Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A neoplastic disease in which the alveoli and distal bronchi are filled with mucus and mucus-secreting columnar epithelial cells. It is characterized by abundant, extremely tenacious sputum, chills, fever, cough, dyspnea, and pleuritic pain. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
Rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by mesenchymal and epithelial neoplasms at multiple sites. MUTATION of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, a component of the DNA DAMAGE response pathway, apparently predisposes family members who inherit it to develop certain cancers. The spectrum of cancers in the syndrome was shown to include, in addition to BREAST CANCER and soft tissue sarcomas (SARCOMA); BRAIN TUMORS; OSTEOSARCOMA; LEUKEMIA; and ADRENOCORTICAL CARCINOMA.
An intraductal carcinoma of the breast extending to involve the nipple and areola, characterized clinically by eczema-like inflammatory skin changes and histologically by infiltration of the dermis by malignant cells (Paget's cells). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The condition of a pattern of malignancies within a family, but not every individual's necessarily having the same neoplasm. Characteristically the tumor tends to occur at an earlier than average age, individuals may have more than one primary tumor, the tumors may be multicentric, usually more than 25 percent of the individuals in direct lineal descent from the proband are affected, and the cancer predisposition in these families behaves as an autosomal dominant trait with about 60 percent penetrance.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P16 and TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.

Merkel cell carcinoma and melanoma: etiological similarities and differences. (1/1469)

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma can now be compared epidemiologically through the use of population-based data not previously available for MCC. The results may provide new clues to etiology. In this study, United States data covered by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program were from nine areas of the United States (approximately 10% of the population). In 1986-1994, 425 cases of MCC were registered. The annual age-adjusted incidence per 100,000 of MCC was 0.23 for whites and 0.01 for blacks; among whites, the ratio of melanoma to MCC was approximately 65 to 1. Only 5% of MCC occurred before age 50, unlike the lifelong risk of nodular and superficial spreading melanoma. Regional incidence rates of both cancers increased similarly with increasing sun exposure as measured by the UVB solar index. The most sun-exposed anatomical site, the face, was the location of 36% of MCC but only 14% of melanoma. Both cancers increased in frequency and aggressiveness after immunosuppression and organ transplantation (36 cases from the Cincinnati Transplant Tumor registry and 12 from published case reports) and after B-cell neoplasia (5 cases in this study; 13 from case series in the literature). The SEER data contained reports of six patients with both types of cancer; 5 melanomas before the diagnosis of MCC and 1 after diagnosis. MCC and melanoma are similarly related to sun exposure and immunosuppression, but they differ markedly from one another in their distributions by age, race, and anatomical site, especially the face.  (+info)

The elevated serum alkaline phosphatase--the chase that led to two endocrinopathies and one possible unifying diagnosis. (2/1469)

A 39-year-old Chinese man with hypertension being evaluated for elevated serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) levels was found to have an incidental right adrenal mass. The radiological features were characteristic of a large adrenal myelolipoma. This mass was resected and the diagnosis confirmed pathologically. His blood pressure normalised after removal of the myelolipoma, suggesting that the frequently observed association between myelolipomas and hypertension may not be entirely coincidental. Persistent elevation of the SAP levels and the discovery of hypercalcaemia after surgery led to further investigations which confirmed primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. The patient's serum biochemistry normalised after removal of the adenoma. The association of adrenal myelolipoma with primary hyperparathyroidism has been reported in the literature only once previously. Although unconfirmed by genetic studies this association may possibly represent an unusual variation of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome.  (+info)

A case of long-term survival with stage IV small cell lung cancer and early-stage central-type squamous cell lung cancer treated by photodynamic therapy. (3/1469)

The present report is on a 67-year-old man with stage IV small cell lung cancer and early-stage centrally located squamous cell cancer of the lung. He was diagnosed as small cell lung cancer with multiple metastasis to the ipsilateral lung and was found to have a central-type early-stage squamous cell cancer by bronchoscope. After obtaining a complete response to the small cell lung cancer with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy was applied to the squamous cell carcinoma, resulting in complete disappearance of the tumor. Recurrence of small cell cancer occurred at the ipsilateral lung and this patient died of small cell cancer 8 years after initiation of treatment. Post mortem examination confirmed complete disappearance of squamous cell cancer treated by photodynamic therapy. This is a rare case of long-term survival with stage IV small cell lung cancer and early-stage central-type squamous cell lung cancer successfully treated by photodynamic therapy.  (+info)

p53 and p16INK4A mutations during the progression of glomus tumor. (4/1469)

Glomus tumors are significantly rare tumors of carotid body. The great majority of these tumors are benign in character. Here we present two brothers with hereditary glomus jugulare tumor who had consanguineous parents. Radiotherapy was applied approximately 8 and 10 years ago for treatment in both cases. Eight years later, one of these cases came to our notice due to relapse. The mutation pattern of p53, p57KIP2, p16INK4A and p15NK4B genes which have roles in the cell cycle, was analyzed in tumor samples obtained from the two affected cases in the initial phase and from one of these cases at relapse. The DNA sample obtained from the case in initial diagnosis phase revealed no p53, p57KIP2, p16INK4A or p15INK4B mutation. He is still in remission phase. Despite the lack of p53, p57KIP2, p16INK4A and p15INK4B mutation at initial diagnosis the tumor DNA of the other case in relapse revealed p53 codon 243 (ATG-->ATC; met-->ile) and p16 codon 97 (GAC-->AAC; asp-->asn) missense point mutations. No loss of heterozygosity in p53 and p16INK4A was observed by microsatellite analysis of tumoral tissues in these cases. P53 and p16INK4A mutations observed in relapse phase were in conserved regions of both genes. No previous reports have been published with these mutations in glomus tumor during progression. The mutation observed in this case may due to radiotherapy. In spite of this possibility, the missense point mutations in conserved region of p53 and p16INK4A genes may indicate the role of p53 and p16INK4A in tumor progression of glomus tumors.  (+info)

Primary endometrioid carcinoma of fallopian tube. Clinicomorphologic study. (5/1469)

Twenty cases of primary Fallopian tube endometrioid carcinoma (PFTEC) are presented in the paper. This accounts for 42.5% of all histologic forms of primary Fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) found in our Department. The youngest patient was 38, and the oldest 68 years (mean: 56 years). Seven patients were nulliparas. Only two cases were bilateral. According to FIGO staging, 13 cases were evaluated as stage I, 4 as II, and 3 as stage III. Due to the histologic grading, 8 tumors were classified as well, 7 as moderately, and 5 as poorly differentiated. In the time of preparation of the manuscript, 12 women were still alive, 2 of them with recurrent disease. The follow-up of patients without recurrence ranged from 4 to 120 months (median: 63). Eight patients had died (survival time: from 4 to 65 months; median: 26). Metastases were found in 8 patients, especially to ovaries. In 14/20 cases of PFTEC various forms of tubal wall invasion were observed. Blood or lymphatic vessels involvement was found in 9 patients. Six of them had died and one is alive with the symptoms of disease. Immunohistochemical detection of the mutant form of p53 protein and oncogene product, c-erbB-2, was studied in 17 cases. Nine patients exhibited simultaneous p53 protein accumulation and c-erbB-2 expression. 2/9 of these patients are alive with recurrent tumors and 4/9 died. Endometrioid carcinoma of the Fallopian tube can be characterized by a tendency to superficial invasion of tubal wall and in a half of the cases by invasion of vessels. The majority of these tumors were diagnosed at an early stage tumors.  (+info)

Epidemiological analysis of site relationships of synchronous and metachronous multiple primary cancers in the National Cancer Center, Japan, 1962-1996. (6/1469)

