveals that differentiation of colon cancer stem cells is accompanied by altered regulation of cell death pathways. (
  • The activation of PPAR-γ may lead to cell growth arrest, apoptosis, decrease of cell adhesion and migration, and particularly, result in the differentiation of cancer cells ( 3 ). (
  • Ideal cells to replace lost neurons should be easy to maintain, with efficient and dependable differentiation capacity, lacking neoplastic potential. (
  • The undifferentiated cells exhibited self-renewing and multipotent differentiation capacities and gave rise to all component cells of epidermis and hair follicle [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Cell culture models of normal urothelial cells are important for studying differentiation, disease mechanisms and anticancer drug development. (
  • HBLAK cells retain some differentiation potential and respond to cytotoxic agents similar to normal urothelial cells, but contain genetic changes contributing to immortalization in urothelial tumors. (
  • Cell culture models of normal urothelial cells are valuable for studying urothelial physiology and differentiation, for investigating the function of genetic and epigenetic changes found in urothelial carcinoma and as controls in the evaluation of the tumor specificity of novel cancer drugs. (
  • and (3) experimental approaches have usually neither allowed for any correlation between the structure of neoplastic tissues and therapeutic responses nor revealed the kinetic status of various Cell. (
  • At the very least, all cancer stem cells within a cancer are the target of therapeutic elimination. (
  • This result suggests that the target of AHCC in expressing therapeutic efficacy was not the pluripotent cells such as cancer stem cells (CSCs) but SOX2-specific. (
  • A major obstacle for improving patient outcomes is the poor understanding of mechanisms underlying cellular migration associated with aggressive cancer cell invasion, metastasis and therapeutic resistance. (
  • Therefore, improving therapeutic approaches for GBM require a better understanding of cancer cell migration mechanisms. (
  • Recent work suggests that a small subpopulation of cells within GBM, the brain tumor stem cell (BTSC), may be responsible for therapeutic resistance and recurrence. (
  • Williams Manual of Hematology, 8e is a concise and easy-to-navigate compilation of the pathogenic, diagnostic, and therapeutic essentials of blood cell and coagulation protein disorders. (
  • Increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control glioma cell invasion has led to the identification of molecular targets for therapeutic intervention in this devastating disease. (
  • For these reasons, unraveling the MYC-mediated mechanism in those cells is fundamental to exploit their full potential and to identify therapeutic targets. (
  • Support is requested to continue a program designed to advance understanding of molecular mechanisms of vascular disease and to promote development of new diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive strategies through the collaborative efforts of a group of experienced scientists focused oh the unifying theme of cell adhesion. (
  • Of therapeutic interest, the targeting of EGFR, pAkt, NF-κB or MIC-1 was also effective at suppressing the basal and EGF-promoted prostasphere formation by SP WPE1-NB26 cells, inducing disintegration of SP cell-derived prostaspheres and decreasing the viability of SP and non-SP WPE1-NB26 cell fractions. (
  • The B-Cell Lymphoma Moon Shot is revolutionizing the conventional medical research approach to rapidly translate findings into patient treatment options and develop personalized therapeutic strategies. (
  • The concept of the myeloma stem cell may have important therapeutic implications, yet its demonstration has been hampered by a lack of consistency in terms and definitions. (
  • Effective treatment of cancer will require therapeutic strategies that are able to target and eliminate this tumorigenic subset of cells. (
  • Differences in self-renewal pathways between normal and malignant stem cells could be targeted by new therapeutic agents to eliminate cancer stem cells. (
  • The present invention relates to tumor tropic stem cells, and particularly to neural stem cells, and their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic gene products to neoplastic foci. (
  • 6. The isolated stem cell of claim 5, wherein said heterologous gene encodes a polypeptide of therapeutic use in the treatment of a disease condition. (
  • Due to their role in maintaining stem cell activity, disrupting CSC-niche interactions may be crucial for overcoming barriers to therapeutic resistance. (
  • Chen Y, Li D, Li S. The Alox5 gene is a novel therapeutic target in cancer stem cells of chronic myeloid leukemia. (
  • Considering effective therapy, relatively slowly growing tumors possessing a large fraction of "nonproliferating" cells are of substantial concern. (
  • Atkin , N. B. , 1970, Cytogenetic studies on human tumors and premalignant lesions: The emergence of aneuploid Cell. (
  • Some studies, however, have demonstrated that endothelial cells can be derived from cancer cells [ 5 - 7 ], and other studies have shown that stromal components of tumors may not be derived entirely from the host's normal mesenchymal stroma or bone marrow [ 8 , 9 ], suggesting that cancer cells are highly plastic and capable of generating stromal cells. (
  • It has been suggested that a small population of cells with unique self-renewal properties and malignant potential exists in solid tumors. (
  • MVs from patients specifically expressed tumor-related antigens, such as CD19 in B cell neoplasms, CD38 in MM, CD13 in myeloid tumors, and CD30 in HL. (
  • 45% of A549 and H446 cells formed large clones that are able to generate subclones and subsequently give rise to xenograft tumors in the BALB/C-nude mouse. (
  • Mutations in Hh pathway components are oncogenic drivers in "Gorlin's-like" cancers such as medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma where tumors rely on cell-autonomous Hh signaling 5 . (
  • These advances in BCSC imaging revealed that CD44 + cells from both primary tumors and lung metastases are highly enriched for tumor-initiating cells. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) were first identified in human leukemia ( 1 , 2 ) and exhibited capacity to form tumors in immunodeficient mice. (