BACKGROUND: Multiple primary cancer (MPC) has been recognized as a problem commonly encountered in routine medical practice. A study of MPC is necessary not only to provide insights into the etiology of cancer, but also to provide information for effective medical care by clinical oncologists. METHODS: A cohort of 49,751 cancer patients who were admitted to the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1962 and 1996 was used to study the site relationship of MPC. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses using an internal reference group within the cohort were applied for the calculation of the prevalence odds ratio (POR) for site relationships of synchronous MPC and the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for those of metachronous MPC. RESULTS: Three site combinations with elevated risks for both synchronous and metachronous MPCs, eight with elevated risk for synchronous MPC, five with elevated risk for metachronous MPC and six with decreased risk for synchronous MPC were identified with statistical significance. Among them, the increased risk of metachronous stomach cancer following lymphoma and myeoloma (POR = 1.0 and 1.1, P > 0.05; IRR = 2.5, P < 0.05) and the inverse site-correlation of synchronous MPC between [trachea, bronchus and lung] and other sites of the upper aerodigestive tract [lip, oral cavity and pharynx] (POR = 0.5 and 0.3, P < 0.05) and esophagus (POR = 0.7 and 0.3, P < 0.05) have not been reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that interventions for lymphoma and myeloma might affect the development of subsequent stomach cancer and additional etiological factors other than tobacco smoking are associated with the development of cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract.  (+info)

Discrimination of double primary lung cancer from intrapulmonary metastasis by p53 gene mutation. (7/1469)

When multiple synchronous lung tumours are identified, discrimination of multicentric lung cancers from intrapulmonary metastases by clinical findings is often difficult. We used genetic alterations in p53 gene as a discrimination marker of double primary lung cancers from single lung cancer with intrapulmonary metastasis. Twenty of 861 patients with primary lung cancer who underwent lung resection were selected as subjects because they showed synchronous double solid tumours of the same histological type in the unilateral lung without distant metastases. In addition, they had been diagnosed as lung carcinoma with intrapulmonary metastasis by clinical and histological findings. DNAs were extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue of paired tumours from these 20 patients. Exons 5-9 of the p53 gene were examined for genetic alterations in the tumours by polymerase chain reaction, single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and subsequent DNA sequencing analysis. Three different patterns in the distribution of p53 mutations in double lung tumours were observed: [A] mutation in only one of the tumours (four cases), [B] different mutations in the tumours (two cases), and [C] same mutation in both tumours (one case). The cases of [A] or [B] patterns could be classified as double primary lung cancers, while the case of the [C] pattern was suggested to be lung cancer with intrapulmonary metastasis. These results suggested that the multicentric cancers were more frequent than the intrapulmonary metastatic cancers in double cancer cases.  (+info)

Mismatch repair gene defects contribute to the genetic basis of double primary cancers of the colorectum and endometrium. (8/1469)

Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a dominantly inherited cancer syndrome caused by germline defects of mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Endometrial cancer is the most common extracolonic neoplasm in HNPCC and is the primary clinical manifestation of the syndrome in some families. The cumulative incidence of endometrial cancer among HNPCC mutation carriers is high, estimated to be from 22 to 43%. We hypothesized that women with double primary cancers of the colorectum and endometrium are likely to be members of HNPCC families. In order to determine how frequently HNPCC manifests in the context of double primary cancers, we examined alterations of two MMR genes, hMSH2 and hMLH1, in 40 unrelated women affected with double primary cancers. These cases were identified using hospital-based and population-based cancer registries in Ontario, Canada. MMR gene mutations were screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Eighteen percent (seven of 40) were found to harbor mutations of one of the two MMR genes. Analysis of colorectal and/or endometrial tumors of mutation-negative probands found microsatellite instability in seven of 20 cases. Six of seven mutation-positive probands had strong family histories suggestive of HNPCC. First degree relatives of mutation-positive probands had a very high relative risk (RR) of colorectal cancer (RR = 8.1, CI 3. 5-15.9) and endometrial cancer (RR = 23.8, CI 6.4-61.0). The relative risk of mutation-negative cases was 2.8 (CI 1.7-4.5) for colorectal cancer and 5.4 (CI 2.0-11.7) for endometrial cancer. We recommend that all double primary patients with cancers at these sites should have a genetic evaluation, including molecular analysis for HNPCC where appropriate.  (+info)

Multiple primary neoplasms refer to the occurrence of more than one primary malignant tumor in an individual, where each tumor is unrelated to the other and originates from separate cells or organs. This differs from metastatic cancer, where a single malignancy spreads to multiple sites in the body. Multiple primary neoplasms can be synchronous (occurring at the same time) or metachronous (occurring at different times). The risk of developing multiple primary neoplasms increases with age and is associated with certain genetic predispositions, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption.

A "second primary neoplasm" is a distinct, new cancer or malignancy that develops in a person who has already had a previous cancer. It is not a recurrence or metastasis of the original tumor, but rather an independent cancer that arises in a different location or organ system. The development of second primary neoplasms can be influenced by various factors such as genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, and previous treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

It is important to note that the definition of "second primary neoplasm" may vary slightly depending on the specific source or context. In general medical usage, it refers to a new, separate cancer; however, in some research or clinical settings, there might be more precise criteria for defining and diagnosing second primary neoplasms.

Pulmonary adenomatosis is a rare condition that is characterized by the abnormal growth of benign tumors (adenomas) in the lungs. These tumors are made up of glands and can cause thickening and enlargement of the lung tissue, which can lead to symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing. In some cases, pulmonary adenomatosis may also be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. It is important to note that this condition is different from adenocarcinoma, which is a type of lung cancer that can also arise in the glands of the lungs.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the skin that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They result from uncontrolled multiplication of skin cells, which can form various types of lesions. These growths may appear as lumps, bumps, sores, patches, or discolored areas on the skin.

Benign skin neoplasms include conditions such as moles, warts, and seborrheic keratoses, while malignant skin neoplasms are primarily classified into melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. These three types of cancerous skin growths are collectively known as non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). Melanoma is the most aggressive and dangerous form of skin cancer, while NMSCs tend to be less invasive but more common.

It's essential to monitor any changes in existing skin lesions or the appearance of new growths and consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment if needed.

A germ-line mutation is a genetic change that occurs in the egg or sperm cells (gametes), and thus can be passed down from parents to their offspring. These mutations are present throughout the entire body of the offspring, as they are incorporated into the DNA of every cell during embryonic development.

Germ-line mutations differ from somatic mutations, which occur in other cells of the body that are not involved in reproduction. While somatic mutations can contribute to the development of cancer and other diseases within an individual, they are not passed down to future generations.

It's important to note that germ-line mutations can have significant implications for medical genetics and inherited diseases. For example, if a parent has a germ-line mutation in a gene associated with a particular disease, their offspring may have an increased risk of developing that disease as well.

Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a rare, hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome. It is characterized by a high risk of developing multiple types of cancers throughout an individual's lifetime. The condition is caused by mutations in the TP53 gene, which plays a crucial role in suppressing tumor growth and maintaining genomic stability.

Individuals with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome have an increased risk of developing various malignancies, including:

1. Sarcomas (soft tissue and bone cancers) - most commonly occurring before the age of 45
2. Breast cancer - often diagnosed at a younger age than sporadic cases
3. Leukemias (blood cancers)
4. Brain tumors, particularly gliomas and medulloblastomas
5. Adrenocortical carcinoma (a rare type of cancer affecting the adrenal glands)
6. Other cancers such as lung, melanoma, and gastrointestinal malignancies

Li-Fraumeni Syndrome is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, de novo (new) mutations can also occur, resulting in individuals with LFS who do not have a family history of the condition.

Due to the high risk of cancer development, individuals with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome require close surveillance and early intervention strategies to manage their cancer risk effectively. Regular screenings, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT) scans, and mammograms, are often recommended for early detection and treatment of potential malignancies.