  • Importantly, BCSCs are enriched for cells that can undergo epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT), which likely plays a critical role in metastases in at least some tumors ( 21 ). (
  • Because of genetic differences in mouse tumors or genetic changes that occur with establishment of cell lines, the commonly used models to study metastases, including those involving human cancer cell lines, mouse tumor models, and/or metastatic tumor models via bloodstream injections, do not fully recapitulate human disease ( 9 , 23 - 25 ). (
  • The abnormal cell mobility eventually needed for invasion and metastasis is already expressed at the start of growth for some malignant tumors but not benign tumors. (
  • Therefore, some malignant tumors start with more invasive potential ("born to be bad"), and this early abnormal cell mobility can potentially be used to identify patients more likely to benefit from aggressive treatment. (
  • After calibrating the model to multiregional and single gland data from 19 human colorectal tumors using approximate Bayesian computation, we examined the role of early tumor cell mobility in shaping the private mutation patterns of the final tumor. (
  • These results suggest that the patterns of detectable private mutations in colorectal tumors may be a marker of early cell movement and hence the invasive and metastatic potential of the tumor at the start of the growth. (
  • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a human stem cell disorder, and individuals with this disease have a substantially increased risk (~800-fold) of developing tumors. (
  • More recently, it has been suggested that therapy resistance and subsequent tumor recurrence could be mediated by the "cancer stem cell " fraction of colorectal tumors. (
  • Tumors are heterogeneous and are composed of differentiated cancer cells, stromal cells, and cancer stem cells (CSCs). (
  • Tumors are heterogeneous structures composed of different types of cancer cells, each cell population presenting variations in metabolism, receptors, and ligands expression and epigenetic chromatin structure alterations [ 8 - 13 ]. (
  • Solid tumors such as breast cancers contain heterogeneous populations of neoplastic cells. (
  • Dr. Clarke s group has developed a technique that allows the isolation and characterization of tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic populations of cancer cells present in human breast, colon and head and neck cancer tumors. (
  • Only a small minority of cancer cells had the capacity to form new tumors in a xenograft model. (
  • The tumorigenic cells displayed stem cell-like properties in that they were capable of generating new tumors containing additional stem cells as well as regenerating the phenotypically mixed populations of non-tumorigenic cells present in the original tumor. (
  • The laboratory is pursuing the identification of cancer stem cells in other tumors so that they can be studied. (
  • Dr. Clarke s laboratory will provide other members of the program with the expertise to identify and isolate cancer stem cells from solid tumors of epithelial origin. (
  • The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis offers attractive explanations for generation of heterogeneity within tumors, metastatic dissemination, and resistance to therapy. (
  • Allogenic human Neural Stem Cells (hNSCs) in four different dosages (5, 10, 16 or 24 millions). (
  • The objective of this meeting is to bring together leaders in the field to discuss the latest advances in stem cell biology with an emphasis on transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation in pluripotent and neural stem cells. (
  • Shimozaki, Koji 2018-02-03 00:00:00 Neural stem cells (NSCs) serve as the source of both neurons and support cells, and neurogenesis is reportedly linked to the circadian clock. (
  • 12. The isolated stem cell of claim 1, wherein said isolated stem cell is a neural stem cell (NSC). (
  • 17. The method of claim 14, wherein said stem cell is a neural stem cell (NSC). (
  • Impressively, testis and neural stem cells from male mice were shown to give rise to lactating mammary glands when transplanted into the mammary fat pad ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • Cell-cell communication through adherens junctions, cell-ECM communication through integrins, paracrine, juxtacrine, and hormonal signaling, mechanical sensing of physical and geometric constraints, and integration of neural signals are all coordinated to enforce quiescence (red signals) and to tightly regulate self-renewal (green signals). (
  • Neural cell fate specification of transiently transfected ES cells. (
  • Recently, several pluripotent stem cell populations from the follicle bulge, expressing characteristic neural crest cell markers, were named epidermal-resident neural crest stem cells (EPI-NCSCs) [ 8 - 10 ] or as follicle pluripotent stem cells (fPSCs) [ 11 - 14 ]. (
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the embryo. (
  • In the hematopoietic lineage, it is possible to find both the leukemia stem cells for such analyses, and to chart the progression from normal hematopoiesis to leukemia. (
  • The mechanisms by which CD44 plays a role in tumor progression are not yet clear although they do seem to be to implicated in cell survival signaling as well as regulation of cellular invasion and metastasis ( 1 , 3 ). (
  • Paulo Matos and Peter Jordan, "Beyond Cox-Inhibition: 'Side-Effects' of Ibuprofen on Neoplastic Development and Progression", Current Pharmaceutical Design (2015) 21: 2978. (
  • however, their role in neoplastic progression is unclear. (
  • Neoplastic cells co-opt components of the tumor microenvironment (TME) to further their progression. (
  • c-Myc induced upregulation of long non-coding RNA SNHG16 enhances progression and carcinogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. (
  • The immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence data have revealed that the expression levels of EGFR, Ser(473)-pAkt, NF-κB p65 and MIC-1 proteins were significantly enhanced in the same subset of 76 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma specimens during the disease progression and these biomarkers were expressed in a small subpopulation of CD133(+) PC cells and the bulk tumor mass of CD133(-) PC cells. (
  • BACKGROUND: A proportion of glioblastoma stemlike cells (GSCs) expressing endothelial cell marker CDH5 (vascular-endothelial-cadherin or CD144) can transdifferentiate into endothelial cells and form blood vessels. (
  • The hypoxic tumor microenvironment serves as a niche for maintaining the glioma-initiating cells (GICs) that are critical for glioblastoma (GBM) occurrence and recurrence. (
  • Glioblastomas are deadly cancers that display a functional cellular hierarchy maintained by self-renewing glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). (
  • Transient attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix is also necessary for glioblastoma cell invasion. (
  • The existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in solid cancers is still a controversial issue. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of expression of several CSC-related markers including ALDH1 and the normal oral keratinocyte stem cell marker p75NTR relative to each other in patient samples and OSCC-derived cells, and the potential of p75NTR to identify and isolate CSCs in OSCC. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are stem-like tumor populations that are reported to contribute towards tumor growth, maintenance and recurrence after therapy. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), are cancer cells that display distinctive features of normal stem cells and that have the ability to give origin to all cell types of a particular cancer sample. (
  • The observation that microRNAs in normal breast stem cells and BCSCs can regulate both EMT and self-renewal further suggests that CSCs might somehow play a role in metastasis ( 22 ). (
  • One approach drives CSCs to differentiate into cancer cells sensitive to conventional treatments, while the other proposes to eradicate them selectively. (
  • The cells that maintain tumor growth and propagation are the cancer stem cells (CSCs) [ 15 ]. (
  • Multipotency permits CSCs to divide and create a progeny that keeps dividing until they yield terminally differentiated, specialized cells [ 16 ]. (
  • Recent data suggest that tumor persistence and recurrence could be caused by the presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs). (
  • OSCC-derived cells sorted for p75NTR expression were compared for stem cell properties using both in vivo and in vitro assays. (
  • To address the challenges, we have developed multiple in vitro models to assess the biological and toxicological activities of well-characterized NPs with the identification of target lung cells of pulmonary exposed NPs from animal studies. (
  • Based on established in vivo doses that induce significant pulmonary disorders, physiologically relevant in vitro doses (i.e., 0.02 - 0.2 microg/cm2) of NPs, including carbon nanotube s (CNTs) and iron oxide NPs (nFe2O3), were used to evaluate their toxic effects on human lung cells under long-term exposure condition (up to 6.5 months). (
  • Particular attention is paid to the factors that maintain stem cells in a pluripotent state or which drive them to create differentiated and lineage-committed cells in vitro and in vivo. (
  • They showed that opposing gradients of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, two transforming growth factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo. (
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • It is a necessary requirement to develop a culture system to produce pure populations of tissue-specific stem-cell numbers in vitro without the loss of stem cell potential. (
  • The invention features compositions comprising in vitro generated beta cells capable of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, methods of inducing beta cell. (
  • In this study, we used small interfering RNA to suppress ALDH1 expression and introduced an ALDH1 reporting vector into HeLa cells followed by various in vitro assays. (
  • Here, we summarize the current documentation and propose single-cell in vitro studies for future translational studies. (
  • We now report that expression of MEF2CA, both in vitro and in vivo , under regulation of the nestin enhancer effectively produces "neuronal" progenitor cells that differentiate into a virtually pure population of neurons. (
  • High frequency of ALDH1+ cells was found to be associated with lymph node metastasis. (
  • CD44 is a widely distributed cell surface adhesion molecule that is implicated in a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes, including lymphocyte activation, cell-matrix interactions, and regulation of tumor growth and metastasis (see ref. 1 for a review). (
  • To examine the role of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) in metastasis, we generated human-in-mouse breast cancer orthotopic models using patient tumor specimens, labeled with optical reporter fusion genes. (
  • With noninvasive imaging approaches, as few as 10 cells of stably labeled BCSCs could be tracked in vivo, enabling studies of early tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. (
  • The rapidly growing knowledge of cell biology and material science has brought attention to the tissue engineering approach as a promising strategy, alternative to the conventional autogenic or allogenic surgical techniques for bone defects regeneration [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • This interdisciplinary program will span disciplines of biochemistry, cell biology, ex-vivo and in vivo studies to assess the effects of blood flow on adhesion and signaling, and analysis of genetically-modified mice and zebrafish. (
  • Altogether, this interdisciplinary program will enable remarkable synergies amongst a group of accomplished investigators who will test new hypotheses and utilize and develop cutting edge methodologies to advance understanding of cell adhesion events in vascular biology and thrombosis. (
  • Functional polymorphisms on chromosome 5p15.33 disturb telomere biology and confer the risk of non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese population. (
  • Identifying specific cell types within a tumor that either initiate or maintain tumorigenesis provides valuable information and allows a better understanding of tumor biology, as well as the development of novel treatments. (
  • A central issue in stem cell biology is to understand the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells, which are required for hematopoiesis to persist for the lifetime of the animal. (