Paget's disease of the nipple, also known as Paget's disease of the breast, is a rare type of cancer that starts in the breast ducts and spreads to the skin of the nipple and areola. The symptoms often include redness, itching, tingling, or burning of the nipple, which can also become flaky, scaly, or crusty. There may also be a discharge from the nipple.

The exact cause of Paget's disease is not known, but it is thought to be associated with underlying breast cancer in about 90% of cases. It is more common in women over the age of 50 and is usually diagnosed through a biopsy of the affected skin. Treatment typically involves removing the affected breast tissue, which may include a mastectomy, followed by radiation therapy.

It's important to note that Paget's disease of the nipple is different from benign paget's disease of the breast, which is a non-cancerous condition that can cause similar symptoms but does not spread to other parts of the body.

Melanoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. It typically occurs in the skin but can rarely occur in other parts of the body, including the eyes and internal organs. Melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and multiplication of melanocytes, which can form malignant tumors that invade and destroy surrounding tissue.

Melanoma is often caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, but it can also occur in areas of the body not exposed to the sun. It is more likely to develop in people with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes, but it can affect anyone, regardless of their skin type.

Melanoma can be treated effectively if detected early, but if left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the body and become life-threatening. Treatment options for melanoma include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. Regular skin examinations and self-checks are recommended to detect any changes or abnormalities in moles or other pigmented lesions that may indicate melanoma.

Hereditary neoplastic syndromes refer to genetic disorders that predispose affected individuals to develop tumors or cancers. These syndromes are caused by inherited mutations in specific genes that regulate cell growth and division. As a result, cells may divide and grow uncontrollably, leading to the formation of benign or malignant tumors.

Examples of hereditary neoplastic syndromes include:

1. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC): This syndrome is caused by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, which increase the risk of developing breast, ovarian, and other cancers.
2. Lynch syndrome: Also known as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), this syndrome is caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, leading to an increased risk of colon, endometrial, and other cancers.
3. Li-Fraumeni syndrome: This syndrome is caused by mutations in the TP53 gene, which increases the risk of developing a wide range of cancers, including breast, brain, and soft tissue sarcomas.
4. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): This syndrome is caused by mutations in the APC gene, leading to the development of numerous colon polyps that can become cancerous if not removed.
5. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1): This syndrome is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene and is characterized by the development of benign tumors called neurofibromas on the nerves and skin.
6. Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL): This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VHL gene, leading to an increased risk of developing various types of tumors, including kidney, pancreas, and adrenal gland tumors.

Individuals with hereditary neoplastic syndromes often have a higher risk of developing cancer than the general population, and they may require more frequent screening and surveillance to detect cancers at an early stage when they are more treatable.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract, which can be benign or malignant. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They can sometimes be removed completely and may not cause any further health problems.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These types of neoplasms can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

GI neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The specific symptoms may depend on the location and size of the neoplasm.

There are many types of GI neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), lymphomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of GI neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

p16, also known as CDKN2A, is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes the protein p16INK4a. This protein plays a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle by inhibiting the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6, which are essential for the progression from G1 to S phase.

The p16 gene is located on chromosome 9p21 and is often inactivated or deleted in various types of cancer, including lung, breast, and head and neck cancers. Inactivation of the p16 gene leads to uncontrolled cell growth and division, which can contribute to tumor development and progression.

Therefore, the p16 gene is an important tumor suppressor gene that helps prevent cancer by regulating cell growth and division.

Soft tissue neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the soft tissues of the body. Soft tissues include muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and synovial membranes (the thin layer of cells that line joints and tendons). Neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and their behavior and potential for spread depend on the specific type of neoplasm.

Benign soft tissue neoplasms are typically slow-growing, well-circumscribed, and rarely spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed surgically with a low risk of recurrence. Examples of benign soft tissue neoplasms include lipomas (fat tumors), schwannomas (nerve sheath tumors), and hemangiomas (blood vessel tumors).

Malignant soft tissue neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow rapidly, invade surrounding tissues, and may metastasize (spread) to distant parts of the body. They are often more difficult to treat than benign neoplasms and require a multidisciplinary approach, including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Examples of malignant soft tissue neoplasms include sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma (arising from skeletal muscle), leiomyosarcoma (arising from smooth muscle), and angiosarcoma (arising from blood vessels).

It is important to note that soft tissue neoplasms can occur in any part of the body, and their diagnosis and treatment require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional with expertise in this area.

p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a protein responsible for controlling cell growth and division. The p53 protein plays a crucial role in preventing the development of cancer by regulating the cell cycle and activating DNA repair processes when genetic damage is detected. If the damage is too severe to be repaired, p53 can trigger apoptosis, or programmed cell death, to prevent the propagation of potentially cancerous cells. Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes the p53 protein, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers and are often associated with a poor prognosis.

Osteosarcoma is defined as a type of cancerous tumor that arises from the cells that form bones (osteoblasts). It's the most common primary bone cancer, and it typically develops in the long bones of the body, such as the arms or legs, near the growth plates. Osteosarcoma can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body, including the lungs, making it a highly malignant form of cancer. Symptoms may include bone pain, swelling, and fractures. Treatment usually involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

Sarcoma is a type of cancer that develops from certain types of connective tissue (such as muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or nerves) found throughout the body. It can occur in any part of the body, but it most commonly occurs in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.

Sarcomas are classified into two main groups: bone sarcomas and soft tissue sarcomas. Bone sarcomas develop in the bones, while soft tissue sarcomas develop in the soft tissues of the body, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, fat, blood vessels, and nerves.

Sarcomas can be further classified into many subtypes based on their specific characteristics, such as the type of tissue they originate from, their genetic makeup, and their appearance under a microscope. The different subtypes of sarcoma have varying symptoms, prognoses, and treatment options.

Overall, sarcomas are relatively rare cancers, accounting for less than 1% of all cancer diagnoses in the United States each year. However, they can be aggressive and may require intensive treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the large intestine, also known as the colon. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two most common types of colonic neoplasms are adenomas and carcinomas.

Adenomas are benign tumors that can develop into cancer over time if left untreated. They are often found during routine colonoscopies and can be removed during the procedure.

Carcinomas, on the other hand, are malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and colonic neoplasms are a significant risk factor for developing this type of cancer.

Regular screenings for colonic neoplasms are recommended for individuals over the age of 50 or those with a family history of colorectal cancer or other risk factors. Early detection and removal of colonic neoplasms can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

DNA Mutational Analysis is a laboratory test used to identify genetic variations or changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence of a gene. This type of analysis can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, predict the risk of developing certain diseases, determine the most effective treatment for cancer, or assess the likelihood of passing on an inherited condition to offspring.

The test involves extracting DNA from a patient's sample (such as blood, saliva, or tissue), amplifying specific regions of interest using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and then sequencing those regions to determine the precise order of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule. The resulting sequence is then compared to reference sequences to identify any variations or mutations that may be present.

DNA Mutational Analysis can detect a wide range of genetic changes, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions, deletions, duplications, and rearrangements. The test is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations to provide a comprehensive assessment of a patient's genetic profile.

It is important to note that not all mutations are pathogenic or associated with disease, and the interpretation of DNA Mutational Analysis results requires careful consideration of the patient's medical history, family history, and other relevant factors.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

Head and neck neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the head and neck region, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can develop in various sites, including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and thyroid gland.

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and generally do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Head and neck neoplasms can have various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing; pain in the mouth, throat, or ears; persistent coughing or hoarseness; and swelling or lumps in the neck or face. Early detection and treatment of head and neck neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Neoplasms: Neoplasms refer to abnormal growths of tissue that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They occur when the normal control mechanisms that regulate cell growth and division are disrupted, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation.

Cystic Neoplasms: Cystic neoplasms are tumors that contain fluid-filled sacs or cysts. These tumors can be benign or malignant and can occur in various organs of the body, including the pancreas, ovary, and liver.