  • A better understanding of the consequences of these mutations on the underlying biology of the neoplastic cells will help to focus the development of more effective therapies. (
  • These data represent a new resource for cell biology, reveal gene expression in poorly characterized cell populations and enable the direct and controlled comparison of gene expression in cell types that are shared between tissues, such as T lymphocytes and endothelial cells from different anatomical locations. (
  • The cumulative data provide the foundation for an atlas of transcriptomic cell biology. (
  • Cancer stem cells are critically dependant on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) for survival, self-renewal, tumor growth and maintenance of their undifferentiated phenotype. (
  • Poorly regulated self renewal can lead to the genesis of cancer, and within it, cancer stem cells, the self renewing subset of cells within a cancer. (
  • In accordance with the stem cell zone model proposing that, during their upward migration, CBC stem cells would only gradually lose their self-renewal capacity, it was shown in vivo that transient amplifying cells can revert to Lgr5+ CBC stem cells after damage, presumably by direct contact with Paneth cells. (
  • Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are defined by their self-renewal potential, which permits their unlimited propagation, and their pluripotency, being able to generate cell of the three embryonic lineages. (
  • Self-renewal allows unlimited cell division and maintenance of the stem cell pool in the tumor. (
  • Moreover, the results have indicated that the EGF-EGFR signaling pathway can provide critical functions for the self-renewal of side population (SP) cells endowed with stem cell-like features from highly invasive WPE1-NB26 cells. (
  • Until recently, the molecular mechanisms that regulate adult stem cell self-renewal were not known. (
  • His laboratory recently found that the proto-oncogene Bmi-1 regulates stem cell self-renewal via an epigenetic mechanism. (
  • Finally, the laboratory is actively pursuing how cancer stem cells self-renew to maintain themselves and escape the genetic constraints on unlimited self-renewal that regulate normal stem cell numbers. (
  • Thirdly, OSCC cells sorted for p75NTR and ALDH1 displayed different expression profile of several CSC-EMT related genes. (
  • Binding of Hh ligand to its receptor Patched (PTCH) enables Smoothened (SMO)-mediated translocation of Gli1 into the cell nucleus to drive the transcription of Hh target genes 4 . (
  • The following is a list of intestinal stem cell marker genes, including their name and known function. (
  • More recently modern genetics techniques, primarily using transgenic mice, have been used to identify genes that are specifically expressed or highly enriched in the intestinal stem cells. (
  • Below, a table of intestinal stem cell "marker" genes is given, along with a notation if this marks active of CBC stem cells, or quiescent/reserve/+4 stem cells. (
  • Direct successful alterations to the cell cycle result in cell death whereas regulation of upstream genes is insufficient to permanently alter cell cycle dynamics. (
  • This is due to a lack of individualized epithelial cell lines that would provide insight into the molecular functions on epithelial level of the 160+ susceptibility genes for IBD. (
  • Recall the biological reason that many lymphomas contain balanced translocations involving the immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes. (
  • Furthermore, 15d-PGJ2 substantially inhibited the levels of stemness-related genes in these cells. (
  • Overexpression of antiapoptotic genes is one of mechanisms to escape cancer cell apoptosis. (
  • Chemotherapy drugs and radiotherapy are highly toxic and both damage adjacent healthy cells. (
  • RATIONALE: Giving low doses of chemotherapy and total-body irradiation before a donor umbilical cord blood stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cancer or abnormal cells. (
  • Moreover, these cells seem to arise due to the deregulated control of core pluripotency factors and they have been linked to chemotherapy resistance in sarcomas. (
  • Several markers were successfully used to enrich for cells with stem cell-like properties in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). (
  • As the features of the tumour raised the suspicion of squamous cell carcinoma, the patient was referred to the department of radiation oncology for radiation therapy. (
  • There is only one case report about a squamous cell carcinoma in a solitary papilloma [ 8 ]. (
  • In the adult intestine, the crypts of Lieberkühn are the niche for epithelial stem cells and contain all proliferative stem and progenitor cells. (
  • Studies identifying hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors have made hematopoiesis one of the best systems for studying the molecular changes in cell fate decision making, and oncogenesis. (
  • Embryonic stem cell-derived microvesicles reprogram hematopoietic progenitors: evidence for horizontal transfer of mRNA and protein delivery. (
  • Progenitors of the blood cells in these patients display abnormal responses to growth factors, suggesting the presence of a defect in a signaling pathway common to different growth factors. (
  • Maturing Paneth cell progenitors migrate downward, with the oldest Paneth cells residing at the very base of the crypt. (
  • The stem cells may additionally exhibit markers characteristic of astrocytic progenitors. (
  • Pools of undifferentiated stem cells give rise to less potent progenitors, which produce the most specialized cells of a given tissue. (
  • It was shown that progenitors both in skin and skeletal muscle could adopt residency in vacated stem cell niches, where they reacquired stem cell traits ( 6 - 8 ). (
  • Our previous research showed that AHCC down-regulated heat-shock protein (HSP)-27 and exhibited cytotoxic effects against gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells. (
  • Also, the targeting of these oncogenic products induced the caspase-dependent apoptosis in chemoresistant SP WPE1-NB26 cells and enhanced their sensibility to the cytotoxic effects induced by docetaxel. (
  • 7. The isolated stem cell of claim 6, wherein said polypeptide is cytotoxic. (
  • The stem cells of rapidly renewing tissues give rise to transiently proliferating cells, which in turn give rise to postmitotic terminally differentiated cells. (
  • Archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues from OSCC (n=177), oral dysplasia (OD, n=10), and normal human oral mucosa from healthy donors (NHOM, n=31) have been subjected to the developed multiple IHC protocol, while keratinocytes derived from OSCC, OD and NHOM were subjected to multiple fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). (
  • The possibility of combining mesenchymal stem cells and scaffolds to create engineered tissues has brought attention to a large variety of biomaterials in combination with osteoprogenitor cells able to promote and regenerate bone tissue. (
  • In vivo , PSCs are a transient cell population emerging approximately at embryonic day 3.5 (E3.5) in mouse embryos, and are confined to the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst, which will further differentiate giving rise to all embryonic tissues ( Cockburn and Rossant, 2010 ). (
  • Many adult tissues contain stem cells, and tissue homeostasis requires replenishment of lost cells by these adult stem cells. (
  • Here we present a compendium of single-cell transcriptomic data from the model organism Mus musculus that comprises more than 100,000 cells from 20 organs and tissues. (
  • Only stem cells are thought capable of regenerating entire tissues in perpetuity. (
  • A and B, stem cell niches are clearly identifiable in normal tissues. (
  • The interactions of aberrant cell migratory mechanisms and the tumor microenvironment likely differentiate cancer from normal cells. (
  • Three-dimensional cell culture systems may create a biomimicking microenvironment for stem cells, resembling their native Three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM). (
  • Induced totipotent cells can be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells with somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (
  • Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells , to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells . (
  • Human pluripotent embryonic stem cells produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer as well as methods of making and using said human pluripotent embryonic stem. (
  • In this study, we analyze the behavior of a clonal finite cell line derived from human adipose tissue seeded on poly( ε -caprolactone) (PCL) film, prepared by solvent casting. (
  • The bone marrow of patients with polycythemia vera (PV),contains normal stem cells but also contains abnormal clonal stem cells that interfere with or suppress normal stem cell growth and maturation. (
  • Clonal analysis of Notch1-expressing cells reveals the existence of unipotent stem cells that retain long-term plasticity in the embryonic mammary gland. (
  • Myelodisplastic syndrome (MDS): clonal population of neoplastic hematopoietic stem cells takes over marrow. (
  • Stromal cells are generally considered to be derived primarily from the host's normal mesenchymal stromal cells or bone marrow. (
  • Human adipose tissue is officially recognized as an easily accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs), a significant factor for use in tissue regenerative medicine. (
  • One of the efforts in this field is the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a source for tissue engineering [ 5 ]. (
  • Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) represent the most thoroughly studied source of MSCs for bone tissue regeneration. (
  • In recent years, a promising population of MSCs has been identified within adipose tissue, termed adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs). (
  • Microvesicles derived from human adult mesenchymal stem cells protect against ischaemia-reperfusion-induced acute and chronic kidney injury. (
  • However, frequently CSC subpopulations emerge after the accumulation of epigenetic and/or genetic changes in a cell within the aberrant population, initially generated by the cell of origin, namely, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived cell types [ 2 ]. (
  • [6] It is an allogenic stem therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of adult donors. (
  • Lineage-tracing studies of adult Prom1(+/C-L) mice containing the Rosa26-YFP reporter allele showed that Prom1(+) cells are located at the base of crypts in the small intestine, co-express Lgr5 (ref. 2), generate the entire intestinal epithelium, and are therefore the small intestinal stem cell. (
  • Activation of endogenous Wnt signalling in Prom1(+/C-L) mice containing a Cre-dependent mutant allele of beta-catenin (Ctnnb1(lox(ex3))) resulted in a gross disruption of crypt architecture and a disproportionate expansion of Prom1(+) cells at the crypt base. (
  • Although all neoplastic cells arose from Prom1(+) cells in these mice, only 7% of tumour cells retained Prom1 expression. (
  • The immortalized or transformed epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into stromal cells when transplanted into nude mice. (
  • The arrows point to an adrenal cortical cell with enlarged granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and large hyperchromatic nuclei in Sptbn1 +/- Smad3 +/- mice compared with wild-type mice. (
  • Mouse Genetics Core Unit A, led by Dr. Petrich, will provide expertise, genomic constructs, genotyping, well characterized murine embryonic stem cells, and blastocyst injections for the purpose of genetic manipulation of mice. (
  • When these Prom1 C-L mice are bred with mice containing loxP -flanked sequence, tamoxifen-inducible, Cre -mediated recombination will result in deletion of the floxed sequences in the Prom1 -expressing cells of the offspring. (
  • For example when bred to Gt(ROSA)26Sor tm1(EYFP)Cos /J mice (Stock No. 006148 ), tamoxifen induction results in cre expression in small intestinal crypt cells and the epithelial surface of the villi. (
  • Combined mutation in Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 causes clear cell renal cell carcinoma in mice. (
  • By the classical approach, a CD19 − /CD45 low/− /CD38 high /CD138 + malignant plasma cell, but not the CD19 + /CD38 low/− memory B cell compartment, is enriched for tumorigenic cells that initiate myeloma in xenografted immunodeficient mice, supporting that myeloma stem cells are present in the malignant PC compartment. (