Mucinous Neoplasms: Mucinous neoplasms are a type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of mucin, a gel-like substance produced by certain types of cells. These tumors can occur in various organs, including the ovary, pancreas, and colon. Mucinous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, and malignant forms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

Serous Neoplasms: Serous neoplasms are another type of cystic neoplasm that is characterized by the production of serous fluid, which is a thin, watery fluid. These tumors commonly occur in the ovary and can be benign or malignant. Malignant serous neoplasms are often aggressive and have a poor prognosis.

In summary, neoplasms refer to abnormal tissue growths that can be benign or malignant. Cystic neoplasms contain fluid-filled sacs and can occur in various organs of the body. Mucinous neoplasms produce a gel-like substance called mucin and can also occur in various organs, while serous neoplasms produce thin, watery fluid and commonly occur in the ovary. Both mucinous and serous neoplasms can be benign or malignant, with malignant forms often being aggressive and having a poor prognosis.

Exons are the coding regions of DNA that remain in the mature, processed mRNA after the removal of non-coding intronic sequences during RNA splicing. These exons contain the information necessary to encode proteins, as they specify the sequence of amino acids within a polypeptide chain. The arrangement and order of exons can vary between different genes and even between different versions of the same gene (alternative splicing), allowing for the generation of multiple protein isoforms from a single gene. This complexity in exon structure and usage significantly contributes to the diversity and functionality of the proteome.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Tumor suppressor protein p53, also known as p53 or tumor protein p53, is a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a crucial role in preventing cancer development and maintaining genomic stability. It does so by regulating the cell cycle and acting as a transcription factor for various genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death), DNA repair, and cell senescence (permanent cell growth arrest).

In response to cellular stress, such as DNA damage or oncogene activation, p53 becomes activated and accumulates in the nucleus. Activated p53 can then bind to specific DNA sequences and promote the transcription of target genes that help prevent the proliferation of potentially cancerous cells. These targets include genes involved in cell cycle arrest (e.g., CDKN1A/p21), apoptosis (e.g., BAX, PUMA), and DNA repair (e.g., GADD45).

Mutations in the TP53 gene, which encodes p53, are among the most common genetic alterations found in human cancers. These mutations often lead to a loss or reduction of p53's tumor suppressive functions, allowing cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably and evade apoptosis. As a result, p53 has been referred to as "the guardian of the genome" due to its essential role in preventing tumorigenesis.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the kidney tissues that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various types of kidney cells, including the renal tubules, glomeruli, and the renal pelvis.

Malignant kidney neoplasms are also known as kidney cancers, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common type. Benign kidney neoplasms include renal adenomas, oncocytomas, and angiomyolipomas. While benign neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to compromise kidney function or if they undergo malignant transformation.

Early detection and appropriate management of kidney neoplasms are crucial for improving patient outcomes and overall prognosis. Regular medical check-ups, imaging studies, and urinalysis can help in the early identification of these growths, allowing for timely intervention and treatment.