  • A carcinoma is a complex tissue composed of multiple cell types, including epithelial cancer cells as well as stromal cells that include fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and inflammatory cells [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • Furthermore, by developing a fibroblast stem cells (FSC)-enriched fibroblast focus model to mimic in vivo fibrogenic response, we demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in fibroblast focus formation and collagen production by primary lung fibroblasts treated with multi-walled carbon nanotube s (MWCNTs). (
  • In mouse models of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), Hedgehog ligand produced by neoplastic cells reprograms cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) to provide a supportive niche for the acquisition of a chemo-resistant, cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype via FGF5 expression and production of fibrillar collagen. (
  • Prominent cell types include the endothelium, cells of the immune system and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). (
  • hESCs can be generated by SCNT using dermal fibroblasts nuclei from both a middle-aged 35-year-old male and an elderly, 75-year-old male, suggesting that age-associated changes are not necessarily an impediment to SCNT-based nuclear reprogramming of human cells. (
  • In practice this process of immunotherapy involves an allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant, with subsequent delivery of specific immune effector cells expanded from the donor. (
  • The donated stem cells may replace the patient's immune cells and help destroy any remaining cancer cells (graft-versus-tumor effect). (
  • The donated stem cells may replace the patient's immune cells and help destroy any remaining cancer or abnormal cells (graft-versus-tumor effect). (
  • Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can also make an immune response against the body's normal cells. (
  • In the following, we will discuss the difficulties and recent milestones that have led to the development of a novel research tool that allows the study of epithelial barrier function in the absence of confounding variables introduced by bacteria and immune cells. (
  • The present invention relates to a method of reducing cell death in a warm-blood animal wherein said cell death associated with a neurodegenerative disorder, an immune disease, a neoplastic disorder, an inflammatory disorder, or a viral disease. (
  • 1. A method of reducing cell death in a warm-blooded animal, said cell death associated with a neurodegenerative disorder, an immune disease, a neoplastic disorder, an inflammatory disorder, or a viral disease, said method comprising administering to said animal a therapeutically effective amount of a peptide comprising the amino acid sequence Val-Asp-Val such that cell death is reduced. (
  • 8. The isolated stem cell of claim 6, wherein said polypeptide is involved in an immune response. (
  • and tissue kinetics as they relate to stem cells, to nonproliferating cells, and to Cell. (
  • however, this has proved difficult to test because the identity of most adult tissue stem cells is not known. (
  • Lineage tracing demonstrated that the progeny of these cells replaced the mucosa of the entire small intestine with neoplastic tissue that was characterized by focal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and crypt adenoma formation. (
  • acini in epithelial benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue contained more p27Kip1-negative basal cells than acini from non-benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue. (
  • However, there was an interesting difference in subcellular localization with a minor cell population in normal and malignant pancreatic tissue showing cytoplasmic expression. (
  • Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that is affected by three main agents including cell source, scaffold biomaterial, and biochemical agents. (
  • In order to achieve the proposed aim, it is important to select appropriate cell sources and biomaterials, since the cell-scaffold interaction represents a crucial step for the success of tissue engineering applications. (
  • Moreover, stem cell yields are greater from adipose tissue than from other stem cell reservoirs, a significant factor for use in regenerative medicine, as many 1 × 10 7 AMSCs can routinely be isolated from 300 mL of lipoaspirate, with greater than 95% purity [ 15 - 18 ]. (
  • In addition to its role as a physical scaffold to support tissue architecture, the ECM also functions as a signal transducer between the different TME cell types 7 . (
  • Potential clinical applications covered in the book include the production of cardiomyocytes to replace damaged heart tissue, the production of insulin-producing cells for patients with diabetes, and the generation of neurons for the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease or spinal cord injury. (
  • In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (
  • microscopic appearance of malignant cells -histologic growth pattern of cells in marrow, ln, other tissue -presence/absence of malignant cells in blood/marrow -relative amt. (
  • One day before transfection, mouse D3 ES cells were trypsinized and plated in DMEM plus 20% FBS and 1000 U/ml LIF in six-well tissue culture plates coated with gelatin at a density resulting in ∼90% confluency within 1 d. (
  • In adults, epidermis-resident progenitor cells adopt their fates to fit the renewal of the epidermis, hair follicle, and sebaceous gland and maintain a homeostasis in normal tissue. (
  • They are classified as either totipotent (iTC), pluripotent (iPSC) or progenitor (multipotent - iMSC, also called an induced multipotent progenitor cell - iMPC) or unipotent - (iUSC) according to their developmental potential and degree of dedifferentiation. (
  • Indeed, embryonic and adult stem and progenitor cell fate decisions are quantifiably flexible in response to combinatorial microenvironments ( 11 - 13 ). (
  • In some endometrial neoplasms they are present in abundance, but tumours rich in such cells do not have any features suggestive of a carcinoid tumour and are morphologically identical to adenocarcinomas of similar grade which are devoid of argyrophil cells. (
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) constitutes the most common form of renal neoplasms, comprising more than 90% of cases in adults of both sexes, with an occurrence 2 to 3 times higher in men than in women. (
  • These presentations will be complemented by talks on experimentally induced cell fate changes during reprogramming to pluripotency and transdifferentiation into various cell lineages. (
  • Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) possess two defining properties: they are able to indefinitely self-renew, thus maintaining their cell identity after cell division, and they are pluripotent, having the potential to differentiate toward all cell lineages of the organism. (
  • Useful applications include visualizing and tracking adult stem cell lineages. (
  • allows you to place non-distinct cells into definite lineages. (
  • These intestinal stem cells (ISCs) give rise to progenitor cells in the transit-amplifying zone and provide a large number of precursor cells that can replenish cells of various lineages along the crypt-villus axis. (
  • In pure B-cell disorders, cellular immunity generally is intact, and the frequency of opportunistic fungal and mycobacterial infections is not increased. (
  • Stem cell-mediated repair is a promising approach for treating a variety of pathological disorders. (
  • To better define current understanding of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in stem cell transplant patients, and to improve its diagnosis and management, a working group of the Sixth European Conference on Infections in Leukemia 2015 reviewed the literature, graded the available quality of evidence, and developed evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis, prevention, prophylaxis and therapy of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders exclusively in the stem cell transplant setting. (
  • This prediction necessitates a profoundly different approach to cancer research, compelling investigators to prospectively isolate cancer stem cells in order to assess both genomic and epigenomic events in the cancer stem cell pool, as well as assign molecular pathways regulating their behavior. (
  • Here we review the current knowledge on COX-independent effects of ibuprofen, which affect changes in gene expression or alternative splicing and act through various cell cycle- and apoptosis-regulating pathways, including β-catenin, NF-κB, PPARγ and p53. (
  • These pathways direct developmental processes either by direct cell-to-cell contact or through secreted diffusible factors (paracrine signaling). (
  • The Myc gene family is uniquely situated to synergize upstream pathways into downstream cell cycle control. (
  • To induce and stabilize the pluripotent state, complex circuitries involving signaling pathways, transcription regulators and epigenetic mechanisms converge on a core transcriptional regulatory network of PSCs, thus determining their cell identity. (
  • Argyrophil cells in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic endometrium. (
  • Argyrophil cells are also present in the various types of hyperplastic endometria and are found in more than half of endometrial adenocarcinomas. (
  • Histological examination of the tumour specimens revealed a papillary hyperplastic squamous epithelium without cell abnormalities. (
  • DNA image cytometry was performed in order to distinguish between hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions. (
  • Giving an infusion of the donor's T cells (donor lymphocyte infusion) after the transplant may help increase this effect. (
  • 1. To compare the rate of disease-free survival (DFS) at 1 year post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in patients undergoing HSCT treated on this successor Thomas Jefferson University (TJU) 2 Step reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) haploidentical regimen and compare it with that of the initial 2 Step RIC regimen. (
  • TRANSPLANT: Patients undergo allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) on day 0. (
  • PURPOSE: This clinical trial is studying how well umbilical cord blood stem cell transplant works in treating patients with hematologic cancer or other disease. (
  • 1 , 2 Recently, HHV-6 has been recognized as a serious pathogen in immunocompromised patients, 3 and several case studies of HHV-6-associated encephalopathy have been reported in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell or solid-organ transplant. (
  • Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. (
  • Generally those who have received a stem cell or bone marrow transplant will be automatically considered disabled for one year, after which they will be evaluated from time to time. (
  • myeloid malignancies: arising from mature/immature members of granulocytic, monocytic, erythroid, megakaryociytic, mast cells -lymphoid malignancies: arising from mature/immature members of B, T, NK cells -acute leukemia: majority are classified as AML or ALL. (
  • Cancer stem cells are remarkably similar to normal stem cells: both self-renew, are multipotent and express common surface markers, for example, prominin 1 (PROM1, also called CD133). (
  • Cancer Stem Cell-Related Markers in Normal and Neoplastic Oral Mucosa. (
  • Here we show that immortalized or HRAS -transformed mullerian epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of polyploid giant cells that grow as multicellular spheroids expressing hematopoietic markers in response to treatment with CoCl 2 . (
  • Populations of primary pMEC were then separated by FACS using markers to distinguish epithelial cells (CD140a-) from stromal cells (CD140a+), with or without further enrichment for basal and luminal progenitor cells (CD49f+). (
  • Several approaches have been described to identify them, through the expression of cell markers, functional assays, or a combination of both. (
  • These mutant ISCs expressed proper stem cell markers, did not differentiate, and had defects in multiple steps of the cell cycle. (
  • Delta, Su(H)-lacZ, Prospero, and fluorescent phalloidin Pdm1 are markers for the indicated cell types. (
  • 2. The isolated stem cell of claim 1, wherein said isolated stem cell exhibits markers characteristic of a precursor for astrocytic differentiated stem cells. (
  • Indeed, PSCs are used for both disease and cancer modeling and to derive cells for regenerative medicine. (
  • In this review, we will summarize the biological characteristics of epidermal stem cells, and their potential in orthopedic regenerative medicine. (
  • This renewability, or the regenerative capacity indicates the existence of stem/progenitor cells, which could potentially be harnessed in regenerative medicine. (