3) Primary effusion lymphoma, human herpes virus-positive: Also termed primary effusion lymphoma, type I; it is usually ... A lymphoid neoplasm that disseminates widely like the plasma cell lesions in multiple myeloma or is localized like the plasma ... 4) Primary effusion lymphoma, human herpes virus-negative: Also termed primary effusion lymphoma, type II; it is characterized ... Lymphoid neoplasms with plasmablastic differentiation were classified by the World Health Organization, 2017 as a sub-grouping ...
Like pre-PMF, overt primary myelofibrosis is associated with JAK2, CALR, or MPL mutations. However, a bone marrow biopsy will ... chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma. Genetics is believed to play a central role in the development of MPNs, ... In MPNs, the neoplasm (abnormal growth) starts out as benign and can later become malignant. As of 2016, the World Health ... Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are a group of rare blood cancers in which excess red blood cells, white blood cells or ...
... histiocytic neoplasm which arises in multiple sites simultaneously. Most lesions previously defined as MH are probably more ... Primary lesions of HS occur in spleen, lymph node, lung, bone marrow, skin and subcutis especially of extremities. Secondary ... Delayed regression of multiple histiocytomas can occur and lesions can persist for up to 10 months. Recently, several cases of ... The presence of multiple histiocytomas is now a well recognized syndrome. However, there is yet another presentation in which ...
See here for a tabular overview of primary, secondary, in situ, and benign neoplasms. 140 Malignant neoplasm of lip 141 ... malignant neoplasms of lymphoid and histiocytic tissue 203 Multiple myeloma and immunoproliferative neoplasms 203.0 Multiple ... benign neoplasm of uterus 220 Benign neoplasm of ovary 221 Benign neoplasm of other female genital organs 222 Benign neoplasm ... neoplasm of major salivary glands 143 Malignant neoplasm of gum 144 Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth 145 Malignant neoplasm ...
These neoplasms also accounted for 73% of the multiple primary cancers occurring in 15 family members. Six of these patients ... and other neoplasms in young patients. Cancer developed in an autosomal dominant pattern in 151 blood relatives, 119 (79%) of ... and other neoplasms". Science. 250 (4985): 1233-8. Bibcode:1990Sci...250.1233M. doi:10.1126/science.1978757. PMID 1978757. P53 ...
In 2016, the WHO revised their classification of myeloproliferative neoplasms to define Prefibrotic primary myelofibrosis as a ... Lacy MQ, Tefferi A (April 2011). "Pomalidomide therapy for multiple myeloma and myelofibrosis: an update". Leukemia & Lymphoma ... the primary diagnostic difference being the grade of fibrosis. The primary feature of primary myelofibrosis is bone marrow ... Barosi G (2011). "Conventional and Investigational Therapy for Primary Myelofibrosis". Myeloproliferative Neoplasms. pp. 117- ...
She expanded her research to the study of multiple primary cancers, evaluating the carcinogenic effects of radiotherapy and ... During her doctoral and postdoctoral training, she focused her research on understanding the causes of lymphoid neoplasms. In ... Patricia Hartge of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) was Morton's primary advisor during her final year of her dissertation. ...
... origin or other soft tissue neoplasms. The primary method for treatment is surgical, not medical. Radiation and chemotherapy ... Multiple granular cell tumors may seen in the context of LEOPARD syndrome, due to a mutation in the PTPN11 gene. These tumors, ... Feb 2009). "Multiple granular cell tumors are an associated feature of LEOPARD syndrome caused by mutation in PTPN11". Clin ... on occasion, may appear similar to neoplasms of renal (relating to the kidneys) ...
It also confirms the genetic heterogeneity between the primary neoplasm of breast cancer patients and their respective ... Multiple combinations and genetic modifications are made in such a way that either one or all the genes are put into a ... Metastasis is a process of migration of tumour cells from the primary cancer site to a distant location where the cancer cells ... Many of the genes driving the growth at primary site can determine the dissemination and colonization at the ectopic site. ...
While chondrosarcoma is the most common form of a secondary malignant bone neoplasm found in cases of Ollier disease, other ... This provides credence to the theory that multiple genetic mutations are needed to occur in order for Ollier disease to ... Sanger sequencing analysis concluded that exon 4 is the primary location of mutations in IDH1 and IDH2 genes are specifically ... Early detection and consistent and repeated monitoring is important in order to prevent and treat any potential bone neoplasms ...
Mucinous carcinoma entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms v t e v t e (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ... Eccrine carcinoma Microcystic adnexal carcinoma Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma List of cutaneous conditions ... A mucinous neoplasm (also called colloid neoplasm) is an abnormal and excessive growth of tissue (neoplasia) with associated ... neoplasms, and cysts, All stub articles, Oncology stubs, Epidermal nevi, neoplasm, cyst stubs). ...
The neoplasms are often associated with the presence of unerupted teeth, displacement of adjacent teeth and resorption of roots ... Usually presents with multiple large cystic areas. Ameloblastoma with a single cyst cavity account for around 10% of ... Metastasis' look histologically identical to the primary tumour and are benign in nature. The peripheral subtype composes 2% of ... Smaller mandibular neoplasms have been enucleated where the cavity of the tumour is curetted, allowing preservation of the bone ...
... may refer to: Ruy Lopez chess openings ECO code Malignant neoplasms of independent (primary) multiple sites ICD-10 code ...
... arise as primary neoplasms in lymph nodes of the pancreaticoduodenal region (gastrinoma triangle). Most gastrinomas are ... One fourth of gastrinomas are related to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, peptic ulcer disease ... The primary function of gastrin is to induce the release of hydrochloric acid (HCl) from the parietal cells located in the ... Patients with gastrinomas that are also known to be part of neuroendocrine neoplasms must have to deal with two factors related ...
... uncertain whether primary or metastatic site M8000/0 Neoplasm, benign Tumor, benign Unclassified tumor, benign M8000/1 Neoplasm ... NOS M8220/3 Adenocarcinoma in adenomatous polyposis M8221/0 Multiple adenomatous polyps M8221/3 Adenocarcinoma in multiple ... NOS M8000/6 Neoplasm, metastatic Neoplasm, metastatic Tumor, metastatic Tumor, secondary Tumor embolus M8000/9 Neoplasm, ... Lymphomatoid papulosis Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma Primary cutaneous CD30+ large T-cell lymphoma M9719/3 ...
... loss of Nol3 also leads to hematological disruption in mice resulting in a myeloproliferative neoplasm resembling primary ... Nol3 has been shown to be induced in multiple cancer types and acts as a repressor of apoptosis leading to resistance and ...
Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma Mast cell leukemia Mediastinal large B cell lymphoma Multiple myeloma/plasma cell neoplasm ... leukemia Primary central nervous system lymphoma Primary cutaneous follicular lymphoma Primary cutaneous immunocytoma Primary ... However, some body parts contain multiple types of tissue, so for greater precision, cancers are additionally classified by the ... Lymphomas of primary cutaneous origin (e.g. mycosis fungoides) Adenocarcinoma of the lung Basaloid squamous cell lung carcinoma ...
Hisada, M.; Garber, J. E.; Li, F. P.; Fung, C. Y.; Fraumeni, J. F. (1998). "Multiple Primary Cancers in Families With Li- ... Li F.P.; Fraumeni J.F. (October 1969). "Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer, and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome?". Ann. ... before age 56 years or with multiple tumors at any age Multiple tumors (except multiple breast tumors), two of which belong to ... About 2-3% of osteosarcomas, 9% of rhabdomyosarcomas, and 7-20% of patients with multiple primary tumours have p53 mutations.[ ...
A neoplasm is a tissue whose cells have lost normal differentiation. They can be either benign growths or malignant growths. ... The syndrome was first described in 1863 by Virchow on a 15-year-old boy with multiple polyps in his colon. The syndrome ... The malignant growths can either have primary or secondary causes. Adenomatous polyps are considered precursors to cancer and ... Individuals with multiple juvenile polyps have at least 10% chance of developing malignancy and should undergo abdominal ...
... and hematopoietic neoplasms of bone. Bone tumors may be classified as "primary tumors", which originate in bone or from bone- ... Multiple myeloma is a hematologic cancer, originating in the bone marrow, which also frequently presents as one or more bone ... Secondary malignant bone tumors are estimated to be 50 to 100 times as common as primary bone cancers.[citation needed] Primary ... Rarely, primary bone malignancies such as osteosarcoma may also spread to other bones. Reliable and valid statistics on the ...
LGMFS tumors typically contain one or multiple nodules embedded in a grey-white whorled cut surface. They appear to be ... The diagnosis of LGFMS rest primary on its tumors' histology consisting of spindle-shaped fibroblastic cells in the appropriate ... These findings can differentiate LGFMS from various spindle-shaped cell and myxoid neoplasms including benign soft tissue ... Radiation therapy combined with partial surgical resection or radiation therapy alone have been used in cases where the primary ...
April 2008). "Primary extramedullary plasmacytoma: similarities with and differences from multiple myeloma revealed by ... Hematologic malignant neoplasms, Lymphoid-related cutaneous conditions, Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases). ... and multiple plasmacytomas that are either primary or recurrent. The most common of these is SPB, accounting for 3-5% of all ... Most cases of SPB progress to multiple myeloma within 2-4 years of diagnosis, but the overall median survival for SPB is 7-12 ...
No cases of primary follicular lymphoma of the testis have been reported to progress to t-FL. Surgery followed by less ... In consequence, multiple B-cell clones that exhibit increasing genomic alterations and malignant behaviors populate the ... 2022). "The 5th edition of the World Health Organization Classification of Haematolymphoid Tumours: Lymphoid Neoplasms". ... Pyeon SI, Song GA, Baek DH, Kim GH, Lee BE, Lee SJ, Yoon JB, Han SY, Park DY (February 2017). "Primary Follicular Lymphoma in ...
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma Hairy cell leukemia Plasma cell neoplasms: Plasma cell myeloma (also known as multiple myeloma) ... skin erythema and peripheral blood involvement Primary cutaneous CD30-positive T cell lymphoproliferative disorders Primary ... Historically, mature histiocytic and dendritic cell (HDC) neoplasms have been considered mature lymphoid neoplasms, since these ... lymphoma classification should reflect in which lymphocyte population the neoplasm arises. Thus, neoplasms that arise from ...
The incidence of mammary desmoid tumors is less than 0.2% of primary breast neoplasms. In Gardner's syndrome, the incidence ... multiple jaw osteomas that give a "cotton-wool" appearance to the jaws, as well as multiple odontomas, congenital hypertrophy ... Nuances in the understanding of genetics have caused some disorders to be split into multiple entities, while others merged ... Baranov E, Hornick JL (March 2020). "Soft Tissue Special Issue: Fibroblastic and Myofibroblastic Neoplasms of the Head and Neck ...
Primary cilia play a role in inhibiting the canonical Wnt signaling pathway ( Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway) by sequestering ... FLCN has multiple phosphorylation sites including serine 62, which are differentially affected by FNIP1 binding and by ... April 2002). "Risk of renal and colonic neoplasms and spontaneous pneumothorax in the Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome". Cancer ... November 2010). "Primary cilia regulate mTORC1 activity and cell size through Lkb1". Nature Cell Biology. 12 (11): 1115-22. doi ...
... folliculitis Primary cutaneous aspergillosis Primary cutaneous coccidioidomycosis Primary cutaneous histoplasmosis Primary ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 3 (mucosal neuromata with endocrine tumors, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B, multiple ... neoplasms, and cysts are skin lesions that develop from the epidermal layer of the skin. Aberrant basal cell carcinoma ... Multiple keratoacanthomas (Ferguson-Smith syndrome, Ferguson-Smith type of multiple self-healing keratoacanthomas, multiple ...
Soga J (March 2003). "Primary endocrinomas (carcinoids and variant neoplasms) of the gallbladder. A statistical evaluation of ... multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease ... Soga J (December 2002). "Primary hepatic endocrinomas (carcinoids and variant neoplasms). A statistical evaluation of 126 ... G1 and G2 neuroendocrine neoplasms are called neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) - formerly called carcinoid tumours. G3 neoplasms ...
... which is linked to increased resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy It is a specific antigen on multiple myeloma ... "Predictive value of syndecan-1 expression for the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of primary breast cancer". Anticancer ... a plasma cell marker immunohistochemical profile in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic neoplasms". American Journal of Clinical ... In Combination With Lenalidomide and Low-Dose Dexamethasone In Patients With Relapsed and/Or Refractory Multiple Myeloma: ...
The Avian Diagnostic and Oncology Laboratory, in East Lansing, MI is the primary laboratory for research in REV and other tumor ... Reticuloendotheliosis virus represents a third distinct etiological group of avian viral neoplasms, after Marek's disease and ... multiple names: authors list, Use dmy dates from July 2014, Articles with 'species' microformats, Viral diseases, Poultry ... multiple names: authors list (link) Niewiadomska, Anna Maria; Gifford, Robert J. (27 August 2013). "The Extraordinary ...
... study analyzed the genetic susceptibility of gene polymorphisms in three patients with multiple primary malignant neoplasms and ... Cases of more than three primary cancers are very rare. This ... Treatment and prognosis of multiple primary malignant neoplasms ... Keywords: DNA damage repair; FA/BRCA pathway; Multiple primary malignant neoplasms; gene polymorphisms; second-generation whole ... A Multiple Primary Malignancy Patient With FANCA Gene Mutation: A Case Report and Literature Review. Xia Q, Zhao LY, Yan YD, ...
Do they differ significantly from those of primary CML? ... Multiple myeloma. CT+RT. 17. NA. t(9;22). BCR/ABL. NA. DB. 7+. ... Primary Disease. Therapy for Primary Disease. Interval to CML, mo. CML Phase. Conventional Cytogenetics. FISH for BCR/ABL. ... Primary Disease. Therapy for Primary Disease. Interval to CML, mo. CML Phase. Conventional Cytogenetics. FISH for BCR/ABL. ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Following Treatment for Primary Neoplasms or Other Medical Conditions. A Report of 21 Cases and Review ...
C97 (Malignant neoplasms of independent [primary] multiple sites). Tobacco usec (Intermediate cause: Tracheostomy due to ... Multiple cerebrovascular accidents - nontraumatic. I64 (Stroke, not specified as hemorrhage or infarction). Multiple ... C509 (Malignant neoplasm of breast of unspecified site). Bilateral pneumonia (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis). ... C349 (Malignant neoplasm of bronchus or lung, unspecified)b. Neutropenia. D70 (Neutropenia). Wegeners granulomatosisc ( ...
Multiple primary malignant neoplasms of different tissues or organs. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in a given organ ( ... o Intricacies of coding multiple primary tumors, sequencing multiple tumors, and distinguishing recurrence from a new primary. ... "Multiple primary malignant tumors. A survey of the literature and a statistical study." (17), and Moertel CG "Multiple primary ... Multiple primary malignant neoplasms. Their incidence and significance. Recent Results in Cancer Research. 1966:7. Return to ...
Multiple primary neoplasms. A report of a case with dental involvement].. Nardi P; Barone R; Bianchi S. Minerva Stomatol; 1990 ... 8. Multiple neoplasia in a patient with pituitary acromegaly.. Lamba PS; Bhansali A; Bose SM; Dash RJ. J Assoc Physicians India ...
Revision history for the Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Neoplasm Coding Manual and Database: diagnostic confirmation, M rules, ... Note added regarding Multiple Primaries Calculator (MPC):. *The multiple primaries calculator (MPC) is to be used only when the ... This secondary involvement excludes rare primary lymphoid neoplasms of spleen, lung involvement, liver or CNS (see PH Rules). ... Changes in same primaries: *Many changes were done to same primaries (multiple primary calculator). These are due to errors ...
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / chemistry * Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / immunology * Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology* ...
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Multiple hepatic adenomas and a hepatocellular carcinoma in a man on oral methyl testosterone for eleven years P R Boyd et al. ... Multiple hepatic adenomas and a hepatocellular carcinoma in a man on oral methyl testosterone for eleven years P R Boyd, G J ... Androgen related primary hepatic tumors in non-Fanconi patients. Westaby D, Portmann B, Williams R. Westaby D, et al. Cancer. ...
3) Primary effusion lymphoma, human herpes virus-positive: Also termed primary effusion lymphoma, type I; it is usually ... A lymphoid neoplasm that disseminates widely like the plasma cell lesions in multiple myeloma or is localized like the plasma ... 4) Primary effusion lymphoma, human herpes virus-negative: Also termed primary effusion lymphoma, type II; it is characterized ... Lymphoid neoplasms with plasmablastic differentiation were classified by the World Health Organization, 2017 as a sub-grouping ...
In PTMC patients with a solitary primary tumor, tumor location can assist in the evaluation of LLNM. We recommend multicenter ... Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology * Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery * Retrospective Studies * Risk Factors ... In PTMC patients with a solitary primary tumor, tumor location can assist in the evaluation of LLNM. We recommend multicenter ... In patients with a solitary primary tumor, tumor location in the upper third of the thyroid lobe was associated with a lower ...
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Simonich MT, McQuistan T, Jubert C, Pereira C, Hendricks JD, Schimerlik M, Zhu B, Dashwood RH, ... Filters: Author is Bailey, George S and Keyword is Neoplasms, Multiple Primary [Clear All Filters] ...
Primary tumors and their various developmental stages can now be characterized molecularly by comparative whole genome ... However, one must keep in mind that SV40 large T antigen targets multiple cellular pathways to elicit cellular transformation [ ... ETS-1 and ETS-2 are upregulated in a transgenic mouse model of pigmented ocular neoplasm G. De la Houssaye,1 V. Vieira,1 C. ... We then investigated ETS-1 and ETS-2 gene expressions in a mouse model of pigmented ocular neoplasm. We showed that ETS-1 and ...
Meningiomas account for approximately 20% of all primary intracranial neoplasms. However, the true prevalence is likely higher ... Multiple meningiomas in a patient with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2005 Jan. 102(1):167-8. [QxMD ... Multiple cranial nerve deficits (II, III, IV, V, VI), leading to decreased vision and diplopia with associated facial numbness ... Radiation therapy for primary optic nerve meninigiomas. J Clin Neuroph. 1981. 1:85-99. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