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (
  • Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the adult Drosophila melanogaster midgut can respond to damage and support repair. (
  • However, we report in this paper that loss of TSC in the adult Drosophila midgut results in the formation of much larger ISCs that have halted cell division. (
  • A) Cell types in adult midgut. (
  • METHODS: The mRNA and protein levels of CDH5 were detected in glioma samples and cultured cell lines, and the prognostic value of the CDH5 expression level for GBM patients was evaluated. (
  • Mutational profile and prognostic significance of TP53 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP: report from an International DLBCL Rituximab-CHOP Consortium Program Study. (
  • TP53 mutation is an independent marker of poor prognosis in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) therapy. (
  • Patients with cerebrospinal fluid positive for leukemia receive Ara-C IT every 2-3 days until a repeat LP shows no remaining leukemic cells. (
  • Tumor cell invasiveness is a critical challenge in the clinical management of glioma patients. (
  • Tumor was found on only one side in 22% of patients with non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma, in 43% of patients with Hodgkin's disease, and in 36% of patients with other neoplastic processes. (
  • Efficient generation of patient-matched malignant and normal primary cell cultures from clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients: clinically relevant models for research and personalized medicine. (
  • Immunofluorescent staining revealed expression of stem cell factors OCT4, Nanog, and SOX-2 in spheroid, whereas expression of embryonic stem cell marker SSEA1 was increased in HRAS -transformed cells compared with their immortalized isogenic counterparts. (
  • Indeed, it instructs the PSC-specific cell cycle, metabolism and epigenetic landscape, contributes to limit exit from pluripotency and modulates signaling cascades affecting the PSC identity. (
  • Inhabiting such a two-dimensional rigid substrate requires a dramatic adaption for the surviving cells because they lack the extracellular matrix that is unique to each cell type, and which may alter cell metabolism and reduce its functionality. (
  • Due to a limitation in visual inspection and geometrical manipulation, conventional migration assays are restricted to quantifying overall cell populations. (
  • Prom1 was reported recently to mark cancer stem cells of human intestinal tumours that arise frequently as a consequence of aberrant wingless (Wnt) signalling. (
  • RSPO3 induced the expansion of Lgr5 + stem cells, Paneth cells, non-Paneth cell label-retaining cells and Lgr4 + cells, thus promoting both intestinal stem cell and niche compartments. (
  • Conclusions We provide in vivo evidence that RSPO3 stimulates the crypt stem cell and niche compartments and drives rapid intestinal tumorigenesis. (
  • Intestinal stem cells were first identified as such in the 1970s. (
  • Cheng and Leblond used autoradiography of phagosomes to track the fate of cells at the base of the crypts, and determined that slender cells interspersed among Paneth cells at the crypt base could give rise to all of the other cell types that constituted the intestinal epithelium. (
  • The intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and the dynamic network of tight junctions that connect them physically limit the entry of bacteria into the body, while the mucus and antimicrobial peptides secreted by the IECs further limit contact with the mucosal surface and translocation of bacteria by ensuring that the surface of the epithelium remains sterile. (
  • Alternatively immortalized cell lines do not recapitulate the complexity of the intestinal epithelium, which consists of multiple cell types, including enterocytes, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells and, in the small intestine, Paneth cells. (
  • p53 Loss in Breast Cancer Leads to Myc Activation, Increased Cell Plasticity, and Expression of a Mitotic Signature with Prognostic Value. (
  • Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) is reported to be up-regulated in other kinds of cancer cells and involved in carcinogenesis and malignancy. (
  • myelogenic cells -lymphoma: malignancy of hematopoietic cells derived from lymphocytes and precursors. (
  • solid mass -extramedullary myeloid tumor (granulocytic sarcoma): malignancy of hematopoietic cells, from myeloid cells or precursors (granulocytes, monocytes) presents as solid mass -many prefer one type of manifestation, these types of disease manifestations are not exclusive-often overlap -overlap of CLL and SLL: same biologic disease, but differs if blood and marrow (CLL) vs. enlarged lymph node due to growth (SLL). (
  • These results suggest that normal mullerian epithelial cells are intrinsically highly plastic, via the formation of polyploid giant cells and activation of embryonic stem-like program, which work together to promote the coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multiple lineage stromal cells. (
  • Targeting BIRC6, or other Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins, may help eradicating colon cancer stem cells. (
  • Cytoprotective effect of aquaporin 1 against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis and inflammation of renal epithelial HK-2 cells. (
  • 11. The isolated stem cell of claim 8, wherein said polypeptide is tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). (
  • More importantly, the downregulation of survivin with siRNAs significantly enhanced the 15d-PGJ2-mediated induction of cell apoptosis and inhibition of sphere formation. (
  • Consistent with this observation, the researchers write, mouse embryonic stem cells lacking miRNAs were more likely to initiate apoptosis following exposure to gamma irradiation or doxorubicin. (
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate epigenetic reprogramming. (
  • In PLOS this week: genome-wide association study of frozen shoulder, epigenetic patterns of Epstein-Barr-infected B lymphocyte cells, and more. (
  • Reduction of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion are, early tumorigenesis events also implicated in the invasive and metastatic process. (
  • In order to detach from the tumor mass, glioma cells secrete proteolytic enzymes that cleave cell surface adhesion molecules, including CD44 and L1. (