A research for multiple endocrine neoplasm types 1 and 2A was negative. ... Brown Tumor of the Maxilla Revealing Primary Hyperparathyroidism () Madiha Mahfoudhi1*, Khaled Khamassi2, Amel Gaieb Battikh1, ... Primary hyperparathyroidism induces two main complications: bones and kidneys lesions.. It leads to renal stones formation or ... The aim of this study is to remind clinicians that brown tumors should be considered as rare revealing forms of primary ...
In addition to discussing multiple primaries, four prominent scientists will discuss the incidence and prevalence of such ... Neoplasms, Second Primary Publication Types: Lecture. Webcast NLM Classification: QZ 200 NLM ID: 101306097 ... In addition to discussing multiple primaries, four prominent scientists will discuss the incidence and prevalence of such ... Science Writers Seminar on Second Cancers The topics will include discussion of a just-released monograph on multiple primary ...
multiple primary tumors in a patient with breast cancer, vulvar cancer, pancreatic cancer and pancreatic paraganglioma: ... pathogenesis of these neoplasms. 25.000. Trine Rennebod Larsen. Department of Biochemistry. The impact of dysglycaemia on ... Familial Multiple Lipomatosis (FML) ‐ exomsekventering mhp. identifikation af mono‐genetisk årsag.. 14.000. ... Muscle strain in multiple sclerosis patients measured by ultrasound speckle tracking technique. 20.000. ...
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary 1 0 Ovarian Neoplasms 1 0 Bipolar Disorder 1 0 ... Endometrial Neoplasms 1 0 Note: The number of publications displayed in this table will differ from the number displayed in the ...
Multiple primary neoplasms in one individual (spindle-cell sarcoma of fore-arm, adenocarcinoma of pylorus, myomata of ... A case of primary adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with secondaries in both adrenals, melanosis of skin (Addisons disease?) ...
The primary personnel are cancer registrars who train the people who collect these cases from in-patient and out-patient ... Just to give you a sense of this effort, I wrote and revised the draft paper multiple times with colleagues from the CDC and ... Among the problems are that the leukemias (and other types of hematologic neoplasms) are rare. And to be able to say something ... Single or even multiple epidemiologic studies are never sufficient to make decisions about what is carcinogenic. These types of ...
Myeloma -- A primary tumor of the bone marrow. Multiple myeloma is a disseminated plasma cell cancer affecting multiple sites ... Neoplasm -- A new growth of tissue serving no physiological function; a tumor. ... DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid -- The primary genetic material of all cellular organisms and the DNA viruses. Located ... and three phosphate groups that is the primary carrier of chemical energy in cells. The terminal phosphate groups are highly ...
Multiple enlarged Retroperitoneal (RP) nodes. No pleural effusion. Findings suggestive of primary malignant left Ovarian ... neoplasm with diffuse omentoperitoneal spread of disease, metastatic omental deposits and metastatic abdominal nodes with ... Similar density multiple omental soft tissue nodules seen in the abdomen in the right sub-hepatic space. Diffuse omental caking ... which I received multiple times. This did not include the other chemo drugs, the prescriptions that go along with treatment, ...
... neoplasms_of_multiple_primary_sites,modify,29-SEP-06,(null),(null) C4798,Recurrent_Neoplasm,modify,29-SEP-06,(null),(null) ... neoplasms_of_multiple_primary_sites,modify,29-SEP-06,(null),(null) C4798,Recurrent_Neoplasm,modify,29-SEP-06,(null),(null) ... Primary_Neoplasm,modify,29-SEP-06,(null),(null) C35933,Distantly_Metastatic_Neoplasm,modify,29-SEP-06,(null),(null) C46067, ... Primary_Neoplasm,modify,29-SEP-06,(null),(null) C35933,Distantly_Metastatic_Neoplasm,modify,29-SEP-06,(null),(null) C46067, ...
ICD 10 code for Malignant neoplasm of endocrine pancreas. Get free rules, notes, crosswalks, synonyms, history for ICD-10 code ... Primary malignant neoplasms overlapping site boundaries. *A primary malignant neoplasm that overlaps two or more contiguous ( ... For multiple neoplasms of the same site that are not contiguous, such as tumors in different quadrants of the same breast, ... Primary malignant neoplasm of islets of langerhans. Clinical Information *A malignant endocrine neoplasm arising from islets of ...
Multiple myeloma, stage III, relapsing after therapy with both a proteasome inhibitor and an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) -Age ... Primary myelofibrosis of intermediate-2 or higher risk by the DIPSS --Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia --Chronic myelogenous ... Mature T or NK neoplasms as defined in the WHO guidelines of sufficient type and severity for allogeneic HCT based on the ... People ages 15-65 with leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma that is not curable with standard therapy and is at high risk of ...
Do they differ significantly from those of primary CML? ... Multiple myeloma. CT+RT. 17. NA. t(9;22). BCR/ABL. NA. DB. 7+. ... Primary Disease. Therapy for Primary Disease. Interval to CML, mo. CML Phase. Conventional Cytogenetics. FISH for BCR/ABL. ... Primary Disease. Therapy for Primary Disease. Interval to CML, mo. CML Phase. Conventional Cytogenetics. FISH for BCR/ABL. ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Following Treatment for Primary Neoplasms or Other Medical Conditions. A Report of 21 Cases and Review ...
2017). The hypermethylation of TET1 gene has been found in multiple primary tumors (Li et al. 2016), and DNMT3A-mediated ... 2014) and has also been reported in a small fraction (4.4%) of myeloproliferative neoplasms (Chim et al. 2010). We showed that ... Methylation of TET2, CBL and CEBPA in Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. J Clin Pathol 63(10):942-946, PMID: 20671051. ... Evaluation of low doses BPA-induced perturbation of glycemia by toxicogenomics points to a primary role of pancreatic islets ...
  • 2) Plasmablastic plasma cell lymphoma or plasmablastic plasmacytoma: A lymphoid neoplasm that disseminates widely like the plasma cell lesions in multiple myeloma or is localized like the plasma cell lesions in plasmacytoma. (
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) , also known as plasma cell myeloma , is a multifocal proliferation of plasma cells based in the bone marrow . (
  • Multiple myeloma remains incurable. (
  • Multiple myeloma accounts for one of the 'M's in the popular mnemonic for lucent bone lesions FEGNOMASHIC . (
  • As per the WHO classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues , multiple myeloma is called plasma cell myeloma 14 . (
  • Smoldering multiple myeloma refers to a form that falls on the spectrum between monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) and active multiple myeloma. (
  • Patients are asymptomatic, with worse biochemistry than MGUS but without the end-organ damage of active multiple myeloma 9 . (
  • Multiple myeloma and osteosarcoma combined account for ~50% of all primary bone malignancies 7 . (
  • 1 B cell neoplasms other than multiple myeloma including non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and acute and chronic leukaemias might also exhibit lytic bone lesions, hypercalcaemia, and monoclonal gammopathy via the particular actions of interleukin (IL-1), IL-6, or tumour necrosis factor-α secreted by the neoplastic B cell clone, but not reported previously secondary to a primary cerebral lymphoma. (
  • 5. Which of the following is a characteristic feature of multiple myeloma? (
  • ABSTRACT Multiple myeloma (MM) is a systemic malignancy of pathologic plasma cells that is treatable with chemotherapeutic agents and irradiation, but rarely curable. (
  • Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer of the plasma cells. (
  • Multiple Myeloma Multiple myeloma is a cancer of plasma cells that produce monoclonal immunoglobulin and invade and destroy adjacent bone tissue. (
  • Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms . (
  • Malignant neoplasms of ectopic tissue are to be coded to the site mentioned, e.g., ectopic pancreatic malignant neoplasms are coded to pancreas, unspecified ( C25.9 ). (
  • Sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of acrolein in experimental animals was demonstrated in two rodent species: acrolein increased the incidence of malignant neoplasms in mice and increased the incidence of the combination of benign and malignant neoplasms in rats. (
  • Choroid plexus neoplasms are rare, intraventricular, primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors derived from choroid plexus epithelium that are seen predominantly in children. (
  • [ 2 , 3 ] In adults, they account for less than 1% of primary intracranial neoplasms, whereas choroid plexus tumors represent up to 5% of pediatric brain tumors, and up to 20% of those arising in children aged 1 year and younger. (
  • 3. Torre D. Multiple sebaceous tumors. (
  • Incidence of primary large bowel lymphomas comprises only 0.2-0.6% of large bowel malignant tumors ( 3 ). (
  • The frequency of meningiomas in Africa is nearly 30% of all primary intracranial tumors. (
  • Hemangiosarcomas are locally invasive and multicentric ( having two or more primary tumors ). (
  • The focused ultrasound assessment with sonograms in trauma (FAST) revealed multiple tumors in the heart which were then confirmed in echocardiographic examination performed by a veterinary cardiologist. (
  • Heart tumors (HT) are uncommon in companion animals, accounting for roughly 0.2% of all neoplasms. (
  • For multiple neoplasms of the same site that are not contiguous, such as tumors in different quadrants of the same breast, codes for each site should be assigned. (
  • Gardner syndrome is an autosomal dominant form of polyposis characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in the colon together with tumors outside the colon. (
  • Sarcomas are rare, malignant tumors, consisting of only 1% of all neoplasms. (
  • He was the first to recognize the process of metastasis and separated primary bone tumors from metastatic tumors. (
  • In dogs diagnosed with testicular neoplasia, anywhere from 4-20% of cases will have multiple primary tumors, as seen in this case. (
  • Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary malignant ocular tumor in human adults. (
  • We have studied the transgenic mouse strain, Tyrp-1-TAg, to try to gain insight into possible molecular mechanisms common to pigmented ocular neoplasms occurring spontaneously in the eyes of these mice and human choroidal melanoma. (
  • Survival for patients with single and multiple primary melanomas: the genes, environment, and melanoma study. (
  • Little is known about survival after a diagnosis of a second or higher-order (multiple) primary melanoma, and no study has explored survival in a population-based sample that included patients with single primary melanomas (SPMs) and multiple primary melanomas (MPMs) of any stage. (
  • Because people with a first primary melanoma are known to have an increased risk of being diagnosed with another, evidence for prognosis is needed.To determine whether survival after diagnosis was better in patients with MPMs than with SPMs, as suggested in a recent study. (
  • Lee V, Gessler D, Cataltepe O. Case report: cranial angiosarcoma with multiple hemorrhagic brain metastasis in a child. (
  • Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) with yttrium 90 is increasingly utilized for the treatment of hepatic neoplasms, whether primary (particularly hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) or metastatic (particularly colorectal). (
  • Lymphoid neoplasms with plasmablastic differentiation were classified by the World Health Organization, 2017 as a sub-grouping of several distinct but rare lymphomas in which the malignant cells are B-cell lymphocytes that have become plasmablasts, i.e. immature plasma cells. (
  • Due to their malignant nature, however, the plasmablasts in lymphoid neoplasms with plasmablastic differentiation do not mature into plasma cells or form antibodies but rather uncontrollably proliferate in and damage various tissues and organs. (
  • The lymphoid neoplasms with plasmacytic differentiation are: 1) Plasmablastic lymphoma: The most common of these lymphoid neoplasms. (
  • 6) Human herpesvirus 8-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified: This lymphoid neoplasm usually arises from the lymphoproliferative disease, idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease. (
  • Except for human herpesvirus 8-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified, these lymphoid neoplasms are often associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection of the malignant plasmablastic cells. (
  • In cases so infected, the lymphoid neoplasm may result, at least in part, from this viral infection and therefore can be considered as examples of the Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. (
  • 10. Which of the following is a common finding in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs)? (
  • Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. (
  • Early diagnosis of primary intestinal NK/T cell lymphoma is frequently difficult. (
  • Here, we present the most updated incidence rates of second primary malignancy from original diagnosis of PTC by using the data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results. (
  • Staging procedures including CT of the abdomen and pelvis, bilateral bone marrow aspiration, and biopsies were within normal limits precluding the diagnosis of primary cerebral lymphoma. (
  • BACKGROUND: Spinal metastases are being diagnosed more frequently because of increasing life expectancies and advances in the diagnosis and therapy of primary tumours. (
  • The occurrence of this tumor in the heart has been described only in a few publications in dogs, and such a multiple heart RMS as presented below is an extremely uncommon diagnosis not only in veterinary but also in human medicine. (
  • If the features of anxiety that are seen are not typical for a primary anxiety disorder, and there is a medical condition present, this is an indication that anxiety due to another medical condition may be an appropriate diagnosis. (
  • Given history, a Sertoli cell tumor is the primary differential diagnosis, with other testicular neoplasms considered less likely. (
  • Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma is a rare non-Hodgkin lymphoma mainly involving the upper aerodigestive tract, even rarer is primary extranasal disease involving the intestine. (
  • We present a case of primary intestinal NK/T cell lymphoma with diagnostic challenge, which eventually developed into multiple intestinal perforations. (
  • Primary cerebral lymphoma is a unique and infrequent CNS malignancy in which the B lymphocyte subtype constitutes most cases. (
  • 2 We describe an unusual presentation of a B cell primary cerebral lymphoma mimicking a plasma cell dyscrasia. (
  • Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system. (
  • Increased risk of second primary malignancy (SPM) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been reported. (
  • Increased risk of second primary malignancy (SPM) in PTC has been reported in several cancer registry and epidemiologic studies [ 3 - 10 ]. (
  • RÉSUMÉ Le myélome multiple est un cancer systémique caractérisé par des cellules plasmatiques anormales, qui peut être traité par des agents chimiothérapeutiques et par irradiation, mais qui est rarement curable. (
  • Title : The effect of multiple primary rules on population-based cancer survival Personal Author(s) : Weir, Hannah K.;Johnson, Christopher J.;Thompson, Trevor D. (
  • Choroid plexus neoplasms can produce hydrocephalus and increased intracranial pressure by a number of mechanisms, including obstruction of normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, overproduction of CSF by the tumor itself, local expansion of the ventricles, or spontaneous hemorrhage. (
  • Meningiomas account for approximately 20% of all primary intracranial neoplasms. (
  • Common types of MPNs include chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). (
  • 1. Which of the following is NOT a primary characteristic feature of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)? (
  • Prognosis depends on multiple factors, but Ewing sarcoma can be curable even when metastatic. (
  • 18 With the exception of the ovarian neoplasms, the same carcinomas analyzed for gene expression were also examined for HE4 by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (see below). (
  • 11 Lee EJ, Chung HW, Jo JH, So Y. Radioembolization for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancers. (
  • The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. (
  • Radioembolization with 90 yttrium microspheres: a state-of-the-art brachytherapy treatment for primary and secondary liver malignancies. (
  • Examination of cells whether from a primary or secondary site, including fluids aspirated using endoscopes or needles. (
  • It can be present in two forms: primary or secondary. (
  • The overall annual incidence of choroid plexus neoplasms for all ages is 0.3 cases per million. (
  • Multiple primary carcinomata of the colon duodenum and larynx associated with keratoacanthoma of the face. (
  • Colonoscopy showed multiple irregular ulcers in colon. (
  • The resected specimen showed multiple perforations of the colon. (
  • In this paper, we describe a very rare case of ENKTL involving the colon with multiple intestinal perforations. (
  • A total of three colonoscopes and biopsies were performed for the patient, and the results showed multiple irregular ulcers in the whole colon ( Figure 1 ). (
  • CRC is a neoplasm that develops in the colon or rectum. (
  • Gardner syndrome can be identified based on oral findings, including multiple impacted and supernumerary teeth , multiple jaw osteomas that give a "cotton-wool" appearance to the jaws, as well as multiple odontomas , congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), in addition to multiple adenomatous polyps of the colon. (
  • MRI of the whole neuraxis for detection of other lesions typical of multiple sclerosis (MS), in combination with a lumbar puncture (LP) showing positive CSF-specific oligoclonal bands (OCB), was positive in 90% of the TDL cohort. (
  • 20 ] Tumefactive multiple sclerosis (MS) is an atypical form of MS that can mimic HGG, both clinically and radiologically. (
  • This association may not be fortuitous and suggests that patients with multiple hamartomas of the perifollicular connective tissue should be examined periodically for intestinal polyps before malignancy develops. (
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the power of radiomic features based on multiple MRI sequences - T2-Weighted-Imaging-FLAIR (FLAIR), T1-Weighted-Imaging-Contrast-Enhanced (T1-CE), and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) map - in glioma grading, and to improve the power of glioma grading by combining features. (
  • 1 in Europe, hypertension is one of the most common interventions in primary care, and CCBs are a first-line treatment for this. (
  • Treatment consists of systemic chemotherapy and surgical excision of the primary tumor. (
  • In human literature, detection of the 'whirl' sign is a reliable method for diagnosing testicular torsion in pediatric and adult males, and the 'whirl' sign has been reported in a dog with torsion of a cryptorchid testicular neoplasm on computed tomography previously. (
  • Undoubtedly, advances in molecular biology will allow scientists to determine the exact genomic aberration responsible for each specific neoplasm. (
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause. (
  • DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid -- The primary genetic material of all cellular organisms and the DNA viruses. (
  • Nuances in the understanding of genetics have caused some disorders to be split into multiple entities, while others merged into one genetic condition. (
  • The strong evidence was primarily from studies in human primary cells and studies in experimental systems, supported by studies on DNA adducts in humans. (